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Shachi Sheth Foundation Programme. Batch 3
IV. Conclusion Bibliography Appendices Ahri Embroidery Rabari Embroidery Mochi Embroidery Soof Embroidery Jat Embroidery Page Number 2 5 6 6 6 7 7 6 8 9 10 1|P a ge . V. II. III.Table of Content Title Introduction About Kutch Embroidery Different styles of Kutch Embroidery I.
dyeing. It is believed that this art was taught to the Mochi¶s by a Muslim who came from Sindh. they have developed the art of embroidering with fine silk chain stitch using ari. Kutch embroidery was practised from the 16th and 17th century in Patan. 2|P a ge . a generous state of India. whose men or male members are mainly shepherds and herders. Kutch and Kathiawar are very similar and almost identical. Intricate art of embroidery adds hue to the dusty deserts of Rann of Kutch. The aim of this report is to understand different types of Kutch embroidery 1 2 Text quoted from http://ezinearticles. gold or silver upon the surface of woven cloth with the help of a needle has been known here since very early time. Jat work. and experiences. This district is famous for its heritage monuments and also its traditions and rituals. ranging from his everyday duties and tasks to complex art forms and fields. especially for starters since it requires not only the use of fingers but creativity and imagination as well. The embroideries of Sindh. who work for the courts. The art of working raised designs in threads of silk. Kutch. pottery. Some of other famous embroideries are Banni embroidery. a little town in the state of Gujarat. nomads and farmers working for an extra bite. The embroidery is very pictorial and original. bandhani (tie-dye). Embroidery is the fascinating techniques to embellish clothes it involves the use of needles and thread.com/?An-Introduction-To-Embroidery&id=251578 Mochis are traditional cobblers. needles and threads to come up with a successfully embroidered product. It is a laborious threadwork. Kashmir has a long tradition of embroidery introduced possibly during the reign of Zain-ul-Abdin. An indispensable element of Gujarati culture. feels. most maintaining traditional dress and crafts of many sorts. are wives of herd¶s men. Artisans. 3 Rabari is a tribe in Kutch. Some of the really famous embroidery styles are Mochi embroider. The earliest forms of embroidery that survived the tests of time are to be found in ancient Egypt. Art can be seen in everything that man does. embroidery is an art of perfection and detail. It is a drought-porn area situated at the border of India and Pakistan. It is basically done for decorative purposes by sewing various types of materials into a layer of cloth or fabric to create patterns and designs that are usually a reflection of the beauty of nature. It is a style of embroidery done by mainly Mochis2. and metalwork. printing. embroidery. Rabari3 embroidery. cotton. and the largest district of Gujarat. From 16th century a professional style of courtly and trade embroideries emerged from Gujarat. There is a need to critically choose the type of fabric or cloth. Embroidery was originally done manually by hand. merchants and landowning castes. including weaving. the mirror work and interlacing stitch set it apart from any other kind of embroidery.Introduction ³Art is the product of man's natural admiration for beauty awakened by what he sees. A great range of ethnic communities live in the region. woodwork. Embroidery done in metal wires by kalabattu or zari as it is popularly called is in a class by itself.´1 In India. mainly women. Region from Bhavnagar to Rajkot is well known for embroidery work. leather work.
styles evolved over time. and social status within community. where each of the tribe doing this embroidery has different combinations of these colours and patterns. These embroideries have also played a huge role in transforming the western clothing of India. to create festivity. purple. which present a richly textured map of regions and ethnic groups. The motifs which are used in Kutch embroidery are mainly considered to bring fertility or prosperity. hence it also has importance in embroidery. The kind of material that these Kutch embroiders used is mainly cotton. There are many different types of stitches that exist in the Kutch embroidery. patterns and colours. In the Kutch embroidery colours such as yellow. or protection from evil spirits. 4 5 Tanka is a Gujarati word for stitch Tie and dye is a technique in which thread is tied to the cloth and then dipped in dye. There are many other reasons as to why these embroider chose such colours. As mentioned earlier. patterns. Each style has a distinct combination of stitches. unlike most crafts. colours play an important role in India. Here many of the motifs relate to the Hindu beliefs. There are several different styles of Kutch embroidery which are discussed in detail as the report progresses. Each style. was shaped by historical. While embroideries contributed to the substantial economic exchange required for marriage and fulfilled other social obligations which required gifts. fabric with tie and dye5 are also used. Some of the famous ones are chain stitch. they were never commercial products. The reason of choosing such colours is mainly because in Kutch area people believe that these colours protect them from evils. and rules for using them. Traditional but never static. a distinct combination of stitches. sub-community. herringbone stitch. Most of these were traditionally stitched by village women. honour deities. orange. Differences in style create and maintain distinctions that identify community. feather stitch and double feather stitch etc.About Kutch Embroidery Kutch is world renowned for its mirrored embroideries. Rabari tanka4. red. Other materials like silk. socio-economic and cultural factors. All these embroidery styles belong to different tribe or community.In the Kutch embroidery not only do colours have symbolism but also the patterns. green on black cloth are mainly used. Embroidery also communicates self and status. 3|P a ge . for themselves and their families. responding to prevailing trends. Basically Kutch embroidery is mainly associated with symbolism in colours and patterns. as it a natural fibre which provides coolness to the body in the dry and hot regions of Kutch. brown. colours and motifs. buttonhole stitch. wool. The "mirror work" of Kutch is really a myriad of styles.
Ahir Embroidery The Ahirs. This embroidery resembles Rabari stitches but only round mirrors are used with geometrical and floral motifs. These casts pass on their skills from generations to generation. pillows and Kothalo-the dowry sacks. when they get time from the work the house and fields. wall hangings. Lodai. although human and animal figures are represented with women dancing. mirrored mud sculpture and beadwork. round square and almond shaped for example. The embroideries when completed are given to the groom as dowry. yellow. Rabaris embroider an extensive range of garments. Rabari women are known for their gorgeous and very impressive embroidery that is emblematic of their nomadic life. Girls of Rabari community traditionally embroider skirts. The objects that these people embroider highlight significant events. Rabari Embroidery stands apart boasting of a class of its own. However. purses. Married women adorn children's clothing as well as cradle cloths. Padhar. white. Sumraser. but still the style remains unchanged. rites and values of their lives. In fact. who migrated from Gokul Mathura settled mostly in Kutch and Saurashtra. orange. Their embroidery is similar to Saurashtra style. Mamuara. range of stitches and distinct styles form the major visual part of the caste¶s cultural identity. Dharempur. Rabari Embroidery Rabaris are mainly settled in postural Kutch. household decorations. black. bags and animal trappings. particularly embroidery. Habai. These embroideries 4|P a ge . Ornamentation in Kutch is done by using minute close chain stitches whereas in the Mehasana district cross stitches using "Abhla" are used. veils. mainly in cotton on red. Cheperedi are main centers of Ahir embroidery. blouses. The Rabaris are a wandering group of people who are recognized for their extraordinary capacity for endurance and adaptation in the arid areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The color. amongst all these.Different styles of Kutch embroidery Several different casts with their distinct styles of embroidery are habituated in the region of Kutch. The Rabaris liberal use of mirrors of various shapes triangular. or green cotton or satin. Kotay. Motifs are mostly floral with accompanying parrots or peacocks. They embroider in white. Their dresses are embellished with embroidered articles. Women of the Ahir community do needle work. Dhanette. They are also widely recognized for their distinctive arts. Dhori. and red and sometimes a little blue. Nagor. They are mostly engaged in agriculture. green. churning butter or carrying water pots on their heads.
The beautiful bootis are inset with mirrors. which has a notch incised just above its point to form a hook. Mandvi or Jamnagar. the ari was being used for domestic embroidery by the Lohanas of Banni Kutch. symbolize the significance of exchange in maintaining familial ties. and the satin embroidered on was again either imported or produced nearby. The Mochis produced ari work for gaghra (skirt) pieces. The Mochis were traditionally cobblers and leather-workers by trade. bright black and dark red color. This is a fine awl. Besides that. with the use of buttonhole stitch.usually reflect the primacy of children. The embroidered silk was imported from Europe or China. purses in which the bridegroom carries traditional gifts of supari and pan. who developed the art of embroidering in fine silk chain stitch. They work out the small mirrors with ease. using the ari. deep orange. childrens caps. golden yellow. Rabari Embroidery done on ludi veils showcases the importance of laj. and is akin to the European tambour hook. chops (bodices). The point of the ari is then again inserted into the fabric through this loop and the process is repeated. Some of these Rabari Embroidery emphasize particular customs. so that a continuous line of chain stitch is formed. The finest Rabari Embroidery with most intricate patterns is created by the needle of the craftsmen of Mutwa and Jat communities. blue. The thread is held below the cloth to be embroidered and the point of the ari is pushed through the fabric to pick up and pull through to the surface a loop of thread. shoes and bags. They also 5|P a ge . The centre for Mochi embroidery was Bhuj. the mirrors which are embroidered also guard their children against evil spirits that are believed to inhabit their world. borders. staying in Banni. stand out in all styles of embroidery. These expert women craft fantasy with silk thread that are thickly piled in golden yellow. Rabari Embroidery Technique is even thankful to the ladies from Lohana community in Banni. but some Mochis worked elsewhere in Kutch and others moved to Saurashtra to work for the Kathi landowners there. black and red to develop patterns and booties which are interspersed with animal and bird motifs. chaklas (embroidered squares) and torans (pennant doorway friezes). etc. who worked for the court and for the merchant and land-owning castes. Mochi Embroidery The Gujarati embroidery tradition was maintained for many years by the Mochi embroiderers of Kutch and Saurashtra. Quality silk and fine handspun cotton is used in white. Until recently. The Mutwas. The ari is an adaptation of the cobblers¶ awl and the Mochis would appear to have developed their methods of ari-work embroidery from the craft tradition in Sind of embroidering leather belts. the capital of Kutch. chain stitch. in Surat. the conventional modesty that the women of Rabari community observe. Elaborately embroidered kothaliya.
Rajasthan. Indo-Fak war and who settled in Zura.embroidered the devotional pichhavai hangings for temples. illustrating the Lord Krishna. predominantly in white against a colored silk background. Embroidery is done by using satin thread by inserting the needle from behind the cloth and the design comes to the front side. Fragper and bordering villages of Banaskatha District (Bhabhar). This embroidery is used for adorning traditional clothes and decorative cloth items. The Jat community in the Banni region of this district uses the pattern of medallions on the border of the clothes. Embroidery is closely related to their life. Covering of the space around the mirrors is done using the chain stitch and creeper stitch. Jat Embrodiery of Kutch Jats have migrated from Baluchistan via Pakistan and settled in Kutch. The motifs usually embroidered were buttis (flowers derived from Persian or Mughal sources) often with parakeets perched on them. using interlace of buttonhole and chain stitch. were a favorite of the rich Parsee community. These were interspersed with figures of peacocks or putali (women). and many examples of this work can still be found in Bombay. Stitching in the Soof Embroidery is done by inserting the needle from behind the fabric. precisely embroidered with tightly spun two-ply silk. Clothes of orange. childrens dresses and borders. The outlined regions are filled with satin stitches. Long narrow border strips with interconnecting motifs of birds and flowers. yellow and golden colors in geometrical patterns. Mirrors of small dimension are inset with great care. sometimes both. Chain and inverted chain stitches along with interlacing and buttonhole stitches are common in their embroidery. white. as manifested at Nathadwara. They use red. Only the front of "ABHA" or "KANJAR uses embroidered designs with refined work. It is also called "Sodha Bharat". Soof Soof embroidery is done by Sodha Rajput and Harijan women who migrated from Pakistan during the 1971. Images of dolls. cholis (blouse). birds and animals are created in an embossed manner. The designs are mainly geometric. 6|P a ge . with preference given to the chevron texture which is locally referred to as µleher¶ (wave). blue and yellow color are used for this work. or saris. Sumraser. red. with the designs appearing on the front side. Mirrors are embroidered on the cloth in a grid-like pattern. Their embroidery was known as chinai work and they made either garment pieces or shawls embroidered with fine floss silks.
In efforts to revive quality. 7|P a ge . while artisans have skills.Conclusion In conclusion. Commercialization in this situation has induced a downward spiral of declining quality. most do not wish their children to be artisans. is forgotten. But conventionally. However. or art. This emulates the factory model. design input is needed for new markets. For a myriad of reasons including social attitudes. the artisan is essentially reduced to a labourer. Embroideries were initially done for personal use but now the creators sell the finished products. These styles and designs differ from each other because their creators come from different regions around India and Pakistan. it has been recognized that new design is needed to make craft sustainable. The strength of hand craft. is separated from craft. handmade quality. innovations must now be faster and less subtle. sophisticated urban markets have welcomed the concept of traditional crafts. this has been perceived as a need for design intervention. When design. While enterprising. Fortunately. In addition. The net result is that even when artisans can earn a living by producing contemporary versions. since the market has expanded. standardized and low cost replication. in the form of trained designers giving new designs to artisans. The implication is that designers have knowledge. Kutch has several distinct styles of embroidery. or labour. most commercialized craft aims for quick. reinforcing the low social status of craft. they do not have access to the better markets. Further. Surely. the personal. traditional work must adapt to the new clientele. artisans do not always have adequate information about the tastes of new markets.
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