Origami Design

Tree Theory for Uniaxial Bases
Robert J. Lang robert@langorigami.com

MIT November, 2004

Context

MIT November, 2004

Background
• Origami: Japanese paper-folding. • Traditional form: Decorative abstract shapes & child’s craft • Modern extension: a form of sculpture in which the primary means of creating the form consists of folding • Most common version: a figure folded from one sheet of paper, usually a square, with no cuts.

MIT November, 2004

Traditional Origami
• Japanese newspaper from 1734: Crane, boat, table, “yakko-san” • By 1734, it is already well-developed

MIT November, 2004

who created new figures of artistic beauty and developed a written instructional language. Yoshizawa.Modern Origami • The modern art form was reborn in the early 20th century through the efforts of a Japanese artist. 2004 . Akira Yoshizawa. A. Origami Dokuhon I MIT November.

The Design Revolution • “Creative” origami caught on worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s. MIT November. many geometric design techniques were developed that enabled the creation of figures of undreamed-of complexity. leading to computer-aided origami design. 2004 . • The mathematical theory of origami was greatly expanded in the 1990s. • Beginning in the 1970s.

no cuts • 216 steps – not including repeats • Several hours to fold MIT November. 2004 .Origami today • “Black Forest Cuckoo Clock.” designed in 1987 • One sheet.

2004 .Ibex MIT November.

2004 .Dragonfly MIT November.

2004 .Scaled Koi MIT November.

2004 .Western Pond Turtle MIT November.

Rattlesnake MIT November. 2004 .

2004 .White-tailed Deer MIT November.

Bull Moose MIT November. 2004 .

2004 .Bull Elephant MIT November.

Hummingbird & Trumpet Vine MIT November. 2004 .

2004 .(Hummingbird Close-up) MIT November.

2004 .Grizzly Bear MIT November.

2004 .Roosevelt Elk MIT November.

2004 .Tree Frog MIT November.

2004 .Tarantula MIT November.

2004 .Murex MIT November.

2004 .Spindle Murex MIT November.

12-Spined Shell MIT November. 2004 .

Banana Slug MIT November. 2004 .

2004 .Spiral Tessellation MIT November.

2004 .Egg17 Tessellation MIT November.

2004 .Molecular Tessellation MIT November.

2004 .Chalk time… MIT November.

2004 26 .A Tree & Active Polygons 4 1 (root) 2 4 5 11 12 20 19 22 21 25 24 26 23 18 13 14 17 16 21 15 20 23 15 3 6 10 7 9 17 16 8 11 5 1 9 8 25 MIT November.

Subtrees MIT November. 2004 .

2004 .Chalk time… MIT November.

2004 . A a D E b c a D B b D c C B b D c C E a B b A a A D c C the “rabbit ear” molecule MIT November. • Triangles have only one possible molecule.” or molecules (Meguro) • Different bun-shi are known from the origami literature.Molecules • Crease patterns that collapse a polygon so that all edges lie on a single line are called “bun-shi.

“4-star” “sawhorse” Husimi/Kawasaki Maekawa Lang MIT November. the possibilities grow rapidly. • Beyond 4 sides. 2004 .Quadrilateral molecules • There are two possible trees and several different molecules for a quadrilateral.

MIT November. 2004 .Four is enough • It is always possible to add flaps (circles) to a base so that the only polygons are triangles and quadrilaterals. so these molecules suffice.

2004 .Universal molecule • An algorithm that produces the crease pattern to collapse an arbitrary valid convex polygon into a base whose projection is a specified tree.372 0. 0.449 0.325 0.354 0.627 MIT November.393 0.194 0.

4 pD MIT November. 2004 .A pentagonal UM pA pF.1 P B pF.3 pC D pF.2 pB T A E F pE C pF.

Insetting MIT November. 2004 .

2004 .Gusset formation v1 v2 v1 v2 M M v1 ′ v2 ′ v3 ′ v5 v5 v′ 5 v4 ′ hmax v3 v3 v4 v4 MIT November.

Finished gussets v1 v2 M v5 v3 v4 MIT November. 2004 .

2 pF.Creases & Folded Form pA P pF.6 pF.1 pB pA pF.4 pD pE pC pE pD pC pB MIT November. 2004 .3 p F.5 pF.

Chalk time… MIT November. 2004 .

Universal Molecule 1 2 1 4 1 1 3 2 4 5 6 5 5 7 8 1 3 1 3 6 3 5 7 5 MIT November. 2004 8 .

Universal Molecule 2 2 1 3 1 5 1 4 7 11 7 10 7 4 6 9 8 6 9 14 9 15 1 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 5 7 6 8 12 8 4 10 11 12 13 14 15 13 MIT November. 2004 .

2004 . “An Algorithm for Origami Design” (1996) by Robert J.kvi. is at the same site • Theory described in 12 ACM SCG paper. including ReferenceFinder.Resources • Origami design software TreeMaker (with 170 pp manual) can be downloaded from: – http://origami. Lang. MIT November. • Other origami-related software.nl/programs/treemaker • …or Google-search for “TreeMaker” • Version 5.0 (Mac/Linux/Windows) is under construction.

2004 . my latest. • Further information may be found at http://www. my new book teaching how to design origami (and more). • Origami Insects II.langorigami. Peters in October 2003. contains a collection of fairly challenging insect designs • Both (and other books) available from the OrigamiUSA Source (www.org). or email me at robert@langorigami.com. K.com MIT November. was published by A.origami-usa.More Resources • Origami Design Secrets.

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