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Standardization of civil engineering works of small hydropower plants

(development of an optimisation tool)

Dr Erik Bollaert Porto 19.10.2004
ÉC OLE P OLY TEC H NIQU E FÉDÉRALE DE LAUS ANNE

SE.

SECTIONS
1- Purpose 2- Scope of work 3- Typical small hydro 4- Sand trap design 5- Results of sand trap 6- POPEHYE tool

ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E

head.PURPOSE Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap ØStandardization of main structures of a small hydropower plant as a function of the design parameters (discharge. design drawings of the main structures and construction cost functions ØImplementation of the standardized structures in a general applicable optimisation tool for the layout of the hydropower plant: POPEHYE tool ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E . …) with focus on high head power plants ØDevelopment of parameterised.

SCOPE OF WORK Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Design criteria for civil engineering works and structural and hydraulic design of: üIntake (Tyrolian weir. side intake) üDesilting basin and rock trap üFree surface flow canals (open air and buried) üForebay and transition to pressure flow üPenstock with fixed points (anchor blocks) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

steel dimensions.SCOPE OF WORK Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Standardization of structures as a function of the design parameters üStandardized geometries (concrete dimensions. constructions details. …) üParameterised design drawings with excavation concrete volume. formwork surface and reinforcement üConstruction cost functions (based on design parameters and unit prizes) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

SCOPE OF WORK Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Implementation of optimisation tool üReview and generalisation of existing optimisation tool POPEHYE üImplementation of standardized structures and cost functions in optimisation strategies üDerivation of general rules for optimisation strategies ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

TYPICAL SMALL HYDRO Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap T Y . Sand trap Intake Forebay Weir Small hydro Turbine & Generator k stoc Pen Network ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

Conventional type q Longitudinal settling tank : It consists of one or more chambers of sufficient length to allow the sediment particles to settle down. Sand traps with continuous flushing (system DUFOUR) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .SAND TRAP DESIGN Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Purpose q To separate the undesired sediment carried by the flow from the water.

Sufficient length to allow all particles of design grain size to settle down. o o o o ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E . Uniform approach flow conditions to the basin which is particularly important when several parallel basins are to be used.SAND TRAP DESIGN Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Design Criteria (Scheuerlein) o Identification of the maximum grain size which has to be excluded. The range of design grain size lays between 0.1 mm and 1 mm. Installation of a device to clear the basin when necessary. Uniform flow conditions in the basin itself to facilitate the settling process.

5 Critical mean flow velocity (m/s) dsc = Design grain size (mm) ω0 = Settling velocity of sand in quiescent water (m/s) = d sc *g/η *(ρs-ρ)/18 ρs = Specific mass of the particle ρ = Specific mass of the fluid η = dynamic viscosity of fluid For application the next fiqure shows ω.∆ω= ω0 . ω0 and Vmc as functions of dsc. ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .04 Vmc (CAMP formula for the settling velocity in a sand trap) ω = Settling velocity of sand in flowing water (m/s) Vmc = 0.44 * (dsc)0. the dimensions of this chamber must correspond to the settling characteristics of the design grain size: ω = ω 0 .0.SAND TRAP DESIGN Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Main part of sand trap : Desanding chamber Ø For proper design.

SAND TRAP DESIGN Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Vmc 1 : Critical mean flow velocity (Vmc) 2 : Settling velocity of sand in quiescent water (ω0) 3 : Settling velocity of sand in flowing water (ω) ω0 ω ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

25 B<= L/8 Recommendations: § Extension of the calculated basin length by 10% to 20% in order to compensate for excessive turbulence in approach flow. § Decision upon having two or more basins instead of one in order to be more flexible to react upon undesired effects without taking the plant out of operation (particularly important with respect to flushing) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .SAND TRAP DESIGN Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Design of Desanding chamber: Length L. width B and depth H of the chamber must fullfil the following conditions: L>= Vmc/ω *H B= Q/(Vmc*H) Q= design flow (m3/s) B=H/1.

0 3.0 4.2 H_d=0.5 5.5 1.0 4.0 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 H 0 0.5 1.5 2.0 mm have been considered.5 2.0 Discharge (m /s) Height [m] H_d=0. Width [m] 5 B 4 3 2 B_d=0.5 3.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap 6 Geometry of sediment trap Width (B) and Height (H) of sediment trap for different discharges (0.0 2.5 B_d=1.0 Different design grain sizes from 0. Discharge (m /s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .1 2 1 0 0.5 to 5.5 H_d=1.0 1.0 2.5 3.5 4.0 1.0 3 H_d=0.0 m3/s).1 to 1.1 B_d=0.5 4.5 5.0 3 3.2 B_d=0.

5 5.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Geometry of sediment trap Length (L) of sediment trap for different discharges (0. L 50 40 Lenght [m] 30 L_d=0.0 3.0 20 Discharge (m 3/s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .0 m3/s).5. 1.1.5 3.5 to 5.0 4.5 4. 60 Different design grain sizes (d=0. 0.0 0 0.2.2 10 L_d=0.0 mm) have been considered.0 1.5 2. 0.0 2.5 L_d=1.5 1.1 L_d=0.

2 Con_d=0. 0.5 5.1 Con_d=0.5 2.5.0 m3/s).5 3.0 Discharge (m3/s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .5 to 5.0 4.2.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Volume of concrete [m3] Volume of concrete is estimated for different designs based on discharges (0. Vcon Con_d=0. 0.0 mm) have been considered.5 1.0 2. 1.5 Con_d=1.0 Concrete volume [m 3] 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.0 3. 1400 1200 Different design grain sizes (d=0.5 4.0 1.1.

0 Wst 120.5 5.1 St_d=0. 0.0 2. 0.5 St_d=1.5 4.0 m3/s).000 140.5 3.000 20.0 3 3.000 0 0.2 St_d=0. St_d=0.5 1.1.5 to 5. 180.000 80. 1.5.0 mm) have been considered.000 100.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Weight of steel bars [kg] Reinforcement in concrete has been estimated for different discharges (0.0 Discharge (m /s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .5 2.000 60.000 40.0 1.0 4.000 160.2.000 Steel weight [kg] Different design grain sizes (d=0.

0 4. Exc Exc_d=0.000 3 Excavation volume [m ] Different design grain sizes (d=0.0 1.0 1.2.5 5. 2.5 3.1.5 Exc_d=1. 0.0 m3/s). 1.5.0 2.5 1.0 3 3.500 1.2 Exc_d=0.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Excavation volume [m3] Excavation volume is estimated for different discharges (0.000 500 0 0.5 to 5.500 Exc_d=0.5 4. 0.0 mm) have been considered.5 2.1 2.0 Discharge (m /s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

0 3 3.5.5 to 5.0 Con 500. 0.5 1.0 3 Steel cost [CHF] Reinforcement cost of concrete is estimated for different discharges (0.0 2.0 mm) 350.0 2.000 200.000 Concrete cost [CHF] Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Concrete cost [CHF] Concrete cost is estimated for different discharges (0.2 Prst_d=0.000 350.000 100.1 Prst_d=0.000 0 0.000 300.5 2.0 m3/s) and different grain size diameters (d=0.0 1.0 1.000 150.000 200.2 PrCon_d=0.5 5.5 3. 1. 0.1.000 50.5 5.5 Prst_d=1.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose 400.000 PrCon_d=0.5 3.5 1.000 250.5 2.000 450.000 100.000 250.5 to 5.0 4.5 PrCon_d=1. 0.0 m3/s) and different grain size diameters (d=0.1.2.000 50.5 4.2.0 St. 0.000 Steel cost [CHF] Prst_d=0.5 4.0 Discharge (m /s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E . 0 0.0 4.0 mm) 3.5. 1.000 150.000 400.0 Discharge (m /s) 300.1 PrCon_d=0.

1 80.0 Discharge (m /s) Discharge (m /s) 90.5 5.5 4.2 Prexc_d=0.0 4.000 140.5 3.000 0 0.5 3.000 3.000 50.5 1.000 Prexc_d=0.000 0 0.0 1.5 Sit_d=1.0 60.000 15.0 3 For different discharges (0. 1.5 4.5 Pg_d=1.000 120.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose 30.5 Prexc_d=1.0 Gate cost [CHF] Site equipement cost [CHF ] Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Gate 180.2 Pg_d=0.5 2. gate and site equipment cost [CHF] Exc 70.000 10.1 25.5 1.000 Sit_d=0.0 m3/s) and different grain size diameters (d=0.000 Prexc_d=0.5 3.0 mm) Excavation cost [CHF] Excavation.000 40.0 3 0 3. 0.0 2.000 Pg_d=0.2.000 200. 0.0 3 3.5 5.5 2.1.0 1.000 20.0 Site 20.5.0 0.2 Sit_d=0.5 4.000 Pg_d=0.0 4.5 1.5 to 5.0 1.0 2.000 20.000 10.000 60.000 80.000 40.000 30.0 4.000 160.1 Sit_d=0.000 100.000 5.0 Discharge (m /s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .5 2.0 2.5 5.

5 4.0 1.0 Discharge (m3/s) ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .000 tot_d=0.000 400.5 to 5.0 3.000 üExcavation üGate üSite equipment ü….000 200.0 m3/s) and different design grain sizes (d=0.0 mm) 0 0.5 3.000 tot_d=0.000 For different discharges (0.5 5.1 to 1.5 tot_d=1.1 1.5 2.RESULTS OF SAND TRAP Purpose Scope of work Typical small hydro Sand trap design Results of sand trap Total cost [CHF] üConcrete üReinforcement Total cost [CHF] 1.200. 600.0 800.5 1.0 4.000.2 tot_d=0.0 2.

Encourage studies with different possible solutions .Contribute to optimisation of chosen solution ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .POPEHYE Dimensioning and optimisation of small hydropower plants Objectives of POPEHYE .Facilitate feasibility studies of inexplored sites .

POPEHYE Computational phases Hydrologic analysis of catchment area Economical optimisation of equipped discharge Predimensioning of main structural elements STANDARDIZATION Surge tank Discharge Intake Trap Canal Forebay Penstock Power house ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

POPEHYE Main structural elements Intake Desilting basin Penstock Forebay Surge tank Pressurized canal Free surface canal ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS … Detailed design of all structural elements Construction drawings Economic optimisation Compilation of software in Visual Basic Language choice Etc… ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .

Thanks for your attention! ÉCO L E PO LY T EC H N IQ U E FÉ D ÉRA LE D E L AUSAN N E .