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Park** * School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, Korea ** School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, Korea

Abstract: In the inertial navigation system, the altitude error diverges exponentially if external sensors do not compensate it. To suppress divergence of the error, non-inertial aiding sensors that provide vertical information are utilized. With these sensors, the wellknown baro-inertial damping loop or the well-known Kalman filter mechanization can be constituted to compensate the error of the vertical channel. In this paper, a new error compensation scheme for INS vertical channel is proposed, especially with a barometer and GPS by fusing the two well established methods. The performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed by computer simulation. Copyright © 2004 IFAC Keywords: Inertial navigation, Kalman filters, Global positioning systems, Error estimation

1. INTRODUCTION An Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a system that calculates the position, velocity, and attitude of a vehicle with output of inertial sensors. The measurement of the inertial sensors must include noises in it and the cheaper sensors provide the more noisy measurement. These noises are accumulated in the navigation solution of INS, corrupt the accuracy of the solution, and finally make the error of the solution diverge. Specially, the vertical channel error diverges exponentially, so if the error is not compensated with non-inertial sensors, the vertical information of INS can be trusted during a short time (Siouris, 1993). There are many techniques to suppress the divergence of vertical channel error. The most widely used methods are a vertical channel damping loop (baro-inertial damping loop) and Kalman filter mechanization. The vertical channel damping loop is a feedback control loop, which uses output of a non-inertial aiding sensor such as a barometer as a reference signal and it makes the altitude error of INS to converge to the noise level of the aiding sensor. The Kalman filter mechanization is an estimation and compensation scheme that makes use of the INS error model and measurement of noninertial aiding sensors. In this paper, these

conventional methods will be explained and, by fusion of the two methods, a new error compensation scheme for INS vertical channel will be proposed. The design example of the proposed scheme uses a barometer and GPS to compensate the vertical channel error. First, with a barometer, the wellknown vertical channel damping loop is constituted, and then with GPS and the loop, a Kalman filter for error compensation is designed. In the following two sections, the vertical channel damping loop and Kalman filter mechanization is explained. In section IV, a new scheme for error compensation of INS vertical channel is proposed and analysis of the proposed scheme is in the section V. The concluding remarks are presented in section VI. 2. VERTICAL CHANNEL DAMPING LOOP The vertical channel damping loop is a system that suppresses the divergence of the vertical channel error and makes the height information calculated by INS trustable. It uses the output of non-inertial aiding sensor as reference input, and is classified into 1st order, 2nd order and 3rd order loop according to the

Az is vertical acceleration measurement. and ws is Schuler frequency. hB = hT + δhB = hT + B + ShT + vB 1 & B=− B+w & a = K 3 ( h − hE ) τ (1) & S =0 (2) 2ws2 Az + + & Vz − 1 s Vz + & h − K1 1 s h + − hE + + a K2 1 s & a where. KALMAN FILTER MECHANIZATION FOR ERROR COMPENSATION There is another method for vertical channel error compensation: Kalman filter mechanization. K1 . (5) (Ausman. hE is output of an aiding sensor. If the measurement model is modified. the Kalman filter mechanization that is explained in the following section is used. hB and hGPS are measurement of a barometer and GPS. In another method. Therefore. K 2 . 1993. & h = V z − K1 ( h − hE ) & V = A − K (h − h ) − a + 2 w2 h z z 2 E s The measurement model of a barometer includes bias error of 1st order Markov process. 1991). S is scale factor error. the Kalman filter for vertical error compensation is designed in equation (3). the barometer and GPS are considered. Then. and then the gains can be calculated by making the roots of characteristic equation of the system have the same value (Siouris. so it is most widely used. 3. a is output of the compensator of the feedback loop and eliminates the steady state error of the above system (Dorf and Bishop. 3rd order damping loop In equation (1) and fig. one of the components of the observation model of the barometer is the height value. In this method. and vGPS is measurement noise of GPS. These gains can be calculated in various ways. (4). τ is correlation time of bias error. and. respectively. then Kalman filters with other structures should be used. 1978). hT is true height. and then obtained the gains that minimize the mean square error of vertical velocity. B is bias error. vB is measurement noise. the vertical channel errors can be estimated and compensated with Kalman filter that consists of the error dynamics of INS vertical channel and measurement of aiding sensors.number of integrators. then the model has considerable uncertainty. It deteriorates the accuracy of the system. 1995). and w is driving white Gaussian noise for bias error. V z is vertical velocity. The performance of the 3rd order loop is better and the others. With measurement model (2) and with GPS measurement. h is height. & δh 0 & 2 w 2 δVz = s & B 0 & S 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 − 0 0 δh 0 0 δVz 1 + 0 B 0 0 S 0 0 0 δAz 1 ω B 0 K3 Fig 1. 1991). Kim. The proposed scheme explained in the next section. in either case the Kalman filter for error compensation has different structure (Ausman. according to the properties of a barometer. 1993). the authors formulated this problem as a stochastic optimal control problem. For example. 1 (Siouris. the bias error and scale factor error can be modeled as Markov process or random constant. hB is measurement of a barometer. if the estimated height has large error. δhB is error component of output of a barometer. mitigates the effect of uncertainty. and is expressed in (2) (Siouris. 1993). In this paper. scale factor error of random constant and white Gaussian noise. . in the case of two available external sensors. In the above system. In (Widnall and Sinha. The above structure of Kalman filter mechanization for vertical error compensation is a typical example with the barometer measurement model of equation (2). This scheme is used in the case that one external non-inertial sensor such as a barometer is available. K 3 are feedback control gains and damp or control the instability of exponentially increasing vertical channel error. τ (3) δh δV mB = h − hB = [1 0 − 1 − h ] z + vB B S δh δV z (4) mGPS = h − hGPS = [1 0 0 0] +v B GPS S (5) where. The system equation of the loop with a aiding sensor is (1) and the structure of it is in fig. the time constant of vertical channel is properly chosen. 1996). 1.

the Kalman filter described in section III does not constituted. a filter to compensate the error of the system in fig. 1 and GPS measurement is designed. After applying the linear perturbation method to the system of fig. a Kalman filter with error dynamics of 3rd order vertical channel damping loop in fig. The error model is equation (6) and the structure of the model is in fig. A NEW SCHEME FOR ERROR COMPENSATION In this section. Table 1. Simulation conditions Sensor Barometer Error type Value Measurement noise (1σ) 3m 1st order Markov driving white Gaussian noise 0. In this model. measurement model (2) of the barometer. 2. K3 = 0. But. it can be compensated. consequently the gains of the loop are determined as follows (Siouris.120003. and the time constant of the vertical channel damping loop with a barometer is determined as 5 seconds. Error model of 3rd order vertical channel camping loop Designing Kalman filter with equation (6). The individual Monte Carlo simulation repeats 100 iterations. a new scheme by fusion of the two previously explained methods is proposed. and finally Kalman filter with the error dynamics and GPS measurement is designed.6. then the estimates of Kalman filter are used for error compensation. because the feedback gain K’s are multiplied to that. the error dynamics of it is derived.01m/s (1σ) . the errors of the vertical channel damping loop can be estimated and compensated. In the newly proposed scheme. K 2 = 0. the effect of model uncertainty is reduced and the performance becomes better. and measurement of GPS.008 The time constant of the Markov process is determined as 100 seconds. & δh = δVz − K 1 (δh − δhB ) & δVz = δAz − K 2 (δh − δhB ) − δa + 2 ws2δh & δa = K 3 (δh − δhB ) & δh − K1 & 2ws2 − K 2 δVz δa = K 3 & & B 0 B & 0 s K1 0 K 2 1 + − K 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 K1 K2 − K3 1 − 0 0 −1 τ K1 h δh K 2 h δV z − K 3 h δa 0 B 0 Bs 0 0 v B 0 δAz 1 w 0 (7) Measurement equation : δh δV z = [1 0 0 0 0] δa + vGPS B Bs mGPS = h − hGPS (8) After estimating the error of the INS vertical channel damping loop with this Kalman filter model. there is height value in system matrix. In other words. The mean square of the vertical channel error of the proposed scheme is compared with that of the conventional Kalman filter mechanization. and the performance of it is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation condition is in table 1. 1 is designed. the equation (7). (8) are obtained. the error model which consists of only error terms are derived. 1993). K1 = 0. System dynamics : The INS vertical channel by the proposed method in section IV is constituted. Now. 1.4. though a barometer and GPS are used as non-inertial aiding sensors. SIMULATION 2ws2 δAz + + & δVz − 1 s δVz + & δh − K1 1 s δh + − δhB 5. In this scheme.1 Simulation condition and method + + K2 δa 1 s & δa K3 Fig 2. but the vertical channel damping loop with a barometer is constituted. (6) 5.

7. 10. the simulation results by the feedforward method and the feedback method are in fig. 5. Fig 5. 5. height error 30 25 20 meter 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0. the acceleration during climbs and dives is 45m/s2(about 4.6 99.6g).6 100. The simulation results are in fig. 3 and 4.7m New scheme Kalman filter vertical velocity error 5 4 3 m/s 2 1 0 New scheme Kalman filter 0 100 convergence time 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 Fig 6.4m Kalman filter New scheme Fig 3.3 Rapid climbs and dives 100 99. 6 and fig.8 99. 9 and fig.1st order Markov initial 10m bias (1σ) Scale factor error (1σ) 0. Feedback method trajectory 101 Fig 7.005m/s2 Height (1σ) 25m Filter initial Vertical velocity (1σ) 1m/s values a (compensator output.8 100. Trajectory I . the feedforward method and the feedback method are adopted. The structures of them are in fig.4 99. 0. Feedforward method vertical velocity error 5 4 3 m/s 2 1 0 0 Kalman filter New scheme 100 convergence time 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 Fig 4.5 1σ) For the error compensation. 8. respectively.2 height(m) In the case of a fixed height trajectory such as fig.01 GPS Measurement noise (1σ) 15m Accelerometer Measurement noise (1σ) 0.4 100. Feedback method 5.2 Level flight 100.2 99 0 100 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 In the case of rapid climbs and dives such as fig. Feedforward method height error 30 25 20 meter 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1m 0.

So.4 Slow climbs and dives Fig 13. the newly proposed scheme reduces the error of altitude and shows good performance. the results are in fig. Feedforward method height error 30 25 20 meter meter 30 height error Kalman filter New scheme 25 20 Kalman filter New scheme 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 5m 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0.8m/s2(about 0. from the start time to about 50~90 seconds. In contrast. 11. Trajectory III height error 30 25 20 meter 15 5m 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1.4m New scheme Kalman filter vertical velocity error 5 4 3 m/s m/s 5 vertical velocity error New scheme Kalman fitler 4 3 2 1 0 New scheme Kalman filter 2 1 0 0 100 convergence time 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 0 100 convergence time 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 Fig 9. the applied acceleration in the vertical axis for maneuvers is 1. 12 and fig. 13. But after convergence time. Feedforward method Fig 12. the new scheme aggravates the vertical performance of INS. In this trajectory. the vertical velocity error in the new scheme is larger than that of the . Feedback method 5. Feedback method 5.18g) which is much smaller than the former case.trajectory 5000 5000 trajectory 4500 4500 4000 4000 3500 3500 3000 height(m) height(m) 3000 2500 2500 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 100 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 0 0 100 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 Fig 8.8m 3m 500 600 vertical velocity error 5 4 3 m/s m/s 5 vertical velocity error Kalman filter New scheme 4 3 2 1 0 Kalman filter New scheme 2 1 0 0 100 convergence time 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 0 100 convergence time 200 300 time(sec) 400 500 600 Fig 10. the proposed system takes more time to converge than the previous Kalman filter mechanization does. Trajectory II height error 30 25 20 meter 15 5m 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 New scheme Kalman filter Fig 11.5 Analysis of the simulation results In the situation of slowly varied height such as fig. Due to the time constant of the loop.

Addison-Wesley. 47th Annual Meeting proceedings. A Kalman Filter Mechanization for the Baro-Inertial Vertical Channel. (1993). R. In height estimation. when the height decreases. W. But. in the feedback method. Stanley (1991). the performance of the new scheme is compared with that of the previous Kalman filter mechanization.H. an effective scheme to suppress the exponentially increasing altitude error is proposed. G. dissertation. and P. Through computer simulation. vice versa. California. Optimizing The Gains of the Baro-Inertial Vertical Channel. it produces more improved result. Bishop (1995). the error equation of 3rd order damping loop is used as the system dynamics of Kalman filter and the information of GPS is utilized as measurement of the filter. and R. the error terms (bias error. Sinha. Aerospace Avionics Systems.K. . too. and in the scheme.conventional Kalman filter mechanization before and after the convergence time. Widnall. the Institute of Navigation. the error of that reduces and when the height increases. REFERENCES Ausman. 6. AIAA Guidance and Control Conference Proceedinsg. Aug.S. In feedforward method. The proposed method is organized by fusing the well-known damping loop and the Kalman fitler. Seoul National University. scale factor error) of a barometer as well as the vertical errors of the loop can be estimated. Paro Alto. Jong Ju (1996).S. the error of that grows. In the feedforward method. Dorf. Kim. Siouris. Academic Press. the Kalman filter is applied to the damping loop that makes the altitude error converge to the noise level of a barometer. (1978). So. Inc. Conclusion In this paper. In the new scheme.M. Error Source Recovery and a Correction Filter Design for Gimballed Inertial Navigation System. M. and with the help of GPS. Modern Control Systems. the feedforward method is superior to the feedback method.C. the states of the system (which is the errors of the loop) propagate through the dynamics of the damping loop. and the altitude error is dependent on the height itself. J. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the support and assistance of KOSEF project (R01-2002-00000329-0) and bk-21 project in Korea. and the new scheme shows better performance for the altitude error compensation after convergence of the system. 7-9.

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