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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR
OF

WILLIAM HENRY WELCH
1850-1934
BY

SIMON FLEXNER
PRESENTED TO THE ACADEMY AT THE AUTUMN* MEETING, 1942

.

and his chief passion at that time was for Greek. first assisting and later succeeding his father in practice in the charming village of Norfolk. He taught school. Under such environmental influences. But this did not happen. was at loose ends. William's forbears had studied medicine in the local medical schools—the peripatetic school at Pittsfiekl. 1850. and his father's four brothers were all doctors. by Simon Flexner and James Thomas Flexner. for during his pupilship no experimental science was taught in the academic course at Yale. as the Yale school was then called —or they had become doctors merely through acting as apprentices to local practitioners. His predilection was for an academic life. and William and four of his cousins were also to become doctors. an only son. would fall at once into his place in the family vocation. or the Yale Medical Institution. not a life of practical affairs. At the end of this year he joined his father and reluctantly took up the study of medicine. a leading school. 215 . into a family which for two generations had been country doctors in Connecticut. on graduating from Yale College in 1870. for a year at Norwich. he returned to New Haven. to become a teacher of the classics. having wisely decided to study chemistry at the Sheffield Scientific School. William alone of the family up to his time had had a liberal education preliminary to the study of medicine. Massachusetts. it was to be expected that William. The poverty of the medical * Based on William Henry Welch and the Heroic Aye of American Medicine. while reflecting on the future before him. New York. perhaps for the only time in his long life. His grandfather. father. the young man. New York. Viking Press. In the autumn of 1872 he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons. After a short period.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH* 1850-1934 BY SIMON FLEXNER William Henry Welch was born April 8. and when circumstances compelled William to study medicine it was only after he had failed in his ambition. 1941. in New York and graduated in the spring of 1875. No tutorship being available for him.

almost wholly by didactic lectures. The possession of the doctor's degree carried with it the privilege to practice. and there came under the influence of Francis Delafield. Welch won an interneship in Bellevue Hospital which he completed in the spring of 1876. he turned next to Bellevue Hospital Medical 210 . and the lectures were repeated in successive years. Failing in his object at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. with the exception of dissection in anatomy.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS—VOL. and in order not to be impractical. Under the influence of this idea Welch sailed for Europe early in 1876. so that the ardent young man was led to imagine a professional career for himself in that subject despite the fact that nowhere in America did there exist a chair of pathology from which a living could be extracted or a laboratory in which the subject could cither be learned or taught. and physiological chemistry under Hoppe-Seylcr. state boards of examiners had not yet been instituted. Welch listened to von Leyden's lectures in medicine. He spent a summer semester in the study of histology under Waldeyer. The early months of 1878 saw Welch again in New York. pathology under von Recklinghausen. The instruction was. XXII curriculum can hardly be conceived by the medical student of today. with whom he carried out a piece of successful research on oedema of the lungs. His next move was to Leipzig. to the pathological laboratory of Ernst Wagner and especially the celebrated physiological laboratory of Carl Ludwig. where a strong new German university had been set up following the FrancoPrussian war of 1870. The courses were not graded. Nevertheless the fascination of such a career had taken firm hold of his mind and the vision was strengthened just then by the announcement of the opening of the Johns Hopkins University to take place in the autumn of 1876 in which was to be included a medical school with laboratories not only to train competent practitioners but also to further science. Then Welch spent a semester at Breslau under the experimental pathologist Julius Cohnheini. He sought immediately an opportunity to teach and work in pathology. pathologist to the Hospital. his destination being Strasbourg. Pathology exercised a strong attraction on him.

he accepted the offer on March 31. Then one day Dr. Robert Koch had not yet brought bacteriology into medical practice. and engaged in private practice. on March 10 Welch was in Baltimore for a conference with President Gilman. whom Welch had met in Leipzig in 1877. just then engaged in building the Johns Hopkins Hospital. John S. and talked to him about his future plans. walked into Welch's primitive laboratory. and when he startled the world by the announcement of the cultivation of the tubercle bacillus in 1882 and the isolation of the cholera bacillus in 1883. The course was instantly successful.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH FLEXNER College. in brief. Welch 217 . Half a dozen microscopes were obtained somehow and as many volunteer students put to work. and within half a year the College of Physicians and Surgeons felt obliged to offer a similar course. inquiring what he would do if provided with adequate laboratory facilities. The money returns were small. on March 9 Billings was back in New York. His almost impossible dream of 1876 had come true. 1884. Despite strong pressure made on Welch to remain in New York. wrote for medical books. which was to develop pathology along German lines. but no success in attaining his main object. Welch turned to other employment to support himself : he made autopsies for physicians. but he remained loyal to Bellevue and recommended T. t n e author of the Surgeon General's Catalogue. who offered him the professorship of pathology at the Johns Hopkins University. Welch's six years in New York brought him reputation for knowledge and skill. They tried to attract Welch. Billings. conducted quiz classes for hospital interneships. when Welch studied in Germany. Mitchell Prudden of New Haven. Very soon students from all three medical schools in the city joined the classes. This was on March I. This. In the middle seventies of the last century. which gave him three small rooms and spent twentyfive dollars for tables and chairs. heard him lecture and watched him demonstrate. examined and reported on specimens removed by surgeons. is the story of the founding of the first laboratory of pathology in America. also a German student of pathology.

htemorrhagic infarction. This gas-producing bacillus which Welch discovered to be the cause of the presence of gas in the blood vessels and organs after death not attributable to post-mortem decomposition and erroneously mistaken for air. and finally under Koch himself. as his small laboratory afforded no opportunity for the pursuit of bacteriology. and he quickly established himself in the university circle. was to return to Germany for a year's study of bacteriology. companionable man. It was a laboratory modelled after the German pattern only it was more inclusive than such laboratories were in Germany.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS VOL. His first move. The autumn of 1885 found Welch in Baltimore entering on his new duties. pneumococcus and acute lobar pneumonia. XXII was obliged to stand on the side-lines. then under Fliigge at Gottingen." as Welch's laboratory was called and in which he was to spend the first thirty years of his Baltimore period. structure of white thrombi. By good fortune he was given working space in Newell Martin's biological laboratory. pupil of both von Pettenkofer and Koch. and most important of all on the bacillus which bears his name—Clostridium or Bacillus welchii." "The Pathological. but a cultivated. In the six years that Welch spent in New York. Welch was no scientific recluse. he failed to bring a single piece of pathological research to a conclusion . was to play a large role in pathology under a chapter to which Welch later gave the name of "pneumatopathology. in the next six or seven years ending with 1892-93 he brought to a successful end researches on Bright's disease of the kidneys. bacteriology of diphtheria. His happiness in the change from the arid years in New York is apparent in his letters. Welch was to combine the pathological anatomy of Virchow with the experimental pathology of Cohnheim and the bacteriology of Koch probably 218 . The laboratory was actively engaged in teaching and research. after the Baltimore appointment. therefore. and Welch found himself in the heart of a university and in a company of scholars. pathology of fever. first under a pupil of Koch's at Munich. was hastily completed on the Johns Hopkins Hospital grounds and occupied by him in 1886. causation of hog cholera.

however.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH FLEXNER for the first time in the laboratory of one man. The Hopkins called Osier in medicine. The Pathological became a busy workshop and continued to be a center of teaching and research throughout Welch's professorship. or university. who became at the same time professors in the university. The opening of the Hospital was three years off and that of the Medical School seven years off. The part which Welch played in developing the medical school extended over more than forty years. Welch's greatest work was the upbuilding of the Hopkins Medical School. the teacher-at-large of scientific medicine throughout the nation. At the outset a radical departure was made in the appointment of the major clinical staff. as the years passed. many in the city of Baltimore. Hitherto medical schools in America were staffed from the local practitioners. This was President Gilman's policy put into effect by Welch. and Kelly in gynecology. encroached on Welch's laboratory time. With the organization of the Hopkins Medical School. indeed. in which he took the leading part. Welch had peculiar gifts which made him a graceful and persuasive speaker. he was still further diverted from strict laboratory duties. which he resigned in 1916. medical education. his personal influence there continued. He became. and then to promote the higher. The four years between the opening of the hospital and the 210 . Halsted in surgery. Almost from the beginning. which opened in 1889. Hence courses were offered in pathology and bacteriology to graduates in medicine and facilities for research provided to more advanced students. which exerted a strong influence in this country and even on medical education in Europe. he was called upon more and more for aid and guidance. Welch was drawn to the public platform in order first to expound the modern bacteriology and pathology. but the main teaching and all the research were carried on by his associates and pupils. All these extra-mural activities. Undoubtedly. all from a distance. and with the founding of the many educational philanthropies and various welfare organizations for medical and social betterment during the twentieth century. The first unit of the school to come into existence was the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

The country had proved more ready than had been foreseen to take so great a step forward in medical education. The women's committee seized on the plan and demanded its immediate execution. and its classes grew in number with surprising rapidity. And in bringing about this fundamental change of direction Welch exerted a strong influence. To this undertalcing he devoted many of his energies for the first dozen years . At the end of the century the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was founded with Welch as president of its Board of Scientific Directors. The school got under way in 1893. The first scientific medical periodical—the Journal of Experimental Medicine—was issued in 1896 with Welch as editor. But progress in the clinical branches of medicine had lagged behind that in the laboratory branches. chemistry. It seems extraordinary. All these conditions were reluctantly granted. The donors of the needed endowment at the Hopkins were a national group of women interested primarily in the higher education of women. physiology. that this long delay should have depended on the comparatively small endowment of $500.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS VOL. The school had already been too long delayed. now that medicine has become so favored by philanthropy. Welch now turned to the task of making the two branches more nearly equal. adding to it the possession of a college degree by the entrants and the admission of women on the same terms with men. In 1891 Welch had drawn up a plan of instruction in which he included. for admission to a medical school. and physics. About the end of the nineteenth century modern medical education was advancing rapidly and the output of scientific work had become considerable. the next step being the setting up of laboratories of anatomy. This standard was not to be adopted at once. XXII launching of the medical school were anxious and strenuous ones. but to be attained gradually. But it was not until medicine in America had entered on its course of modern scientific development that endowments became progressively more frequent and large.000. and a reading knowledge of French and German. pharmacology and physiological chemistry staffed by trained teachers and investigators. Welch was made clean of the new school. preliminary training in biology.

"requires information on all conditions of civilization of the particular period under consideration. He had spent a short time working in von Pettenkofer's hygienic institute. the result being the institution at the Hopkins in 1913-14 of university chairs. Welch's last years were spent in the organization of the Institute of the History of Medicine in connection with the University's medical library bearing his name.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH FLEXNER of the new century. It was in 221 . But he had not ceased propagandizing for the subject." and added that its real significance cannot be grasped "without knowing the state of contemporary knowledge of all important departments of science and philosophy." Welch was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1895. Speaking at Yale College in 1888. sometimes called fullor whole-time professorships. founded the School of Hygiene and Public Health at the Johns Hopkins University with Welch as its first director. His efforts to develop hygiene on an adequate basis in the pathological laboratory had failed for lack of funds. in the main clinical subjects. 1929. was a member of the Council from 1902 to 1911." In 1927-28 he spent eighteen months in Europe buying books for the library and institute. lie had a broad conception of the study of the history of medicine which. when he retired from active university duties. was elected president in succession to Ira Remsen for a six-vear term in 1913. The addition of medical history to the medical curriculum was also the realization of an early idea of Welch's. Hygiene and public health had remained backward in the medical curriculum. he had said that "nothing is more liberalizing and conducive to medical culture than to follow the evolution of medical knowledge. He resigned the presidency in 1917. he said. Welch had become deeply impressed with their importance in Munich in 1884 while studying bacteriology there. Then in 1916 the Rockefeller Foundation. Welch remained its director until 1931. The institute itself was formally opened in October. in the furtherance of its public health work under the guidance of the International Health Board.

. France. making inspection trips to the camps and advising on laboratory organization and epidemiological problems. and Welch served as member of the executive board of the Council from 1918 to 1933. XXII Welch's presidency that the National Research Council was organized during the great war. After the war W'elch journeyed to Cannes. and two years later chairman of the Executive Committee of the Institution. Dr. and took a leading part in the founding of the League of Red Cross Societies which maintained a Bureau of Health in Geneva in connection with the League of Nations. In 1906 Welch was made a trustee of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. acting as liaison man between the laboratory men and the army. Welch died on April 30. On the entry of the United States into the war Welch became attached to the Surgeon General's office. at the age of eighty-four. advising on medical personnel.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS VOL. 1934.

. Yale University 1900: LL. London Royal Sanitary Institute. DECORATIONS..D.D. Princeton University 1911: Order of the Royal Crown.D. London Royal Society of Medicine. England Wiener Gesellschaft fur Mikrobiologie HONORARY DEGREES. London Schlesische Gesellschaft fiir Vaterlandische Cultur Societa Medica Chirurgica di Bologna Societe Royale des Sciences Medicales et Naturelles de Bruxelles Society of Medical Officers of Health. Berlin International Anti-Tuberculosis Association International Society for Microbiology Istituto Storico Italiano dell'Arte Sanitaria Kaiserlich Deutsche Akademia d.D.D. Paris Academie Royale de Medecine de Belgique American Academy of Arts and Sciences Berliner medizinische Gesellschaft British Association for the Advancement of Science British Medical Association College of Physicians of Philadelphia Comite International d'Histoire des Sciences Deutsche medizinische Gesellschaft in New York Deutsche Zentralkomitee zur Erforschung und Bekampfung der Krebskrankheit Gesellschaft der Aerzte in Wien Harveian Society of London Hufelandische Gesellschaft.. AND MEDALS 1894: LL. University of Toronto 1904: LL.D. Columbia University 1907: LL. Harvard University 1903: LL.. Edinburgh Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society.D... University of Pennsylvania 1896: LL. second class (Germany) 223 . Western Reserve University M.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH FLEXNER HONORARY SOCIETY MEMBERSHIPS Academie de Medecine. Naturforscher zu Halle ("Academia Leopoldina") Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland Pathological Society of London Physiological Society (British) Reale Accademia Medica di Roma Royal College of Physicians. Jefferson Medical College 1910: LL.D...

University of Pennsylvania LL.—American Journal of Medical Science Am. with diploma. Med. Sch.f. American Academy of Medicine Bull.D. Anat. path.. u..NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS VOL.—Archiv fiir pathologische anatomie und physiologie und klinische medizin Boston Med.. Distinguished Service Medal and citation. Maryland—Bulletin.D. Naturalist—American Naturalist Am. Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland 224 . Croats. Fac.—Albany Medical Annals Am. commander of the second class (Norway) Diploma of the Distinguished Service Medal.—Boston Medical and Surgical Journal Brit..D. University of Chicago 1919: Gold medal awarded by the National Institute of Social Sciences in recognition of valuable services during the World War.. f. & Chir. J. & Surg. Olav.—British Medical Journal Bull.—Bulletin.. Western Reserve University 1930: LL. XXII 1915: LL. Sc. 1920: Order of the Cross of Mercy (Kingdom of Serbs. Harv. United States Army 1927: Kober gold medal.D. W.. Assn.Sc.—American Public Health Association Report Arch.Sc. klin. Med. New York University BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WILLIAM HENRY WELCH Key to Abbreviations Albany Med. University of Cambridge Legion of Honor—officer 1925: W.D. Gerhard gold medal awarded by the Pathological Society of Philadelphia 1926: Order of St. University of the State of New York 1931 : Harben gold medal awarded for public health service by the Royal Institute of Public Health 1932: D. Physiol. Rep. Washington University Order of the Rising Sun.D. University of Strasbourg Sc. University of Southern California Gold medal of the American Medical Association Litt.—American Medicine Am. Med. Med. and Slovenes) 1922: Gold medal of the University of Vienna 1923: M. Med.D. Med. Med. Harvard Medical School Association Bull.. United States Army. J.. Am. Ann. Health Assn. J. University of Maryland D.—Bulletin. third class (Japan) 1916 : LL. Pub. from Association of American Physicians 1929: D.Sc. u. Acad.

J. 5. & Yale Rev. 3. Exp. Assn. Fac. 225 . Assn. Char. Burket.—Journal of Experimental Medicine J. & Surg. Meltzer.. 375.) J. Zur Histiophysik der roten Blutkorperchen. Assn. Am. 1. Am. u. Arch.—Proceedings. 72. 3. The behaviour of the red blood-corpuscles when shaken with indifferent substances. Assn.—Popular Health Magazine Proc. New York City J. Alumni Assn.. Nat. (With S. Maryland—Transactions. Alumni Association. 101. med. Physn. Johns Hopkins Univ. Physiol. edited by Walter C. American Medical Association J. Med. 3 vols.—Journal. Phila. & Surg. & Chir. Physiol. Tuberc. Clin. (Proc.. 5. 721. Pathological Society of Philadelphia Southern Med. National Conference of Charities and Correction Proc.—Journal of Physiology Maryland Med.—National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. med. Am. 3. (London.—Transactions. Med. An experimental study of glomerulonephritis. 22. Path. 1. Phys.—Southern Medical Journal Tr. Med. Study & Prev. J. Cir. Wissensch. Anat. u.)—William Pepper Laboratory of Clinical Medicine (Proceedings) Yale Med. Transactions New Eng.—Transactions. College of Physicians and Surgeons. Confer. klin.—Yale Medical Journal 1878 Zur Pathologie des Lungenodems. News—Medical News Nat. Am. f. Meltzer. Association of American Physicians Tr. Coll. Circ. American Surgical Association Tr. Physn.—Transactions. Pop. Health Mag. Cong.—Proceedings. 255.—Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin Johns Hopkins Univ. Physn. J. 1.—Maryland Medical Journal Med. 1920. Med. 1886 On some of the humane aspects of medical science. (With S. Phila.) Papers & Addresses. Soc. Papers & Addresses. f. f. d. path. J. f. Assn. Papers & Addresses. Tr.—Transactions.) Centralbl. Wissensch. Path. Physiol. Bull. Baltimore. 171.—Journal. 42. Tr.—Zentralblatt fiir die medizinischen wissenschaften Johns Hopkins Hosp.—Johns Hopkins University Circular J. 1. 293. Am. d. Surg. Med. Pathological Society of Philadelphia William Pepper Lab. J.—New Englander and Yale Review Papers & Addresses—Papers and Addresses by William Henry Welch.. Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland Tr. Papers & Addresses. Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons Tr. Soc.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH FLEXNER Centralbl.

26. 333.. Papers & Addresses. 1. 302. 26. 77. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Maryland Med. 1. /. Med. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 13. (With Franklin P. 3. Maryland. 145. 218. 191. Med. 13. 439. 2... 9. 669. Papers & Addresses. Considerations concerning some external sources of infection in their bearing on preventive medicine. 45. 2. 25. Med. . . 181. Fac. 2. 55. 79. 2. (Written in 1887. 2. Assn. XXII Modes of infection. News. Am. Boston Med. hut not published until 1920. 25. Haemorrhagic infarction. 1891 The causation of diphtheria. Sc. Bull. 1. Fac. 121.) Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1. 102. Med. The histological changes in experimental diphtheria. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 107. 226 .. Abbott. 2.. Papers & Addresses. Conditions underlying the infection of wounds . 47. Maryland.) Papers & Addresses. Bull. Fac. Bacillus coli communis. The structure of white thrombi. Med. 392. 1SS9 Hydrophobia. 162. (With Alexander C. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 281. 67.. 1. J. 5Q. Additional note concerning the intravenous inoculation of Bacillus typhi abdominalis. & Chir. J. Tr.. Physu. Some of the advantages of the union of medical school and university. 2. and its pathogenic properties. News. 2. 197. 395. 2.) Johns Hopkins Hosp. Maryland. and' Surg. 2. Papers & Addresses. Path. Tr. 3. On the general pathology of fever. Papers & Addresses. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Am. & Chir. 2... 1891. 242. Papers & Addresses. 121. 118.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1887 VOL. Tr. Papers & Addresses. 66. (With Simon Flexner. 1. Tr. the conditions of its invasion of the human body. 1. 549. 1. Papers & Addresses. Experimental study of haemorrhagic infarction of the small intestine in the dog. Papers & Addresses. Med. The etiology of diphtheria. 332.) 1888 The Cartwright Lectures. & Yale Rev. Tr. 1889. Bull. Pathology in its relations to general biology. 361. Mall. 2. 29. & Chir. Soc. 328. Bull. 413.. Phila. New Eng. 567Preliminary report of investigations concerning the causation of hog cholera. 1887. 419. Some considerations concerning" antiseptic surgery. Papers & Addresses. J.

Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 1893 Sanitation in relation to the poor. 81. 17. The Johns Hopkins Medical School. Pop. Papers & Addresses. Clement. 588. (With G. 11. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 1.. 86. 17. 6. Papers & Addresses. with especial reference to the etiology of acute lobar pneumonia. Papers & Addresses. 1894 Remarks on hog cholera and swine plague. Fac. 3. 125. . 41. Rep. nov. 3. Charities Review 1893. 427. 3. 502. 599. 146. 8°. February. Health Assn. Assn. F. The histological lesions produced by the toxalbumen of diphtheria. Nuttall. 9. 108. 37 p. 63... 2. 2. 124. Am. 401. Boston Med. 6.) Johns Hopkins Hosp. Med. 6 p. Clin. 541. Bull. The evolution of modern scientific laboratories. 20. Papers & Addresses.. 1.. The etiology of acute lobar pneumonia. Papers & Addresses. 200.) Johns Hopkins Hosp.. News. What shall be the mode of procedure in determining the pathogenesis of bacteria found in water? Am.) Philadelphia. 1893. Bull. Harv. 1.) Tr. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. Bacteriological investigations of diphtheria in the United States. 8°. Papers & Addresses. Baltimore. 1894. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 2. 133. 3. spec). capable of rapid development in the blood-vessels after death. 3. Maryland. 1892. Intestinal and hepatic actinomycosis. William Pepper Lab. & Chir. 1. 229.. Sc. (With A.T. 2. (N. Papers & Addresses. W. 1. 1S96 The influence of anaesthesia upon medical science. H. Health Mag. 2. 215. Higher medical education and the need of its endowment. considered from a bacteriological point of view.T. Am. 3. Asiatic cholera in its relations to sanitary reforms. 2. 2. Pub. Papers & Addresses. Med.. Physn. 3. associated with leukemia.) Bull.. 1895 The treatment of diphtheria by antitoxin. The advancement of medical education (N. 265. 2. 55. Bull. 1895. 46. Med. (Proa). Assn. & Surg. J. Bull. 328. Papers & Addresses. Johns Hopkins Hosp.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH 1892 FLEXNER Micrococcus lanccolatus.. No. 225. A gas-producing bacillus (Bacillus acrogencs capsulatits. 97. Sch. 65. (With Simon Flexner.. 645. 539. Tr. 2. 3. Med. Med. 1892. J.

Assn. Yale Med. 284. Am. Physn. J. Am. & Surg. 370.. 71. 2. (Baltimore). 460. Med. generally known as the "Antivivisection Bill. J. 155. 273Laboratory methods of teaching. Physn. 1242. 16. J. Am. 31. Am. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. Also. Exp. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 1901 Training for and careers in clinical medicine. Argument against Senate bill 34. Pub. Papers & Addresses. Med.. Papers & Addresses.) J. Venous thrombosis in cardiac disease. Med. Papers & Addresses. Am. Papers & Addresses.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS VOL. 54. i. (With Simon Flexner. 1900 The material needs of medical education. 127. 63.. 1. 4551899 Thrombosis and embolism. 29.. 143. Alumni Assn. London. 2. 301. 755. 73. Am. 691.. Tr.. Morbid conditions caused by Bacillus aerogcnes capsulatus. Papers & Addresses. 25. Am.) Presidential address. J. Med. (N. J.T. 2. Am. 1. Surg.. Biology and medicine. Tr. 599. 441. 1897 Adaptation in pathological processes. 3. Papers & Addresses. XXII Observations concerning Bacillus aerogcnes capsulatus. Cong. 199. 3. Assn.. no. Assn. 1899. Papers & Addresses. 8. 564. 3. . & Surg. 3. Assn. & Snrg. 1909. Physn. Assn. 2.. Tr. Principles underlying the serum diagnosis of typhoid fever and the methods of its applications. ij. Papers & Addresses. 4. Boston Med. fifty-sixth Congress. Tr. London. System of Medicine (Allbutt & Rolleston). p. J. 1063). Relations of laboratories to public health. 3. 469. Health Assn." J. Assn. The relation of Yale to medicine. Physn. 1.?. In: System of Medicine (Allbutt). 6. Maryland Med. Papers & Addresses. 285. 1898 Objections to the antivivisection bill now before the Senate of the United States (S. 38. 7. 336. Papers & Addresses... 259. 1. 1. xvi. 615. 5. 30. 228 . 97. 219. 243. 234The relation of sewage disposal to public health. Am. Naturalist. 3. 607.. Rep. Coll. 19. Papers & Addresses. first session.

1906 The benefits of the endowment of medical research.. 3. for Med. 334. Med. Assn. Med. Acad. 3. i^$.WILLIAM HENRY WELCH FLEXNER 1902 The Huxley Lecture. Research. 104. 531. 89. Am. 315. 719. In: Physiological aspects of the liquor problem. 599. 1. 359. 2. 49. 3. Fields of usefulness of the American Medical Association. Columbia Univ. 6. J. 256. Albany Med. Brit.. 288. caused by numerous constrictions of a previously undescribed character. Papers & Addresses. Med. 367. Papers & Addresses. (A letter to S. Am. On recent studies of immunity with special reference to their bearing on pathology. 132. 50. Papers & Addresses. Med. J.. 3. Papers & Addresses. Boston Med. 2. Papers & Addresses. Am. J. Papers & Addresses. 3. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. 229 .. 349. 49. 305. 11. Science. (N. J. 1910 The medical curriculum. 29. 36. 1904 Theory of pulmonary oedema. Ann. 2011. Am.. 1. 74. Papers & Addresses. 449. J. Boston. especially during the last century. 720. 1907 The relation of the hospital to medical education and research. Papers & Addresses.. 3.) Science. 190S Medicine and the university. 3. 413.. 1902. The interdependence of medicine and other sciences of nature. 27. & Surg. Papers & Addresses.. 3. 1. 2. Med. A consideration of the introduction of surgical anaesthesia. 3. Med. 1903.) 195. 10. Boston Med. Am. The unity of the medical sciences. j r . 8. Papers & Addresses. Position of natural science in education. J. Chronic peritonitis with complete obstruction. Papers & Addresses.T. Am. Bull. 26. 1105. throughout the intestine. 83. 1. 3. 54. Med. 52. Meltzer.. 632. Some of the conditions which have influenced the development of American medicine. 221. Quarterly Supplement. Papers & Addresses. 39. & Surg. Assn. J. 2$. What may be expected from more effective application of preventive measures against tuberculosis.. Assn. J. Assn. 159. /. 1903 The pathological effects of alcohol. Studies from the Rockefeller Inst. Papers & Addresses.

811. Nat. 111. 621. The duties of a hospital to the public health. 196. Rep. 3. Tr.) Lancet-Clinic. . Study & Prev. Papers & Addresses. & Chir. The School of Hygiene and Public Health at the Johns Hopkins University. 1889-1914.. Papers & Addresses. 3. Maryland. Contributions of Vcsalius other than anatomical. 3. Survey. Confer. Bull. 1667. Papers & Addresses. 1919. 3. New York. 440. J. 1921 The advancement of medicine and its contribution to human welfare. 148. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1915-16. 7. Twenty-fifth anniversary of The Johns Hopkins Hospital. 1916 Institute of hygiene. •?' I53 ' 1915 The times of Vesalius. Papers & Addresses. Papers & Addresses. by his pupils and co-workers. Pamphlet. Baltimore. dedicated to Sir William Osier . Papers & Addresses. 27. 3. 3. . 1915.T. Med.. XXII The significance of the great frequency of tuberculous infection in early life for prevention of the disease. 44. & Biol.. Peter Bent Brigham Hosp. 428. 1. Assn. 302. 445. Bull. Boston. 209. Papers & Addresses. 669. Med. Nat. $g. 363. Peking Union Medical College.NATIONAL ACADEMY BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS VOL. 20. In: Addresses & Papers at the Dedication Ceremonies and Medical Conference. Papers & Addresses.. 1914. 1916. 8. 146. Peking. Spirit of experimental science in education and opportunities for scientific medicine and service in China. Address at the formal opening of the Peter Hent Brigham Hospital. 3. Rockefeller Foundation Ann. Papers & Addresses. Contrib. 415. 174. 1919 Influence of English medicine upon American medicine in its formative period. Bull. Am. 1921. 119.. (N. 230 . 26. 178. its development and great needs for the future. The hospital in relation to medical science. 118. 3. 660. Fac.. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 3. Research. Medical education in the United States. Papers & Addresses. 1914 Present position of medical education. I. Medicine in the Orient. Papers & Addresses. Char. Med. Papers & Addresses. 366. Tuberc. 1912 Advantages to a charitable hospital of affiliation with a university medical school. 1. 8. Harvey Lectures. Proc. 1922. Papers & Addresses. 17. 25. Papers & Addresses. 1. 142. Science. i n . Assn. 104. 1766.

(jerhard and differentiation of typhus and typhoid fever. Soc. Changing view-points in medical education. Phila.WILLIAM 11KXRV W E L C H FLEXNER Pathological problems in the Orient. Pneumonic plague.. Maryland./. _]. 148. 51 p. January 2j. Distinguished physicians who have graduated from West Nottingham Academy. 42. William Thompson Sedgwick memorial lecture.V . 2. Fac. Public health in theory and practice. 1925. '9-?-/ Ibid. _>. u . Proc. Southern Med. $j~.. W. ' i . 1931.. & Chir. p. W. 350. an historical review. 28.. 1924. Med. p. Yale University Press. Ibid. Tr. Path.