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A. Interpretation – The affirmative must affirm the topic instrumentally. The 1AC must include a topical plan that is only justified with a normative defense of federal government adoption of such a policy. The ballot only declares that the resolution is either true or false. The topic is defined by the phrase following the colon – the USFG is the agent of the resolution, not the individual debaters Webster’s Guide to Grammar and Writing – 2000 Use of a colon before a list or an explanation that is preceded by a clause that can stand by itself. Think of the colon as a gate, inviting one to go on… If the introductory phrase preceding the colon is very brief and the clause following the colon represents the real business of the sentence, begin the clause after the colon with a capital letter.

Should denotes an expectation of enacting a plan American Heritage Dictionary – 2000 []
3 Used to express probability or expectation

B) Violation—the aff does not defend the United States federal government action C) Vote negative 1. Ground – Refusing to defend the implementation of the plan/resolution erases all predictable negative disad and case ground. We’ll never have evidence saying their specific advocacy of the plan is bad. This eliminates all of our offense since testing their method is key. 2. Process impact – this is the only academic forum where we get education based on clash and competition. If we aren’t able to prepare in advance for affirmatives the round becomes a 2 hour conference presentation about whatever books & articles they are reading, This education o/w any content specific education because A) You can get content specific education in any other forum B) Without critical thinking skills developed through clash and competition we can’t effectively act on content-specific knowledge English et al 7 Eric English, Stephen Llano, Gordon R. Mitchell, Catherine E. Morrison,
John Rief & Carly Woods, all former debate coaches, “Debate as a Weapon of Mass Destruction” It is our position, however, that rather than acting as a cultural technology expanding American exceptionalism, switch-side debating originates from a civic attitude that serves as a bulwark against fundamentalism of all stripes. Several prominent voices reshaping the national dialogue on homeland security have come from the academic debate community and draw on its animating spirit of critical inquiry. For example, Georgetown University law professor Neal Katyal served as lead plaintiff ’s counsel in

12 The foundation for Katyal’s winning argument in Hamdan was laid some four years before. Katyal’s reflection on his early days of debating at Loyola High School in Chicago’s North Shore provides a vivid illustration. Turns the case – advocating USFG increase of democracy assistance is crucial to breaking down the clash of civilization discourse that causes Islamophobia and orientalism---empirics prove that effective democracy promotion disaggregated from hard-line Iraq-style invasion has a positive effect---and.’’ C) Without clash-based education we are likely to come to the wrong conclusions about the content b/c we don’t see both sides 3. and others in challenging the dominant dialogue on homeland security points to the efficacy of academic debate as a training ground for future advocates of progressive change. a robust understanding of the switch-side technique and the classical liberalism which underpins it would help prevent misappropriation of the technique to bolster suspect homeland security policies. and reflexivity in the face of fundamentalism. the Palestinian areas and Iraq. Lebanon. Anwar Sadat professor for peace and development.’’ As Katyal recounts. ‘‘I came in as a shy freshman with dreams of going to medical school. In our public discourse. and a staunch commitment to democratic principles. Extra Topicality –they skirt discussion of the plan’s merits by arguing the benefits derived from their advocacy outweigh. when he collaborated with former intercollegiate debate champion Laurence Tribe on an influential Yale Law Journal addressing a similar topic. there's been a very quick move to claim all of these things that have transpired as moves towards democracy--in Egypt. the Middle East badly needs political and economic reform. The imprint of this debate training is evident in Tribe and Katyal’s contemporary public interventions. the irony of our story should be 224 E.’’14 The success of former debaters like Katyal. no matter how we define democracy. the greater the proclivity of McCarthy’s ideological heirs to brand the activity as a ‘‘weapon of mass destruction. University of Maryland “Democracy: Rising Tide or Mirage” Middle East Policy Vol 12 Issue 2 May 23 2005 Wiley I think we all agree that. 4. I'd like to focus on two aspects of this issue. Tribe. Thirty years later. One of the failures in this discourse is to differentiate between the impact of the Iraq . and that most people in the region desperately want it. English et al. Katyal represented Dartmouth College at the same tournament and finished third. One is the extent to which American foreign policy is linked to democratic moves in the region. This is a voting issue because we’re forced to win framework just to get back to equal footing – extra topicality also proves the resolution insufficient and explodes aff ground.2/19 which challenged post-9/11 enemy combat definitions. even if it doesn’t succeed it’s productive to advocate SHIBLEY TELHAMI 5. I will begin with the American role. for Harvard University. Downloaded By: [University of Pittsburgh] At: 21:56 16 May 2007 apparent*the more effectively academic debating practice can be focused toward these ends. Then Loyola’s debate team opened my eyes to a different world: one of argumentation and policy. The second is how the public sees both the issue of democracy and the American role in that issue. ‘‘the most important preparation for my career came from my experiences as a member of Loyola’s debate team. sound argumentation. But by now. Moreover. Saudi Arabia. For buried within an inner-city debater’s files is a secret threat to absolutism: the refusal to be classified as ‘‘with us or against us. which are characterized by meticulous research.13 Tribe won the National Debate Tournament in 1961 while competing as an undergraduate debater Hamdan.’’ the embracing of intellectual experimentation in an age of orthodoxy.

at least in the short term. The public in the region does not see the advocacy of democracy as a priority in American foreign policy. I think it's fair to say that it's not a direct consequence of the advent of democracy. and in the process they became far more insecure. But the general interpretation is that you still have an American occupation. one can argue that there is domestic pressure for reform. it is just bad governments. That's inspiring. that the United States is making this a priority. But it is important for democracy to have people stand up to authority and take risks. In the case of Lebanon. a negative impact on reform. the vast majority said no. but they were not granted elections while Ararat was still alive. I think. and that is what the public is reacting to. It's very hard politically to move it back. one can argue that the American factor was only part of it. They think this is a tactical move by the United States. Now Libya is on the positive side of the ledger. We talk about an Arab Spring as we talk about a Prague . I do public opinion polls in six Arab countries: Egypt. the United Arab Emirates and Jordan. Marina has already talked about Iraq. I want to state again that as of 2004. in general. Clearly. They had been asking for elections for a couple of years. But I think there's something objective that they're seeing that transpired before. the contradictions. their hands are tied. That's what the public saw. The minute you move it back. They can take more risks. Whatever the intent of the advocacy for democracy. They preempted organizations. But if you look at the responsiveness of Syria. There is no barrier of culture or religion. that this is a Shia empowerment. So. They made a strategic decision generally to support the United States. something good came out of it. that the president of the United States needs to show some results--for political reasons at least. In Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Arab governments had to make a strategic decision whether they supported the United States or not. during and immediately alter the war. Let me give you examples of what I mean and how the region sees it. Each one of them has given the administration enough to claim political credit. The advocacy of democracy I see as a completely separate issue. the demonstrations themselves were first and foremost driven by the assassination of Rafik Hariri. they limited freedom of speech--and in the case of Egypt. having elections is good. the role of the media. they arrested people. They believed that it went against Arab interests. and that the consequences of the advocacy of democracy have been more positive on reform in the Middle East. we asked people in those six countries: do you believe that the Middle East is more democratic or less democratic than it was before the Iraq War? The vast majority of people in every country believed the Middle East had become less democratic than it was before the Iraq War. They believe that they had to. Lebanon. I think we ought to be careful here in terms of cause and effectrelating to Syria. Certainly part of it is probably psychological. So there is mistrust. In 2004. But the Syrian responsiveness was not related only to the American position. It takes away the Tiananmen Square option for governments in the Middle East. One can even argue that the Iraq War delayed the possibility of democracy. Morocco. and they're basing that on a historical trend: the reversals in the past. and it's very hard to come back and say. in general. I ask questions about political issues and foreign policy. and both of these governments are responding to it. although I think it is sometimes exaggerated. there was a delay of elections until Arafat died. I think it opens up space. It has overshadowed the "clash of civilizations" thesis. people in the Arab world are somewhat inspired by elections. which is the last one I took. So now our hands are tied and we have a problem. when you asked Arabs whether they believed American policy intends to spread democracy in the Middle East. regardless of its authoritarianism. it's not an issue of democracy. well. Those are not the same things. The sight of hundreds of thousands of Lebanese taking to the streets is consequential for people in the Arab world. The Palestinians had elections in the middle 1990s. extended the emergency law on the eve of the war. They believe that the administration is using it to get strategic cooperation from them and to claim political credit at home. In fact. for fear that he would win and be empowered as a consequence.3/19 War itself oi l the issue of political reform in the region and the advocacy of democracy as a priority in American foreign policy and the actual consequences for political reform in the region. To begin with. and that allows people to be more empowered to test the waters. It's been profoundly helpful in our own discourse in America. It was claimed that they no longer had weapons of mass destruction. There is a second impact that most of us haven't thought about enough. The problem for the administration will be that once they have moved a country from the negative to the positive side of the ledger. In the case of the Palestinian areas. We asked why that was the case. I don't think these governments believe that the Bush administration is advocating democracy as an end in itself. I think the war has had. and the double standards on a variety of issues. Ninety percent of the people opposed the war. Saudi Arabia. The advocacy of democracy has had a generally positive impact . You had a situation where 90 percent of the public passionately opposed the Iraq War. the United States. based on our survey. Suddenly Arabs are normal people in the American discourse. you lose ground politically in the United States. It was related to the fact that you had a UN resolution and a French-American position. and that there is an intent to weaken the Arabs in the Muslim world. We've seen this with Libya. I would argue that the consequences of the Iraq War have been largely negative on the issue of reform in the Middle East. The Syrians could probably have withstood American pressure if they had had unanimous support in Europe and the Middle East. But you can also argue that these governments responded in part to pressure from the United States.

10) In other words. our agreements are highly imperfect. the reverse is true. of agreement. demonstrators. Also. Nor can one demonstrate resistance to a policy if no one knows that it is a policy. on principles but not on their applications. Registers. It seems to have been one of the corruptions of intelligence by positivism to assume that argument ends when agreement is reached. One cannot successfully stage a sit-in if one’s target audience simply thinks everyone is resting or if those doing the sitting have no complaints. And this kind of limited agreement is the starting condition of contest and debate. and debaters must have some shared ideas about the subject and/or terms of their disagreements. We agree on some matters but not on others. In a basic sense. At the very least. This is a helpful discourse in America. As John Courtney Murray writes: We hold certain truths. In other words. the contesting of an idea presumes some agreement about what that idea is and how one might go about intelligibly contesting it. we cannot argue about something if we are not communicating: if we cannot agree on the topic and terms of argument or if we have utterly different ideas about what counts as evidence or good argument. sharpness of the clash on the other side. and it might in the end even reduce the D. one cannot have an argument about euthanasia with someone who thinks euthanasia is a musical group.4/19 Spring. The participants and the target of a sit-in must share an understanding of the complaint at hand. Professor of Politics at Texas A&M. . For instance. contest is meaningless if there is a lack of agreement or communication about what is being contested. There can be no agreement except on the premise. and within a context. (Murray 1960. p. this is a prerequisite to other arguments. 2000 [Partisan Politics and Political Theory. we must agree about what it is that is being debated before we can debate it. This is the best way to preserve competitive equity by ensuring predictable ground for the negative. Ruth Lesl Shively. 181-2] In most cases. In other words. contestation rests on some basic agreement or harmony. therefore we can argue about them. however. and so on. In short. Voting Issue – If we demonstrate the affirmative does not meet the best interpretation of the topic they have failed to justify the resolution and should be rejected. on generalities but not on specifics. And a demonstrator’s audience must know what is being resisted.

Given the interdependence of economic reform and democratization in much of the world. detached from the concerns of policy makers? That research has an obligation to serve foreign policy goals is a dubious proposition. 13. and how the political openings that took place in a number of Middle Eastern states in the late 1980s and early 1990s were shut down by regimes that came to fear their consequences. or Latin America. No. the reversal of reform. coalition management. which get to the fundamental core of what matters about Middle Eastern politics today.” Journal of Democracy Vol. defensive democratization. the most recent wave of research is on failed liberalization. including the possibility of political change from below. far less prominent in Middle East studies than in other helped turn the attention of researchers to modes of politics that previously had been neglected. director – Program on Philanthropy and Nonprofit Sector @ Social Science Research Council. These questions require not simply introspection but critical engagement with the larger disciplines within which the applicable tools and methods are developed. Africa. U. ‘2 (Steve. not the inevitability of democracy. the increasingly visible signs of exhaustion among existing systems of rule—could have failed to note how the events of 1989 resonated across the Middle East. frmr Prof Poli Sci – Columbia. the growth of social movements around issues ranging from human rights to electoral reform to environmentalism. 3. Research has centered on such notions as selective liberalization. Policy makers have tended to subordinate political reform to economic reform in the belief that markets will create the preconditions for political change—eventually. policy favors stability in the short run. even if the two often pull in different directions. reform as a survival strategy. Research on civil society. and successful authoritarianism. Does such attention to theory lead the field down esoteric byways. and how regimes in the Middle East have managed to separate economic and political reform. No one paying attention to events on the ground—the newfound interest among regimes circa 1990 in the rhetoric of pluralism. creating possibilities for change that had seemed quite remote only a few years earlier. Yet they cannot be answered by looking at the Middle East in isolation. 4 fields. how? 6 How can we account for the absence or weakness of what might be called liberal Islam? These questions. 3 Certainly. “Defending the Discipline. Muse) Though Kramer's book is severely flawed. has been the principal focus of research. research on economic and political reform in the Middle East has clearly benefited from the use of comparative theories and methods by regional specialists. The persistence of authoritarianism. challenged. how can we explain the persistence of such regimes in the Middle East simply by reference to their brutality? Does Tocqueville tell us anything relevant to this region? Does Islam make the Middle East exceptional. processes that have often been seen as interdependent. and has explored whether the stability of authoritarianism can be taken as evidence of Middle Eastern exceptionalism. Moreover. U. from the early 1990s on. and with good reason. and if so. verging at times on frank pessimism. policy has . why it is that in the Middle East vibrant civil societies coexist with durable authoritarian regimes. and refined.S. When it comes to the study of democratization and economic reform—especially the past 10 to 15 years' work on the political economy of regime formation and transition—the field has been largely right. with little apparent regard for the longer-term costs of sustaining authoritarian regimes.5/19 It’s also the most productive way to engage Mid East politics Heydemann. how authoritarian regimes have managed to exploit the rhetoric of reform to reconfigure and renew their political [End Page 103] power. markets. 2 the larger question remains: Is his diagnosis of the field accurate? Have we exaggerated the prospects for democratization and misread the state of politics in the Middle East? Are we guilty of uncritically applying inappropriate theories and methods? Have we neglected what really matters in pursuit of theoretical novelty? The straightforward answer is that these perceptions of the field are misguided. while elsewhere such civil societies have been central to democratic transitions. was one of several reactions to these new possibilities and Nonetheless. 5 In fact. On the one hand. In other words. The overwhelming sentiment among researchers has been not uncritical optimism about prospects for democratization but a cautious and critical skepticism. what accounts for the ability of regimes in the Middle East to liberalize their economies selectively without opening their political systems? Why has authoritarianism in the Middle East persisted despite the presence of virtually every factor that has been used to explain its collapse elsewhere. at the start of the 1990s scholars of the Middle East were anxious to explore the local effects of the changes then transforming the international system. and democracy. from failures of development to defeats in war? Since the massive use of coercion did not keep authoritarian regimes alive in Eastern Europe. but interaction between research and policy on questions of reform is evident. the main focus of research on the politics of reform in the Middle East has been to explain why reforms have been so limited.S. are well represented within Middle East studies.

generally preferring more assertive U. .S. 7 Nonetheless. the feasibility of promoting markets without also seeking democracy—of supporting what has become a shift from populist to partially market-based forms of authoritarianism—is sadly consistent with the findings of the research literature. whether intentional or not. Academic specialists. this divergence between the policy and research communities is not an indicator of academic failure but a reflection of policy makers' neglect . support for democratization. of a research literature that has been largely accurate in assessing the rise and decline of political liberalization in the Middle East during the course of the 1990s.6/19 evolved to favor markets now. democracy later. Moreover. on the other hand—including [End Page 104] some with high-level government experience—tend to be skeptical if not critical of this approach.

time constraints. Their opponents will strain to follow every word. provided the listener is willing to concentrate and provided the delivery is intelligible. Experienced varsity NDT debaters operating in tournament situations on the national circuit are under great pressure to pack as much evidence and argument as possible into the time limits. Emeritus Professor of Communication at John Carroll University. p. DEBATE IS NOT MEANT TO TEACH PUBLIC SPEAKING Kent R.. Says Raine: “If you can teach kids with speech disorders to speak faster.” 5. and other competing argumentative skill requirements may make debating the wrong form for the development of speaking eloquence. the judge. Their delivery may often exceed 300 words per minute. a University of Southern California psychologist. Ph. this does not suggest it is counterproductive to other formats that do. TEACHING RAPID SPEAKING HELPS COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND ACADEMIC SKILLS. Competitive aspects.” says Adrian Rains. RAPID DELIVERY ENHANCES ARGUMENT AND DEBATE The faster we speak. Colbert.” understands the situation and is often willing to concentrate on the speech and record the arguments accurately on a flow sheet. The link has been established in adults for some time. 1990. . p. You should prefer the system that maximizes argument because debate is meant to be a forum for argumentation. usually an argumentation professor who may well have “been there. 14 That raises the possibility that speech-training may be a short cut to achievement. 92 One could also speculate if competitive debating is an appropriate laboratory to hone certain public speaking skills. p. All serious research suggest that debaters are generally considered better communicators than those who do not debate. 2. 1992. at least they can’t also accuse you of having a bad memory. The human mind is easily capable of absorbing far more than 300 words a minute. that should have wide-ranging benefits for other aspects of cognitive development and for their mastery of academic skills.” September/October. 1992.D. Raine reports in Child Development. the faster you can talk.6 seconds of memory. No serious scholarly and objective data shows debating is counterproductive to speaking style. proof burdens. Speech rate is a strong index of short-term memory span. 4. The time constraints mean that there is a direct and linear relationship between speed of speech and quantity of argument. THE FASTER SOMEONE SPEAKS. Therefore. 6. which in turn increases the incentive to research for said evidence. p. the more arguments we can make and the more evidence we can introduce. Research is an important part of debate’s educational mandate. However. The recent discovery that the two are linked in kids may be a special boon to those with speech disorders. “Imagine that your short-term memory is a circular tape loop with 1. “The Talking Cure.” September/October. 280. RAPID DELIVERY REWARDS RESEARCH What is the point of cutting lots of cards if we never get to read them all? Allowing rapid delivery increases the amount of evidence we can use in a debate. LISTENERS CAN EASILY COPE WITH RAPID DEUVERY RATES Austin J. 1991. CEDA YEARBOOK. PSYCHOLOGY TODAY. THE BETTER THEIR SHORT TERM MEMORY PSYCHOLOGY TODAY. “The Talking Cure. the greater your short term memory. Freeley. 14 If friends criticize you for talking too fast.7/19 SPEED IS NOT ABUSIVE 1. 3. ARGUMENTATION AND DEBATE: CRITICAL THINKING FOR REASONED DECISION MAKING. University of the Pacific. Whatever you manage to repeat in that space is what you immediately recall.

2007 [Finnish Deep Ecologist. We are in the midst of ecocatastrophes.Just as only one out of 100. Philosopher http://www.. originally written. A case of their own are the ordered researchers hired by the fanatical business world. Society and life are been organized on basis of what an individual wants.pdf] Mankind.nazi. the human species.8/19 EcoFacism is the only hope for planetary survival... even though these are the most mindless and desperate experiments of the mankind.] "A fundamental.In this time and this part of the World we are headlessly hanging on democracy and parliamentary system.Our only hope lies in strong central government and uncompromizing control of the individual citizen. . The human language does bend into as insane claims as possible: it is easy to say that the sun rises from the west and sets to the east.. No natural scientist or serious futurologist likely has promised more than 30-100 years of remaining time.. 2006 [Environmental %20pdfs/PenttiLinkolaEssays.. who cry their screams as a small minority of world science. in the eye of the storm.. devastating error is to set up a political system based on desire." [ELLIPSES IN THE ORGINAL QUOTE] Timeframe: We face extinction within the next 30 to 100 years unless we take radical steps to 2002 http://www.. only a few are those truly capable of managing the matters of a nation or mankind as a whole.000 has the talent to be an engineer or an acrobat. not on what is good for him or her.In democratic countries the destruction of nature and sum of ecological disasters has accumulated most. Linkola. seems to have reached its end.penttilinkola.

the way we . such objections appear to be only one more expression of speciesism. the experiences of China and Southeast Asia highlight issues of unambiguously global significance. forms of ‘good’ authoritarianism. politics. rather abstract analysis for? As I mentioned before. 2010. they precisely point out how those positioned as "others" of the "reasonable human subject" (Western. Moreover. 2010 [From Feminism to Speciesism and Back Again or How We Are Becoming and How We Collaborate. Indeed. homophobia and other forms of discrimination do take place both in theory (academia) and in practice (everyday life). Objections by thse with project against racism to the speiciest kritik are merely expressing their own specieism. 19. an account of ontology always forms the basis for ethics. In such circumstances. also from those who themselves were fighting against dualist logic labelling them as the "Others" of the human subject. Randomska. Nevertheless.g. capital-owning) have been always defined as closer to nature and animals (or as animals). may become not only justifiable. The central question that emerges from this discussion is whether democracy can be sustained in the region—or anywhere else for that matter—given the unprecedented and unforgiving nature of the challenges we collectively face. pp 276–294] While evidence about the implications of environmental degradation and even global warming are increasingly uncontroversial. at least. Marietta Radomska ] If we take into account postcolonial or feminist theory (and movements) for instance. Although various gestures of racism. Although some of the preceding analysis is necessarily speculative and inferential. in slaughterhouses to black slavery or Holocaust usually awaken indignation or at least evoke some sort of protest. sexism. Actually. (2). male. The only question is whether we can make it less brutal. Marietta Radomska ] Now your question probably is: what is this whole. the above-mentioned emancipation movements claims are quite obvious. 2010 [The coming of environmental authoritarianism Mark Beeson1 Professor at University of Western Australia Published in Environmental Politics. Abandoning anthropocentric ontologies shatters neoliberal domination. the enormous amount of suffering and oppression of animals go almost unheard. any attempt of comparison or analogy between animal suffering e. in which environmentally unsustainable forms of behavior are simply forbidden. Randomska. such is the urgency of the environmental crisis that some have argued—alarmingly persuasively—that ‘humanity will have to trade its liberty to live as it wishes in favour of a system where survival is paramount’ (Shearman and Smith 2007: 4). their possible political consequences are more contentious. but essential for the survival of humanity—in anything approaching a civilized form.9/19 Humanity must give up the pursuit of democratic freedoms and human rights or face extinction. Beeson. They just form a part of "normal" landscape. 2010 [From Feminism to Speciesism and Back Again or How We Are Becoming and How We Collaborate. white.

It is only through such alliances and collaboration in the long term that a true struggle for social justice may take place. and animal rights activists will have to eliminate any sexiest. implicated in each other. Hence. namely. Within such a politics various progressive and emancipatory social movements will have to include animal welfare (and vegetarianism/veganism) issues in their agendas. we will be able to think and act in a different way. racist or other discriminatory traces that may appear in their movements. Nonetheless. to the solutions they propose. once we get rid of the anthropocentric aberration at a theoretical level. Acknowledging this and abandoning anthropocentric constraints may open the way to a specific politics of alliances. as well as the logic of profit. The issues of cruelty to animals. They are intertwined. . animal suffering and animal rights are in fact utterly entangled in the problems of the devastation of natural resources and exploitation (in general). I would like to proceed now to the question how artists deal with the obstacles of speciesism and anthropocentrism.10/19 understand the world and how we act.

In 1968. this week's food riots may be just a foreshadowing of what looms ahead in the not-so-distant future. feature writer for the Toronto Star. Cambodia and Vietnam are already battening down. This week. has been added to the mix. from seed planting right through to the delivery process. but Malthus's theory did. as Lester Brown. he scathingly adds. asks David Bell. The world has been down this road before. In Egypt. the UN's top humanitarian and emergency relief co-ordinator. In other words. a two-week protest at government-subsidized bakeries ended with the deaths of 10 Egyptians in clashes with police. hundreds of millions would die because of overpopulation and subsequent lack of food. 33 countries are now vulnerable to social unrest and political instability because of food insecurity – and that has implications for all the rest. projections are that. John Holmes. can substitution go? After having dismissed Malthus. Third World cities. says David Bell. Can the world sustain that number of people? A UN report says we are already living beyond the planet's means – just as Thomas Malthus warned could occur. and by 2050. leading to a 30-year low in the world's wheat inventories. But how far. but water scarcity is affecting supplies. At least 4 million more people are being added to the list. has surged by 40 per cent to 80 per cent in the last three years and caused panicked uprisings in some of the poorest countries on Earth. emeritus professor of environmental studies at York University. According to the World Bank. whose population has grown from 60 million to almost 90 million in 17 years. develop new technologies to improve crop yield. he said.thestar." The current crisis was ignited by a number of elements coming together in deadly tandem. but nothing was done to prevent it happening again. There will be more failed societies. along with corn. The early 19th-century British demographer and political economist believed population growth was exponential and man's "struggle for existence" eventually would outstrip Earth's capacity to sustain it. a 15-yearold boy was shot and killed this week in two days of violence over food shortages. Not only did Ehrlich take a drubbing. it's risen to more than 6. people are starting to talk about him again. from Cameroon to Bolivia." Today. Last month. Humans would always find alternatives to resources that have been exhausted. Rice is the staple food of 4 billion people.5 billion. has cautioned: "A future of water shortages will be a future of food shortages.2 billion. is warning rice hoarders they'll be charged with economic sabotage. resulting in spiralling food prices and distribution snarls.5 billion in 1950. "A false environmental sensibility has led to a push on biofuel production and corn is the product of choice. is a "perfect storm. wheat and other basics. Critics have continually insisted that Malthus was too pessimistic. of course. The Philippines." And the environmental benefits of corn fuel. they say. “The Coming hunger. The disaster led to a World Food Summit in 1976. says Bell. And. The new face of hunger – and thirst – is overwhelmingly urban. This week. Major rice producers like China. Fish as a food source? Every fishery in the world is expected to have collapsed within 25 to 50 years. By 2030.” http://www. with angry marchers outside the president's palace shouting "We are hungry!" Five people were killed in the chaos. furiously. he says. . Major droughts have hit wheat-producing nations such as Australia and Ukraine. a staggering 9 to 12 billion. But the prices for it. The situation has deteriorated so swiftly that some experts predict the effects of a global food crisis are going to bite more quickly than climate change.000 tonnes of water to produce one tonne of food. What's building in consequence of all these factors. Malthus's thinking influenced Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory. and the feeding thereof. Analysts say the most important one – the jump in global fuel prices – has triggered a chain reaction in the entire food-production system. more mouths to feed is going to exacerbate political pressures. "There's been a significant diversion of crops away from food use. global agriculture/agribusiness will have to double its output – and use less water to do it. Why is it happening? Was Malthus right when he said the world would eventually be too populated to feed itself? The United Nations already provides food for 73 million people in 78 countries worldwide. curbing exports to ensure supplies for their own populations." Throw in the new and exploding demand for meat in economically booming China and India and even more land is being converted – for cattle. but it also led to nightmare scenarios.Current food price trends are likely to increase sharply both the incidence and depth of food insecurity. a factor unanticipated in the mid-'70s. warned that the number of global "extreme weather" disasters has doubled in the past two decades to 400 a year." The corn needed to produce ethanol fuel has to be grown somewhere and when land available for food farming is converted. food riots paralyzed Haiti.." "The security implications should not be underestimated . 4-12-08 [Lynda. food prices are pushed up: "That's what's tripped off the food riots this time. are "completely illusory. most of them living in high-density. it's expected to reach 8. Today's crisis is even worse because biofuels. It took all of human history for the world to reach a population of 2. as well. In 1973-74. It didn't happen. president of Earth Policy Institute in] The warning bells are ringing. Climate change is also making its toxic contribution. by 2030. But the planet is getting hungrier. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) quadrupled the world price of oil. Half a century later. Ultimately. It takes 1.11/19 Crunch Coming – Malthus was right about food scarcity Hurst.. American biologist Paul Ehrlich notoriously predicted that by the 1980s. "His warning of a crash as a possible outcome may not be that far wrong." he says.

Achim Steiner. And it says climate change. "without an accelerated effort to reform the way we collectively do business on planet earth. The first law of thermodynamics (conservation law) states that there can be no creation of matter/energy. Reforms are needed to promote the intensification of irrigated agriculture. the head of the UN's Environment Program.” http://siteresources. & Grey. land. This explains why history repeats itself and why humans have engaged in war after war throughout history: from time-to-time an environment emerges when “inclusive fitness”[5] is served by attacking your neighbor and stealing his resources. released in New York. Crunch coming – increasing population and water scarcity prove Sadoff. http://www. "has reached a stage where the amount of resources needed to sustain it exceeds what is available". sooner-or-later our government will collapse into another orgy of world wars. now that we are entering a decades-long period of declining global economic activity (in the physical sense – not GDP). we will shortly be in trouble. “A BASIC IDEA OF HOW OUR GOVERNMENT WORKS.75 billion world population. air.” 10-26-2007.” 6-24-2008. David. In 1824.. It’s just a matter of time. Energy “resources” must produce more energy than they consume.pdf] But today a new and conflicting set of challenges has arisen: global food security must be achieved against a backdrop of growing populations. increasing water scarcity. World Bank Staff. reveals a scale of unprecedented ecological damage. and rising environmental concerns. Karin. the French physicist Sadi Carnot formulated the second law’s concepts while working on “heat engines”. [6] Since our government was designed to require ever-growing energy resources.. all of our Founders’ core assumptions are known to be wrong … BIOPHYSICAL LAWS Thermodynamic laws. Although bankers can print money. Put bluntly. with more than 2 million people possibly dying prematurely of air pollution and close to 2 billion likely to suffer absolute water scarcity by 2025. they can not print energy! Biologists have found that our genes predispose us to act in certain ways under certain environments. through greater participation by farmers in irrigation management and in investments to modernize and rehabilitate existing infrastructure. ELECTIONS DON’T MATTER! WHAT MATTERS ARE LOBBYISTS! A “genetic” process called “reciprocal altruism” guarantees that elected officials and their cronies will nearly always come . then that barrel will never be produced – the money price of oil is irrelevant! Thus. animals and fish stocks are all in "inexorable decline" as 2007 became the first year in human history when most of the world's population lived in cities.12/19 We are exceeding our carrying capacity and resources Fairfax. 2K7 [“Population pressure takes Earth to its limits. This means that the economy is totally dependent upon natural resources for everything. Meanwhile the need for new water supply for urban and industrial uses and for environmental protection will increasingly take both water and land away from irrigated areas. The German physicist Helmholtz and the British physicist Lord Kelvin had explained the principle by the middle of the 19th In the next 25 years. http://enviro. the report warns that the 6. Obviously. the better. warned that. otherwise they are called “sinks” (this is known as the “net energy” principle). Lord Kelvin and the German physicist Clausius eventually formalized Carnot’s concepts as the second law of thermodynamics. but the thermodynamic laws described above limit the available energy.Our government was designed to require more-and-more energy (endless economic growth) to solve social problems. 90 percent of the increase in food production will have to come from land already under cultivation. All of this means that the productivity of the remaining irrigated land will have to double. “Calming Global Waters: Managing a Finite Resource in a Growing World. and modern genetic sciences were unknown by our Founders.htm] Our Founders saw the “common good” as the sum of “individual goods” which could be measured by spending [4] – the more. if it costs morethan-one-barrel-of-oil to “produce” one-barrel-of-oil. In other words.warsocialism. 7-7-06 [Claudia.asp?id=833] THE most authoritative scientific report on the planet's health has found water. evolution theory. plants. 2K8 [Jay. but energy resources are strictly limited by thermodynamic laws. The United Nations' Global Environment Outlook-4 report. Kemper. the collapse of fish stocks and the extinction of species "may threaten humanity's very survival".The second law of thermodynamics (entropy law) tells us that energy is wasted in all economic activity. Launching the report. the net energy principle places strict limits (in the physical sense) on our government’s ability to solve social problems. civil engineer from Hawaii. if indeed we are not already". a retired systems analyst.worldbank. these laws and sciences signal the end of our form of government. Resource scarcity will collapse modern government order into world wars Hanson.

but additional structural aspects of our political system guarantee that local communities are powerless to stop the rich from converting local neighborhoods into cash. Everybody is now a customer or client. Authoritarianism is inevitable – the government needs to ensure control of resources that are key to the military Klare. we are expected to evaluate the impacts of complex economic proposals. Freedom is no longer about equality. procurement. American democracy is vulnerable in the Status Quo – Authoritarianism inevitable Giroux. and every relationship is ultimately judged in bottom-line. No one would argue that the defendant could ever get a fair trial with a legal system like this! Our Founders assumed that since economic growth was always the best way to solve social problems. a “prosecutor” (the developer). American cultural critic. five college prof of peace & world security studies & director of Peace and World Security Studies. Hersh to Gore Vidal and Robert Kennedy Jr. is now in the hands of extremists who have shredded civil liberties. commissioners DO hear from a few citizens of unknown motivation and expertise who are able to take a day off work to testify. Rising Powers. automatic and subconscious process. the middle class. and a Social Darwinism in which misfortune is seen as a weakness and the Hobbesian rule of a �war of all against all� replaces any vestige of shared responsibilities or compassion for others. p 239] A new Cold War atmosphere would continue the trend toward state supervision of all fields related to energy exploration. we are supposed to be non-professionals – just plain folks. While people of color. It’s a natural. and a “judge” (elected officials or commissioners. Moreover. and distribution. an all-embracing quest for profits. commissioners are supposed to act as a watchdog on government).). Only a sociopath is immune. the elderly. Dissident Voice. tarnished the highest offices of government with unsavory corporate alliances. The result is that commissioners can’t personally evaluate the proposals in front of them. youth. 2008 [Michael. used political power to unabashedly pursue legislative polices that favor the rich and punish the poor. and disabled those public spheres not governed by the logic of the market.) The public has NO professional advocate and there is no trial by jury. or the public welfare. low intensity warfare at home chips away at democratic freedoms and high . and women are being attacked. On the one hand. homophobia has become the poster-ideology of the Republican Party. When economic growth becomes impossible – as thermodynamics tells us it must – then our present form of government becomes impossible too. commissioners are acutely aware of their impossible double role of judge AND Yes. The first is a market fundamentalism that not only trivializes democratic values and public concerns. the public didn’t need a professional advocate to ever question special interests. bend over backwards to give the appearance of objectivity. A good analogy for our present system is a trial composed of a “defendant” (the public). alienated most of the international community with a blatant exercise of arrogant power.htm] Recent revelations in the New York Times about the Bush administration�s decision to allow the National Security Agency to spy on Americans without first obtaining warrants.[7] which were formulated before the laws of thermodynamics were understood. the poor. Moreover. and the ongoing stories about widespread abuse and torture in Iraq and Afghanistan are just some of the elements in the popular press that point to a growing authoritarianism in American life. Our Founders assumed that the common interest was the sum of individual interests. The logic of capital trumps democratic sovereignty. transportation. Our Founders based our system on the ideas of the French Physiocrats. Academic freedom is increasingly under attack. is on the verge of becoming a fundamentalist theocracy. gays. I can tell you from personal experience that it’s impossible. lied to the American public to legitimate sending young American troops to Iraq. the market becomes the template for organizing the rest of society. as many notable and courageous critics ranging from Seymour M. have pointed out. financial capital. Our present system of government is designed so elected and appointed officials serve as BOTH public advocate and judge.13/19 around to agree with the suggestions of lobbyists. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: No public advocate! Local government policy begins in corporate boardrooms too. The fact that oil is regarded as “strategic commodity. but about the trade in goods. The point here is that our government was specifically designed to rely on perpetual economic growth to solve social problems and maintain public order. Unfortunately. But since these individuals do not bring “studies” (with explicitly-stated assumptions.. social justice. The government. etc. “The New Authoritarianism in the United States. and a full-fledged assault on women�s reproductive rights is being championed by Bush�s evangelical supporters -. will justify government rationing and the diversion of available supplies from civilian to military use. [1] A number of powerful anti-democratic tendencies now threaten American democracy. the current administration is supporting a campaign to collapse the boundaries between the church and state and even liberal critics such as Frank Rich believe that the U. war and warriors have become the most endearing models of national greatness.” essential for the operation of military forces. but also enshrines a rabid individualism. it’s always unclear how much weight to give to their testimony. nor do they get objective opinions or studies from a public advocate (the government’s professional planners are known to NOT represent the public interest – in fact. Within neoliberal ideology. the judge frequently accepts gifts from – and takes the advice of – the prosecutor (the developer’s lobbyists). the Washington Post disclosure of the chain of secret CIA torture prisons around the world. scarcity might well legitimize greater state intervention in the name of national security or even national surivival. Shrinking Planet. cost-effective terms. no lobbyists represent the common interest. The political system is self-reinforcing and literally out of human control.S. Closer to home. Because energy and other raw materials are needed to sustain critical industries and the military establishment. and commodities. http://dissidentvoice.” 1-32006. 2K6 [Henry A. on the other hand.most evident in Bush�s recent Supreme Court appointment and nominee. and thereby nearly-always give the benefit of the doubt to the developer. a silent war is being waged against poor young people and people of color who are either being warehoused in substandard schools or incarcerated at alarming rates.

� [2] With the rise of market fundamentalism. media." As Thomas Hobbes explained in his mid-seventeenth-century treatise Leviathan (a work that can be read as a primer on homeland security).) needed to make it a vigorous and engaged force for a substantive democracy. in fact. but women—who worry more than men do that they or someone close to them will fall victim to terrorism—tend to view the measure as not tough enough. where suspicion where suspicion of and hostility toward federal authority remains strong. which are now mostly independent actors). p 241-242] Here. To “ensure a steady supply of affordable energy for America’s homes and businesses and industries”. the state often played a key role in creating or nurturing giant firms such as BP. Authoritarianism is inevitable. and municipal authorities. even in the US Klare. once control shifts to central state authorities. control over the placement of such facilities was largely exercised by state. Under such circumstances. Even children are now targeted as a constituency from which to make money. undermining not only the idea of citizenship but also those very spaces (schools. Previously. Russia. Even in the United States.theatlantic. 2K4 [Paul. But today's global trend toward what might be called the Daddy State is propelled by the anxious demands of majority blocs of citizens. The cost abroad is massive human suffering and death. the stated objective of the National Energy Policy adopted by the Bush administration in May 2001 – a time when the nation was already suffering from an “energy crisis” brought about by shortages of oil. and it becomes difficult either to imagine a life beyond capitalism or to believe in a politics that takes democracy seriously. The Russians recently re-elected Vladimir Putin. it also commercializes and privatizes public spaces.14/19 intensity warfare abroad delivers democracy with bombs. Europeans are demanding closer policing of their rapidly growing Muslim minority. Isreal. and electricity.” The Agenda. In a proverbial state of nature. “Dawn of the Daddy State. economics is accorded more respect than politics. intensified efforts to gain access to overseas oil and gas deposits. these powers will be wielded by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Total. and chemical warfare. one can see a trend toward reduced local control over energy-related matters. as Paul Krugman points out. In short. http://www. the citizen has been reduced to a consumer -. and greater reliance on arms transfers and military aid to cement U. according to a recent Gallup poll. under the new law. Shrinking Planet. which gave the Department of Energy increased authority over the siting of regasification facilities and interstate electric transmission lines – major installations whose construction can alter the character of a community and expose it to new hazards. At the very least. governments will come under immense pressure from domestic constituencies to satisfy energy demands by any means necessary.S. in many parts of the world. hope is foreclosed. ties with key suppliers abroad. Greater governmental intervention in the procurement and distribution of oil and natural gas will usurp powers long enjoyed by the major energy firms (though it is worth recalling that. a likely result will be an increase in state oversight.the buying and selling of goods is all that seems to matter. which now stands at 15 million in the EU. Market fundamentalism not only makes time a burden for those without health insurance. too. A key turning point may have been the Energy Policy Act of 2005. child care. such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. sexualized in endless advertisements. a former KGB colonel.3 The adoption of statist measures of this sort will occur at the expense of both corporate and societal autonomy. etc. Meeting demand was. Atlantic. King Coal. these opportunities largely disappear. and at home. contributing editor of The Atlantic and a staff correspondent for National Journal. Rising Powers. a decent job. reduced to commodities. During times of relative quiet and . five college prof of peace & world security studies & director of Peace and World Security Studies. there is no real contradiction in the idea of authoritarianism as a choice. with 71 percent of the vote. and the US are just few examples of the Authoritarian push now Starobin. and shamelessly treated as a market for huge] An authoritarian push is often seen as coming from above.the policy’s ultimate goal – the president advocated the removal of existing restrictions on oil and gas drilling in environmentally sensitive areas. Not only do Americans broadly support Bush's Patriot Act. along with increased government subsidies for Big Oil. the greater the opportunity for public scrutiny of. county. man willingly gives up some portion of his liberty to a sovereign as the only conceivable protector of his life and property. dam or power plant. and adequate social services. In general. �The hijacking of public policy by private interests� parallels �the downward spiral in governance. refinery. and the nuclear power industry. The Israelis are demanding the Fence—envisioned as a sniper-patrolled. forced on an unsuspecting public by would-be autocrats. 2008 [Michael. tanks. June 2004. natural gas. the lower the level at which a decision is made about the design or location of a drilling rig. we are at the dawn of a popularly sanctioned movement toward greater authoritarianism in the domain of what is now fashionably called "homeland security. and participation in. handing him a mandate to continue his crackdown on Chechen terrorists. and Eni. electrified national barrier aimed at keeping out Palestinian suicide bombers. Any increase in state oversight of energy affairs will undermine basic democratic rights and the prerogatives of local authorities. reactor. plans for such facilities.

15/19 prosperity it is easy to forget that this sort of bargain exists—but in times of danger. . woe to the sovereign that neglects its duty to protect.

” http://www. Every right must be evaluated in the network of all rights claimed and the environment in which these rights are exercised. Biological Sciences. Limited Rights. “natural" or not. But the new limit to growth-sheer wantcreated by substantially eliminating the old limits ( in the demands it makes on those who must pay the cost of the right. Limited Rights. hence the greater must be the limitation on individual rights. typhoid. This right is not ours to give or take away. we need to examine its drive in the other direction. Society. that right is meaningless. “Limited World. When the human population was periodically decimated by such crowd diseases as cholera. literally "words that drive both ways. Originally written 1980. Every year another 90 million mouths clamor for food-another Egypt and Vietnam. Saying that both such translegal rights exist in unqualified. most conspicuous in the already advanced countries. Rights are ambiguous words. Biological Sciences @ UC Santa Barbara. a demand upon others. On 23 March 1976 an organization called Bread for the World presented the following statement to the American Congress: "We believe that every man. 2006 [Garrett.” http://www. 1980 [Garret. indefinitely continued exponential growth.garretthardinsociety. in either absolute numbers or relative to the total global population. Rights must also be limited. they are God-given rights – then we must bitterly conclude that God is bent on the utter destruction of civilization. so movingly described by Colin Turnbull. then. It is preeminently a social world. if we hold that every right.garretthardinsociety. but before acquiescing in the establishment of a new legal right. plague and smallpox. that He must intend to reduce human existence to the level of the Iks. Without the food to sustain life.” Commentaries: Rights and Liberties. “Limited World.html] Probably no right now claimed is so revolutionary in its consequences-and. so indefensible-as the right to food. From here on out. and social relationships are fantastically complicated and subtle. Rights cut both ways and don’t assume the ecological crisis – it’s not a valuable framework given the world’s state Hardin. Our world is not the world of Robinson Crusoe or even of Daniel Boone. The Declaration of Independence identifies the right to life as an unalienable human right coming from God who has created all persons equal. that the effect of each right on the suppliers as well as on the demanders must be determined before we can ascertain the quantity of right that is admissible. ours is a limited world. Unrestricted Rights would destroy life – they must be limited Hardin. Biological Sciences @ UC Santa Barbara. The highly individualistic view implicit in rights as currently conceived is not adequate for a world of more than four billion human beings. give little promise of decreasing the number of malnourished. “Limited World. Limited Rights. must be evaluated in the total system of rights operating in a world that is limited. The World Health Organization says that 800 million persons are now malnourished. principally) turns the right to food and the right to breed into a suicidal combination. The desirability of the right to the person benefited may be admitted by all. will lead ultimately to starvation and misery for all – and "ultimately" is not far off. unquantified form is fatalism of the most extreme" This fact is conveniently neglected by those who fight most vigorously to establish new legal rights on the basis of supposed translegal rights. if food is equally shared. woman and child on earth has the right to a nutritionally adequate diet. 2006 [Garrett. Originally written 1980. but it is ecological nonsense. we must inevitably conclude that no right can be presumed to be absolute. the more limited the per capita supply of all goods. The advances in agricultural productivity. Biological Sciences @ UC Santa Barbara. Whenever we contemplate intervening in an existing social system. If these two rights have a translegal existence – if to use the language of earlier days. Pufendorf follows his definition with a two-word précis: Vocabuli ambiguitas. this is the political meaning of the population problem. The greater the population.html] We do not keep our attention focused long enough on the problem of chronic misery to see that simultaneously asserting the right to food and the right to breed insures the perpetuation and increase of need. In a limited world. On the other hand. Biological Sciences. At its heart. I shall argue. It is fundamental and derives from the right to life itself." This is lovely rhetoric.html] One person's right is. claiming both the right to breed and to be fed may have done no long-term harm (though such double claims were seldom made in those days).16/19 Even the right to food is nonsense in the real world – maintaining rights would justify starvation Hardin. http://www. we must be acutely aware that we can . as it therefore. which won the International Studies Association’s Sprout Prize and the American Political Science Association’s Kammerer Award. Slum clearance.S. did not subject their plans to the acid test of "And then what?" This selfishness makes all impacts inevitable – weigh every right of the affirmative against extinction Ophuls. The Aff’s Short term goals of social reform will inevitably be counterproductive and alter the world for the worse Hardin. whose basic principles set up a vicious circle of power seeking and self-destruction. equality (at least to the extent hoped)--but it also inflicted a wanton destruction on the world. . Quantities matter.html) The possibility of causing more harm than good seldom enters the mind of an international intervener. and every other aspect of ecological devastation. urban redevelopment. This is the reason why proponents of intervention find it so easy to dose their eyes to the consequences of their meddling. or irrigation water (or both). antinomianism. runaway addictions of every kind. factionalism. increasing crime and violence. The goal of maximizing a single variable is woven into the fabric of engineering. Biological Sciences @ UC Santa Barbara. terrorism. not only did the Enlightenment paradigm of politics fail to achieve many of its avowed goals-for example. Maximizing one is almost sure to alter the balance in an unfavorable way. to work itself out. largely literate and not ecolate in their thinking. to the way in which the Enlightenment in general and Hobbesian politics in particular have encouraged the worst tendencies of human nature to flourish in the modern era. “An Ecolate View of the Human Predicament. Requiem for Modern Politics] In the end. In other words. So complex is every natural system that the cascade of consequences started by an ill-advised maximization of a single variable may take years. all that we hate and fear about the modern way of life. Situation ethics is the only ethics that works.. 1980 (Garret.S. weapons of mass destruction. may be unbearable or disastrous at another.17/19 never do merely one thing. instead. Everything that does not work. He is the author of Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity. personal utility maximalization. The intervener in Egypt-the U. and every other variety of ideological madness. and most welfare programs have been generally counterproductive of their goals because their proponents. member of the U. hyperpluralism. widespread habitat destruction.” http://www. millenarianism.22 Survival of any system depends on a subtle and incompletely understood balance of many variables. the neglect or abuse of children.R. is the logical or even foreordained consequence of the basic principles we have chosen to embrace. In the ecolate view of the world. calls on us to reexamine this assumption in terms of a bit of modern folk wisdom that has been called Ophuls' Axiom: Nature abhors a maximum. The political scientist William Ophuls. Explosive population growth. and every other form of social breakdown. nihilism. but it would have been the U. and many other global pathologies--all are deeply rooted in Hobbesian politics. as it happened. Foreign Service and has taught political science at Northwestern University. A right that may be bearable and even beneficial at one level of population. and optimal resource depletion all become suspect under Ophuls' Axiom. administrative despotism. the most intractable problems of our age are due not to human nature itself but. the structural poverty of underdevelopment. and every other manifestation of democratic decay. however. time has no stop: every well meant proposal must be challenged by the question. The goals of energy maximization. 1997 [William. becoming thereby both its own worst enemy and the author of new forms and possibilities of tyranny undreamt of by ancient despots. or even generations. "And then what?" Refusal to meet this challenge is the commonest cause of the failure of social reforms.S. and it has long seemed an innocent tool. optimum capital utilization. disastrous pollution. had we not earlier had a falling out with Nasser-no doubt viewed the goal as one of working toward a maximum of electricity production..

a rise that will ominously coincide with precipitous peak oil declines. along with the Israelioccupied territories.760 species die off per year -. there are too many people. food and other resources. whose one-child policy has prevented the addition of 400 million people. California grizzly bear. “We Are Breeding Ourselves to Extinction. food. As long as the Earth is viewed as the personal property of the human race. a belief embraced by everyone from born-again Christians to Marxists to free-market economists. Merriam's elk. This is a 50 percent increase. Overpopulation will become a serious threat to the viability of many industrialized states the instant the cheap consumption of the world's resources can no longer be maintained. cutting down rainforests and the few remaining wilderness areas. including Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth. destroying biodiversity." fail to discuss the danger of population growth. The collapse of industrial farming. in a desperate bid to grow food. This means that in an age of extreme scarcity. And the depletion and destruction of resources will eventually create an overpopulation problem in industrialized nations as well. And yet government-commissioned reviews. but this is hardly a comfort. The resources that industrialized nations consider their birthright will become harder and more expensive to obtain. but will soon spread within our borders. But on most of the estimated 8. in the end. These nations view their stable or even zero growth birthrates as sufficient. The overpopulated regions of the globe will ravage their local environments. the planet will have between 8 billion and 10 billion people. and ensuring extinction – authoritarian child policies would be a necessary check Hedges. shut down all our coal-burning power plants and build seas of wind turbines. the sustainable population of the United Kingdom-the number of people the country could feed. even if we cut back on the use of fossil fuels. The United States alone gobbles up about 25 percent of the oil produced in the world each year." Species are vanishing at a rate of a hundred to a thousand times faster than they did before the arrival of humans. The rising temperatures and droughts have already begun to destroy crop lands in Africa. Books and documentaries that deal with the climate crisis. is "the monster on the land. Australia. fuel and support from its own biological capacity-is about 18 million. A world where 8 billion to 10 billion people are competing for diminishing resources will not be peaceful. 65 million years ago. will disrupt agriculture and displace millions. And the reaction of those on the bottom will be the low-tech tactic of terrorism and war. who will attempt to flee to areas on the planet where life is still possible. population growth is exploding. will double in two decades. Humanity. which may submerge coastal nations such as Bangladesh. silver trout. minerals and other nonrenewable resources in the vain effort to sustain a lifestyle that will.because. as we have done in Iraq. 2/9/09 (Chris. Atlantic gray whale. which is made possible only with cheap oil.” http://peaceandjustice. estimates that 200 million women worldwide do not have access to contraception. fossil fuels and perhaps air until they too disappear. simply put. We are experiencing an accelerated obliteration of the planet's life-forms -. If the current rate of extinction continues. India. Rising water levels on coastlines. The effects of this devastation will first be felt in places like Bangladesh. some 43 million people in Great Britain would not be able to survive. have all tried to institute population control measures. according to a recent U. such as the Stern report in Britain. South The industrialized nations will. housing. Wilson says. Population growth. its members scrambling violently among themselves for water. West African black rhino.N. is leaving the Cenozoic. Indonesia. blue pike and dusky seaside sparrow are all victims of human overpopulation. This omission is odd. will plunge us into an age of extinction and desolation unseen since the end of the Mesozoic era. Senior fellow at The Nation Institute and a Lecturer in the Council of the Humanities and the Anschutz Distinguished Fellow at Princeton University. as E. if we continue to reproduce at the current rate. we are destined to soon inhabit a biological wasteland. Cuba and China.php/20090309091429962) All measures to thwart the degradation and destruction of our ecosystem will be useless if we do not cut population growth. when the dinosaurs disappeared. disease and starvation. will lead to an increase in famine. Most of these extinctions are the direct result of the expanding need for energy.the era of solitude. The Yangtze River dolphin. The populations in industrialized nations maintain their lifestyles because they have the military and economic power to consume a disproportionate share of the world's resources. do not mention the word population. Egypt. The population of the Persian Gulf states. This moment may be closer than we think. Homo sapiens will be one of the few life-forms left on the planet. forecast.18/19 Overpopulation kills any effort to sustain the world. By 2050. . Footprint data suggests that. the age of mammals. based on current lifestyles.O. Iran. and entering the Eremozoic -. turn to their militaries to ensure a steady supply of fossil fuels. Texas and California. It has been left to developing countries to cope with the emergent population crisis. causing war. Wilson says. The U. Perhaps the chaos and bloodshed will be so massive that overpopulation will be solved through violence. given that a doubling in population. be unsustainable.

specie extinction. The rate of growth is staggering. like the American water shortages. poverty. “Overpopulation: Should Having a Child Require a Permit?” http://www. and with these two roots of population growth compounded together. From these consequences more problems arise: crime from frustration of traffic and famine. the human race is surely on a track of self-destruction. The roots of the problem lie mainly with two phenomenons: lowering mortality rates. and rising and even stable birth rates. are only a few of the consequences of overpopulation. to hunt game. more traffic. and to fish. poverty. the problem becomes even more immense. sometimes succeeding) for large and complex problems. more famine from specie extinction. It is safe to say that overpopulation is a gigantic danger to all the nation-states in the world. and famine – only authoritarian control can stop it Associated Content. war.html? cat=37) In America a permit is required to own a gun. 9-21-06(Steven Halverson. uncontrollable global warming. The world faces one of its most potentially disastrous crises ever: overpopulation. Population grows at an exponential rate. energy crises. to drive an automobile.19/19 Overpopulation outweighs and turns case – it results in warming. the severe consequences of this growth at times unimaginable. AC. Famine. a business. . the list of possibilities go on forever as well as the constant lingering of devastating worldwide surprise. on a national and more importantly global level. If the current trend isn’t altered.associatedcontent. war from water shortages. Americans live with almost no hostility to these limitations because these permits are used to protect the population from severe harm. which are in danger of total extinction. drivers licenses protect the roads from a state of metal anarchy. Permits can and have been used as a solution (sometimes failing. fishing and hunting permits protect other species. Gun permits are intact to reduce crime.