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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

USA

Vol. 74, No. 5, pp. 1800-1801, May 1977 Mathematics

Extended Watson integrals for the cubic lattices
(elliptic integral/trigonometric polynomial)

M. L. GLASSER* AND I. J. ZUCKERt
* Quantum Theory Group, Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; and t Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

Communicated by Mark Kac, February 7, 1977

ABSTRACT The known exact expressions for extended Watson integrals relating to various cubic and modified cubic lattices are summarized. A new closed form expression for Watson's result on the simple cubic lattice is given in terms of gamma functions.

in which
2

and

a[n + 4)1/2]d+ 2[1+ 1)d/2 ±(h +
=

=[(4 + 1)1/2 ± (Q + 4)1/2]
Z2 + 3+ [(Z2 - 9)(Z2
-

-

2[1 - (t + 1)1/2] [4a] ( + 1)1/2]
z>3

Nearly 40 years ago, G. N. Watson (1) evaluated the three triple integrals (Ty dudvdw
73
z - cos u cos v cos w

1)]1/2

z2

3 + [(Z2

-

9)(Z2

1)]1/2

[4b]

I(Z)= 1
X
z - cos

7f

first derived by Joyce (4)t. The indicated ranges for z are easily extended by analytic continuation. From Eq. 2-Eq. 4b we easily obtain Watson's results II(1) = ± K2(2-1/2)

dudvdw
u cos v -cos v cos w - cos w cos u
,

z =3

[1]

I3(Z)

= 3
7r

fff
Jo.
z

dudvdw
-cos u - cos V
- cos

w

z3

which had been passed on to him via Kramers, Fowler, and Hardy. These integrals arise in the study of various physical phenomena relating to transport on body centered, face centered, and simple cubic lattices, respectively. Since that time, these integrals have been studied extensively for arbitrary values of z. The first purpose of this note is to present, in one place, analytic expressions for these integrals and related ones, in terms of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Watson was able to express II (1) and I2(3) in terms of the gamma function of simple rational arguments, but such an expression has been missing for I3(3); the second purpose of this note is to supply one. This work grew out of the authors' independent investigations of when the complete elliptic integral of the first kind is reducible to the gamma function, which will be presented elsewhere. The basic results are:
II(z) = (4/z7r2)K2(k)

I2(3) = 2K ( [5] i ) I3(3) = (8/3ir2) [10(17 - 12V2)]1/2K[(2 - -v) X (N/3 + -%-)]K[(2 -<)<< For completeness we list three related formulas pertaining to modified cubic lattices:
(2+2 I dudvdw 7r3 J Jo J (2 + 2) -cOs u -cOs V-a2 cOs w = (4/ar2)[('y + 1)1/2 - (ay - 1)1/2] X K(k+ )K(k-) [6] in which
k= [(e 2
I

rJ

-

1)1/2

(y

-

3)1/2]
X

[(Qy + 1)1/2- (.y - 1)1/2] [6a]
[6b]

and
y =

(4a-2 + 3)

given by Montroll (cf. ref. 2);
1

[2]
[2a]

j

in which

k = 2-1/2[1 - (1 - z2)1/2]1/2, z > 1 which is due to Maradudin et al. (2);

x

(2 + a2) -Z(cos U
=

COS V + COS V COS W + a2 COS W COS

dudvdw

U)

I2(z) = (4/r2)(z + 1)-'K(k+ )K(k-)
in which
k_2
=

[3] in which

(2 + (4/7r2) + a2 a)2)K(k+)K(k-) [7] + a2Z)Kk)Kk)[7 (2

(z + 1)-2 [I(z + 1)1/2 - (z
+

-

3)1/214
z >3

1(Z + 1)1/2 + z1/21],

[3a]

=1 ±2za(2 + a2)1/2(a4 + 2a2 + z)'/2 2 (2 + a2 +a2z)2 1 (2 + a2)1/2(2 + a2 - a2z)[(2 + a2) + (2 -a2)ZI/2 2 (2 + a2 + a2z)2

k.2

[7a]

derived by Iwata (3); and

X (1 - z)1/2 [7b]
t This derivation, which led to an expression equivalent to Eq. 4, used

3(Z) = (8/1r2z) {2 + 8g + + 4(2 + ()( + 1)1/21
X K(k+)K(k-) [4]

Heun functions. The result given in Eq. 4 was subsequently obtained by Glasser using Lauricella functions (see ref. 11).

1800

and Proc.k2)'/2].G. 13-18. Herman. G. M. K(k)= dt which extend results of Selberg and Chowla (8). C. Our investigations. & Miles. respectively. The problem of when (Z . 7 et dernier. Sect. 127-172. 5. M. Abel. (1949) Proc. 7. 5 correspond to r = 1. Kummer. (1976) J. Glasser. Stand. thanks the National Research Council of Canada for financial support. The three cases in Eq. N. 10. A. Math. Phys. The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges from funds made available to support the research which is the subject of the article. 20. Then. E. Selberg. pp. 1145-1146. Sci. B 80. 2. A: Gen. 184-198. H. 1. H.)K(k2) .C. Natl. M. 9. Phys. Res.. A. Glasser. Joyce. 5-15. (1939) Q. (1972) J. 313323. L. and Kummer (10). (1972) J. Acad. Iwata. S. 5. Nat. 1 I2 due to Glasser (6). (1976) Elliptic Functions according to Eisenstein and Kronecker (Springer. w. (1969) Natural Science Report (Ochanomizu Univ. pp. indicate this should be possible when r = (K'! K)2.1 1/2] [8b] k2 are algebraic functions of z. Weiss. k1.Mathematics: Glasser and Zucker due to Joyce (5). (1836) Crelle's Journal 15. Math. 3. Sci. in which K' = K[(1 . Joyce. 371-374. (1971) J. S. W. Montroll. Acad. S. chap. G. (1960) Academie Royale de Belgique. §1734 solely to indicate this fact.S. A. W. USA 74 (1977) 1801 1 r r3 JJoJ z-[cos u cos v cos w + (cos u cos v + cos v cos w + cos w cos u) + (cos u + cos v + cos s)] 7r2(Z dudvdw - 32 + 1) ~~K2(k) [Sal in which in which A. for which values we obtain I(l) = r4(1/4)/4ir3 12(3) = 2-14/3 (3/iX4)r6(1/3) I3(3) = (4-/7r2)r(1/24)r(5/24)r(7/24)r(11/24) We wish to conclude with the following conjecture: let k denote any ternary trigonometric polynomial in u. IX. (Oxford) 10.). H. (1836) Journal fur Math. no. Tom XIV-Fas.. Maradudin. Weil (9). Classe des Sciences. L53-L56. 8. v. Bur. L. J. Memoires in 40 . 6. 13. G. & Chowla. Natl. Watson. USA 35. 266-276. R.. 11. E. Phys. Phys. This has been verified explicitly (11) in more than 20 cases besides those summarized here. C 4. Berlin). 2. 3. is rational. Weil. and 6. Jo -1 k2sin2 can be expressed in terms of gamma functions of rational arguments apparently goes back to Abel (7). III. Vol. E. 1 J f J dudvdw = AK(k.2e Serie. A.L. This article must therefore be hereby marked "advertisement" in accordance with 18 U. 4. L65-L68. G.