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Chapter

2

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

-1

Foreword

. u cannot safely coordinate tripping characteristics of overcurrent ::ev:iceswithout the assurance that the devices have sufficient inter_ pting capacity. You cannot have this assurance without calculating " ort-circuit current. The first order of business in any overcurrent zoordination study takes place off the log-log paper doing the kind of culations that are the subject of this chapter. We will provide exam_ es of the most practical calculation methods for coming up with numTS to assist us in the selection of devices strong and fast enough to ithstand and interrupt the largest fault currents we can expect. We will discuss fault currents so low that they either completely elude the sensing methods available to us or cannot be distinguished from nor:nalload currents.
2..2 Basic Longhand Calculations

For protection design, we will need values for short-circuit current in ee-phase, single-line-to-ground, and line-to-line faults. In this chapter, e will focus on the basic longhand calculations for each of the foregoing. Electrical people who have access to power system analysis software need to learn these basic maneuvers not only to verify by longhand their computer-generated results for small subsystem analysis but also to know how to set up the subsystem boundaries so that time is not wasted building a model that is too large for the purpose. Unless you are proficient in the basic longhand maneuvers, you will be wasting your time trying to enter all the data that power systems analysis software requires. For example, if you simply need to specify the short-circuit withstand rating of a 200-A 208-V lighting panel fed from a power panel
39

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

43

maximum asymour protective _-,_uh-., is obtained + 9 (measured ave) where the metry (or symthat point on R ratio is 1.0. ffset occurs at . The applica- . e bus short-

~ the quantities in Ohm's law: voltage, current, and impedance in " of only one reference phase, for instance, phase A. reason Example 2.1 works is that for three-phase bolted faults only :6le-sequence impedances can be expressed in terms of the phase A- e sequence impedance. We have also ignored fault impedance. In --5 of sequence components the solution equation reduces to IA = E/(Zl + Z2 + Zo + Zr) IB= a21A Io = al; other words, the fault in IBand Ie is the same as IAmultiplied by e factor of the operator a that rotates the vector operand 120°. . e need sequence components to analyze any kind of unbalanced t of which the single-line-to-ground fault is the most common. The st general expression of a single-line-to-ground fault is.

ere Eln= line to neutral voltage Zl = positive sequence impedance Z2 = negative sequence impedance Zo = zero sequence impedance Zg = ground return impedance
Example2.2 Simple Line-to-Ground Fault Calculation

Situation.

A single-line-to-ground witchgear of Fig. 2.l.

fault occurs at the same location in the See

Requirements.

Calculate fault currents with and without fault resistance. Fig. 2.2. Develop a general solution for fault voltages and currents.

solution Most of the information we will need to solve this problem will not appear on the transformer nameplate, in particular, the sequence impedances of the transformer. We can either consult with the manufacturer or we can use information provided in NEMA or IEEE publications.

From Wagner and Evans (1932) and Blackburn (1987), we know that the positive, negative, and zero sequence network must be connected in series as shown in Fig. 2.4. It is common practice to assume that for passive circuit elements such as buses, cables, and transformers that Zl = Z2. Let us assume that the zero sequence impedance is three times the positive and negative sequence impedance. The significance of the assumption that Zo ~ 3Z1•2 will be discussed in detail in Chap. 4. In sequence component solutions, it is customary to assume that the fault occurs from phase A to ground. Assume a prefault voltage of V = l.OL90° or jl.O per unit.

IL

SS·O

ro] [~U I]
u
u ~u I

sJ>nro
+ror -

III

'£'Z ·fj~.!lJo a{qBl alll Ol .rajaH 'eouBpadUl~ aouanbas aA~l~sod alll JO aIdmnUl IB.zflalu~ (HBUlS AUBnsn) B S~ aouapedun souanbas o.raz lBlll pUB IBnba are ssouapadun acrranbas aA~Bfjau pUB aA~l~sod lBlll aUlnSSB Ulal{l JO lSOW 'aIqB -UBABun S~ UO~lBUl.r0JU~aouapedun souanbas o.raz pa.rnSBaUl uaqM oouapadun aouonbas o.raz moqa sUOHdUlnSSB JO zoqumu B aas n~ nOA suoHBInoiBo puno.zfl-ol-auH-alfju~s IBO~PB.rd UO a.znlB.ram lBO~l{oal fju~ls~xa ul ·ll.roMlau sousnbas luaIBA~b:3: (:J) -puno.ni -Ol-auH-alfju~s JO UlB.zflBlp aUH-aa.rq.r, (q) TZ aldUlBx:3: SB .rBafjqol~s alll uo UO~lB:lOiaUlBS aqllB lInB] ptmorfi-oq-auq aIfj~s (D) :uOHBlnolBO lInB] punoas-oq-euq aIdUl~S in; am61:1 (0)

vZ880'0 = °If- = GA n880'0 = °If= fA 'of - Lv9Z'0 = °mf- = °A

orr

~JOMlaU aouanbss OJaZ

Of zaqumtr Srq'l asn p n~TTTT._"T~'TTTn aI{+ uaI{+ 'V TO

{
{f
o = J IJI:
or!

of + 811»'0

=

n
oouanbes ~JOMlaU aA!leBaN

aouenbes

~JoMjau aA!I!sod

{
(q)

o=
J/\

j

IJ

o=
J 1 <::>

u

Z

8/\

8

1

'-..../

'1/\ VI

<::>

I
~

7

(B)

Basic Short·Circuit Calculations

45

;;
g
~

Without Fault Resistance
With X, = X2 = 1.0 and I 0= I 1 + I 2 = If =.

Xo = 3.0

per unit.

T
(a)

j1.0 . = 0.2 + JO.O J(I.0 + 1.0+ 3.0)

Ii = 310 = 0.6 + jO.O '" , if our base current is 1201 A, then the single-line-to-ground fault current o~d be 1.201 x 0.6 = 720.6 A. We would use this number to program the substation main breaker ground-fault pickup.

~

IA
18

VA VB

Inth 10 = 0.2 and noting the direction impedances in Fig. 2.2, we have Vo = -(0.2)(j3.0)

of current

flow through

the sequence

= -jO.6

VI = j1.0 - (0.2)(j1-0) = j1.0 - jO.2 = jO.8

'c
Z

Vc
-;e

V2 = -(0.2)(j1.0)

= -jO.2

that Vo + Vl + V2 = O. Since [V.be] = [A][V012]

n

=

tJ

R( = 0

=

Ib)

(

1 1 1] (o.6L -90°1
1 a2 a 0.8L90° 1 a a2 0.2L -90° phases

OLOO [
1.25L-46.12° 1.25LI33.9°

1
value.

} I}
~3.0

Positivesequence network

Thus, voltages in the remaining

are 125 percent

of their prefault

With Fault Resistance
3Rf=3 j1.0 . I 0= I I = I 2 = I = 3.0 + j5.0 = 0.14706 + JO.08824

Negativesequence network

n = 0.44118
Again,

+ jO.2641

= 0.5145L30.96° = 310

}

With I,= 1201 A, then the single-line-to-ground fault would be 1201 x 0.5154 = 617.9 A. We would use this number to program the main breaker ground fault pickup. Zero sequence network

I, = I, = 0 and 10 = 0.1715L30.96°
VO= -j3Io = 0.2647 - j0.44118 = 0.5145L-59.0362° VI = j1.0 - jIo = 0.08824 + jO.8529 = 0.8575L84.0938° V2 = -jIo = 0.08824 - jO.14706 = 0.1715L-59.0362°

I

(c)

calculation: (a) Single line-to-ground fault at the [llJIlple 2. L (b) Three-line diagram of single-line: tok, In existing technical literature on practical will see a number of assumptions about zero zero equence impedance information is unavailrive and negative sequence impedances are equal a usually small) integral multiple of the positive e of Fig. 2.3.

v.

[

1 1 1]
1a a 1a a
2 2

[0.5145L-59.0362

0 ]

0.5i45L30.96280
=

]

0.8575L84.0938° 0.1715L -59.0362°

1.3105L -37.2982° [ 1.0517 L -130.968° = VaL310°

(310) x

Rr = (3

x 0.1715) x 1 = 0.5145L310°

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

45

Wz"thout ault Resistance F
With X, = X2 = 1.0 and X, = 3.0 per unit. 10 = II + 12 = I f = j1.0 - 0 .2 + J'00 . j(1.0 + 1.0 + 3.0)

I! = 310 = 0.6 + jO.O - . if our base current is 1201 A, then the single-line-to-ground fault current d be 1201 x 0.6 = 720.6 A. We would use this number to program the subsration main breaker ground-fault pickup . . ith 10 = 0.2 and noting the direction of current pedances in Fig. 2.2, we have Va = -(0.2)(j3.0) = -j0.6 flow through the sequence

VI = j1.0 - (0.2)(j1.0) = j1.0 - jO.2 = jO.8 V2 = -(0.2)(j1.0) = -jO.2

- 'ote that Va + VI + V2 = O. Since [Vahc] = [A][VOI2]

v,

[
} Positive sequence network

1 1 IJ [0.6L -900]
1 a2 a 0.8L90° 1 a a2 0.2L-90°

O

1.25L-46.12° [ 1.25LI33.9°

OLO

]

Thus, voltages in the remaining phases are 125 percent of their prefault value.

With Fault Resistance
314=3
.=gative sequence rk

j1.0 10 = I 1 = I 2 = I = 3.0 + j5.0

= 0.14706 + jO.08824

I! = 0.44118 + jO.2641 = 0.5145L30.96°

= 310

With h = 1201 A, then the single-line-to-ground fault would be 1201 x 0.5154 = 617.9 A We would use this number to program the main breaker ground fault pickup. Again, Ib = Ie = 0 and 10 = 0.1715L30.96°

VA= -j3Io = 0.2647 - j0.44118 = 0.5145L-59.03620 V = j1.0 - jIo = 0.08824 + jO.8529 = 0.8575L84.09380 V2 = -jIo = 0.08824 - jO.14706 = 0.1715L-59.03620
j

V.

= =

II

1
2

Ijfo.5145L_59.0362j
0.8575L84.0938° 0.1715L-59.0362°
=
2

1aa 1aa

10.5145L30.9628 1.3105L-37.2982
0

j
0

1.0517L-130.968 = VaL3100

0

(310) x 14 = (3 x 0.1715) xl = 0.5145L310°

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

49

-3) it is usually the case that SLG is most d LL following in that order. In general, always somewhere in between the maxiy neglected in the distribution system died in industrial and commercial proas hunt faults. These networks report ;;:that correspond to the boundary condiault. It is very important that the fault d that ground or fault impedances be er fault configurations (involving open Ildfaults that are commonly investigated circuit studies. adapted from Wagner and Evans, Symo t recent, comprehensive treatment of urn (1993).

----6---POS. SEQ.

----0---POS. SEQ.

I

----0---NEG. SEQ.

I

~
- - -)- - - NEG. SEQ.

?

l
Line-lo-Line

J
V3
X1 X EL-N + X2

?

Fault

-

Eq. (b) I, =

Boundary Conditions:

VA = Va

- - --

- - --

ZERO SEQ.

?
Single-Line-Ground Faull

----6---POS. SEQ.

I

?

ar more complex than the simplified rep~. 1.4. The waveform in that diagram of everal different sources, all of which local or remote. There are two other ermines the RMS value of current and and beyond. There are also asymmetries composed of symmetrical (steady state) symmetrical component may be deterient component can only be deterthe Thevenin impedance at the point of "-~ the Thevenin impedance in terms of a or XIRratio (from Zth = Rth + jXth). When W and transient components of all the t to a short circuit, the picture of a faultthe waveforms shown in Fig. 2.4. Once ase is shown. . cussions of this subject, with oscillo5 in Anderson (1973) and Beeman (1953). deals with fault analysis contains a diaent waveforms in a variety of detail so

=a_ cq. () I1-

3

X

EL-N Eq.(c ) 1,=EL-N

I

X1+X2+X3

Three Phose Faull VA = 0
X1

30undary Conditions:

Boundary Conditions:

VA = Va

=

Vc = 0

POS.

SEQ.

NEG. SEQ.

ZERO

SEQ.

Double-Line-Ground

Faull

Boundary Conditions:

VA = Va

=

0

Igure 2.4 Sequence networks for most common types offaults: (a) single-line-to-ground fault, Eq. (a); (b) line-to-line fault, Eq. (b); (c) three-phase fault, Eq. (c); (d) double-lineto-ground fault, Eq. (d). In the sequence networks shown, all connections have been made at the point on the circuit where the fault occurs. The boxes represent sequence impedances that have already been reduced. Voltage source E appears in the positive sequence network. Phase A is the reference phase.

ircuit contribution of the utility at your the stiffness" of the utility system. The

aq prnOM dorp aJ~as aq~ ~R~_ MO~ aq~ 'VAW 001 = qVAW q~!M. u

0001/ AJI x llISIx

fJ\ = VAW

l~n:>.rp-l.roqs ptmoas-oq-etrq-ojsuts

= llIsVAW
JO.:l

aamos au!uuaWa

'S1UiJWiJ.J,

-

SIIneJ punoJ6-01-aSeljd-aI6u!s

~ A:lJ: g'tl> ~R .laMod Anq noX 'c;c; S! 0, '\lAW pUR VAW 6L9 = ¢EyAW :UOqR attI, 'wa.I.InJ ~!nJ.lp-~oqs alRUIqsa ~ ,IaaU1UUa~ap O~ paau pUR :lJ:.lOM~aUuorr _ noX A:lJ:g'tl> ~R .laMod Anq noX 'UO~=4

psptxord ara "BWP'WX ssaIun IX aq Ol pamnss"B aq uao IZ '.ro~uqaq
-.rp aluu~mop lOU op saamos

'aI~u"B U"Bau~m.ralap oa amo aAq:>u a.raqM suotraruts Auum u~ 'z = IZ

l!;y~.loqS

A~mt[l

q~!M 1ju~.l0M.

E"j! 91dWRX:

!J DE:= WX Stl qOTISouar WX nTIRJap tl asn !J1I!: oypads JO aouasqe atH UI 'asRq .latu.Io~ ! attL 'saTIltlA J!UIl.{o arun .rad al.{l JO rnJa= ~G9'9 =X

_ =-::-

aAmsod

aql

'a.roJa.raq.L

st uO~lu:>0I lInuJ aql oa oouapedun eouonbas "zAJI / wqoZ x qVAW = ndz '~u~lnmsqns

'SVAW / zAJI = </>~I fJ\ / AJI 0001 = </>~l/UIA wqoZ x = AJI x st AJI ptra sarsdum

fJ\ / ,sVAW 0001 = </>~I

s~ql mo.r.!! "SlIoAOHJIu~ a~ulloA aUH-ol-auH uralSAS aql tn auar.mo lInuJ asaqd-aarqq IUlOl aql st </>~I a.raq.M. AJI x </>~I fJ\ = "YAW x

0001

o

fX {RO~d.4 al.{~.laUI.l0Jsutl.ll

aql U! AmURnb RX VAW-Ttl .loJ ltlt{+ _. tlp at{+ 2u!sn 'oqtl.l WX lTIoqtl troudumssa UR pUR X a~.la+ap 0.1 'luao.lad 9L'9 S! eotrapsdun A[UO nOA AtlS s,la'1 'S!SAltlUR amarro f.IoIp X .lalua oa paau ARUI TIOAaUI!+ ol aUI!+ UIO.ld 'suoqtlTIba 2u~oIIOJ

Z AIUQ ual{A\ o H pUU X lfunndmo:)

"VAW l~n:>.rp-l.roqs la~ oa oouapedtm uaA~ aql Aq a~ulloA aUH-ol-auH aql JO aranbs aql ap~A~p AIuO paau nOA 'MOU){nOA a:>uupua.r asoqM puu MOU){nOA a~ulIoA asoqM .rapaaJ u .ro.!! "VAW l~n:>.rp-l.roqs la~ Ol nOA aAU~ Al~mn aqlluql uluP :>~mqo aql Aq do.rp a:>~as .rnoA JO a~ulIoA aUH-ol-auH aql ap~~p AIdm~s nOA uaql 'surqo u~ uO~luur.rO_JU!: aouapedun do.rp a:>~as nOA saA~ Al~mn .rnOAJI z(AJI asuq) YAW asua x surqO Iunpv
= ndH.ro

mrs A.raAAIPmsn s~ a;>Ulqs~sa.r aql ootns ud asotn U! .ro Zz - 1Z - llZ = Oz uaq.L '

ndX

:~u~MoIIoJ aql st saqdda

luql ulnur.r0J :>~suq =u -

x! + H tm
"BJPuno.r]j-Ol-auH-aI~u~s .rOJarno.no luaI s I"B~~SS"BP o.rJ) 'z + Zz + 1Z = llZ a.raq.M. m ,lztJAS

srqd VAW u~ l~n:>.rp-l.roqs urnurprnw saradura IU:>~laururAS

o~luH 'WX ql~

= 01 + zl + 11 = llISI

o~WH 'WX ql~M (VAW .r0) VMI

ki

"'YAW 0001 = llISI IOAaUH-Ol-auH malSAs aql s~ AJI pU"B -Ol-au~I-aI~u~s I"BlOl aql S! llISIa.raq.M.

:SAUMaa.rql u~ paWls aq trao quarrno lInuJ arquHuAV 'uotqaau -uoo a:>~as .rnOAlU sonpoad uno uralSAS sl~ luql saradura ro VAJI amo.no -l.roqs aIquHuAu umtntxatn aql aS~Apu IHM Amqn .rno}._ ".rua~q:>l~MS .rnoA orm MOli IHM luqllua.l.ln:> lInuJ JO qtrnoura aql a:>npa.r oa st l~ JO l:>alla aql puu 'a:>.rnos .raMod Iu:>~.rpala AUU u~ aouapadun amos SAUMlu st a.raq.L "lua.r.rn:> lInuJ arquHuAu .ralua~ aql 'VAW aql .raq~~q

=n

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

51

the available fault current. There is electrical power source, and the effect bf fault current that will flow into your advise the maximum available shortsystem can produce at your service concan be stated in three ways:

where Is1g is the total single-line-to-ground fault current in amperes, and kV is the system line-to-line voltage in kilovolts. Is1g= 1000 MVA.lg I V3 x kV However, Is1g= 11 + 12 + 10 = 3Vln/Z1 + Z2 + Zo = 3Vln/Zg where Zg = Zl + Z2 + Zo (from classical symmetrical component equivalent circuit for single-line-to-ground fault). Zg = 3 kV2 I MVAs1g in ohms

'R Ratio
iVA plus an R + jX

is the following: Ohms x Base MVA (base kV)2 drop impedance information in ohms, to-line voltage of your service drop by zave you to get short-circuit MVA.For a and whose reactance you know, you f the line-to-line voltage by the given IVA. Then Zo = Zg - Zl - Z2 or in most practical cases, Xo = Xg - Xl - X2, since the resistance is usually very small in relation to the reactance.

Computing X and R of a Transformer When Only Z Is Known
From time to time you may need to enter X and R into a computer program to do a short circuit analysis. Let's say you only know that the 1000-kVA transformer impedance is 5.75 percent. To determine X and R to the input screen you must make an assumption about XIR ratio. Using the data supplied in the Appendix, you can see that for a I-MVA transformer the typical XIR ratio is about 4.5. Use this as the XIR quantity in the following equations.

3x I3t/>xkV 1000 se fault current in amperes and kV is . kilovolts. From this -IVAsc/V3xkV kVI 3xI3t/>=kV2/MVA.c Therefore, the positive
X=

RG)

R = 1.247 ohms X = 5.625 ohms Be careful of the per unit ohmic values. The Z is usually given in percent of the transformer base. In the absence of specific information, most circuit analysis software use a default XIR ratio such as XIR = 30 for medium voltage circuits

Example 2.3

Working with Utility Short-Circuit

Information

;d to

ere active sources do not dominate cirbe X, unless XIR data are provided

You buy power at 34.5 kV. You are planning an expansion to your distribution network and need to determine the impedance of the utility source in order to estimate short-circuit current. The local utility gives you the following information: MVA3¢ = 679 MVA and MVA.lg = 711 MVA on a 100-MVA base. XIR ratio is 22. You buy power at 34.5 kV.

Situation.

Requirements.
solution

Determine

source reactance at the utility service point. fault occur-

Short-circuit MVA = V3 x Is1gX kV 11000

With MVAt, = 100 MVA, the total reactance to a three-phase ring at the service drop would be

L:>f8J~u~tdnJJatu~ UB JO aSB:>aqt ill _ !IqdnJJatuI pUB AJBtUaWow JOJ .I~B~Bxa uy 'uoqBJado JO aporn ~O_apotn JOtOW aqt JOJ tuaJaJJ~p aq A:rre:; .rad u~ uaA~~ OSIB'sa:>UBpBaJ aq+Jo"aJuBpBaJ aqt SB SW.Iat aWBS aqt q~ uAS BJO a:>UBpBaJ alqB~JBA aqJ, ·s.f UMOP SMoIS zoaour aqt SB saqsi . snOU0Jq:>UAS SB JaUUBW aWBS aqt q ~ lOW snoUOJq;mAS 'SJOJOW snouorqo ·t~n:>.I~:> suado so aqt [ alI+ '(puoxoq pUB SapA;) 08 oa dn a:>~ap aA~t;)atoJd asnB:>aa: 's.mooo 1 am IB:>~uBq:>awAq poonpozd UO~PB np~Jo uO~tnq~Jtuo:> tuaJJn:>-tlnBJ a -

aqt SB awn qt~M BlnIDJoJ wJatmnw B saAloAu~ tlnBJ B .IatJB tuBtSU~ AUBtB ssotraaouar alqB~.IBAaqHo uotssardxa aqJ, 'HnBJ aqt .IatJB sapA:> MaJ tS.IY aqt U~qt~M tUBtSUO:>AIIBquBtsqns U~BWaJ paads pUB a~BtIoA uoqBt~:>xa PlaM 'g'Z .~~.!I ~ SJOtOW pUB S.IOtBJaUa~ .I0J aas U aM tBqt W.I0JaABM auazmo ~U~UBq:> aqt JOJ arq~suodsaJ aJB sa:>UBpBa.I ~u~UBq:> asaqJ, 'a~uBq:> Sa;)UBpBaJ .IOtBJaUa~ 'suonrpuoo tlnBJ .Iapuo uounqrnuoo JOJeJauaE> ~·tr·~

auapuedaput

p

'S~SBq arun .rod B uo MBI s,wqO AlddB 0t Jap.Io tn a:>~Aapaqt JO oa anuuuoo oa aq IHM ~atB.ItS .InO 'sau~:>Bw ~U~tBtOJ IB:>0IWOJJ auar.mo tInBJ .raptsnoo sn tal 'MoN ·S.I0tOW .IO SJOtB.IaUa~ oaotnar Aq patB.IaUa~ auarrno tlnBJ AlatBwqln st g'Z '~~d U~ UMOqS SB tlnBJ B or uonnq~.ItUo:> At~mn aqJ, ·A.rau~q:>Bw ~U~tBtO.I Aq patBJaUa~ st=-dcrp a:>~as JnOA tB sraodda t-eqt atrarmo tlnBJ aqt uaAa-tUa.I.In:> tInBJ IIB tBqt .Iaqwawal 0t tUBt.Iodw~ st n

eouapedun tUa~SUB.Itqns aqt au~w.Iatap

uO!JnqpJuoo

JOJOW

&.

_

= "I .trotaanba 2~oTIoJ aq: aql au~q;:>am 2mll'llO.l AIm .103:

:.-uoqs JO lunoma

S<):Juap asal{l JO uoqaJlldda al{l .loJ squar.rno 9:JImpaa.l snouo.rqou.rs .l0la.laua2 'a.l0J PWls a.loJaq ala.lado 'sasnj .10 .la:lJ:aa.lq arno "oW: ·S.InJJO lmJ~J·l.Iol{s al{l .lal]a spuooos ar S! uourpuoo alals ApaalS a ual{M MOil auar dda al{l S~ 'X aJuapaa.l snouo.rqJUAS al{J, _

"!

·(6861 'uosuaAalS) A:lJ:aU~l-ol·auTI malsAs aql pua asaq 'vA:lJ: asal{d-aa.rql aql uo anq 'aouapednn a2a:lJ:aal aql aq mM oouspedun lrun aad .10 lua;:).lad all'lldamllu lanp~~pu~ al{l malsAS .laMod aql u~ peaoatnroo a.lll sramrojsue.q asaqd-al2u~s pmp~wu~ aa.lql ual{M 'snqJ, -pannbe.r a.lll sasaq A:lJ: aUH,ol·auTI al{l pus VA:lJ:asaqd-aarqi al{l uaqj 'smalsAs osv'I{d·oo.l'l{1 U! pasn are srnm qons aarqa uat{M ·.lam.lo]sIm.ll aql JO sa2lllloA 2UlpU~ poaar aql pUll VA:lJ: asaqd ·al2u!s al{l uo paypads AIIllm.lOU S! eouspadun .lam.l0Jsull.ll al{l 'sa;:)!A.laS .ranroasna lllJ~pala tn asn UOlUUIO;:)n are lal{l 'sraurrojsuan asaqd·al2u!s t lanp~lpU! .lo..-r ·pasn aq Plnoqs (sdmnd .10 sua] lnoql~) 2u!la.I 1uo1QWV aqi jo eouapodun al{l 'paypads are s2u!lll.l VA:lJ:lll.la -xas a.lal{M ·sa2alIoA aUH-Ol·auTI A:lJ:al{l pua 2uqa.l VA:lJ:asaqd·aa.ll{l al{l uo lua;:).lad U! aouapedun al{l sayl;:)ads alllldamllu al{l 'Sl!un .lauuo]sull.ll actAl asaqd-aarqq .lO..-r

aSlJqd-aa.IqJ,

SlIUlJH .IaW.I0JSUlJ.lJ, U1 S.IaW.I0JSUlJ.lJ, aSlJqd-al.5u1S

JO seouapaduq

aql JO lua.l.In;:) la!SJ1ll.Il sIX"e·pa.lW al{J, ·(pa.lOulll s2urpUlM. . 2UW~ Play al{l AluO ual{M 2~WU~M ;Ol l{l S"!:X aJuapaa.l lua~suV.l1 sIX"e-pa.l~p aqJ, _ <ll{l .lave apA;:) lSIIJ al{l 2u~np apnlru2am UlJ.)() l~;:)II;:)-POl{S al{l lualsur aql 2u~pu~ . _ ooImpaa.l lua~sua.llqlls srxe-ioanp al{J, _

oi OS ol dn a2ua.l al{l m apnFullam

·au~;:)am

nd 8LZT"O

= 8L VT"O -

8LvT"O - 61Zv·O

= ox:

Zx - IX -l]{ = ox: aoUIS
nd 61ZV'O = HL/OOl nd 8LvT"O

x 8 = 'x

= 6L9/00l = Zx = IX
II

-zas aIn ill iluplno;:)o

nnll]

punolil-oi-auTI-aIilu!s

aq PInoM do.rp ao~ .lO] seouapedun eousnbas all.!.

U ovO·9PvLvT"O

= L900'of + 8Lvl·0 = ndz
=

'uonnqtnuoo auar.mo tInBJ J0tBJaua}j Aq YA~ atBtS-ApBatS ap~~p 0t tuaT::l
"U.ITlq~;)BI8:U~pUB 'ua~Jas: U~punoj ~q 1 uotssnosrp ataldwo:> aJOW Y 'alqBpBA

nd U L900'O = ZZ/8LvT"O = ndH nd U 8L VT"O = 6L9/00l

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

53

variable. A more complete discussion than we have space for here may be found in Bergen, and in Blackburn. For our purpose, it will be sufficient to divide steady-state kVAby subtransient reactance to estimate generator fault current contribution.

Reactances of Rotating Machines
• • The direct-axis subtransient reactance X~is the apparent reactance of the stator winding the instant the short-circuit occurs. ~ usually determines the current magnitude during the first cycle after the fault occurs. The direct-axis transient reactance X~is the apparent initial reactance of the stator winding when only the field winding is considered (damping or amortisseur windings ignored). The direct-axis transient reactance determines short-circuit current magnitude in the range up to 30 to 130 cycles depending upon the design of the machine. The synchronous reactance X, is the apparent reactance that determines the current flow when a steady state condition is reached. It is not effective until several seconds after the short-circuit occurs. Most fault protection devices, such as circuit breaker or fuses, operate before steady state conditions are reached. Therefore, generator synchronous reactance is seldom used in calculating fault currents for the application of these devices.

Transformers in Three-Phase Banks
the nameplate specifies the impedance in the kV line-to-line voltages. Where sev!U1'CU<1ll'''' ofthe ambient rating (without fans or stormers. that are in common use in electrical is normally specified on the singleI vnltazes of the transformer. When three such then the three-phase kVAand the line-to-line individual single-phase transformers are individual nameplate percent or per unit but on the three-phase kVA,base and the
rlllJLJJ<'UCIJll~"

For any rotating machine the amount of short-circuit current may be estimated from the following equation: I
sc

=

Motor/Generator FLA x 100 %X~

The restrictions on its application are similar to the restrictions we placed upon the application of the "infinite bus" short-circuit calculation.

2A.3

Motor contribution

ilia all fault current-even the fault service drop-is generated by rotating to a fault as shown in Fig. 2.5 is by remote generators or motors. from local rotating machines. Our determine the subtransient impedance law on a per unit basis.

The fault-current contribution of induction motors results from generator action produced by mechanical inertia driving the motor after the fault occurs. Because protective devices require at least a quarter cycle and up to 30 cycles and beyond), the motor is a generator until the device opens the circuit.
Synchronous motors. Synchronous motors supply current to a fault in much the same manner as synchronous generators. This fault current diminishes as the motor slows down and the motor field excitation decays. The variable reactance of a synchronous motor is discussed in much the same terms as the reactances of generators. Numerical valnes of the reactances, also given in per unit on the machines' base, will ually be different for the motor mode of operation than in the generator mode of operation. An examination of Table A.4 "Modification Factors for Momentary and Interrupting Duty Calculations" reveals mat in the case of an interrupting calculation (and assuming a syn-

ator reactances change. These changing the changing current waveform that we in Fig. 2.5. Field excitation voltage and Instant within the first few cycles after variable reactances at any instant after formula with time as the independent

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o = VII JO aJuBpadlU!

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=n

VH'I .IO~OWIV'Id .IO~OW= VH'IIV'Id S!qJ,

=

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Basic Short-CircuitCalculations

57

Utility Generator Synch ronous Motor Induction Motor DC Com ponent Composite Fault Current Waveform

beauty of it lies in the fact that you use circuit element information in almost the same form that it appears on nameplates with almost no ohmic or per unit conversions. It is applied by calculating the admittance of each component of a circuit with its own infinite bus in terms ofMVA. We can then combine pairs of circuit element MVAsin series and parallel according to the product-over-sum rule from basic network theory for combining the admittance and/or impedance of two circuit elements. Series MVA combinations are computed like impedances in parallel. Parallel MVA combinations are computed like impedances in series. In the following development, supercripts will indicate a specific circuit element and/or iterative fault power, and subscripts will indicate a positive, negative, or sequence fault power. Series: MVN and MVA2 =
----,-----:-

MVNxMVN MVN+MVN

Parallel: MVN and MVN = MVN + MVN The MVAmethod is best illustrated by example. Given the circuit of Fig. 2.6a, we want to determine the three-phase fault current at F:

L

- fault current waveforms-one phase only. r current will decay. Said another way: the take fault current to decay to a level that is ective device. The waveforms shown indi5 located remote from the point of fault W local sources. This must be taken into euit current is adjusted to reflect the system eomponent of fault current will paralyze any R ratio change radically over the life of a mto the inputJoutput characteristics of the

Step 1: Convert all circuit elements to short-circuit MVAs. The shortcircuit MVAof each circuit element is equal to its MVArating divided by its own per unit impedance or reactance.

For the utility: 1000/1

=

1000 MVA

For the utility feeder: (34.5)2/5

= 238 MVA
=

For the utility transformer: 15/.07 For the customer motor: 5/0.2
=

214

25

Step 2: Combine MVAs. Since we have more than two circuit elements, we perform the calculations iteratively.

MVN nd MVN = 1000 x 238 = 192 MVA a 1000 + 238 plied by many experienced protection per unit and ohmic methods, employs . cuit currents. We have already used the earlier examples involving utility d we develop it at length here. The Let 192 MVAbe the new MVN. Then MVN and MVN
=

192 x 214 192 + 214

=

101 MVA

BS

alU

'a:>~~:>BJdIB~J~SnpU~ U~ uond aouonbas aA~~R~aU pUB aAq.

OJaZ JamJOJSUBJ~ aq~ ~Bq~ ~lJTUIlli- _

= 1yAW = sUB>lOVAW
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~~
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=

=

6'81 x £j\ 0001 x 961

= oSI

i~
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~ ~.

"T1

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s:::

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1m TI'I)

~ _.,.

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=
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Basic Short-CircuitCalculations

59

Going this far with the calculation will allow you to determine the three-phase fault current at the 13.8 bus without motor contribution.
Step 3: Convert MVA to symmetrical fault current

yr
u...

f I1

=

G
"'<t"

101 x 1000 , fi5 va x 13.2

=

. . 4430 A (LLL WLth out motor contriibution )

We assume that fault current on the load side of the feeder breaker
is the same as the fault current on the bus. But we want the fault on a

;;

feeder with a motor back-feeding fault current into it so we must combine the MVAsin parallel by adding them thus MVN + MVN

::2:

= 101 + 25 = 126

.... '" o >:1 ...... "
.E'" ""g_

Isc= 126 x 1000 , fi5 V<J x 13.2

. . = 5526 A (LLL unt h motor contriihution )

's :
>:I '"
+'

",+' .Dell

-o-

<I:

::2:

>

"" ..... ~~
""Jj.D

" o;.a
>:I >:I 0.

LOI6

~" o~ ,.<:I"'~
'"

",'J:: '"'

'" s
>:I

EJ
u,

:E;JeIl 5l +'

~;9 S·~.§

+'

G

......"'eIl" 0."" §'.§';.a
>:I

'>, . £l

gp~~

-.D'"15. .~
.$ ""J::
0.""

~.S
>:I '"
"

At this point, it should be obvious how quickly the method may be applied, and, because of its iterative nature, how it lends itself to a computer solution. The method does not require a common MVAbase as required in per unit methods. It is not necessary to convert impedances from one voltage to another as required by the ohmic method. Best of all, you do not need to deal with anything but large whole numbers. You may apply the method to compute single-line-to-ground, doubleline-to-ground, and other shunt faults as well. Referring again to the circuit of Fig. 2.6a, we know that the fault at the 13.2-kV bus is 126 ~A. Assuming that the positive and negative impedances are equal, we can say that the positive sequence fault power is equal to the negative sequence fault power, so that

~

<I:c:i

N

S ell

ell

LO-~

II

~+'~

~",o.

5l

"" 0. ,.<:I '" ,.<:I"""

OL 00 ::2:0 0
Ll
Q)

~o.

~

'" '" ::s 0. '"
~~~
~~.
CU°.-t

..., ~.~

O'J::

Lf")

>:I ~

'15

C~

0

.._.._J

ELl 00 00

"!§~ N",o. !!:!S..., u::;9..;s

Q)

Now a single-line-to-ground fault on the 13.2-kV bus would have only the transformer and the motor contributing to zero sequence ~As. The delta connection on the secondary of the transformer blocks any zero sequence power contribution from the utility. Therefore, our ~A block diagram may be redrawn to indicate flow of zero sequence fault power only. See Fig. 2.6b. MVAotransMVAI= MVA2= 214 = Assuming that the transformer zero sequence reactance is equal to its positive and negative sequence reactances is another common assumption in industrial practice. The zero sequence reactance of a

&","5

JO 'lAW JOpBa.I B q~~M ;)9°6 o_g~dO J J{JOM~aUaq~ a~BlnUIJoJaJ PlnoJ nOA 'UIqO 0°1 'aJUB~SU~JOJ 'Jo souspedun UB q~~ auarmo ~InBJ-puno~ JO MO{J aq~ ~~UIH o~ pa~uBM nOA Jl CaJuBpadUII IBJ~nau OUpUB uoqnq~J~UOJ .IO~OUI ~IM D'ISo) V OTL9 = 6°81 x £j\ q ° ° 0001 x 891 'lAW 891 = 19 x 8 = 'lAW t96

= ~lsI

'lAW 19

=

+ 89

t96 x 89

= OVAWpUBJ~~VAW

5z

'lAW 89 = 961 + 961 = ZVAW pUB TVAW 961 x 961 VIIV'J °8 Aq anIBA aq~ AldmnUI uaq~ pUB anIBA 'lAW S~~JOJ aAlos pUB ~~nJJ~J aq~ JO ano qJUBJq suo aJ{B~O~S~qJBOJddB ~saldUI~s aq~ 'IaUB.IBd U~saqJUBJq aaJq~ a.IB asaq~ aJU~S °AJOaq~~UaUOdUIOJIBJ~~aUIUIAs UIOJJ SMOUOJUIB~BW uoqJaUUOJ s~qJ. 0;)9°6 o_g~d uMOqS UIB~B~p uouoeu ut -UOJ .roddn aq~ Aq pau~B~qo st JaMod lInBJ punorz-oq-euq-epnns aqJ.

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'lAW 09 = 1"0 9
= ,omOVAW

3:3:3] Jam aJUBpBaJ eouenbos

aJoJaJaqJ. °csJ{oog .ung pUB paR ozaz aA~~~sod s~Ulv1f euo ~noqB s~ JO~OUI

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09

Basic Short-Circuit Calculations

61

(13.2)2 = 174 MVA
1.0 _ en

(51 x 174) MVA = 3 x (51 + 174) = 118 MVA
Figure 2.6b

power flow.

Zero sequence fault

-'~= V3

118 x 1000 3 x 13.2

= 5189

A (SLG WIth motor contribution . Impedance)

.

.

.

and neutral

ive zero sequence reactance

(Ref. IEEE
without neutral reactor

e
.

'=-=50MVA 0.1
l

OJ

power then is equal to the sum of the

wers because ofthe parallel connection.
~. mot = 214 + 50 = 264 lt power is obtained by the upper con. 2.6c. This connection diagram follows eory. Since these are three branches in . is to take one branch out of the circuit d then multiply the value by 3.

3[]
~

MVA, MVA 2
with neutral reactor

=~4 I

MVAO MVAzg

=:3J
2.6c

126 x 126 126 + 126

=

63 MVA

.) =

63 x 264 = 51 MVA 63 + 264

MVAmethod-limiting

ground fault-current example.

x 51 = 153 MVA
LG with motor contribution

and no

pedance) flow of ground-fault current with an ohm, you could reformulate the network ,. of

- _ re 2.6d MVA method-double-line-to-ground ent example.

fault-

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