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Politecnico di Torino

Progetto di Reti Locali

Homework 6: Network Design

Fulvio Risso

March 9, 2011

Contents
I. Introduction 3
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1. Methodology

II. Exercises
2. HSRP 2.1. Exercise 2.2. Exercise 2.3. Exercise 2.4. Exercise 2.5. Exercise n. n. n. n. n. 1 2 3 4 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 . 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17

3. Network Design 3.1. Exercise n. 6 3.2. Exercise n. 7 3.3. Exercise n. 8 3.4. Exercise n. 9 3.5. Exercise n. 10 3.6. Exercise n. 11

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III. Solutions

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4. HSRP 19 4.1. Solution for exercise n. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2. Solution for exercise n. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5. Network Design 5.1. Solution for exercise n. 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. Solution for exercise n. 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. Solution for exercise n. 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 21 24 25

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Part I. Introduction 3 .

2. in this methodology section we concentrate on the problems that may arise when facing with L2-L3 network design. plot its L2 and L3 components as discrete objects. for each VLAN present in the topology. The first kind of exercises are definitely simple and require only the application of the general rules of the associated protocols specifications. Determine the outcome of the Spanning Tree (i. VLANs). which L2 ports are active and are then able to forward frames). 3. The solution usually requires the following main steps: 1. given a specific network topology (in terms of switches and routers. determine which is the active router (for each IP network present in the topology). which includes the application of the the most important technologies that can be found in a modern corporate network. interfaces configured at L2 or L3.e. Methodology In this set of exercise we focus first on HSRP/VRRP analysis. If multilayers are present in the network. Please remember that in an L2 network the path between two stations is unique (the STP does not allow multiple paths between stations) and that we have to select the right STP instance related to that frame in case multiple instances are present.g. we can now determine the path of each frame on the network topology. If HSRP/VRRP is configured in the network. and analyze the actual path of this frame according to the STP topology derived before. Given that points (3) and (4) have been completed. For this. physical links. 4. and then on network design and analysis when L2/L3 switches are present. we can exploit the source and destination MAC addresses contained in the frame in order to determine the source and destination stations on the network. Therefore. 5.1. take each one of them. Analyze the packet flow generated by the application (e. Beware that a network may have multiple instances of the Spanning Tree.. 4 . then mark each interface as part of the L2 or L3 domain. PING). Most of the exercises related to the network design require to predict the path of a set of packets. and to the proper VLAN-ID. associating each packet with the proper source and destination addresses at both L2 and L3..

Expand any possible multilayer into its L2 and L3 components. marking each interface as L2 or L3 Determine the HSRP/VRRP active router (per IP network) Determine Spanning Tree Topology (per VLAN) Determine the packet flow (i. ARP..).e. associating each frame with proper IP and MAC addresses and VLAN IDs Determine the path of each packet according to the actual topology 5 . etc. IP.

Part II. Exercises 6 .

1/24 H2 IP: 130. HSRP 2.254 Internet 7 .192. 1 Referring to the network topology depicted below. with R1 acting as primary router. configure the proper HSRP parameters on routers R1 and R2 in order to guarantee redundancy when connecting to the Internet. H1 IP: 130.16.2/24 R1 IP: 130. Configure also the proper value for the default gateway on the hosts.2.1.16.192.192.192.16.253 R2 IP: 130.16. Exercise n.

192.2/24 DG: - R1 IP: 130. Exercise n. Configure also the proper value for the default gateway on the hosts.192. H1 IP: 130.1/2 DG: - H2 IP: 130.254 Internet 8 .253 R2 IP: 130.2.192.16.16. 2 Referring to the network topology depicted below.16.192. configure the proper HSRP parameters on routers R1 and R2 in order to guarantee redundancy and load balancing when connecting to the Internet.16.2.

16.3.252 Serial 0 Internet 9 .2/24 DG: 130.192.16.1/24 DG: 130. determine the path of a packet sent by host H1 toward the Internet in case the routers have the configuration shown in the figure and the link from R1 to the Internet has a fault. H1 IP: 130.192.192.16.192. Exercise n.252 Exercise 3 FastEthernet0 R1 Interface FastEthernet 0 IP: 130.254 HSRP Group 1 (active) Priority: 110 Virtual IP: 130.252 Track interface Serial 0 R2 IP: 130.192.16.2.192.192.16.192.253 HSRP Group 1 (standby) Virtual IP: 130.16.252 H2 IP: 130.16. 3 Referring to the network topology depicted below.16.

4 Referring to the network topology depicted below that includes hosts belonging to two VLANs: • configure the proper HSRP parameters on routers R1 and R2 in order to guarantee redundancy and load balancing in connecting to the Internet. Finally.192. OSPF) within the LAN.2. H1. • for all the interfaces of the switches and host/routers. list whether they are configured in access/trunk mode and associate the proper VLAN to them.1/24 DG: 130.16. VLAN2 IP: 130.17.16. VLAN1 IP: 130.1/24 DG: 130.4.254 H2. Let us suppose that R1 and R2 do not generate any routing traffic (e. do not include in the solution the interfaces connected to the Internet.192.g.254 Fe0 Fe1 SW1 Fe2 Fe3 Fe0 R1 Fe0 R2 Internet 10 .192.192. Exercise n.17.

1.1.1. is it correct to deploy HSRP in such a network? H1 H2 H3 SW-1 SW-2 If0 IP: 1.1. and the other will be put in stand-by.254 HSRP Group:1 S 11 .1. hosts into the network are equipped with a fault-tolerant NIC (without HSRP) that features two different interfaces connected to the two available switches. • Supposing that the link (S → SW-1) is active.1.2 V-IP: 1.1 V-IP: 1. will the HSRP work properly in this configuration? • In general.2. 5 Referring to the network topology depicted below.1. Vice versa. while the link (S → SW-2) has a fault. Both interfaces are part of the same HSRP group in order to achieve protection against a fault of the links between the server itself and one of the two switches.5. Exercise n.1. a server S is configured in a faulttolerant mode using HSRP.254 HSRP Group: 1 If1 IP: 1. The fault-tolerant NIC will select automatically one of the link as active.

list whether they are configured in access/trunk mode and associate the proper VLAN to them. do not include interfaces connected to the Internet in the solution. Network Design 3. Exercise n.g.192.1.16.192. VLAN1 IP: 130. Please note that R1 and R2 are expected to exchange routing traffic (e. VLAN2 IP: 130. OSPF) among them in order to calculate the routing topology.17.254 Fe0 SW1 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA Fe2 Fe1 Fe1 Fe0 SW2 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB Fe2 Fe0 R1 Fe1 Fe1 Fe0 R2 Internet 12 .3.17.254 H2. • Configure the proper HSRP parameters on routers R1 and R2 in order to guarantee redundancy and load balancing when connecting to the Internet.1/24 DG: 130. • For all the interfaces of the switches and host/routers. Finally. 6 Referring to the network topology depicted below that includes hosts belonging to two VLANs: • Determine the STP topology (all switches have default parameters). H1.192.16.192. • Determine the links crossed by HSRP packets exchanged between R1 and R2.1/24 DG: 130.

2.2.3.253/24 IP (internet): 20.1.1/24 H2.1. Exercise n.2.253/24 IP (VLAN2): 10.2/24 Fe0 SW-1 MAC: 00:00:00:11:11:11 Fe2 Fe1 Fe1 Fe0 SW-2 MAC: 00:00:00:22:22:22 Fe2 Fe0 Fe1 ML-1 BP: 24576 MAC: 00:00:00:33:33:33 IP (VLAN1): 10. write a possible configuration (using a Cisco-like syntax) of the interfaces of the multilayer switch. focusing on the L2-L3 interfaces configuration commands.1. VLAN 1 IP: 10.2. H1.1.1.2/30 Fe2 Internet 13 . VLAN 2 IP: 10.1. 7 Referring to the network configuration depicted below.2.

Exercise n.1.1. 8 Referring to the network topology depicted below that includes hosts belonging to two VLANs: • Determine the path of an IP packet directed from host H1 to H2 and write the most important parameters (e. VLAN1 MAC: 00:00:00:11:11:11 IP: 10.253/24 HSRP Group 1 (active) V-IP: 10.2.1.1.252/24 IP (VLAN2): 10. MAC source /destination.1.1/24 DG: 10. H1.1.3.1.1.2.254 VMAC: 00:00:0C:07:AC:01 HSRP Group 2 (standby) V-IP: 10.254 V-MAC: 00:00:0C:07:AC:02 Fe0 Fe1 Fe0 Fe1 ML-2 BP: 28672 MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD IP (VLAN1): 10.1.2.254 H2.1.2.1.253/24 IP (VLAN2): 10.2.1. • Repeat the same for an IP packet directed from host H2 to host H1.254 V-MAC: 00:00:0C:07:AC:01 HSRP Group 2 (active) V-IP: 10.1/24 DG: 10. IP source/destination) of that packet.3.1. VLAN2 MAC: 00:00:00:22:22:22 IP: 10.1.2.254 V-MAC: 00:00:0C:07:AC:02 14 . Assume that all the ports of the multilayer switch are configured in L2 mode.1.1.252/24 HSRP Group 1 (standby) V-IP: 10.254 Fe0 SW-1 Fe1 Fe1 Fe0 SW-2 ML-1 BP: 24576 MAC: 00:00:00:CC:CC:CC IP (VLAN1): 10.g.1.1.

H1. Please note that ML-1 and ML-2 are expected to generate routing traffic (e.1/24 DG: 130.1/24 DG: 130.254 Fe0 SW-1 Fe2 Fe1 Fe1 Fe0 SW-2 Fe2 Fe0 ML-1 BP: 24576 Fe1 Fe2 Fe1 Fe2 Fe0 ML-2 BP: 28672 Internet 15 .16. • configure the proper interfaces (e.3. Finally.192. IP addresses) and HSRP parameters on multilayer switches ML-1 and ML-2 in order to guarantee redundancy and load balancing in connecting to the Internet. VLAN2 IP: 130.g.192.17. VLAN1 IP: 130. • Determine the path of the HSRP packets exchanged by ML-1 and ML-2.17. discuss whether the direct link between ML-1 and ML-2 work better if configured in L2 more or in L3 mode.16. • associate all the interfaces of switches and hosts to the proper VLAN and indicate weather they are in access /trunk mode.254 H2.192. OSPF) among them in order to exchange the routing topology.192.4. Repeat the exercise in case the direct link between ML-1 and ML-2 fails. • Determine how many HSRP packets do you expect on the link between ML-1 and SW-1.g. Exercise n. 9 Referring to the network topology depicted below that includes hosts belonging to two VLANs: • determine the STP topology. Do not include in the solution the interfaces connected to the Internet.

2.1.3.0/24 SW-2 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB SW-3 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:CC:CC:CC H3 10. except the interface that connects to the WAN.3. SW-1 H1 10. Exercise n.22 Hosts distributed across 3 VLANs. let us suppose the use of the standard STP protocol (not the per-VLAN STP).1.1.1. 3.5.0/24 VLAN2: 10. Determine the path of the same packet when a fault occurs on the direct link between ML-1 and ML-2. Indicate the number of VLANs that we expect to configure over that network. Finally. VLAN1: 10.0/24 VLAN3: 10. Determine the path of an IP packet from host H1 to host H3. 4.1.1. Suggest three possible modifications of the network (either at the physical or at the configuration level) in order to optimize the L3 paths. 5.1.11 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA H2 10. 2.33 ML-1  HSRP   OSPF Routing  ML-2 HSRP active (for all groups) BP: 24576 MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD BP: 28672 MAC: 00:00:00:EE:EE:EE Wide Area Network 16 .1. 10 Given the network topology depicted below that includes hosts belonging to three VLANs: 1. List the possible IP addresses configured on the two multilayer switches ML-1 and ML-2. All the interfaces of the multilayer switches are configured in L2 mode.3.2.

Let us suppose that all the interfaces of the multilayer switches are configured in L2 mode. propose a configuration that: • enables optimized load balancing on the external links toward the Internet.1. 11 Given the network topology depicted below that includes hosts belonging to two VLANs.2.6.2. except the interface that connects to the WAN and that we use the Per-VLAN STP protocol. Exercise n.1. SW-1 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA H1 10.1.22 ML-1  HSRP   OSPF Routing  ML-2 MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD MAC: 00:00:00:EE:EE:EE Wide Area Network 17 . • optimizes the paths for the exiting traffic.1.3. Finally.1.1.11 Hosts distributed across 2 VLANs.0/24 VLAN2: 10.0/24 SW-2 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB H2 10. so that packets directed to the WAN always crosses only a single multilayer switch. show also the final outcome of the Spanning Tree Protocol and the path of an IP packet from host H1 to host H2. VLAN1: 10.

Solutions 18 .Part III.

252 IP: 130.16.252 Internet 19 .16. HSRP 4.192.253 HSRP Group 1 (active) Priority: 105 Virtual IP: 130.252 R1 R2 IP: 130. 1 Although HSRP can be configured to provide also load balancing in addition to redundancy.254 HSRP Group 1 (standby) Virtual IP: 130.1. Since the IP address of router R1 is smaller than the IP address of router R2. the priority value has to be configured in order to force the election of that router as “active”.16.192.2/24 DG: 130.16. the exercise focuses only on the first objective. Solution for exercise n. The default gateway for each host is shown on the network topology below. H1 IP: 130.16.16.192.192.16.252 H2 IP: 130.16.4.192. Therefore a single HSRP group is required and the solution is shown in the network topology below.192.192.1/24 DG: 130.192.

VLAN 1-2 Virtual interface VLAN1 IP: 130.4. VLAN2 Fe3 Trunk port.16.192.254 Virtual interface VLAN2 IP: 130.2.17.192.254 R1 R2 Fe0 Trunk port. Since routers must participate in all VLANs (i.16. they must be able to receive all the VLAN packets on their interfaces).192.17.16.253 HSRP Group 2 Virtual IP: 130. The resulting configuration is depicted in the picture below. hence we can achieve load balancing by forwarding VLAN1 traffic through R1 and VLAN2 traffic through R2. their NICs must be configured in trunk mode. VLAN 1-2 Virtual interface VLAN1 IP: 130.192.17.192.192.192. Solution for exercise n. All hosts have access ports. 4 The network includes two VLANs.1/24 DG: 130. the switch has access ports toward clients and trunk ports toward the routers. VLAN1 Fe2 Trunk port.254 Priority 105 Virtual interface VLAN2 IP: 130.254 No VLAN configuration H2.254 Internet 20 .17. VLAN2 IP: 130. VLAN1 IP: 130. VLAN 1-2 Fe1 Access port.254 No VLAN configuration Fe0 SW1 Access port.16.192.16.192. hence load balancing does not rely on HSRP.17.192. these virtual interfaces will be configured at the IP level.253 HSRP Group 1 Virtual IP: 130.252 HSRP Group 2 Virtual IP: 130. Virtual VLAN interfaces must be created and associated to VLANs. VLAN 1-2 Fe0 Trunk port.e.192.1/24 DG: 130. HSRP will provide only gateway redundancy and will have to be configured per-VLAN.17.16.192.252 HSRP Group 1 Virtual IP: 130. H1.

VLAN 1-2 Virtual Interface VLAN 1 IP: 130.252/24 HSRP Group 2 Virtual IP: 130. Solution for exercise n.252/24 HSRP Group 1 Virtual IP: 130. Questions 2 and 3 The configuration of the VLAN ports and the HSRP on the routers can be the following: Router R1 --------Interface Fe0 Trunk port.16.16.18.192. since we do not have loops in the L2 network (in fact.192.254 Interface Fe1 Access port.16. Network Design 5. Therefore.253/24 21 .192.192.192. VLAN 1-2 Virtual Interface VLAN 1 IP: 130.17.192. no VLANs IP: 130.17. 6 Question 1 The STP topology is extremely simple.254 Priority 105 Virtual Interface VLAN 2 IP: 130.1/24 OSPF: active Router R2 --------Interface Fe0 Trunk port. the direct link between R1 and R2 is a pure L3 link and hence it belongs to a different broadcast domain of the switches).5.1. the STP topology on the L2 network overlaps with the physical topology.

2 1. Instead.192.192. the configuration of the VLANs on the switches is the following: Switch SW-1 Interface Fe0 Fe1 Fe2 Mode Access Trunk Trunk VLAN-ID 1 1. we have to note that these packets are generated on the VLAN interfaces of the routers. hence the interface is not associated to any VLAN (it operates in access mode) and it has an IP address active on it.17.192.192. which are linked to the upper interface (Fe0 ).2 Switch SW-2 Interface Fe0 Fe1 Fe2 Mode Access Trunk Trunk VLAN-ID 2 1.18. it can be used to transport routing traffic.17. Therefore HSRP packets will exit from interface Fe0 of router R1.254 Virtual Interface VLAN 2 IP: 130. will go through switch SW-1. HSRP packets from R2 to R1 will follow the opposite path.2 Question 4 With respect to the path followed by HSRP packets. where they will be redirected to the proper VLAN interface.2/24 OSPF: active Routers have their Fe1 interface configured in pure L3 mode.253/24 HSRP Group 2 Virtual IP: 130. SW-2 and then will reach interface Fe0 of R2. the routing traffic would have to be transported anyway and a possible config- 22 .2 1.HSRP Group 1 Virtual IP: 130.16. Hosts are VLAN-unaware (no VLANs are configured on their ports).254 Interface Fe1 Access port. In case of absence of this link. no VLANs IP: 130. It is worthy noticing that the direct link between R1 and R2 will not transport any HSRP packet.

While such a new VLAN for routing traffic is not mandatory (routing messages can also exchanged through VLAN 1 or VLAN 2).g. 23 .uration involves a new VLAN (e. it is a good practice to have it in order not to have routing traffic received from network hosts. therefore avoiding possible attacks coming from the clients present in the edge network. VLAN 3) that will be dedicated to such this traffic.

253 255.2.253 255. Additionally.2 ! interface vlan 1 ip address 10. Interfaces are in trunk mode and should support all the VLANs present in the network. Therefore the commands used must be considered as an indication of a possible configuration and may not work on all the devices.255.0 ! interface fe2 no switchport ip address 20.1.255. 24 . 7 Interfaces Fe0 and Fe1 are L2 interfaces (switched interfaces) and belong to the same switching domain of switches SW-1 and SW-2.1.255.255.255. some virtual VLAN interfaces must be configured in order to implement the default gateway functionalities on the switched network.1. Solution for exercise n.2 255. The configuration can be the following1 : ! interface fe0 switchport mode trunk switchport trunk allowed vlan 1.255.5.252 ! 1 Please note that different Cisco devices may use a slightly different syntax.0 ! interface vlan 2 ip address 10.2 ! interface fe1 switchport mode trunk switchport trunk allowed vlan 1. Interface Fe2 is configured in L3 mode (routed interface) and connects the network to the Internet.2.2.2.

Solution for exercise n. In other words. This can be achieved by setting the Bridge Priority of ML-1 equal to 24576 and 28672 (respectively for VLANs 1 and 2).253/24 IP (HSRP Group 2): 10.1. a priority of 28672 for VLAN 1 will lead to the value 28673 in the BPDU generated for that VLAN. This configuration leads to the two topologies (respectively for VLAN 1 and VLAN 2) shown in the figures below2 .1.1.1.1. and invert those values for ML-2 (which corresponds to a better priority for VLAN 2)..1.1.1.1/30 No HSRP Virtual Interface VLAN4 IP: 10.1.254 Virtual Interface VLAN2 IP: 10.0/24. the HSRP configuration requires two groups.2.1. and that only the most significant 4 bits are actually used and inserted in the BPDU.1. the exit traffic will reach the HSRP active router.0/24).254 Virtual Interface VLAN2 IP: 10. In this case.253/24 IP (HSRP Group 2): 10.2.2.1. while the remaining 12 bits correspond to the VLAN-ID.e. and from there it will go directly to the Internet.253/24 IP (HSRP Group 1): 10. a better HSRP priority for ML-1 on network 10. one per VLAN.1/30 No HSRP WAN links In order to optimize the exit paths toward the WAN.2/30 No HSRP Virtual Interface VLAN1 IP: 10.1.254 Virtual Interface VLAN4 IP: 10. In addition. in which ML-1 is the active router for the first group and ML-2 is active for the second. we can use the PVST (Per-VLAN Spanning Tree) protocol in order to concentrate on the same multilayer switch both the “HSRP active” and the root bridge functionalities.3. while the priority of 24576 for VLAN 2 will lead to the value 24578 in the BPDU generated for that VLAN.5.254 Interface FastEthernet0 IP: 20. which corresponds to a better priority for VLAN 1.1. HSRP groups must be configured accordingly (i.2.1/30 No HSRP Interface FastEthernet0 IP: 30.2.2.4. 2 Please note that in the most recent STP specifications the Bridge Priority is allowed only in multiple of 4096.1.1.4. 11 Since the network requires both redundancy and load balancing of the Internet access. A possible solution is shown in the figure below: Trunk links Virtual Interface VLAN1 IP: 10.253/24 IP (HSRP Group 1): 10. and a better priority for ML-2 on network 10.3. 25 .3.1.2.

2.11 24576 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA VLAN 1 1101 0000 0000 0001 SW-2 Pri VLAN-ID BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB H2 10. from H1 to H2).1..1.22 28672 VLAN 1 1110 0000 0000 0001 Pri VLAN-ID  HSRP  HSRP active (for group1) Root Bridge ML-1  OSPF Routing  HSRP active (for group2) ML-2 BP: 28672 (VLAN 1) BP: 24576 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:EE:EE:EE BP: 24576 (VLAN 1) BP: 28672 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD Wide Area Network SW-1 Topology for VLAN 2 H1 10.SW-1 Topology for VLAN 1 H1 10.1.11 24576 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA VLAN 2 1101 0000 0000 0010 SW-2 Pri VLAN-ID BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB H2 10.1. In fact.1.1. but it corresponds to a worsening of the internal paths (e.2.g. a packet from H1 to H2 will be generated in VLAN 1 and it will traverse the network 26 .22 28672 VLAN 2 1110 0000 0000 0010 Pri VLAN-ID  HSRP   OSPF Routing  HSRP active (for group1) ML-1 BP: 24576 (VLAN 1) BP: 28672 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD HSRP active (for group2) ML-2 Root Bridge BP: 28672 (VLAN 1) BP: 24576 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:EE:EE:EE Wide Area Network It is worthy noting that this configuration optimizes the exit paths toward the Internet.

1. ML-1.11 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA H1 10.11 SW-2 SW-2 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB H2 10. SW-1 SW-1 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:AA:AA:AA H1 10. till it reaches the final destination H2.2. which is the HSRP active router for VLAN 1).1.(according to the topology allowed for VLAN 1) till it reaches its default gateway (i.22 BP: 32768 MAC: 00:00:00:BB:BB:BB H2 10..2.1.1.1.22 Root Bridge HSRP active (for group1) HSRP active (for group2) HSRP active (for group1) Root Bridge HSRP active (for group2) ML-1 BP: 24576 (VLAN 1) BP: 28672 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD ML-2 BP: 28672 (VLAN 1) BP: 24576 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:EE:EE:EE ML-1 BP: 24576 (VLAN 1) BP: 28672 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:DD:DD:DD ML-2 BP: 28672 (VLAN 1) BP: 24576 (VLAN 2) MAC: 00:00:00:EE:EE:EE Wide Area Network Wide Area Network Path on VLAN 1 Path on VLAN 2 27 . It is evident (as shown in the figure below) that internal paths require the traversal of both multilayer switches and therefore are not as much optimized. From there.e.1. the packet will belong to VLAN 2 and then it will traverse the network according to the topology allowed for that VLAN.