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206–210, 2001

0892-3310/01 © 2001 Society for Scientific Exploration

**COMMENTARY On the Existence of K. Meyl’s Scalar Waves
**

GERHARD W. BRUHN

Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Mathematics, AG 7, Schloßgartenstrasse, 7 64289 Darmstadt, Germany e-mail: bruhn@mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de

Abstract—In the fall of 2000, several talks were delivered by K. Meyl. These talks described his theory of so-called Tesla’s scalar waves (e.g., in Meyl [“Scalar Waves…” (2000) and “Longitudinalwellen-Experiment…” (2000)], and on his Web site). In the following article, we shall mainly discuss the theoretical part of these publications, although the experimental part would deserve a detailed discussion in its own right. The scalar wave, according to Meyl, is an irrotational electric vector solution E of the homogeneous wave equation having non-vanishing sources. However, and this is Meyl’s logical flaw, it is not the homogeneous wave equation but Maxwell’s equations that are the actual starting point of any theory of electromagnetic waves. And, as will be seen see in Section 1, the homogeneous wave equation is valid only in vacuum and in its natural generalization, in homogeneous materials without free charges and currents, while in other cases the inhomogeneous wave equation would apply. So in Section 2, our next immediate result is that Meyl’s source conditions are inconsistent with the material properties. Hence, we have to assume the vector field E to be source free. But— as will be shown further for this case—Maxwell’s equations do not admit other than trivial scalar waves of the Meyl type, since only time- independent solutions are admissible. Under those conditions, the only permissible conclusion is that Meyl’s scalar waves do not exist. At the end of his talks (Meyl, “Scalar Waves…” [2000] and “Longitudinalwellen-Experiment…” [2000]), Meyl makes another remarkable assertion, which we shall discuss in Section 3. Meyl claims to have generated ‘vortex’ solutions that propagate faster than light. But for solutions of the homogeneous wave equation, this would clearly contradict a well-known theorem of the mathematical theory of the wave equation. In addition, Meyl’s proof for his claim will turn out to be a simple flaw of thinking.

1. Maxwell’s Equations We start by reminding the reader of the initial part of Maxwell’s theory: For a homogeneous medium of constant dielectricity and constant permeability µ, Maxwell’s equations read as follows: ¶ H (1) curl E = - m , ¶ t (2) div E = , 206

where = 0 and j = 0. we obtain the inhomogeneous wave equations E1 ¶ 2E 1 = grad 2 ¶ t2 c m ¶ j ¶ t and H1 ¶ 2H = . and j is the current density caused by the motions of the free charges. This yields curl curl E + and curl curl H + 1 ¶ 2H = curl j. Using standard algebra. restricting ourselves to the normal case of absence of free charges. These differential equations are actually extracted from the original integral relations that describe the well-known standard experiments of Œrsted.m ¶ H . ¶ E curl H = .Commentary curl H = ¶ E + j. Biot. Ampère. c2 ¶ t 2 where 1 = m.curl j. ¶ t (1’) (2’) (3’) (4’) 1 ¶ 2H = 0 c2 ¶ t 2 div E = 0. we obtain the homogeneous Maxwell equations curl E = . Savart and Faraday. 207 (3) (4) Here denotes the density of free charges. The homogeneous wave equations (6’) are deduced from Maxwell’s equations under the assumption of the absence of free charges and . c2 ¶ t 2 (6) Thus. ¶ t div H = 0. c2 (5) ¶ j 1 ¶ 2E = m 2 ¶ t2 c ¶ t and by means of the vector identity curl curl F = grad div F F and using Equations 2 and 4. c2 ¶ t 2 (6’) Conclusion 1. each of the vector fields H or E can be eliminated. and the homogeneous wave equations curl curl E + or E1 ¶ 2E = 0 c2 ¶ t 2 and 1 ¶ 2E = 0 c2 ¶ t 2 and curl curl H + (5’) H- 1 ¶ 2H = 0. ¶ t div H = 0.

time independent fields are the only source-free longitudinal solutions). 1. E = E 0(x) + t E 1(x).g. Meyl in his talks “Scalar Waves…” (2000) and “Longitudinalwellen-Experiment…” (2000). then the energy of the field E contained in some bounded area would (approximately) increase proportionally to t2 . (Here E 0 has to be an arbitrary solution of E 0 = 0. in accordance with energy conservation.. in vacuum). = 0.. But if E 1(x) 0.g. since it contradicts the absence of free charges. or—which is equivalent—we have to look for solutions E of the homogeneous wave equation that are irrotational and source free. If this assumption is not fulfilled. an electric field E linearly increasing with time is impossible. the energy should not exceed a fixed constant. In order to describe waves in a medium without free charges (e. and we obtain E(x.t) = E 0(x). Thus. (9) (i. But the assumption (2’’) is a logical flaw. Bruhn currents. Meyl’s Longitudinal Waves A solution E of the first homogeneous wave equation in Equation 6’. in vacuum or in another homogeneous medium without free charges). But. Thus. ¶ t2 (8) which must be fulfilled by Meyl’s longitudinal E-waves. then only the more general inhomogeneous wave equations (6) are valid. we obtain Conclusion 2. Then we have to discuss solutions of Maxwell’s equations (Equations 1’–4’) under the additional assumption (7).. But the first equation (5’) together with (7) yields ¶ 2E = 0. E is linearly time-dependent. and these must be used. which satisfies the additional conditions curl E = 0 and div E = / = 0.208 G. in the medium (e. W. Hence.e. (2’’) (7) is denoted longitudinal by K. we must use Equation 2’ and not Equation 2’’.) . for energetic reasons.

Maxwell’s Equations 1’–4’ together with the additional condition (7) cause such strong restrictions for the vector field E that only trivial longitudinal solutions can exist.t) = 0 (x). Meyl is allowed to introduce a potential (locally) by E = . Meyl makes another remarkable assertion. then by no means can 7.) Conversely. every solution of Maxwell’s equations 1’–4’ will fulfil the wave Equation 6’.g. hence. If these ‘vortex’ solutions were solutions of the homogeneous wave equation. (The only possibility of finding out the signal velocity is to measure the transit time T of the signal over the distance of R between emitter and receiver. Where should the additional number of 2. 1982. Remarks. Equation 9 yields the time independency of the potential function . In other words. These solutions are not waves since they are time independent. while his (shielded) emitter worked at 4. an arbitrary solution for E of Equation 6’ violates Equation 2’ in general. e.0 millions of waves per second can arrive at the receiver. At the end of his talks (“Scalar Waves…” [2000] and “LongitudinalwellenExperiment…” [2000]). But this is easier said than done. as when.. John. He claims that there exist ‘vortex’ solutions that have velocities faster than light.Commentary 209 As a consequence of Equation 7. or any other textbook of partial differential equations). this would clearly contradict the results of the mathematical theory of the wave equation.3 millions of waves have come from? The number of waves per second at the emitter and at the receiver must agree. One of the main results of this mathematical theory is that the maximum signal velocity is c. Meyl’s conclusion of a higher signal velocity is baseless and a flaw of thinking. (11) Conclusion 3. whatever the signal velocity might be. 126 ff.0 MHz was detected at the receiver. But the reverse is not true. (x. independent of the signal velocity. ) in the manner defined by Meyl. But an emitter frequency of 4. Then the velocity is given by v = R/T. Of course. The above conclusion is a result of certain discrepancies between Maxwell’s equations and the wave equation.. as demonstrated above.7 MHz.7 millions of waves per second. Hence.0-MHz waves he observed at the receiver during his experiments. the velocity of light (cf. for example. his signal is faster than light.7 MHz means that the emitter sends 4. Meyl reports on the 7. he concludes. He explains the appearance of the higher frequency at the receiver with a higher velocity of the signal. whenever a signal of 7. Maxwell’s equations for media without free charges and currents do not admit any other than trivial longitudinal waves (E. p.grad (10) Then. it must necessarily have had a source oscillating with the .

.html. Leaving these experimental difficulties aside. Partial Differential Equations (4th ed. then he would have shown by experimental measurement that the wave Equation 6’ could not apply to these ‘vortex’ solutions.de/Aufsatze/SalarwellenScalar_waves/Scalar_waves/scalar_waves. Longitudinalwellen-experiment nach Nikola Tesla.k-meyl. (2000). New York: Springer. K. Bruhn same frequency of 7. 199–205). which was radiated by an unshielded cable. Talk delivered at the Fifth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration at the University of Amsterdam. References Meyl. most likely as an artefact by the electronics. pp. F.0 MHz. W. Talk delivered at the Seminar für Theoretische Chemie der Universität Tübingen.210 G.k-meyl. But the wave Equation 6’ was Meyl’s starting point. Available at: http://www. K. John. an intermodulation frequency.). Available at: http://www. even if Meyl could prove by reliable measurement that there exist ‘vortex’ solutions faster than light. (1982).de/ Aufsatze/Salarwellen-Scalar_waves/Skalarwellen/skalarwellen. Meyl. (2000). (An article based on Meyl’s presentation immediately precedes this commentary. Scalar waves—Theory and experiments.html. for example.

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