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Prof.

dr Mariusz Gulczyński HOW TO LEARN OF LEARNING HOW TO LIVE IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION
Era of globalization differs from all previous periods of human history, in this, that still generating deep changes of the conditions of human existence - both production, as consumption. This makes in order to live in accordance with the spirit of the time, everybody must to learn of learning how to live actively. This is the first, most important information in this topic.

Changes in methods of learning and shaping reality
The second step is to define education as globalization changes the key to human existence and knowledge and field methods of shaping reality. Key - because the man is different from other animals that it does not stop at adapting to the entrenched conditions of existence, but is trying to improve them, which requires both a deeper knowledge of, and ways to modify the shape of reality. Hence, the take stronger in humans than in other species need to know. And it makes the job a human servant obtaining a livelihood activity is desirable, which formed a plan first in the head - on the basis of diagnosis and planning what to do, it takes the form of steps to implement adequate shaping of reality. The efficacy of human action - each, both the construction of the stool, the space shuttle, the state system, stimulate the economic downturn and shaping the international order - does not depend on the natural reflexes, but from an accurate diagnosis of reality shaped and planned activities adequately. Therefore, and since that depends on the rationality of behavior in globalizing reality. The essence of the changes in this sphere in the era of globalization is to increase the role of science in the discovery of previously secret aspects of reality, and designing ways and means of its shape in a manner useful to humans. Illustrates the depth of these changes is evidently penetration in the second - atomic and genetic - the nature of matter and use this knowledge to the squaring processing capacity of nature into products aimed at satisfying human needs. Associated with the intensification of the scale effects of these actions - which is a synthetic expression of the globalization process of human existence. An important aspect of these changes is unparalleled in the history of the growing importance of scientific knowledge. The processes of globalization associated with discoveries and intensification of their applications through the Informatics Revolution - to enable the immediate dissemination of new knowledge across the planet. Acquaintance and use of fortified by the teaching of knowledge by the average landowner is not straightforward and easy. Requires not only learn what provides contemporary knowledge, but also shaped by overcoming all previous human history and knowledge and ways of shaping reality. Helpful in that you may define the main characteristics of these outdated, devalues the new conditions of knowledge necessary modalities.

Devalues inherited from the ancestral stock of knowledge.

Throughout human history, to contemporary - that is, until falling out of the living memory of generations - a source of knowledge of the average landowner had taken over from the

ancestral group of views. This resource was primarily the result of direct observation, which resulted from the rationality of grinding and selecting the generation and transfer of knowledge to their children help in the life of the invariant or very slowly and changing conditions. Until quite recently, this type of knowledge - which aptly defines naturalness saying that she had been "sucked the mother's milk" - occupied a central position in the average landowner, and equipment was sufficiently helpful in the world and the meaning of rational behavior. Contemporary world in which they were born generations of fathers and grandfathers had to change several times in many ways - knowledge about the natural and social processes, the type of goods which are considered a resource essential to life and ways of producing them, the political landscape and the relationship of cultural transformation. "Today - concise observation, according to Marshall McLuhan - each of us lives several hundred years in the decade." In an era of dynamic changes in the luggage of knowledge and skills acquired as an inheritance from their ancestors is not only a precious drop, but more and more stress. For changes arising here, however, does not keep pace with human cognitive abilities and habits. For changes arising here, however, does not keep pace with human cognitive abilities and habits. “We look at the present through a rear-view mirror. We march backwards into the future” [M. McLuhan]. Excessive reliance on experience may not become a means of rational behavior in everchanging environment, but an obstacle to the understanding and rational procedure to optimize promising opportunities and minimizing risks posed by relevant multipliers to change constantly, which is the essence of globalization. The most evident proof of this qualitative change in the situation in this sphere is that more and more children and grandchildren will learn of their ancestors of modern handling equipment becoming indispensable in the life of modern man. It is a symptom of a deeper phenomenon - witness the fact that the young generation, entering into force in terms of transformations related to globalization, adapting spontaneously in a natural way to the changing reality, and this is very largely due to the fact that it is not carrying luggage outdated knowledge and habits of another era. About this and that a reservoir of experience ancestors may become valuable not so much fall, what a load of research findings indicate that community, gazing into the past, in particular, unable to free themselves from the historical fears and phobias, turn out to be less able to develop a civilization from the oriented the present and future. An example of the fact that the ability to overcome the age-old hostility with its neighbors is today a sine qua non to adapt to the requirements of European integration and peaceful coexistence Globe and cooperation.

Devalues also the traditional way of creating knowledge.

It becomes a fact at variance with the requirements of modern times. Until recently, the dominant arrogance denies knowing that the innate and acquired the possibility of creating, making transgression, analysis and use of human knowledge and information are very limited. Are mainly too small compared to the size of the problem requiring resolution today. A single man, not only do not perform their best, but often not even close to reasonable results. In order to solve increasingly complex problems of local and global, wishing to strengthen the individual capabilities of the mind and motivations of labile, people today make up teams, offices, institutions, laboratories. The most evident confirmation of this observation an annual list of Nobel Prize winners - the team rule in the physical sciences, social AIW also increasing, especially in economics. As a result of these changes science, which in the past few millennia in the seizure of the few most developed civilizations of their time in the past few centuries, a work unique in its time of discovery type of Copernicus, Darwin, Newton,

Einstein, and inventors such Marconi, Edison - is today strongest sector, whose effectiveness depends on the functionality of the powerful economic and social organisms - states, communities, interstate, transnational corporations.

Devalues the previously dominant methods and skills.

Increasingly proving inadequate pre-dominant means of apprenticeship occupation by the descendants of generations of ancestors - which are usually the most perfect manifestation of learning the craft guild. More - enough, it also appears, that it’s not enough skills for life. Meeting the demands of the modern needs of lifelong learning - still mastering new information and techniques in each field, in fact. And more and more frequently forced to change occupation following the decline in demand for vanishing professions. That makes today's society also points out the cemetery and the house deliveries; outdated and dead bodies, and classes are replaced by new structures of collective. This makes it "modern society also points out the cemetery and the house deliveries; outdated and dead bodies, and classes are replaced by new structures of collective" [Kozielecki: 36]. Parent still quite recently, professional groups are shrinking rapidly and unexpectedly, and descend from the stage of history. Evident example decrease the percentage of farmers - until recently the largest part of Polish society. Is typists rewrite someone else's text - which is necessary before ten years in each office, fitting into the computer each post office has been winding this profession, and even "halls of machinery" and an essential part of any large institution. Also reduces the size of the traditional manual workers. At the same time there are two new classes, which tended to dominate in more advanced societies culturally.

Has already devalued the method of trial and error in improving the efficiency of human action.

The evident expression is the substitution of this method of farming and agriculture - where he perfected since the dawn of the species and breeds through selection and cross-breeds - by genetic engineering. The necessity to replace the method of trial and error by the scientific method with a more helpful in predicting and designing is also increasingly evident in the areas of social life - economics and politics in particular. Sufficient argument in this matter is the fact that the scale of the Globe and destructive rocket-nuclear weapons is too great a risk to continue - as the millennium - the generals waged war past, or learn from their mistakes as they lead and end. Present knowledge involves primarily useful for the prevention and avoidance of such conflicts. It also requires leadership from public life application of scientific rules for the creation of political decisions.

The last but not least important negative effect of traditional cognitive behavior is the helplessness of the average landowner to dramatically growing flood of information.

This abundance of cities improve knowledge often results in the guise of knowledge - the number in this matter does not go far from itself in a higher quality, often in triviality. Humanity is not prepared for a critical review of information coming from the outside. Accustomed since the bulk of its history that most of the knowledge came from direct observation of both fathers and their own. Information outside of this circle were few, generally less relevant to life, and supported the authority of divine or human. This type of information was taken in an extreme manner. Be wary when strangers came to the sources, leading to a total negation and rejection. Or as an absolutely reliable when they were backed

by the authority of a charismatic ruler or divine. Evidenced by the fact that the JudeoChristian cultures "Scripture" is regarded as incontrovertible proof of the divinity of religious orders. Similarly, in the Muslim tradition, where the "letter" is honored to the extent that contemporary times do not apply where the toilet paper with respect to the matter on which the Koran is written. It is noteworthy that an uncritical attitude to information from written communication is stronger in the community until recently overwhelmingly analphabetic. Today, when the source of the knowledge necessary to life is not knowledge acquired from their ancestors, and formed his own direct observation, but the information coming from outside, through a wide range of media messages, both of these attitudes appear to be inappropriate. Cause cognitive or blocking a total distrust, or vulnerability to the lagoon and the apparent knowledge of false information. A competent contemporary advances in capacity to know reality, and the dissemination of this knowledge does not go hand in hand with the displacement of false knowledge of the real. True disseminated by the mass media is often sparse and hidden in the abundant plewach false, caused by locking, deformation and fabrication of information. Falsity is caused largely by a competent masmediom superficiality and selectivity of the information media, due to the sensationalism, the better "sellers' negative than positive events [" good news is no news - bad news it’s hit! "] This adds up to a bias caused by commercial gain [advertising], or political [political marketing] - making the information media, without particularly acute critical treatment "can - nothing detected viral files on your computer - deform and devastate audiences cognitive abilities. In total, this makes the number – growing stream showing the globalization of information - do not automatically replace the reliable quality of knowledge in this field. Less trouble when this kind of perception of reality is individual - causing the usually limited to units of the effects of possible errors in the proceedings. Larger, often dramatic, as characterized by the organizers of social life, because it results in disaster for the consequences of large social groups. And that happens often, because "today's leaders, party leaders and politicians, busy everyday life and living from election to election, too rarely think far-sightedness" [Kozielecki 11]. What makes the often "provide - according to the lapidary definition McLuhan - yesterday's answers to today's questions." A positive aspect of changes caused by the processes of globalization is to increase the role of science. It is becoming more common principal means of acquiring a sound knowledge necessary in understanding and making rational reality.

Learning is essential especially for the critical review of the facts - determine answers to basic cognitive process for each question: what is? Finding that the test aspect of reality is a fact - and not an artifacts for propaganda purposes, or sensationalism. This is the first, the initial level of scientific knowledge of every phenomenon - and hence globalization. Necessary - but not enough. Learning is essential for understanding the studied phenomenon - investigations based on verified facts as to the answer to another question: what is it? So enter into the nature of the phenomenon studied - often hidden and difficult to identify than is apparent from a superficial contemplation. Relevant to define the answer to the question: what is it? lead to seek answers to the third type of questions: what are the cause of this effect - studied with other

interdependent phenomena? Only the detection of the causal link to both predict the further course of events, as well as the design on the basis of guidance to assist in the rationalization of human action lead to seek answers to the third type of questions as to what the subject? Only the detection of the causal link to both predict the further course of events, as well as the design on the basis of guidance to assist in the rationalization of human action. The investigation the truth of scientific phenomena requires today - as in the past - the rejection of inductive methods "buckets" - uncritical mind filling informations about the phenomenon. Be content to uncritical knowledge and remembering information leads to a condition that can be defined succinctly: he knows a lot and little understood. Useless is also the method of "colander" - selective gathering only information confirming the thesis research. In debunking this kind of knowledge is biased to help check whether the expansion of its claim it relied on a solid weighing all the pros and cons of starting arguments. The most appropriate way is method of deductive "stream" - inquiry into the truth by comparing the hypothesis with the fullest possible set of facts subject to absolute critical review. This method of approaching the truth step by step: first hypothesis - then the antithesis - synthesis and as a result of a fair process closer to the knowledge-recognized phenomenon, Ralf Dahrendorf presents as follows: "translate something, which happens in the world, then we take the check whether our explanation is false. Progress of knowledge is the discovery of errors, falsification, because the errors are forcing us to build better theories "[Dahrendorf: 202].

Changes in the tasks of education
It is indisputable that the foundation of the progress of civilization in an era of globalization are the changes in education and modification of education. Bringing up the fact that young people acquire what is necessary (1) the self-determination of their identity - who we be, and (2) needed to acquire the knowledge, skills and virtues - you learn how to be. Hold back on the first could result education ambitious losers, restrict ourselves to another may result in the generation of efficient half - like a ship without a compass. Hence the need for clarification responses, which in the process of teaching and education should be instilled in young people. Forefront of a canon observation can be helpful in selfdetermination - the writer's opinion - be defined as follows.

Who we are - what are our interests? Human beings - jointly responsible for the survival and development of life on Earth. Are close to us, therefore, ideas and movements aimed at increasing the chances of survival and achievement of satisfaction with life present and future generations of people of each of the races, nationalities, religions and humanitarian outlook. Europeans - heirs with traditions of humanism, democracy, enlightenment, whose behavior and development requires the abolition of inveterate hostility and divisions, forming harmonious coexistence of all peoples in the common European home. Poles - a nation of history and wonderful, and tragic, a community of lasting as long as we live, which is better for us all to cooperate. In what work we participate? The use of the enormous opportunity to measure the progress of modern aspirations and opportunities of civilization. Since it is the

Constitution of May 3, another dramatic attempt by the Polish partner to gain position in most developed nations. The fact that previous attempts ended in disaster, or the progress of a half, it was caused by both internal selfishness, and by the hostile actions of other countries. Whether or not this time we are able to pierce through to modernity and partnership depends largely on the ability of conforming Polish collaboration and cooperation with nations whose fate is in our interdependent.

What shape of the global order and political system we favor? End to - let's start this question. This is because most important part of the list among compatriots disputes, required to better define the answer to the question: what does it mean today to be a Pole, the Euro and globally interdependent world. Discussion, which the kind of order may be effective if it will dominate the voice of young people. Because vise proverb "no matter how big is your dad - you have to grow yourself" means, that only the prospective outlook of youngest can define not only the answer to these questions, but to mobilize action to optimize opportunities and minimize risks of their future.

Deep, multilaterally revolutionary transformation of human existence, as revolutionary require qualitative changes in the educational process. Not limited to increasing knowledge about new scientific discoveries and the ability to use new techniques - what the easiest way. Changes in the present and in drawing up the future on the horizon, creating the need for qualitative transformation of education objectives, methods of organization of educational process and relations within the school community. Thrust of these changes can be defined briefly as educating the volatility, mobility, cooperativity and equal opportunities of social advancement. It is not only different but also opposition to the traditionally preferred education for repeatability, stability, individualism, and a career.

Replacing the traditional vocational education to the variability of repeatability is the prime change forced by the revolutionary changes generating by revolutionary progress scientific and technical in production, services, sales and consumption.

For centuries and millennia based on various versions of social order was a repetition of activities related to the satisfaction of the needs of living and organizing social life. Hence, the core educational process to teach the accumulated body of knowledge by his predecessors, to train similar skills, the implementation of identical habits. That was until yesterday the nature of educational requirements for each profession, class and nation. And so it is still being with the momentum, habit, tradition, strength - despite qualitative changes and educational needs. Today, the adopter to independent living training to generations of repeatability proves to be not only useless but actually harmful. Traditionalist education consist primarily on providing his students some knowledge. The premise - a real advance - that the resource will be permanently updated and rather a non-significant enrichment in the course of life so educated pupil. Revolution in science and technology makes these axioms completely obsolete. We have entered a time when the body of knowledge is increasing constantly, and even the axioms of science are reviewed many times during the life of the same generation. Phenomenon is also exacerbated by changes in jobs, forced changes in the demand for specialists. This can be seen - on the one hand - the expiration of demand for the work

performed by an electronically controlled machines cheaper, faster and accurately than humans. On the other hand - the emergence of new areas in which people appear to indispensable. These changes are faster than the average length of professional activity - it is estimated that in most developed countries, employees change the kind of work that sometimes games, at least seven times. Disappearing professions, which could learn and perform them throughout their professional life. Meeting the demands of today's employment - and of being, the purchase and use of modern types of consumer goods - requires not only learn what to do and handle, but to teach the learning, habituation of the new techniques, technologies, ways of working and living conditions. Hence, more evidently appears don’t adequate training only in certain professions. It becomes necessary learning skills to adapt flexibly to rapidly transform the living conditions and use these changes to improve themselves and their descendants being. Education must take into account the variability of that knowledge is enriched by the tremendous acceleration - so you do not have enough knowledge to learn how to train the ability to continuously participate in the process of expanding human knowledge. Education must also draw lessons from the fact that no school, but the media dissemination of the media are becoming the main source of knowledge. Still dominant in education traditionalist approach means that the effect of enhancing human knowledge is increasing the volume (weight ai!) School textbooks. What makes that with each additional class increases the percentage of students with scoliosis. Continuing this approach will become evident in the absurd situation where the manuals will increasingly compete online with the encyclopedic knowledge of film and the various items illustrated and audibly ( "I'm feeling bored in the classroom biology - is not anything new to learn!" - This assertion of my granddaughter Michalinki, exciting in this field and enthusiasm discovering ever new possibilities of knowledge via the internet). The fitting to use the offered opportunities for progress of civilization requires a change for the better education puts a priority on the disclosure and develop the full range of talents of all pupils. Talents since become the most important in the era of information technology capital of each individual and the community.

The second type of change required of the educational process involves the requirement to prepare for mobility.

In the past, migration - to manage the new territories, and resettlement - often ended their repopulation for many generations. Contemporary needs of mobility - not just once in the new resettlement site, but the attitude of the most ambitious, enterprising the nomadic lifestyle. Stability of domestication, understood as the grandfather of his grandfather in the same habitat and environment, inheritance, employment or occupation of the workshop is becoming distinctly past. Increasingly disseminated shipment to other localities, countries on other continents - often repeated - for better work, more security, more comfortable living conditions. Aspiring to occupy higher paid and more prestigious functions must reckon with contemporary movements every few years to other parts of the country or even the world. Configured in the same structures inevitably losing in the competition for promotions to the mobile, familiar with various bands for social and cultural environments. This imposes a need to learn other languages, openness to other cultural ways of life. Categorical requirement of the new era becomes a familiarization to the mobility in each of the above-mentioned meanings. It overcome the outdated tradition of study treatment codes as separate schools, where students of different Vintages of the same teams lecture and seminars are taught by five years. Becomes inevitable replacement of this type of educational

establishments with modern practice, the appropriate reduction of such forms to the major subjects - from the field, which is a bachelor or master's degree. And the association with a wide choice of basic subjects, classified by groups of students from different directions, with a choice of teachers leading seminars and classes. Higher floors, mobile learning will probably become more commonly inter-study - available for above-average students. While the highest - in the obligatory - exchange students per year-two of the other domestic and foreign universities, Allowing expansion opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge and training process by studying the mobile active life - to measure the requirements of present and future.

The third type of change required of the educational process is to develop skills and habits partnership collectivity.

Incentives need to change this, we presented several times - on the occasion of the dynamicefficiency reasons, the progress of civilization Far "tigers", the changes caused in the economics and politics of globalization, this chapter AIW - Polish analyzing the weaknesses and strengths. Obvious that there defined the on changes in modern manufacturing and service enterprises, and democratic organization of society must be accompanied by transformation of the educational process. Their essence is to overcome the system, rooted in the outdated location traditionalistic playing the role of master teacher treating each student as subordinate-worker. Education to require treatment collectivity school education as a process of initiating training process to live and work in interdependent teams. Initiating - the school is the first form of contact with the wider community than the family. Familiarization to the line with the spirit of the new era requires cooperativity go beyond the traditional individual accounting for each of the students of knowledge gained. Enrichment of the learning process by associating the development of individuality - is still needed - from vocational cooperativity. This requires a transition from individual work style: the professor-student teamwork: team teaching - a team of students. From this perspective, incomparably greater than in the past, the role must meet various forms of self-organization and self-government students. Children and adolescents are not able to win on their own position in the partnership relations with older - both with older peers and with teachers. Atomization automatically sets them as subordinate, compelled only to listen to orders and judgments - have nothing to say. " Affiliate status may be realistically achieved only with organized groups. Social needs have the property that is not implemented in a positive manner, is an outlet in the negative forms of behavior and organization. Dominant in the Polish education traditionalist approach atomizing student’s community becomes a source of loneliness, alienation, a significant part of students. Or dissemination of the dangerous phenomenon of children and youth criminal groups, which are essentially forms of spontaneous self-organization, to meet the need to overcome loneliness and receiving power and influence in groups are not available individually.

With the above involves a third type of transformation necessary educational process: ensuring equal opportunities for social advancement.

Beginning of the path of progress should be equal opportunities of education - to overcome the tendency is not available to higher levels of education for young people from poorer families and communities, "further from the highway." This requirement is not only motivated by considerations of social justice - though it is also important, but efficiency in capturing the position of partner in an integrating Europe and a global "village". It's about learning to "screen" not "lose diamonds" - perhaps the quintessential "natural resource" Polish. For it is indisputable matter of course that talent, potential capabilities, abstract

thinking ability, not according to the fate bestows wealth of parents, but more or less evenly descendants of different classes, races, nations. The educational system must serve the disclosure and "grinding" the optimal amount of potential talent across the Polish population. Should - but does not serve. Statistical data and research shows that parents with children in poor families - and they are the majority - have little chance to change their social status. Finishing at low levels of education, secondary illiteracy, functional illiteracy and the related phenomenon of poverty becomes hereditary. "Invisible hand of the market 'cause intensification of negative selection in favor of cities access to education and therefore opportunities for the exploitation of talented" diamonds "and social advancement. Today, still dominant is the past formed the type of individual careers. This type of promotion proves to be outdated when the asset becomes a collectivity rather than individualism. Contemporary and forward-looking nature of the aspiration to better define the concept of social promotion - that is, a qualitative improvement of the position and existence of the whole community: residents previously backward localities and regions and disadvantaged classes, races, nations - to overcome the division between the privileged and pauperized.

Bibliografy:
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R. Dahrendof: Ponad granicami, Kraków 2003 J. Kozielecki: Koniec wieku nieodpowiedzialności, Warszawa 1995 M. McLuhan: If it works, it’s obsolete, ww.marshallmcluhan.com.poster.html

Source: Mariusz Gulczyński: Jak uczyć się uczyć żyć w epoce globalizacji [w:] J. Kornaś [red.]: Nowoczesny Lewiatan. Studia nad współczesnym państwem, Kielce 2006