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R. J. ALCOCK and Y. MANOLOPOULOS Data Engineering Laboratory, Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006, Thessaloniki, GREECE.

1. SUMMARY Time-series, or time-sequence, data show the value of a parameter over time. A common query with time-series data is to find all sequences which are similar to a given sequence. The most common technique for evaluating similarity between two sequences involves calculating the Euclidean distance between them. However, many examples can be given where two similar sequences are separated by a large Euclidean distance. In this paper, instead of calculating the Euclidean distance directly between two sequences, the sequences are transformed into a feature vector and the Euclidean distance between the feature vectors is then calculated. Results show that this approach is superior for finding similar sequences. 2. INTRODUCTION Time-series data are sequences showing the value of a parameter, or sometimes parameters, over time. Important time series include stock market prices, interest rates, sales of a product, scientific results, weather readings and medical records. A common query with time-series data is to find all sequences which are similar to a given sequence. In formal terms, given a time series ri of length n (1≤i≤n), it is required to find all stored time series which are similar to ri. The problem can be extrapolated to two dimensions, where it is required to find all stored images similar to a given image [1]. When similar sequences have been found, it is then possible to use these sequences to facilitate tasks such as prediction. In time-series literature, the most common technique for evaluating similarity between two sequences is to calculate the Euclidean distance between them and if this is below a given threshold ε, then the two sequences are said to be similar [2]. The distance D between two sequences ri and si, both of length n, can be calculated by:

D = ∑ ((ri − si ) p )1 / q

i =1

n

(1)

5]. for time-series similarity. As the first few Fourier co-efficients contain most of the information. According to Parseval’s theorem. If this is compared with a second time series with a shift at a later time t2 (t2 >> t1) then the Euclidean distance depends upon how much larger t2 is than t1. To overcome the shortcomings of using Euclidean distance for similarity queries. it is vital that the found sequences are in fact similar. Such transformations include shifts (vertical and horizontal). most research in the area has concentrated upon finding similar sequences as quickly as possible. [2] proposed that signals could be transformed into the Fourier space using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). non-matching parts could appear at any point in the sequence and be of various sizes. Therefore. The problem . Given this definition of similarity. formula (1) represents the Euclidean distance. Another approach gives two criteria that must be met for two sequences to be considered similar [4]. However. 1). many researchers have advocated that the query sequence should be transformed before applying the Euclidean distance [7-11]. y(t) y(t) t1 t t2 t Fig. a signal can be compressed by using just the first few co-efficients to store it. scaling (linear and amplitude) and removal of non-matching parts. the two sequences should be found to be similar. 1 Similar Sequences Separated by a Large Euclidean Distance Agrawal et al. scaling could be of any real-valued size and shifts could occur at any time during the sequence. Many examples can be given where two similar sequences are not close using the Euclidean distance metric. whilst the DFT is very useful for compression and storage of signals. it was proposed to utilise also the last few Fourier coefficients. A simple example would be a pattern involving an upward shift at time t1 (Fig. Many other examples have been given where similar sequences are separated by a large Euclidean distance [3. the number of transformations that a sequence could undergo is infinite and searching for the correct sequence of transformations would face the combinatorial explosion problem. Therefore. However. irrelevant of where the step occurs. it gives the same results as employing the original signal. The first is the Euclidean distance and the second is that the distance between two corresponding points in the two sequences cannot be larger than a given threshold. Whilst it is important to find similar time sequences quickly.When p=q=2. the Euclidean distance between two signals is preserved in the Fourier space. Also. 4. In later work by Rafiei and Mendelzon [6].

the sequences are transformed into feature vectors and the Euclidean distance is then calculated between these vectors. decreasing trend. Upward shift: y(t) = m + rs + kx (6) Where. Thus. the idea of similarity varies. Downward shift: y(t) = m + rs – kx (7) . for each pattern. Two patterns can be considered similar if they are generated by the same equation. The control chart patterns described in [3.5 for each pattern 4. Control chart patterns are time series that show the level of a machine parameter plotted against time. 3. Cyclic pattern: y(t) = m + rs + aSIN(2πt/T) Where a and T take values between 10 and 15 for each pattern 3. normally a human observer is required to verify this. Increasing shift: y(t) = m + rs +gt Where g takes a value between 0.2 and 0. Each time sequence is of length n and is represented by an array of values y(t). instead of calculating the Euclidean distance between two sequences. the two sequences would be found to be dissimilar. PROBLEM DEFINITION One major problem in assessing the effectiveness of techniques for similarity queries is that there is no mathematical definition for similarity. the features can be employed as a signature for indexing [12]. Thus. Even between different humans. Decreasing shift: y(t) = m + rs – gt (2) (3) (4) (5) 5. Each equation represents a different type of pattern. 13] are artificially generated by six equations. The six pattern types are illustrated in Figs 2 to 7 and are described as normal.5 and 20. k = 0 before time t3 and 1 after this time. if an algorithm finds that two sequences are similar. 13]. by its nature. If the dimension of the feature vectors is small. It is proposed here that. where 1≤t≤n. which do have some quantifiable similarity [3.is that the two sequences could be similar except for one erroneous point that differs widely between the two sequences. similarity cannot be defined exactly. Therefore. s= 2 and r is a random number between ±3 2. upward shift and downward shift. cyclic. this paper proposes the use of time-series data called control chart patterns. increasing trend. x takes a value between 7. Normal pattern: y(t) = m + rs Where m = 30. 1. t3 takes a value between n/3 and 2n/3 for each pattern 6. The equations used here are based on those given in [3] and are as given below. Whilst it is trivial to model equality mathematically.

it is proposed here that a set of features. 5 Example of a Decreasing Trend 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 Fig. The motivation to employ features comes from the field of image processing [14].40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 Fig. 7 Example of a Downward Shift 4. The equations for these are: . standard deviation (σ). called a feature vector. 6 Example of an Upward Shift Fig.1 First-Order Features The most commonly-used first-order features are the statistical features. Many different features have been employed in image processing to classify objects. skewness (SKEW) and kurtosis (KURT). is calculated from each time series. FEATURES As previously mentioned. or brightness. 4. Features that describe the intensity. 3 Example of a Cyclic Pattern 40 30 20 10 0 -10 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 Fig. 4 Example of an Increasing Trend 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 Fig. First-order features are based on the actual intensity of pixels and second-order features are based on the difference in intensities of nearby pixels. 2 Example of a Normal Pattern 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 Fig. of the pixels (picture elements) which constitute an object can be divided into first-order features and second-order features. The feature vectors are used by the distance function to determine similarity. mean (µ).

five co-occurrence features (energy.j ≤Q). Finally. 2.2 Second-Order Features The most common second-order features in image processing are co-occurrence features which have been shown to perform better than other second-order features [14]. by a point with level j.µ = ∑ n n y (t ) n (8) t =1 σ= ∑ ( y(t ) − µ ) t =1 n (9) SKEW = ∑ ( y(t ) − µ ) t =1 n 3 nσ 3 (10) KURT = ∑ ( y(t ) − µ ) t =1 n 4 nσ 4 −3 (11) 4. 3. 1. 4 is quantised into 2 levels (Q=2) then it becomes 1. j ) σ xσ y (14) Where: . Here. if the sequence 1. Point (i. inertia and local homogeneity (LH)) are calculated using the following equations: Energy = ∑∑ c(i. 2. the data is quantised into Q levels. log(c(i. Second. First. 2. a two dimensional matrix c(i. at a distance d1. j) in the matrix represents the number of times that a point in the sequence with level i is followed. j ) 2 i =1 j =1 n n (12) Entropy = ∑∑ c(i. j )) i =1 j =1 n n (13) COR = ∑∑ (i − µ i =1 j =1 n n x )( j − µ y )c(i. their description relates to how co-occurrence features can be calculated for a one-dimension time series. j) is constructed (1≤ i. entropy. correlation (COR). j ). For example.

F is the number of patterns incorrectly found to be similar and M is the maximum value which T can take. the Euclidean distances between the feature vectors were calculated. j ) 2 i =1 x j =1 n n n (17) 2 σy = ∑ ( j − µ ) ∑ c(i. Second. 600 patterns were generated. a one-dimensional array is calculated called D(t): D(t) = y(t+d2) – y(t) 1 ≤ t ≤ n-d2 (21) Where d2 is the distance between the points being compared. These features have the advantages that they do not require quantisation and are relatively simple to calculate. First. SKEW2 and KURT2. skewness and kurtosis. j ) 2 j =1 y i =1 n n n (18) Inertia = ∑∑ (i − j ) 2 c(i. 5. from this array. 100 of each type with n equal to 60 as in [3. Then. RESULTS For the experiments. standard deviation. j ) j =1 i =1 n n n (16) σ x2 = ∑ (i − µ ) ∑ c(i. . j ) i =1 j =1 n n (19) LH = ∑∑ i =1 n 1 c(i.3 New Second-Order Features New second-order features for time-series data are proposed here. These will be referred to as µ2. The performance measure employed was: Performance = (T – F) / M (22) where T is the number of patterns found to be similar which actually are similar. j ) 2 j =1 1 + (i − j ) n (20) 4.µx = ∑ i ∑ c(i. 13]. Each pattern was taken in turn and compared against the other 599. Features were extracted from the patterns and then scaled between 0 and 1 because each of the features has a different range. σ2. four statistical features are calculated: mean. j ) i =1 j =1 n n n (15) µy = ∑ j ∑ c(i.

The effect of varying Q and D1 can also be seen in Table 1. Features employed Parameters for second order features Q D1 3 3 4 3 4 3 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 µ √ √ √ √ √ √ σ √ √ √ √ √ √ Skew √ Kurt √ √ √ √ √ Energy √ √ Entropy √ √ COR √ √ Inertia √ √ LH √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Average performance (3 runs) 0. As with the second set of experiments. When the new second-order features are employed without the firstorder features.173). the performance (0. Each experiment was run three times and the average performance taken. Indeed. optimal performance is achieved when T equals M and F is zero.000 Table 1 Experiments Using Co-occurrence Features Table 2 shows the performance of the third set of experiments.473) was achieved when the first and second-order features were employed together. the Euclidean distance between the first-order and co-occurrence features was calculated. In this case.Therefore. The best performance was achieved when the first and second-order features were employed together with parameter values Q=3 and D1=1. when employed without the first-order features.451 0. This confirms that the approach of determining sequence similarity based on the pure Euclidean distance between sequences is far from perfect.158 0.393 0. The first set of experiments.371 0.371. the overall performance is 1. Third. The main conclusion when comparing Tables 1 and 2 is that the second-order features proposed in this paper perform better than co-occurrence features for timeseries similarity queries. Second. the performance was determined of simply calculating the Euclidean distance between the original time series. gave a performance of 0.452. a global search was performed for the best value to use simultaneously for all 600 patterns.173 0. First. However. the co-occurrence features. The results of the second set of experiments are shown in Table 1. gave a poor performance (0. the results show that skewness adds very little extra benefit when employed with the other seven features. Three sets of experiments were carried out. Simple visual analysis of the feature values showed that skewness might not be very useful in discriminating between the patterns. It can be seen from Table 2 that KURT2 adds little extra benefit when added to the .422 0. calculating the Euclidean distance between the original signals.081 0. The best performance obtained was 0. which shows that the feature-based approach is better than the simple Euclidean distance approach.358 0.463) is higher than any result achieved with the co-occurrence features.452 0. the first-order and new second-order features were employed to differentiate the signals. As it is not yet known how to determine ε optimally. the best performance (0.

simple preprocessing could be tried on the signals. This feature-based approach gave a superior performance than the traditional approach. work could be performed on the matching of subsequences.471 0. CONCLUSION Most previous work in time-series similarity analysis has used the Euclidean distance between the signals as the basis for similarity. Features employed Skew µ σ √ √ √ √ √ √ Kurt √ √ µ2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ σ2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Skew2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Kurt2 √ D2 7 7 7 7 7 5 9 3 7 1 7 Average performance (3 runs) 0. Fourth. Common features employed in image processing were utilised as the basis for the experiments.414 0. This paper has adopted a feature-based approach to similarity queries.000 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Table 2 Experiments Using the New Second-Order Features 6.other seven features. Also.375 0. However. the developed techniques should be used on real data sequences. Also. experiments could be carried out to determine automatically the optimal threshold for ε. .321 0. such as scaling and smoothing.279 0. many cases can be found where similar sequences are separated by a large Euclidean distance. new features could be developed and the optimum features determined to employ in similarity queries. new second-order features were developed and it was found these gave a better performance than co-occurrence features. different distance functions could be tested. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the European Commission for funding the stay of Robert Alcock at Aristotle University under the Chorochronos project (EC ref: FMRX960056). Finally. First. as proposed in [15]. µ2 is a vital second-order feature. Any real patterns used need to be put manually into type categories to enable the performance measure to be calculated. Patterns which could be employed include stock market prices and electrocardiograms (ECGs) [16].428 0. as the other three second-order features alone cannot discriminate between the signals at all.417 0. These were first-order statistical features and second-order cooccurrence features.473 0. Second.463 0. Fifth. A possibility would be to utilise different values for p and q in formula (1). Future work could be performed in many areas to improve upon the achieved performance. Third.049 0.

A. Australia. pp. (1996) [15] C. Rafiei and A. 201 – 208. Schek and S. Vol. H. Shim.V. pp. Data and Knowledge Engineering. Mannila. No.O. Lin. (1999) [6] D.339. Int. Trondheim.K. UK. Milo. H. on Very Large Databases (VLDB). Similarity-Based Queries. Medelzon and T. (1998) [2] R. Sydney. Techniques for Automated Visual Inspection of Birch Wood Boards. A Fast Projection Algorithm for Sequence Data Searching. Control Chart Pattern Recognition Using Learning Vector Quantization Networks. Conf. (1998) [7] R.Q. Mendelzon. Wong. Weber. Faloutsos. Conf. A Quantitative Analysis and Performance Study for Similarity-Search Methods in High-Dimensional Spaces. 212. Ranganathan and Y. Mendelzon and T. Vol. pp. K. Kobe. Mech. pp. Springer Verlag). Proc. Kanellakis.H. Minnesota. Faloutsos. Efficient Retrieval of Similar Time Sequences Using DFT. 419 – 429. (1994) [14] R. 115 – 127. Goldin and P. 410 – 417. pp. Sawhney and K. 14th Int.C. 28. Agrawal. (1998) [5] D. 321 . on Foundations of Data Organisations and Algorithms. On Similarity Queries for Time-Series Data: Constraint Specification and Implementation. 69 84. (1998) . on Data Engineering. Proc. pp. PhD thesis. Conf. on Management of Data. Jagadish. pp. Trondheim.J.V. 1. 3. 21st Int. New York. Cassis. Japan. School of Engineering. Using Signature Files for Querying Time-Series Data. on Very Large Databases. France. Jagadish and C. (1998) [4] S.V. Rafiei. ACM SIGMOD Int. Proc. 88 – 100. H. Conf. Zurich. (1997) [13] D. 1st Int. (Also in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 730. 211 – 220. Yi. Alcock. M. (1995) [10] G. Scaling. Symposium on Principles of Database Systems. Prod. Proc. Efficient Retrieval of Similar Time Sequences Under Time Warping. (1995) [8] D. 36 – 45. 721-729.K. (1993) [3] D. Faloutsos. 24th Int. Gunopulos and H. Efficient Similarity Search in Sequence Databases. on Data Engineering.O. 1st European Symposium on Principles of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. 32.J.T. Finding Similar Time Series. Vol. Res. California. Agrawal. Proc. 137-153. Blott.T. Fast Subsequence Matching in TimeSeries Databases. (1997) [11] C. Proc. C. Instn. On Similarity-Based Queries for Time Series Data. Swami. Milo. Positano-Salerno. pp. Conf. Engrs. Badal. Italy. pp.S. 194 – 205. Proc. pp. Cardiff University. SEQUENCES 97. Pham and E. 15th Int. Signature Technique for Similarity-Based Queries. Proc. Das. J. D. on Foundations of Data Organization and Algorithms. Switzerland. Chicago. Conf. Norway. (1997) [12] H. Jagadish. pp. on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming. A.B. 1st European Symposium on Principles of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Fast Similarity Search in the Presence of Noise. pp. No. Faloutsos and A. 3. Minneapolis. Lam and M.REFERENCES [1] R. H.O. Int. and Translation in Time-Series Databases. Manolopoulos. Norway. 490 – 501. Chan. Oztemel. Pham and A. Conf. pp. (1995) [9] H. Conf.Z. No. Proc. 4th Int. Control Chart Pattern Recognition Using a New Type of SelfOrganising Neural Network. Proc. San Jose. Proc. Andre-Jonsson and D. (1994) [16] B.

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