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Lecture #4

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System Unit Motherboard Central Processing Unit

Computer Hardware we will cover today:
Components of the system unit Motherboard Central Processing Unit
Control Unit ALU

System Clock Coprocessors

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What’s happening inside the computer? Computer Architecture CPU Input Output Memory Storage 2 .

System Unit (or chassis) The box-like case that houses the electronic components of the computer.RAM and ROM 3 . motherboard expansion cards ports memory hard drive floppy and CD drives tower model Motherboard (also called system board) The main circuit board in the computer has on it: CPU or Microprocessor chip System clock Power supply/battery Heat Sink Ports Expansion slots Buses – allow communication between components Memory .

Battery Provides power for the system clock. Motherboard 4 . ROM BIOS Cache RAM Stores and retrieves information for the microprocessor at a faster rate than SIMM RAM so instructions can be executed faster. 32 Bit PCI Slots Allows expansion cards that can transfer data faster than ISA slots. SIMM RAM Bank Single Inline Memory Module stores data to be used by the microprocessor. sound and video cards. Allows expansion of computer through modem. Basic Input/Output System stores permanent instructions that start the computer.Major Components of a Motherboard 16 Bit ISA Slots Microprocessor Single integrated circuit that executes the majority of the instructions to process data. Power Connector Supplies power to the motherboard.

is the brain of the computer. Chip – small semi-conducting material that contains integrated circuit(s) (often used interchangeably with integrated circuit). also called the microprocessor or chip. 5 . diodes.Some Definitions Integrated circuit – microscopic pathway capable of carrying electric current. It interprets and carries out the instructions that operate a computer. contain transistors. Central Processing Unit The Central Processing Unit. capacitors. and resistors that act as the gates (electronic switches).

4. 3. gets instruction from memory (called fetching) translates the instruction (decoding) performs the command (executing) writes result to memory (storing) instruction cycle 6 .The CPU has two parts: The Control Unit coordinates and controls all parts of the computer The Arithmetic Logic Unit does all the processing and calculations (including word processing) 0110011101110111011001110110 11100110101110111011101 Control Unit 1. 2.

storing location of instruction storing instruction while decoding storing data while its being processed storing results of calculation (accumulator) 011010101010101010011010101010101101101010110101011010101010101010101011010101 01010101010101011111101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101001 Arithmetic Logic Unit Arithmetic (+. x. = . /) Comparative (<. . >) Logical (AND.. OR.Registers Registers – are special high-speed storage locations that temporarily hold data and instructions during the machine cycle. NOT) 0110101010101010100110101010101011011010101101010110101010101010101010110 1010101010101010101011111101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101001 7 .

System Clock generates regular pulses or ticks each tick is a clock cycle clock speed (or rate) is the speed at which a processor executes instructions Clock speeds are measured in megahertz (one million ticks per second) and gigahertz (one billion ticks per second) Comparing and Upgrading Processors Chip for Chip – replace existing processor with new one Piggyback – stack new processor on top of old Daughterboard – circuit board which plugs into the motherboard to add capabilities 8 .

Heat Sinks 9 . Coprocessors – additional processor chip that assists the processor in performing specific tasks.Speeding things up Pipelining – CPU begins executing a second instruction before the previous instruction has completed its machine cycle. Parallel Processors – Using more than one processor to divide up the work.

Explain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle to process data 4. Know what the two parts of the CPU are and what they do 3.Binary Numbers 0110011101110111011001110110111001101011101110111010011 01010101110110111011011101101110101110110111010111011 0110111011011101011111110 0 and 1 are binary digits called bits eight bit binary numbers are bytes half of a byte (4 bits) is a nibble One byte represents 256 separate symbols or characters Characters and symbols are defined using a coding scheme like ASCII (see page 192) Be sure you know how to: 1. Describe the components on the mother board 2. Define a bit and describe how a series of bits represents data 10 .

Reading Assignment: Read 193 .200 in Discovering Computers 2005 : Memory 11 .