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Quiz - Environmental Science and Sustainability 1. Most of the environmental problems we face are a. increasing linearly c.

increasing exponentially e. increasing logarithmically b. decreasing linearly d. decreasing exponentially 2. A sustainable society a. manages its economy and population size c. protects resources for future generations e. all of the above b. satisfies the needs of its people d. lives within its carrying capacity 3. If the world’s population grew by 2% in 1998 and continued at that rate, how long before the world population doubles? a. 20 years b. 25 years c. 30 years d. 35 years e. 40 years 4. The market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within a country for final use during a year is the a. gross national product b. gross domestic product c. per capita GNP d. per capita GDP e. inflation GNP 5. Which of the following statements about developed countries is true? a. they tend to be highly agricultural d. they make up about one-fifth of the world’s population b. they have low to moderate per capita GNP’s e. they consume about one-fifth of the world’s resources c. they are primarily in Africa, Asia, and Latin America 6. Which of the following is not a renewable resource a. groundwater b. trees in a forest c. fertile soil d. air e. oil 7. Resources that are called nonrenewable a. are also called perpetual resources c. are capable of economic depletion e. none of the above b. are only resources that are alive d. b and c 8. Point sources of pollution include all of the following except a. an automobile exhaust pipe c. a drainpipe from a power plant e. a chimney of a house b. a factory smokestack d. fertilizer runoff from lawns 9. Ronald observed the bird feeder hung from the hemlock tree in the backyard. Chickadees can fly. Blue jays can fly. Cardinals can fly. “I think all birds can fly,” he concluded. He was a. using inductive reasoning e. a nd c b. using deductive reasoning f. a and d c. creating a generalization from specific observations g. b and c d. hypothesizing about a specific observation from a generalization h. b and d 10. Compared to other natural sciences, environmental science focuses more on a. simplistic thinking d. isolating one variable for study b. comparing experimental groups to control groups e. the pieces; not the big picture c. connections and interactions 11. The population of country X in June 1987 was 500 million. The population reached 1 billion in June 2001. What was the growth rate (%) for this time period? a. 2% b. 3.5% c. 5% d. 7% e. 9% 12. Consumption of resources fuels industrialization and technology, which increase and consume still more resources. This is an example of a a. positive feedback loop b. negative feedback loop c. homeostatic feedback loop d. reductive feedback loop 13. The underlying message from the passage of Ishmael read in class would be. a. avoid trial in error at all costs c. civilization must abide by natural laws b. the Takers have no hope in survival d. planes cannot defy the law of gravity 14. The wealth gap as discussed in class most violates which principle of sustainable development. a. biophysical limits b. intergenerational equity c. intragenerational equity d. ecological justice 15. According to the U.S. National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 14 major commercial fish species in U.S. waters are so depleted that even if all fishing stopped immediately, it would take up to 20 years for stocks to recover. It may be argued that this situation violates several principles of sustainable development. Which of the following principles is least affected. a. biophysical limits b. intergenerational equity c. intragenerational equity d. ecological justice 1. Liquid, solid, and gas are a. physical forms of matter b. chemical forms of matter c. mixtures d. compounds e. elements 2. Life in the ecosphere depends on interaction of gravity and a. one-way flow of energy d. cycling of matter

Which correctly lists these levels in sequence from narrower to broader focus? a. carbon dioxide b. conservation of matter d. ecosphere . none of the above c. decomposing dead tissues c. a bullet fired at high velocity 6. Organic compounds include all of the following except a. In the field.populations . 70-90 c.communities . organic compounds b. 45-60 b.ecosystems . carnivore –> detritus feeder –> scavenger –> decomposer e. Finally. chlorinated hydrocarbons 16. sodium c. 1-5 d. low e. Crabs attack the remaining fragments. high c. zinc 5. scrap metal junk yard 7. bacteria complete the breakdown and recycling of organic material. organisms . iodine b. conservation of energy e. kill. ecosphere .communities . flow of energy and matter b. what would be the correct sequence? a. decomposer –> scavenger –> detritus feeder –> carnivore d. The relative quality of electricity is a. very high b. The following choices list levels of organization of matter that claim the attention of ecologists.ecosphere b. hydrocarbons e. a population 14. potential energy c.communities . chemical energy in an apple e. cycling of energy e. H2O and NaCl are a. a lithosphere b. a and d c.ecosystems d.b. carnivore –> detritus feeder –> decomposer –> scavenger c.ecosystems . entropy 4. a shelf of iron supplements in the pharmacy e. and eat a gazelle. a one-half-mile-deep deposit of iron ore b. chlorofluorocarbons d. chemosynthesis b.ecosystems . A vulture pecks away at the left over meat scraps. Which of the following is a macronutrient? a. Life of an individual organism is maintained by a.ecosystems . elements d. moderate d. If you were to apply a general classification to the feeders.populations .communities – organisms 9. An example of potential energy is a. carbohydrates c.ecosphere . plant pollination e.ecosphere c. a. The amount of energy transferred from an organism on one trophic level to the next trophic level varies from _________ % a.populations . a leaf falling from a tree b. cycling of energy and flow of matter d.communities . organisms . copper e. mixtures e. All of the following factors have strong effects on terrestrial ecosystems except . A community of living organisms interacting with one another and the physical and chemical factors of their nonliving environment is a. iron deposits on the ocean floor d.organisms e. a biosphere c. carbon d. Which of the following sources of iron would be of the highest quality? a. The next evening. The service least likely to be performed by the insect family is a. flow of energy and cycling of matter e. organisms . very low 10. cycling of energy and matter 11. plant reproduction d. A parent and a child spent 30 minutes picking up all the toys and placing them on the shelves and in the drawers. electricity flowing through a wire d. carnivore –> scavenger –> decomposer –> detritus feeder b. carnivore –> scavenger –> detritus feeder –> decomposer\ 8.populations . turning the soil 12. The concept which best describes this observation is. an ecosystem e. a species d. usually liquids c. a large. 5-20 e. 20-30 13. most of the toys were back on the floor. kinetic energy b. a field of spinach c. a perpetual motion machine c. inorganic compounds 15. one-way flow of matter 3. you observe a lion chase.populations .

. recycled as it reaches the chain’s end 18. If something is biodegradable. nitrogen e. stratosphere b. A mineral is a. All of the following live off remains or wastes of organisms except a. naturally occurring solid 26. scavengers 28. an inorganic. cannot be broken down by any living processes b. elements consisting of a compound and an ion e. detritivores b. equal to the energy the system creates e. degraded to low-quality heat b. biomass e. . hydrosphere e. synthetic solid b. numbers 31. precipitation e. temperature d. 140 d. humans affect the environment e. returned to the system eventually b. carnivores d. an organic. a. Earth is essentially a closed system for a. Ecology is the study of how a. in the form of heat d. level of plant nutrients in the soil c. temperature d. The ecological efficiency at each trophic level of a particular ecosystem is 20%. can be broken down by chemosynthesizers c. Most of the energy input in a food chain is a. All of the following are elements except a. water currents c. . plays a strong ecological role d. detritivores b. is subjected to artificial selection 27. energy c. 20 . hydrogen d. energy runs the environment b. If the green plants of the ecosystem capture 100 units of energy. decomposers e. it a. All of the following are among the six elements which make up the vast majority of the atoms of all living things except a. matter and energy d. none of the above. can be broken down by autotrophs d. usually found d. organisms interact with each other and their nonliving environment 24. carbon 29. biosphere d. molecules consisting of two ions of the same element c. converted into an equal amount of matter c. All live off wastes c. molecules consisting of two atoms of the same element b. troposphere 20. hydrogen e. sodium c. naturally occurring solid d. salinity 25. matures in a natural habitat b. precipitation e. plays a strong evolutionary role e. converted to biomass e. can be broken down by heterotrophs e. nature of the soil 17. synthetic solid c. an inorganic. omnivores d. used to recycle detritus c. carbon b. about units of energy will be available to support herbivores. nitrogen d. omnivores c. molecules consisting of two elements of the same compound 30. an organic. producers 19. matter b. oxygen c. rarely interacts with the human species c. lithosphere c. neither matter nor energy 32. compounds consisting of two different elements d. chemicals c. The pyramid which best explains why there are typically only four to five links in a food chain is the pyramid of a. and about units of energy will be available to support carnivores. All of the following are major causes of differences among aquatic ecosystems except a. . atoms make up the environment d. The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the a. 120 . naturally occurring liquid e. societies pass laws to protect the environment c. water b. energy d. dissolved oxygen b. A domesticated species a. N2 and O2 are examples of a.a. converted to lower-quality energy 22. The energy “lost” by a system is a. can be broken down by decomposers 21. matter b. Children fly kites in the a. sulfur 23. an inorganic. 4 . herbivores e. depth of sunlight penetration b.

savanna d. 10. requires carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas c. bicycle. lithosphere c. 56 d. All are general types of nutrient cycles. hydrosphere e. 1 c. The most common gas in the atmosphere is a. b. 71 3. Of the following parts of the water cycle. 4. a and b e. c. producers b. e. 20 . 20 . The phosphorous cycle is an example of a(n) a. 7. chemical energy and gravity. b. might carry on photosynthesis 34. troposphere 36. none of the above. Photosynthesis a. d. produces carbon dioxide and oxygen gas 37. percolation d. producers being eaten by herbivores being eaten by carnivores being recycled by decomposers b. e. 2 33. tropical rain forest e. c. yields glucose and oxygen gas as products b. 2. the sedimentary cycle. e. sedimentary cycle. oxygen. atmosphere b. water. . requires the combustion of carbon e. Ultimately. energy conversion results in lower-quality energy d. energy conversion results in more dispersed energy 1. oxygen. b. runoff . 5. not including bacteria a. Which of the following ecosystems would you expect to have the lowest level of kilocalories per square meter per year? a.8 c. c. 83 c. 6. The algae in the ocean are eaten by small animals (zooplankton) which are eaten by small fish which are eaten by larger fish. water vapor. heat is usually given off from energy conversions b. consumers c. b. .0 e. transpiration b. a grazing food web d. d. hydrologic cycle. c. solar energy and the moon.0 35. can live without heterotrophs b. . the atmospheric cycle. Which of the following statements does not apply to the second law of energy? a. agricultural land b. 240 e. solar energy and gravity. the one working against gravity is a. nitrogen. Water covers about ______ % of Earth’s surface. 1. lakes and streams c. All of the following are general types of nutrient cycles except a. open ocean 38. mechanical and chemical energy. The hydrologic cycle is driven primarily by a. 120 . precipitation c. 6. a detrital food web c. energy can neither be created nor destroyed e. hydrocarbons.5 b. An ecosystem can survive without a. Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the a. infiltration e. a and c 40. The hydrologic cycle refers to the movement of a. solar energy and mechanical energy. converts glucose into energy and water d. we cannot recycle high-quality energy to do useful work c. d. 79 b. biosphere d. carbon dioxide. carbohydrate cycle. c. e. So far biologists have identified and named about million species.b. b and c e. hydrogen. rain. they die and are decomposed by bacteria. are known as producers e. all of the above 39. atmospheric cycle. This ecosystem illustrates a. all of the above c. . the hydrologic cycle. a. b. Autotrophs a. the carbohydrate cycle. hydrogen. 62 e. 3. 0. might carry on chemosynthesis d. .9 d. decomposers d. d. d. e. .

respiration and photosynthesis. runoff of animal wastes from feedlots. aerobic decomposition of dead algae. aerobic respiration and burning fossil fuels. c. e. photosynthesis. 12. plasticized b. To which of the following cycles is guano an important component? . d. proteins. c. e. nitrogen fixation. nitrification. detergents. e. mining of nitrogen-rich mineral deposits. 19. All of the following increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere except a. it is least likely to result in a. d. nitrogen gas. d. Lava is an example of _______ rock. b. combustion. earthworms. atmospheric cycle. 18. algae. b. fish kills. respiration. b. water withdrawal in heavily populated area. e. d. c. inorganic fertilizer. construction of large buildings. volcanic eruptions. their nitrogenous organic compounds are converted to simper inorganic compounds such as ammonia through the process of a. Humans remove nitrogen from the soil by all of the following except a. 15. e. Humans strongly affect the hydrologic cycle through all of the following except a. harvesting nitrogen-rich crops. 10. wood in a tree e. Nitrogen fixation is accomplished by a. nitrification. calcium carbonate shells d. c. nitrogen gas d. combustion and causing volcanic eruptions. nitrate c. d. b. 9. ammonia. nitrates. b. c. worms in the ocean trenches. c. Inorganic nitrogen-containing ions (such as nitrate) are converted into organic molecules through a. c. sedimentary cycle. 17. which would have the slowest turnover rate? a. stimulated algae growth. e. b. d. e. carbon dioxide e.8. nitrogen fixation. nucleic acids. 22. clearing vegetation for agriculture. applying organic fertilizers to agricultural land. b. burning fossil fuels and removal of forests and brush. bacteria. carbon dioxide in the atmosphere c. metamorphic d. e. The two ways in which humans have most interfered with the carbon cycle are a. boiling water. hydrogen sulfide b. removal of forests and aerobic respiration. protozoa. d. ammonification. acid rain. denitrification. Global temperatures rise as levels of ____________________ in the atmosphere increase. depletion of oxygen in the water. d. a decrease in gross primary productivity. The form of nitrogen most usable to plants is a. bicycle. protein in a cow 11. ammonification. d. DNA in a bacterium b. c. 21. assimilation. a. All of the following are sources of phosphorous except a. c. b. assimilation. When nitrogen is added to aquatic systems. e. d. 14. c. a. When organisms die. none of the above c. d. sedimentary 20. paving roads and parking lots. b. phosphate 13. hydrologic cycle. e. The nitrogen cycle is an example of a(n) a. b. decomposition. c. Of the following carbon-based compounds. 16. ocean sediments. igneous e. carbohydrate cycle. leaching water-soluble nitrate ions from soil through irrigation. b. denitrification.

organic debris. topsoil. B c. A b. water is taken up by plant roots c. b. D e. zone of leaching e. c. b. A. The surface litter horizon is described by the letter a. subsoil. B c. water d. B and C c. O 28. humus e. indicative of poor soils d. partially decomposed organic matter b.. rocks b. 30. laminae. parent material 35. all of the above. 7 to 10 38. rock is shattered by frost action b. organisms e. O 36. parent rock. e. d. O 29.. carbon e. C d. d. living organisms c. Topsoil contains all of the following except a. C d. a. Which of the following is not one of the common phosphorous reservoirs in the ecosystem? a. A. profiles. All of the following are broad classes of rock except a. less than 7 b. mineral nutrients. Leaching occurs when a. assimilation. water soluble and easily washed away c. some inorganic minerals b. organic compounds slowly decay 34. 33. b. Humus is a. The zones that compose a mature soil are known as a. c. 27. c. c.. A and O 32. topsoil c. crystal. metamorphic. water removes soluble soil components e. d. A and C e. b. horizons. e. igneous. d. b. e. soil c. 24. nitrogen c. B c. D e. An acidic soil is one with a pH of a. Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia through a. freshly fallen leaves 37. e. B and O b. The _____-horizon of a soil contains no organic material and is composed of parent material. surface litter d. nitrogen fixation. hydrologic 23. exactly 7 c. nitrification. Soil is a complex mixture of a. decaying organic matter and decomposers. D e. plant roots d. C d.a. none of the above. poisonous to soil microorganisms . atmosphere 25. phosphorous d. D e. strata. exactly 10 e. Freshly fallen leaves. air and water. 26. A and B d. zone of leaching. none of the above. e. The A-horizon of soil is commonly referred to as a. eroded rock. sedimentary. subsoil b. Which two soil horizons are the most important to agriculture a. sulfur b. c. b. A. all four are broad classes of rock. The transition zone is described by the letter a. humus is dissolved d. O 31. b. B c. d. and partially decomposed organic matter are characteristic of the a. light colored or nearly white e. surface litter. denitrification. The zone of accumulation is described by the letter a. 10 or more d. C d. b. ammonification.

red e.39. all of the above 3. yellow b. temperature and ocean currents d. epiphytes c. spiders. desert d. altitude only 4. live underground during the heat of the day b. high altitudes 8. As you leave the coniferous forest behind. latitude and altitude b. gray d. estuary e. all of the above c. longitude only e. rabbits. squirrels. toads. open systems connected by both precipitation and wind d. Succulent (Thick leaved) plants are most likely to be found in a. many insects and invertebrates. prairie dogs. succulent plants d. the role of lichens and mosses in boggy ecosystems c. A desert is an area where a. grasshoppers. coyotes. orange c. Which statement best describes ecosystems? Ecosystems are a. closed systems with self-contained energy flow and nutrient cycling b. the fall leaves of New England e. deserts b. you should anticipate next exploring a. coniferous evergreen plants b. and hawks. precipitation and light e. and widely spaced d. meadowlarks. taiga c. broad-leaf evergreen plants e. Trees of wet tropical forests tend to be a. stratified layers of the tropical forest 7. open systems connected by precipitation only e. temperature and precipitation 5. sparse. evaporation is rapid b. Which of the following adaptations would you least expect to find in a desert animal a. Arctic tundra b. gases captured in ice d. precipitation and ocean currents c. military maneuvers b. open systems connected by wind only 40. foxes. water d. underground testing of nuclear weapons d. have thick outer coverings to minimize water loss c. latitude only d. dark brown or black 1. aquatic habitats d. most vegetation is low. tropical rain forests c. are active at night 6. You conclude that the field ecologist is located in a a. tropical grassland e. grassland 9. solar collectors 10. light and temperature b. become dormant during periods of extreme heat or drought e. The two most important factors determining the climate of an area are a. average annual precipitation is less than 10 inches c. Deserts are used for a. latitude and longitude c. storage of toxic and radioactive wastes e. You are going on a scientific expedition from the equator to the North Pole. earthworms. light . patterns of cone design in coniferous forests b. the atmosphere serves as a poor insulator e. cold ecosystems e. coniferous forest c. temperate grassland 11. The biome most likely to be found on the top of a very tall tropical mountain is the a. Climate and vegetation vary with a. Topsoil that is in color is the most highly fertile a. temperate deciduous forest b. drink and store large amounts of water d. The primary limiting factor for the tropical rain forest is a. closed systems with self-contained energy cycling and nutrient flow c. broad-leaf deciduous plants 2. desert d. You read the data records of a field ecologist who reports the following varieties of species: Beetles.

have nutrient-poor soils b. prairie c. coniferous forest 17. the tropical rain forest is to land environments as is to water environments a. In a tropical rain forest. where drought and fire are very rare e. that originally grew in the U. ecotourism and recreation c. Humans effect mountain biomes by a. tundra d. Mountain biomes . increases chances of overheating 23. rich soil 19. increases fluctuations in temperature e. foxes 21. coniferous forest e. Which of the following is false? Temperate deciduous forests a. requires a strong skeleton b. concentrates toxic metabolic wastes d. Arctic tundra d. A mature has the greatest species diversity of all terrestrial biomes a.S. deer d. the bathyal zone e. none of the above c. in the understory 14. An aquatic environment a.b. tropical forest b. all of the above c. where annual precipitation exceeds 45 inches d. Humans affect grasslands by a. wind c. taiga 13. on the forest floor d. large rivers e. tall-grass prairies 16. bears e. dissolves nutrients and makes them readily available c. in areas with maximum light c. the coral reef b. increased air pollution from urban areas d. deep. cold deserts c. have mostly been cleared c. wolves c. tundra d. temperate deciduous forest b. expanding populations who may use the land in an unsustainable way b. have trees that survive winter by dropping their leaves 20. in the canopy e. in the emergent layer b. spongy mats of low-growing plants are typical of the a. in the shrub layer c. planting crops d. wildcats b. In terms of biodiversity. tropical rain forest e. temperature 12. Most of the nutrients in the tropical rain forests are found in the a. ponds and streams of the forest c. in places that are suitable for forests 18. the abyssal zone d. drilling wells for water b. Thick. If you were to make a census in a temperate deciduous forest in the U. direct sunlight is strongest a.S. in the zone lying between forest and desert b. organisms d. hydroelectric dams and reservoirs e. soil nutrients e. all of the above 22. tropical rain forest e. the ocean trench c. Which of the following describes where a natural grassland would most likely be found? a.. the most likely dominant mammal species are a. the euphotic zone 24. grazing domestic herds 15. change significantly during four distinct seasons d. temperate deciduous forest b. drilling for oil e. Trees with needlelike leaves that are kept year round are especially abundant in which biome? a. are dominated by a few species of broadleaf trees e. thick atmosphere b.

There are no limiting factors in aquatic life zones. Out on a fishing boat. access to sunlight for photosynthesis b. have deep. all of the above c. oxygen to the lake bottom and nutrients to the surface e. Mature temperate deciduous forests than tropical rain forests. zooplankton e. oxygen to the surface and nutrients to the lake bottom d. However. Which of the following illustrations does not match the accompanying ecological concept a. a swordfish is caught. You conclude that this population is undergoing .a. In a population of cats. are independent of atmospheric changes and the hydrologic cycle 25. Oceans a. urban development e. have more plant life at ground level 29. steppes e. estuaries have high productivity c. have little biodiversity e. 33. provide habitats for organisms b. benthic zone e. the open ocean is the least productive of aquatic life zones e. you notice there is considerable variation of length of fur. profundal zone b. function to dilute and disperse human wastes e. recover quickly from vegetation loss c. taiga d. highways c. they are all forests c. Cone-bearing trees are characteristic of the a. phytoplankton d. In lakes. bring a. Which of the following does not belong with the others? a. have poorer soils c. In your explorations as a marine biologist. light is a limiting factor in the lower layer of a stratified lake 35. all of the above c. oxygen and nutrients to the lake bottom c. participate in biogeochemical cycles 32. estuarine zone c. limnetic zone d. Lake overturns. there are few cats that exhibit an intermediate length of fur. none of the above. you observe that there are many cats that exhibit very long fur and many with very short fur. which occur twice a year. nekton b. benthos 31. agriculture 1. play a major role in controlling climate by distributing solar heat d. Most of the wetlands that are lost go to a. coral reefs have high biodiversity b. phytoplankton d. none of the above. You would most likely classify this species as a member of the a. Life in both saltwater and freshwater ecosystems can be limited by a. a decomposer c. savanna b. dissolved oxygen for respirationd. Over the course of time. tropical rain forest e. rich soils b. decomposers c. prairies c. nekton b. dissolved oxygen is a primary limiting factor in the upper layers of a stratified lake d. have more different tree species d. have more different animal species e. large numbers of decomposers are found in the a. littoral zone 27. temperate deciduous forest 30. boreal forest 26. mining d. forestry b. northern coniferous forest b. taiga d. you find a new species of algae floating on the surface of a coastal zone. no movement of oxygen and nutrients 33. You would most likely classify this species as a. a. oxygen and nutrients to the surface b. temperature f. may act as sanctuaries for animal species driven from lowland areas d. have less sunlight penetrating to lower levels b. availability of plant nutrients e. zooplankton e. benthos 28.

the role it plays with flow of energy and cycling of matter c. You conclude that the species is undergoing a. Although there appears to be considerable variability in lengths of necks. earth’s mass extinctions have been followed by periods of adaptive radiations 13. responding to similar selective pressures e. all of the above c. adapting to similar environments d. ozone depletion c. long legs that allow for efficient movement in their grassland habitats. convergent evolution 10. directional natural selection b. meteorites crashing into the earth e. A change in the genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called a. natural selection 9. biologists estimate that 99% of all the species that have ever existed are now extinct b. the location where the species lives e. divergent evolution e. coevolution b. none of the above c. divergence 5. disruptive natural selection 11. This process is called a. stabilizing natural selection c. none of the above 6. the nutrient relationships with other species d. plants and herbivores d. anthropogenic selection c. retrospective evolution b. You conclude that the most likely course of this development is a. The change from a light to a dark color in the peppered moth was the result of a. Geographic isolation is least likely to give rise to . pollinators and flowers e. stabilizing natural selection d. earth has experienced over a dozen great mass extinctions e. discontinuous natural selection e. most mass extinctions are believed to be due to global climatic changes d. Which of the following would be most responsible for the existence of the gray fox and the arctic fox a. and they both feed on native lizards and rodents. directional natural selection e. insecticides d. Most of the population possesses moderate length wings. Which of the following statements about extinction is false a. none of the above c. macroevolution b. stabilizing natural selection c. continuous natural selection d. human habitat destruction c. The African Serval Cat and the South American Maned Wolf both have long ears that aid in hunting. evolution b. industrial pollution e. Species belonging to different taxonomic groups may develop a resemblance resulting from adaptation to similar environments. Geographic isolation may result from a. the types of resource requirements 3. the range of tolerance to different physical/chemical conditions b. stabilizing natural selection d. Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by a. discontinuous natural selection e. changes in the weather b. parasites and hosts 12. disruptive natural selection 2. you notice that the frequency of moderate length wings increases. Over the course of time. a change in predators 4. mutation e.a. directional natural selection b. a mountain range f. emigration d. An ecological niche includes all of the following except a. a volcanic eruption d. an earthquake e. Coevolution can involve the interaction of a. convergence b. microevolution e. predator and prey b. divergent evolution c. These similarities may have occurred due to all of the following except a. an increase in ultraviolet radiation b. immigration c. volcanic eruptions 14. diversifying natural selection 8. continuous natural selection d. mass extinctions raise the extinction rate above the background extinction rate c. although some individuals have long wings and some individuals have short wings. You are an evolutionary biologist studying a population of bats in the rainforest of Brazil. there appears to be a definite shift to longer necks over the course of time. coevolution d. a stream b. sudden climatic changes d. all of the above c. You study fossils of giraffes. convergent evolution 7.

When monocultures are compared to diverse crops. the species diversity is high d. evolution to fill the niches created by mass extinction b. specialist species b. indicator species c. protective shells 14. there are many specialized niches 15. a super-static model of evolution c. less vulnerable to damage from insects b.a. are best described as a. simplified ecosystems e. speciation and extinction e. acute senses of sight and smell e. reproductive isolation d. The view that describes macroevolution as long periods of relatively little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as a. native species e. keystone species 12. nonnative species d. native species e. divergent and convergent evolution d. divergent evolution b. most plants are annuals b. nonnative species d. Species whose roles in an ecosystem are much more important than their abundance would suggest are called a. only A c. keystone species 2. specialist species b. indicator species c. convergent evolution 15. Species that migrate or are accidentally introduced into an ecosystem are called a. the decomposers are numerous e. Habitat destruction/alteration. addition of synthetic chemical pollutants c. specialist species b. This behavior is best described as a. native species e. an increase in average precipitation 17. restoration of degraded soils d. all of the above b. Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem are known as a. specialist species b. nonnative species d. Species that serve as early warnings of environmental damage are called a. In immature ecosystems a. Wild African bees found in the continental U. and predator elimination/introduction are all ways in which humans have a. more likely to show biodiversity 19. specialist species b. introduction of foreign species/diseases. indicator species c. speciation and coevolution 18. restoration of the ozone layer e. a punctuated equilibrium hypothesis 20. native species e. more stable and easier to care for d. defensive chemicals c. more vulnerable to plant pathogens e. speciation e. indicator species c.S. nonnative species d. regrowth of cut tropical rain forests 1. predation . Prey are least likely to defend themselves against predators by a. any of the above c. a gradualist model of evolution b. a steady state hypothesis e. pursuit and ambush b. restoration of ecosystems damaged by air and water pollution c. tampered with biotic factors 16. A new kitten is added to a home with an established older cat. interference competition d. genetic drift and genetic flow c. addition of naturally occurring chemical pollutants b. native species e. Which change in an ecosystem would result in the most immediate effect on a species a. dynamic equilibrium d. Which of the following environmental improvements would take the longest time period a. keystone species 4. camouflage d. extinction and coevolution b. they are considered to be a. reduced species diversity d. indicator species c. nonnative species d. a slight increase in average temperature d. keystone species 8. nutrients are efficiently recycled c. Biodiversity is believed to be the result of a. The older cat is observed to gobble up its food as well as that of the younger cat. none of the above c. keystone species 11.

a. human destruction of habitat e. Based on the theory of island biogeography. reproductive rate b. newly flooded land to create a reservoir b. A new kitten is added to a home with an established older cat. competition for resources b. the proportion of males to females in a population e. W . Carrying capacity refers to a. parasitism 25. uniform d. You observe that resources are not evenly distributed. mutualism 17. commensalism c. You predict the population dispersion pattern is a. sharing resources by hunting at different times d. L e. Forms of nondestructive behavior between organisms include all of the following except a. exploitation competition e. interaction of natality and mortality c. eating at different times d. an abandoned farm e. b. none of the above. low immigration and low extinction rates 28. disease d. parasitism 27. all of the above c. competition d. mutualism b. none of the above c. low biodiversity and population sizes c. predation b. a forest that had been clear-cut 19. mutualism 20. is the current rate of growth of a population c. You are an ecologist studying the population dynamics of an ecosystem. parasitism b. You discover a new species of beetle that raises its abdomen in a threatening way similar to the first species. is an expression of how many offspring survive to reproduce d. litter size 30. Interspecific competition can be avoided by a. sharing resources by looking for food in different places e. J d. and c in sequence as succession takes place b. A relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed to any significant degree is best labeled a. commensalism c. chemical warfare e. predation c. Density-dependent limiting factors include all of the following except a. you would predict that large islands near the mainland would have relatively a. the maximum size of population the environment will support d. A logistic growth curve depicting a population that is limited by a definite carrying capacity is shaped like the letter a. commensalism c. is the maximum reproductive rate of a population b. The competitive exclusion principle always results in the c. You observe the older cat hiss and swat at the younger kitten in the kitchen where they are fed.b. interference competition d. Which of the following would exhibit primary succession a. determines the fitness of a population 34. You are an evolutionary entomologist. high immigration and high extinction rates e. This behavior is best described as a. character displacement elimination of two species who fill the same niche 22. camouflage d. but no defensive chemical is given off. eating in different spaces e. You are most likely to characterize this defensive strategy as a form of a. defensive armor c. You have observed beetles who can raise their abdomens and give off a defensive chemical that generally repels predators. mimicry 21. predation e. random e. S b. rock exposed by a retreating glacier d. low immigration and high extinction rates b. exploitation competition e. mutualism 16. commensalism c. flight mechanism b. The biotic potential of a population a. can be determined only by studying an age structure diagram e. high immigration and low extinction rates d. all of the above b. clumped 32.

has a large postreproductive population 13.5% b. has a large infant population b. 3. the postindustrial stage e. rose 39% e. at least 8 million infants die of preventable causes during their first year of life c. 1.immigration) c. lack of capital d. 0. Two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region are a. lack of education and technical skills e. In the demographic transition model. deaths + immigration) . population of 276 million is the third largest population in the world and makes up of the world’s total population a. 4. is 74 for men and 79 for women 10. the industrial stage d. (deaths + emigration) . a high infant mortality rate usually indicates insufficient food and a high incidence of infectious diseases 9. and rural areas e. dropped 39% b. a large number of people under age 34 14.(deaths + immigration) b. Which of the following implies the greatest built-in momentum for population growth a. rose 91% 6. 10. shows little variation in population by age e. Rapidly growing countries have an age structure diagram that a. (births + emigration) . show only two age groups: reproductive and not reproductive b. the preindustrial stage 15.S. The total fertility rate in the United States reached a peak a. forms an inverted pyramid c. after world War I. birth rate and infant mortality rate b. m 1. all of the above b. migration within countries plays an important role in the population dynamics of cities. a large population size d. remained stable d. the preindustrial stage c. in the mid-1950’s 7. 33% e. Which of the following statements is false a. 0.000 3.000 e. the human population size a.S.c. 50 b. Government attempts to reduce population growth have included all of the following except a. should not be considered a valid way of explaining the concept of momentum of a population 12. 4.S.5% 4. are strictly for present use and do not provide insight into future trends d. a large number of people age 29 to 44 e. What is the population growth rate for a country with a doubling time of 20 years a.(births + emigration) 2. show the number of males and females in the infant category only c. remained stable d. towns. paying couples who agree to use contraceptives . 500 d. 20% d. in the mid-1920’s e. The population change in a particular year can be calculated by a. Age structure diagrams a. the U. only a few countries annually accept a large number of immigrants or refugees d. 50% 8. the transitional stage e. Between 1963 and 2000. has a broad-based pyramid d. after the Civil War.(births + immigration) d.5% c. (births . ZPG in a country is likely to occur during a.deaths) + (emigration . the U. none of the above b. much of the economic burden of helping support retired baby boomers will fall on generation x b. 2. has the highest teenage pregnancy rate of any industrialized country e. birth rate and death rate c. Between 1963 and 2000. a large number of people age 15 to 25 c. the postindustrial stage d. life expectancy and death rate 11.5% e. dropped 58% c. (births + immigration) . lack of resources c. Which of the following statements is false a. rose 58% e. 100 c. In the demographic transition model. The crude birth rate is the number of live births per persons in a given year a. life expectancy and infant mortality rate e.(deaths + emigration) e. all of the above b. replacement-level and total fertility rates d. large debts 17. the rate of the world’s annual population change (growth rate) a. in the 1870’s d. life expectancy in the U. The developing countries may not be able to complete the transition to the industrial stage because of a. in 2000. 1. during the golden 1980’s b. a large number of people under age 15 b. dropped 63% c. are useful for comparing one population with another e. during the late 1700’s c. had the lowest infant mortality of any developed nation d. after World War II.5% c.S. The U.5% b. increased food supplies and medical care have increased life expectancy c. birth rates and death rates are high during a. the industrial stage c. dropped 91% b.5% d. rose 63% 5. the rise in the size of the human population is due primarily to a steadily increasing birth rate b. the transitional stage 16.

investing in family planning d. reducing poverty c. elevating women status e. paying couples who agree to be sterilized c. Experience indicates that population growth can be slowed by a. providing needed health care and food allotments to those who have more than a certain number of children e. reducing job opportunities for those who have more than a certain number of children 18. penalizing couples who have more than a certain number of children d. none of the above b.b. a combination of all of the abov .