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Report on the use of electronic networks in cities

Is your city an eTropolis?

This report was prepared by The Center for Strategic Technology Research

About this report This report is based on a series of case studies performed in the Spring and Summer of 1999. The research primarily consisted of on-site interviews covering 18 technology initiatives in nine localities. These interviews were complemented by extensive secondary research into initiatives in many other localities. This research was conducted by The Center for Strategic Technology Research. Primary researchers were Mark A. Jones and Tony J. Costa.


Copyright 1999. Andersen Consulting. All Rights Reserved.

Table of Contents
5 Is your city an eTropolis? This section discusses the types of initiatives taking place worldwide. It will help civic and organizational leaders understand how activities that are currently taking place in their city stack up against world standards. 6 8 10 12 The Initiative Classification Framework Standalone Applications Integrated Applications Meta-Applications

15 Key areas for concern Pulling off a successful initiative is difficult. In this section, eight key areas for concern are discussed in light of the case studies. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are also presented. 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Overview Fit Comprehensive Approaches Buy-in & Commitment Maintaining Cross-Organizational Applications Actionable Visions Systemic Relationships Technological Change Personality & Culture

Copyright 1999. Andersen Consulting. All Rights Reserved.


. there are cities that attempt to rethink how services are delivered to an entire portion of the population.Rarely.

3. 2. 5 . All Rights Reserved. a city that uses technology to fundamentally change how it works. there are cities that attempt to rethink how services are delivered to an entire portion of the population. Some initiatives bring together multiple organizations to jointly create Integrated Applications based on a shared vision for how technology can help all of the organizations function. Copyright 1999. Initiatives fall into one of three classifications: 1. Current initiatives vary widely in terms of their ambition and how much they impact city life.Is your city an eTropolis? Cities everywhere are rushing to embrace the potential that computing and communications technologies offer to transform cities into more economically and socially prosperous places to live. there are cities that attempt to create Meta-Applications. In rare instances. This report will discuss benefits and challenges for each of the three types of initiatives. These cities are on the road to becoming an "eTropolis". these initiatives can leverage scale and broader expertise to deliver greater benefit for their locations. Initiatives Mapping initiatives into the Initiative Classification Framework will help civic and organizational leaders understand the kinds of activities that are currently taking place in their city. only rarely. These applications range from simple online information repositories to sophisticated eCommerce applications. By combining the resources of complementary organizations. Most initiatives are Standalone Applications that can be successfully developed by a single organization. cities focus on relatively straightforward applications that make it easier to access existing information or automate routine services. however. For the most part. These initiatives rethink how services are delivered to an entire portion of the population or reengineer interorganizational processes across entire industry sectors. And. This report will also help city leaders determine if their city is on the road to true transformational change. or they reengineer interorganizational processes across entire industry sectors to gain new levels of efficiency. Andersen Consulting.

In an eTropolis. These MetaApplications can be expansive in their scale and may touch hundreds of organizations within a city or. business processes. In a Wired City. such as real-time data sharing applications. in some instances. an entire geographic region. These levels describe the ambitiousness of initiatives and their intended impact.Three levels of development In general. In a Networked City. there are three levels of initiative development within cities. and electronic transactions across many levels. . most activity centers on Standalone Applications such as online forms and information repositories developed by a city agency. Andersen Consulting. organizations also form partnerships with other local organizations to jointly create Integrated Applications. All Rights Reserved. The Initiative Classification Framework 6 Copyright 1999. the most complex level. organizations attempt to develop standards and protocols that govern data sharing.

Integration of products and services from multiple organizations . Meta-Applications Meta-Applications are the most complex and ambitious initiatives organizations and cities can undertake. and resources from multiple organizations . All Rights Reserved.Streamlines business-to-business interactions .Lowers transaction costs through automation Copyright 1999.Routine transactions anyplace.Ensures continuity of service across many organizations and locations .Makes better use of information.Efficient standalone applications will make life more convenient. As such. services. Meta-Applications dramatically restructure the ways in which an entire industry. User Benefits .Provides increased exposure to existing and new user populations .Generates new data and information assets through aggregation . community organizations or users.Easy to implement and quick to generate a return on investment .New channels for gaining access to products and services . Standalone Applications Description Standalone Applications are the simplest initiatives and are almost always the product of a single organization.Creates competitive advantages for an entire industry. . 7 . anytime Integrated Applications Integrated Applications are the result of a joint effort by multiple organizations to implement a shared vision or pursue a common interest in a given market. these initiatives involve data or information sharing among participating organizations. sector or city interacts and delivers products and services.Comprehensive access to multiple services through one source . Standalone Applications usually extend existing products or services or aggregate information from publicly available sources such as government agencies. They are best when targeted at defined user populations such as small businesses or senior citizens that have common sets of needs. new channels are developed to support or deliver products and services. Andersen Consulting. Often.Products and services are organized around user needs and intentions .Intelligent bundling of products and services . Meta-Applications create new structures that dramatically improve how cities function. lowering overall costs . Connected organizations will create new channels and efficiencies.Online access to content . sector or city Organization Benefits .Achieves greater efficiencies of scale.Enables organizations to focus on their core competencies .Leverages and extends existing products and services . Meta-Applications require the involvement of many organizations throughout the city. In some instances.

Standalone Applications Standalone Applications are the first step in getting local organizations prepared to participate in more complex initiatives in the future. such as government agencies or the resident population. Because these initiatives are the product of a single organization. they tend to be easy to implement. Their operation and direction however are controlled by the core organization. By providing essential services in new ways or adding value to common interactions. more ambitious initiatives. community organizations or users Benefits The benefits of initiatives in this area are many. Sometimes. While many of the benefits of computing and communications technologies are focused on long-term gains spread over a large audience. At the most basic level are freestanding applications that create or extend service capabilities of a single organization.When successful. they focus on a well defined user population . they can be go from concept to operation relatively quickly and with low cost.Added convenience for users. Every city will have hundreds or thousands of initiatives in this category. . Andersen Consulting.Easy to implement. these applications are managed by one organization. Common characteristics of Standalone Applications include: .Primarily freestanding with a high level of independence from other organizations . initiatives in this area present a panacea of quick wins that can begin to capture benefits in the short-term and grow over time into larger. User benefits . All Rights Reserved. but use data or information from other sources. and they are the first step in getting local organizations prepared to participate in more complex initiatives in the future. Quick wins.Use existing data from government agencies. Organizational Benefits . Often. these initiatives add a new level of convenience to routine activities. 8 Copyright 1999.

commercial and public service offered in Helsinki. Copyright 1999. Lower transaction costs. Helsinki Arena 2000 is an endeavor to build a three-dimensional VRML model of the entire city. a sophisticated 3D model of the city has been developed to function as the primary means of accessing geographically based services throughout the city. Rather than require an entirely new infrastructure or organizational framework. This has the benefit of capitalizing on existing investments. Blacksburg Electronic Village's (BEV) goal is build a virtual complement to the physical community. these initiatives build on and extend existing product and service offerings. By providing this value added service. Although much of this data is available from different government agencies. In addition to statistical data. Infopime provides a business directory of all 170.000 residents using the Internet daily. local organizations such as churches and volunteer groups are fundamentally changing the ways in which they interact with residents. BEV has provided residents with an electronic town square where local organizations can post information. import and export opportunities. One of the most successful components of the project is a 3D interactive model of the Lasipalatsi. businesses and city governments can dramatically lower their transaction costs by launching initiatives in this area. small businesses have a unique and powerful tool that helps them more intelligently plan and launch new ventures. many organizations. All Rights Reserved.000 business in Barcelona. most small businesses and entrepreneurs lack the resources and technical ability to integrate the different databases and develop the sophisticated data mining tools that Infopime has. Andersen Consulting. Many eGovernment initiatives focus on cost reduction. Infopime provides small businesses within Barcelona with a valuable marketing and research tool that helps them plan and build their business. Increased exposure. New York City Access Helsinki Arena 2000 A consortium partnership between Helsinki Telephone Company (HPY) and the City of Helsinki. a cultural arts center in the heart of Helsinki. Parking tickets and real estate taxes can also be paid at kiosks using a credit card or debit card. The kiosks also allow residents to find out about and check the status of parking summonses. By leveraging the ubiquity of electronic networks. Case Studies: Standalone Applications Infopime Blacksburg Electronic Village - - By aggregating publicly available databases from several government agencies. City Access is an ambitious project in New York City that is giving residents access to essential city services through kiosks located throughout the city. organizations can tap into a larger audience for their services. - Build on existing services. adult and child services. The oldest Internet-based community network in the United States. investigate the factors that comprise a successful community network and create a model that can help other towns and communities to build electronic community networks. 9 . With 85% of its 36. and more. and senior citizen benefits and entitlements. By leveraging the capabilities of computing and communications technologies. real estate taxes and building violations. monographs by industry specialists on current business issues. food and public assistance programs.In Helsinki. establish electronic mailing lists and advertise their services. Services offered at kiosks include: job and housing assistance and opportunities. To date. discussion forums. this virtual city will become a city portal through which residents and visitors will be able to access every cultural. When completed. parking rules and regulations. which can be viewed for all of Barcelona or just a single neighborhood.

Common characteristics of these initiatives include: .Formal data sharing agreements with other organizations . . Overall quality of services is increased due to organizations combining complementary expertise to offer richer service offerings. 10 Copyright 1999. Successful initiatives overcome tensions caused by inter-organizational efforts through trust-building and structured collaborative processes. Andersen Consulting. which are discussed later in this report.Integration of products and services from multiple organizations. User Benefits . it becomes more valuable due to new abilities to compare data. Benefits Benefits in this area build on and extend those that are generated for Standalone Applications. New data manipulation through aggregation.A strong dependence on and integration of other organizations into products or services . Integrated Applications often require participating organizations to alter their internal processes and systems. A secondary benefit is spreading the overall risk associated with an application through the sharing of resources and access to greater user pull. Businesses will have access to customer data previously unavailable. cover a larger area. When data is combined from multiple sources. These initiatives represent some of the types of efforts that focus on developing Integrated Applications that connect multiple organizations. By their very nature. All Rights Reserved. The next level of initiatives involves the development and creation of Integrated Applications. or coordinate organizational activities.Integrated Applications Integrated applications can leverage scale and broader expertise to deliver greater benefit for their locations than possible by any one organization.Efficiencies of scale.Products or services are based on mutually exclusive organizational capabilities Examples of initiatives in this area are presented below. Organizations participating in shared services such as procurement reap benefits through efficiencies of scale that reduce costs for al partners. These applications are the result of a combination of compatible capabilities from multiple organizations that have a shared vision or common interest in a given market or domain. Organizational Benefits .

The Tool Kit also enables the organizations to collaborate with each other and share data with their peers. developed by Health Forum. The Tool Kit functions as an Internet-based. The Outcomes Tool Kit. expertise. And their approach goes a step towards seamless integration of information from multiple service providers. Case Studies: Integrated Applications BarcelonaNetActiva Health Forum/Aiken Toronto/Netville Building off of resources and knowledge gained from BarcelonaActiva. Andersen Consulting. as well as several online business forums. a musicon-demand jukebox. 11 . This enables BarcelonaActiva to serve many more businesses than its physical infrastructure supports. a virtual "Business School" that used CBT to teach best practices. point-to-point video within the neighborhood (really a form of video conferencing) and a community healthcare application. Services offered include: news and statistics. coordinate. provides community health organizations a systemic way to plan. and consulting to start-up businesses. All Rights Reserved. access to online industry experts and consultants. and measure the delivery of health related services within a community. BarcelonaNetActiva provides start-up businesses many of the essential services online that they would get traditionally. online educational CD-ROMs. resulting in even better delivery of health-related services. The initiative was sponsored by a consortium of companies that were brought together to provide complementary technology and content expertise. with an eye towards identifying lucrative markets for the future. Copyright 1999. The consortium had a vision of a world where of variety of advanced high-bandwidth services could be delivered to consumers in wired communities. BarcelonaNetActiva is the first virtual business incubator in Europe. communities can measure the progress of each organization and assess how well organizations are working to solve a given problem. Netville is a pseudonym for a wired residential development of about 100 homes located in suburban Toronto. technology fundamentals and management skills. shared database that documents the areas of involvement and activities of all community health organizations. The consortium had an interest in understanding the impact of new broadband online services on community residents. organize. The housing development served as an experimental prototype of a futuristic community hosting advanced services such as fast Internet connectivity.Barcelona has launched a series of small business development initiatives that aggregate information from many sources into vital resources that individual small businesses couldn’t afford on their own. idea exchanges and billboards for posting ads. a traditional business incubator that provides space. By incorporating benchmarking and key quality of life indicators.

Andersen Consulting. Comprehensive access to multiple services at one time. All Rights Reserved. but it will appear as one single application. Services are organized around entire lifestyle activity sets. As such. or city functions. Common characteristics of MetaApplications include: . The end result of these initiatives has a profound impact on the way in which processes take place.Defined standards and processes that govern organization behavior Benefits As with the Integrated Applications. These benefits are as follows. Streamlines interaction. the applications being combined will come from different organizations. residents will be able to use the system as if it - 12 Copyright 1999. MetaApplications require the involvement of many businesses and organizations throughout the city. This intelligent bundling of products and services only gives the user the information and services they need from each organization in the services offering. By aggregating several related services. products and services get delivered and organizations interact with one another. As organizations coordinate how they handle data and user information. so that users are aware of available services as they require them without having to independently identify appropriate resources.Involvement by an entire industry or business sector . User Benefits .Meta-Applications Meta-Applications dramatically restructure how an entire industry or service sector within a city functions. Often. These initiatives seek to dramatically restructure the ways in which an entire industry. Meta-Applications incorporate all the benefits of the other initiatives as well as add several unique benefits. . sector.Products and services are organized around user needs and intentions. it is possible to create a valuable bundle of offerings.High levels of integration between participating organizations . Meta-Applications are the most complex and ambitious initiatives organizations and cities can launch.

The result is a process that changes the way the entire industry does business. architectures and defined processes for interactions. Eventually. California) have shown significant economic benefit from the application. Businesses benefit because their work process is simpler and more streamlined. 13 . 95% of permits now get processed in one day in Sunnyvale. create a drag on all organizations that interact with them. Copyright 1999. were operated by a single organization. The Smart Valley coalition enlisted the involvement of all of the organizations that could potentially have been affected by changes in the permitting process. Initial applications are planned for the commercial real estate industry as well as services for small business in the South of Market area of San Francisco. Case Studies: Meta-Applications Smart Valley Smart Permits Next Generation Cities - Smart Permits. this initiative will create a set of data protocols. Andersen Consulting. The time required to issue construction licensing has been cut in half.Streamlines business-to-business interactions. Next Generation Cities is a San Franciscobased public-private partnership seeking to develop an Internet-based infrastructure for enabling community-based electronic networks to function. Systemic inefficiencies. particularly that are imposed by government agencies with broad exposure. By providing standards. Meanwhile. Intelligent Business Registries and privacy filters for consumers. This results in greater speed. Enables organizations to focus on their core competencies. a new way to deliver construction permits and manage construction projects. Having numerous organizations address the needs of a user segment allows organizations to focus on the areas in which they excel. Re-engineered processes allow all organizations to operate more efficiently. as well as the delivery of public services. If it is successful. these services function as a Municipal Operating System that both streamlines and stimulates interaction between governmental agencies. sector or city. which consists of a series of electronic services that include a Trusted Public Databank. Together. standards and processes for combining currently incompatible information. these initiatives enable businesses and organizations to streamline interactions the have with one another. the group committed to the development of a custom software package that would allow the management of permits across the various parties involved in the construction industry. The goal of the initiative is the creation of a Digital Community Network. All Rights Reserved. businesses and citizens. Residents and businesses benefit because their houses and facilities will be completed faster. There were representatives from architecture. saving time and money. so that they can improve service levels and reduce costs. engineering and construction. businesses and individuals interact with one another. Early results from the initial test cities (Los Gatos and Sunnyvale. from 10 to 5 days in Los Gatos. government. lower costs and more integrated products and services.The san Francisco Bay Area has been at the forefront of rethinking how electronic networks can be used to restructure the ways in which government. Creates competitive advantages for an entire industry. Organizational Benefits . This simplifies the manner in which users acquire services from organizations. is the result of a four-year collaboration among public and private partners in Silicon Valley.

Initiatives with the talent. resources and determination to succeed often fail due to inattention to a key issue. .

all initiatives should also be aware of overarching areas of concern. And depending on the level of sophistication of the initiative. These underlying forces can undermine even the most promising initiatives unless leaders plan accordingly. will vary. In this section. issues like how well the application fits into the user's existing activities or whether or not training is provided will have a big influence on the application's success. or key areas for concern. 15 . these key areas for concern are addressed. It requires not only the talent. In such a case. perhaps involving the participation of other organizations. At yet a higher level of complexity. new areas of concern arise. where initiatives seek to address citywide audiences. achieving and maintaining buy-in or ensuring that other organizations stay on board will be important to consider. such as technological change and differences in personality and culture among users. Copyright 1999. resources and determination to make it succeed. As an initiative's application becomes more complex. Recommendations for dealing with and overcoming these areas for concern are also presented. new areas of concern arise. in relatively simple initiatives like electronic bulletin boards or many eCommerce applications. Andersen Consulting. or influencing factors.Key areas for concern Creating a successful initiative is very difficult. At the same time. but also an awareness of and the ability to overcome issues that can have a detrimental effect on the outcome of the initiative. These will have to do with understanding the systemic relationships that exist between hundreds of organizations and being able to co-develop visions with them that empower them and direct their efforts in productive ways. these issues. For example. All Rights Reserved.

. etc. ongoing support. they will use them. Andersen Consulting. Finding: Getting an application up and running is only half the battle. All Rights Reserved. If you give people access to equipment. 16 Copyright 1999. Finding: Access to technology does not make people want to do things that they were not interested in before. Recommendation: Add in to application plan: training.The Initiative Classification Framework: Key Areas for Concern Standalone Applications Key Areas for Concern Fit Current thinking: Access to technology is the biggest barrier to technology adoption. tieinto other organizations. packaged solutions. Recommendation: Augmenting and extending existing activities provides an easy entry point for bringing in new users. Comprehensive Approaches Current thinking: Getting an application up and running is the biggest task initiatives face. best practices. train them and provide them with applications.

and employ communication and training strategies to compensate for engrained attitudes. take the time up front to involve key organizations in decision making and use coalitions and neutral third parties to build trust. Recommendation: Establish mechanisms to ensure accountability by participating organizations. Personality & Culture Current thinking: All we need to do is wait for society to catch up with technology in order to create mass applications. Systemic Relationships Current thinking: People look at lots of activity as evidence of progress. these organizations will have limited impact on the city. Recommendation: Conduct a systemic analysis of your city to identify systemic relationships that can be taken advantage of when planning. Finding: Cultural and personal attitudes run extremely deep.Integrated Applications Buy-in & Commitment Current thinking: People think that centralized control is the best way to manage projects that involve the participation of many organizations. Maintaining Cross-organizational Applications Current thinking: When aggregating content from multiple organizations. go for quick wins and don't get tied to one technology. Influencing Factors Technological Change Current thinking: Using cutting-edge technology in applications is the best way to ensure that they will be useful for the long term. and late adopters are unlikely to ever turn into technology enthusiasts. Finding: Without guidance or direction. This is especially so when it comes to current efforts to promote technology use in cities. actionable vision for how technology can improve their city with the participation of the organizations and people that will be responsible for implementing it. Recommendation: In order to achieve the desired impact. Recommendation: Plan for change. guidelines and protocols need to be established to ensure the desired level of quality and consistency. Recommendation: Assume that late adopters will remain skeptical of technology. Finding: Many participating organizations drop out of initiatives when they are required to commit their resources because they have not fully bought into the initiative's vision. Finding: Technology will continually change. Recommendation: Use leadership to guide. they would achieve even greater progress. cities need to co-develop a tailored. Finding: The results of many cross-organizational initiatives are diminished by lack of follow through by individual organizations. Finding: People don't realize that if they applied the same money and people differently. Copyright 1999. Meta-Applications Actionable Visions Current thinking: Organizations have good intentions and given the proper funding they will do things that benefit the city. developing and running initiatives. Andersen Consulting. it's only a matter of time. All Rights Reserved. 17 .

Ground applications in the existing use context. In Sweden. Summary Current thinking: Access to technology is the biggest barrier to technology adoption. Virginia also placed public access computers in the local library. Developers treat the population as homogeneous. one initiative offered applications for the community with a diverse set of content drawn from local sources. and to communicate more often with teachers. It was not until they showed the small businesses a sales catalog and order entry application that they got interested. Finding: Access to technology does not make people want to do things that they were not interested in before the introduction of technology. applications are often driven by available content. Andersen Consulting. not by what individual users may want or need. usage dropped off to almost nothing. In a section of Stockholm. Involvement is not an access issue. equipped the families of every child in a fifth grade class with a computer. figuring that the under-served already go there. This success extends to many applications. A three year pilot in Montgomery County. Surveys of people using the computers indicated that the vast majority of people using the library computers already had a computer at home and were using the computers as a supplement when they went to the library. Results to date indicate that parents who were already involved with their children's education used the technology. Free access doesn’t benefit non-users. none of which would appeal to very many people. By grounding applications in the existing use context.Fit Without compelling applications that fit with users lifestyles and existing activities. but residents did not seem interested in learning about computers while they did laundry. A similar initiative in Aiken. people without computers at home. Virginia. they will use them. 1. This is due to two reasons: First. Internet connectivity and training to use computers as well as online educational content. All Rights Reserved. South Carolina tried to place computers in a laundry center. Recommendations Often new technology succeeds because it meshes closely with activities that people already care about or must do. many developers are rightly concerned about equal access to technology. Seeing the technology used in a way that helped them augment an activity they cared about made the value apparent. hoping to target people who didn’t own computers. This enables applications to be easily integrated into a user's lifestyle. Rather than propose entirely new ways of working. If you give people access to equipment. 18 Copyright 1999. 3. users will not adopt technology. One goal was to make it easier for parents to be involved with their children's education. After a spike of initial interest based on curiosity. Blacksburg. England a technology training and enablement organization found it difficult to communicate the benefits of computerization to many small businesses involved in light manufacturing. 2. visions of the Information Society reinforce the notion that everyone will be equal participants in an information rich age. It turned out that the target audience. . successful applications become tightly integrated into the services and activities that are commonly accessed by users. train them and provide them with applications. In Manchester. while the technology did not make the other parents participate more actively. successful applications often enhance established processes and activities by making them function more efficiently or effectively. Findings Access to technology does not make people want to do things that they were not interested in before. Secondly. Recommendation: Augmenting and extending existing activities provides an easy entry point for bringing in new users. were not regular library users and were not going to start going to the library now that they provided computer access.

over 50. limited during implementation (don't want too many chefs). bugs. In The Hague. they usually find it unacceptable to change their processes or activities to conform to a new technology. Andersen Consulting. Virginia. The topic was vague. and increased somewhat during operations (to find errors.000 people used an online apartment registration service because it saved them significant time going to government offices. All Rights Reserved. since these people had a clearly identifiable focus. And many successful online applications make existing tasks more efficient or pleasant. usability problems). a discussion group about education was unsuccessful. When developers target narrower user population segments. and based on the right level of population granularity. In Blacksburg. They expect technology to support their activity rather than direct it.The Hague. it becomes easier to customize content that closely matches users needs. Streamline existing processes and activities. This ensures that the applications developed are relevant to user needs. activities or processes with minimal cost and effort. over 35% of Internet users bank online. In Sweden. An analysis of most user segments usually shows that they are actually composed of several specific user segments. issues that needed to be discussed and a shared context for setting the discussion. The social-science listserv succeeds because it is targeted at a specific audience. This provides an entry point for adoption. Since most users are not technologically driven. and people did not know how to focus the discussion. which in turn leads to more use. But in the same location. a discussion group among social science teachers in the region was very successful. - Copyright 1999. - Establish feedback loops. has leveraged nearly universal access to teletext to offer popular services such as electronic registration and tracking of applications for public apartments. Feedback needs to vary during different phases of the development process: it should be extensive during conceptualization (want as many ideas as possible). It also ensures that applications are developed in such a way that they are adding value to user activities. Netherlands. Online banking has succeeded because it streamlines a process that people already do. Feedback loops should be established to gain the desired level of input from developers and users throughout the development process. with each having its own set of characteristics that can be supported better by tailored efforts. 19 . Target applications narrowly.

Rather than promote all of an application's features. The developers planned for and held training sessions for all users. packaged solutions. in reality. This enables them to discern what real benefit is coming from the application. when the developers held promotional sessions throughout the city to explain the application. Marketing . etc. Barcelona's Infopime is a potentially valuable application for small businesses. react favorably to being trained explicitly to send and receive email.Comprehensive Approaches Deciding whether or not to use an application is based on more than the virtues of the application alone. they encountered a user population that was mostly uneducated about the Internet and online applications. The project coordinators were prepared to assist new users purchase a computer. . they continually encountered new problems. Recommendation: Add in to application plan: training. set up their equipment and provide several training sessions on computer basics and how to use the pilot applications. rather 20 Copyright 1999. Training needs are often greater than developers expect. best practices. can be eliminated. They found that their target audience needed a basic computer and Internet education before they could understand the value of Infopime. Findings Getting an application up and running is often only the beginning of efforts. 2. 1. Promote a few select features. Many of the residents of a wired residential community near Toronto were novice computer users when they moved onto the experi- mental neighborhood. The team had to set up a full-time help desk on the fly and was continually burdened by unexpected support costs. Application developers are often caught by surprise when they place an application out for public use. While application developers are reticent to take responsibility for things outside the scope of the application. It gives them something concrete that they can relate to their situation. but were surprised to find that many users were new to computers. However. ongoing support. The Health Forum Outcomes Toolkit is an application for health agencies to jointly create community health goals and establish common reporting metrics. for example. developers need to help them understand how applications relate to and improve their daily activities. By focusing on providing applications. Recommendations Incorporate marketing. tie-into other organizations. All Rights Reserved. training and support into initial project budgets and plans. They found it difficult to complete effective training in the allotted time and budget. 3. But the team was unprepared for the high levels of ongoing technical support that the residents required to keep their equipment running properly. such as the lack of support. Andersen Consulting. Users need education to understand what the application can do for them. Best practices help users see how others are using technology and how it is adding value.Document and promote best practices. they need to understand how it fits into their existing activities and how well it integrates with their existing applications. In addition. And as residents began to use more applications. Senior citizens. Summary Current thinking: Getting an application up and running is the biggest task initiatives face. Ongoing support is key for novice users. users also consider the availability of training and support. many of the barriers to success. Because the majority of users are not innate believers in technology. later adopters gain the necessary confidence they need to start using the technology. success may depend upon it. Even the best conceived applications need additional support to make then fly. choose a select few that apply most directly to the users being targeted. infrastructure and training in a single area at one time. Finding: Getting an application up and running is only half the battle. Taking a comprehensive approach enables leaders and developers to pull in a critical mass of organizations and residents needed for most applications to succeed. with references of others who have had success with an application.

A key strategy was to require that all schools standardize applications and operating systems. Support .Budget support from the beginning. and what type of technologies the users are already using. - Tie rollout to organizations and people that have existing relationships with users. however. One location used a local network of churches to offer computer based job training. Rather than create an isolated application. Offer packaged solutions. Their approach was similar to a corporation. and the result is improved service and reduced costs. This streamlined how they could handle most routine situations.Provide targeted training. A compelling application tailored to their needs is just such a motivating force to turn them into technology adopters. This increases the value of the training organization's service while reducing the cost to the application developer. and the churches knew how to present the opportunity to their members. enablement training needs to be done within the context of training for specific applications. To make it more effective. All Rights Reserved. what training and support needs do users have. To do this fully. Non-compliant schools had to provide their own support. Since application and general enablement training are often developed by different organizations. General technology enablement training has little long-term impact on users. the Helsinki school system set up a sophisticated support infrastructure that centralized technical support for the entire city school system. This meant not only bundling services but also codeveloping training programs that supported one another. People are often more comfortable being approached by people that they know and trust. Church members were already in the habit of frequenting the churches. Copyright 1999. developers should offer users a packaged solution that is ready to be integrated into existing activities. While most school systems treat support in an ad hoc fashion. Andersen Consulting.than general computer training. it is essential for these organizations to work together. what infrastructure needs to be in place for the application to work. One organization found that many of their users required basic computer literacy training before they could be trained on their application. since they can immediately use this skill to communicate with family and friends. developers need to take into consideration the full breadth of the solution: what types of applications would be useful for users. 21 . This places the application into the context of the user's activities and helps them understand how it relates to their situation. Basic computer literacy training is also most effective when people have a real reason to use computers right away. This is because it embeds general technology skills into a meaningful activity that has relevance to users. Training .

All Rights Reserved. And the difficulties don't stop once a project has been set up. Long histories of mistrust or bad feelings exist in many locations. But they waited until the project was nearly up and running before they enlisted their participation. waiting to see if things develop in desirable ways. Organizations lose enthusiasm for a project without a clear value proposition. and they drop out. 1. Complex healthcare coalitions routinely encounter this problem." Healthcare applications have been particularly difficult to get off the ground because of client concerns over privacy and security. many applications require that ongoing data management and ownership be distributed across several organizations. organizations are more willing to participate. 5. This is particularly true when unfamiliar technologies are involved or when data is being entered into a "black box. When all of the organizations and people having access to the data. Findings Bringing together multiple organizations to develop common solutions is not easy. By that 22 Copyright 1999. Often an organization will appear to be agreeing to the progress of an initiative. Finding: Many participating organizations drop out of initiatives when they are required to commit their resources because they have not fully bought into the initiative's vision. A consortium in Toronto with dozens of members slowly fell apart over time as more and more members realized that the project would not reap them the benefits they had hoped for. Collaboration raises issues. Early participation in an initiative does not equal commitment.Buy-in & Commitment Maintaining buy-in and commitment from many organizations is best addressed by involving the organizations at every stage of the planning and development process. In one location. and reasons and methods of control are clearly defined. On the other hand. open systems are very hard to pull off. cities like Vienna that have created a closed system with a limited number of partners have gained participation. Sometimes the very process of negotiating a new service structure will lead organizations that did not view each other as competitors to begin doing so. The collaboration required to implement visions often raises issues of trust. the cable franchise felt that they had an edge over the telephone company in delivering advanced access services. Organizations are understandably afraid to release patient data out into the world. . take the time up front to involve key organizations in decision making and use coalitions and neutral third parties to build trust. Organizations are unwilling to buy-in to a process or agreement that they were not a part of during its creation. especially between organizations that have overlapping service areas. Many localities have a few power players that do not want to work with each other. 3. Existing circumstances can make things even harder. Such people and organizations have their own agendas and do not want to commit to a process that may reduce their powerful position. Andersen Consulting. control and overlapping boundaries. People fear committing to a process they don't understand. This process tends to bring out latent mistrust and tension between organizations that is often not apparent at first. At some point they determine that there is not enough value in the initiative to warrant the commitment of resources to continue participation. 2. The leaders of the wired community project near Toronto wanted to get the local government and businesses interested in developing content for the new community. even when collaboration will benefit them in the long run. and would not discuss any form of cooperative agreement for area-wide coverage. or believe that they do not need to work with other organizations to succeed. To compensate. Shared applications and processes may require organizations to change their internal operations to accommodate new structures. 4. Summary Current thinking: People think that centralized control is the best way to manage projects that involve the participation of many organizations. turf. Recommendation: Use leadership to guide.

Leaders can be a critical part of the trust-building process and should employ a wide variety of techniques to keep developers and users at the table. and their power can help drive initiatives to completion or overcome obstacles. Copyright 1999. Coalitions can provide a neutral forum that helps overcome turf and boundary issues. not dictate. time there was little time and the local leaders felt that the scale of the project was too small for them to participate. they are put in place by people and organizations. Leadership is clearly critical to the success of cross-organizational initiatives. The successful health coalition in Aiken. bring in or create a neutral third party as needed. it requires leadership to play a facilitative role rather than a driving role. Use leadership to guide. and then contract to the core leaders during an operational phase. They should simply help direct its course and keep the right people engaged. Getting buy-in is fundamentally a bottomup process that requires the active participation of all organizations. and allow others to take ownership. non-profit organization that helped others understand the advantages of systems thinking. Strong leadership does make a difference. They can use incentives to get people involved. Recommendations To ensure that organizations remain committed to initiatives. South Carolina is due in part to the thoughtful leadership by a small. but forward-thinking. Accordingly. 23 . Establish neutral third parties or form coalitions to bring organizations together and achieve compromise solutions that all organizations can accept. Leaders that take on this role of being a facilitator of change need be especially sensitive to people issues. Initiatives do not implement themselves. All Rights Reserved. planning. establish a common ground for making decisions and define roles and structures to manage projects without control and power issues. The Smart Valley initiative in California received input from over 1000 people by using a coalition. building new structures and managing projects. Every city can have many coalitions. and coalitions can give structure to that process. use tools that get diverse people working together around common interests. each focused on improving services for a particular user segment or rethinking business-to-business workflows. the composition of coalitions should change over time depending on the project’s stage. Smart cities will use coalitions at each stage of the development process: creating visions. and competition among Internet providers has kept access costs among the lowest in Europe. Andersen Consulting. Leaders serve as champions to help get other people enthused. But leaders cannot and shouldn’t try to control how an initiative develops. A coalition might be quite large during the initial visioning stage. Further. Earlier contact would have given the local leaders a chance to provide input that could have made made a better fit possible.Stockholm has developed one of the most comprehensive fiber optic networks in the world. among other things. leaders need to establish processes and entities that are inclusive of organizations throughout the planning and development stages. enable shared ownership.

then they will commit resources. Initiatives require sustained. the National Computer Board established the Singapore ONE web site as part of its IT2000 Master Plan. getting organizations to contribute data and setting up a database are the most critical tasks. Participating organizations often update their content irregularly. . common graphic standards were provided to these organizations. Identify the impact on participating organizations. Most community web sites set up a database but do not account for how the data will be updated. many organizations are not willing to commit the resources and make the changes required for the initiative to fulfill expectations. long-term commitments from participants. and end users often have little tolerance for poor quality. In Singapore. 1. Initiatives affect the internal operations of participants. Recommendations Many of the problems of initiatives that aggregate or share data across many organizations is the informal approach they take with participating organizations. assign a specific person responsibility for submis- - 24 Copyright 1999. 2. Finding: The results of many cross-organizational initiatives are diminished by lack of follow through by individual organizations. Summary Current thinking: When aggregating content from multiple organizations. 3. several organizations needed to alter how they tracked progress. Realizing that they were all involved in one way or another with the issue. Findings Despite the many benefits of aggregating and sharing data across multiple organizations. the standards did not provide them with a long-term solution that they could live with. Over time. When it comes to the final analysis. To help maintain cohesion between these various services. sometimes a potential partner may not have enough of a reason to participate in a system that requires ongoing maintenance and attention. Unfortunately. Initiatives and organizations need to approach these situations with the same vigor and thoroughness that they give business-to-business relationships. But if there is real value for all partners. All participating organizations were required to attend training. faster services. In order to get the organizations to collect a compatible set of metrics. For the organizations involved. Organizations that are not prepared for participation in a shared data environment will often fall short in execution. an informal group was formed by local health organizations to address the issue of teen pregnancy. if at all. these organizations drifted away from the common lookand-feel and began to submit content based on individual preferences. An emergency response system in Winston Salem. a little poor content brings down the overall impression of the site. but organizations often do not commit the resources needed to support the process. In Aiken. But the metrics they used to collect their data were incompatible with one another. With the goal of transforming Singapore into an information island. Clarify the value proposition for all members. All Rights Reserved.Maintaining Cross-organizational Applications Initiatives that involve the participation of many organizations can generate great benefits. One community web site in Chicago found that clearly outlining organizational responsibilities made things easier. Recommendation: Establish mechanisms to ensure accountability and consistency by participating organizations. Andersen Consulting. Protocols for maintaining and managing the data are unclear or ad hoc. South Carolina. however. the organizations agreed that sharing data would be a good first step. the National Computer Board enlisted the help of many organizations to provide content and services. North Carolina gained support from all emergency service providers in the region because centralizing data allowed everyone to deliver superior.

are responsible for following through with a commitment. Andersen Consulting. One city government knew that that all of its city agencies would in the near future need to contribute data to a regional Geographic Information System. all agencies were asked to begin updating their processes to comply with future standards two years before any technological system was in place.sion and updates. rather than organizations as a whole. and agree to a schedule of updates. This helped alert the organizations to their expected commitment up front. This enabled them to make a smooth transition to the new system when it came online. To prepare. Consistent progress is more likely when particular individuals. Give organizations enough time to ensure that participating organizations are prepared to deliver quality content. Plan ahead. They also knew that this would entail process changes in most agencies to comply with new standards. Get resource commitments early in the process. - Copyright 1999. All Rights Reserved. 25 . minimizing the fallout later on. People will not make time for tasks unless they have final responsibility.

Initiative visions are unactionable. At one small business assistance initiative that is entirely dependent on local government funding. cities need to co-develop a tailored. This is best done through inclusive processes that elicit the input and participation of all the essential people and organizations involved in carrying out the vision. These projects have ranged from wiring schools in the United States to installing extensive high-bandwidth networks in Singapore to launching dozens of smaller initiatives focusing on culture. In Europe. Unfortunately. governments at all levels are active in advocating and funding initiatives focused on introducing computing and communications technology into all aspects of society. were unwilling to dedicate their limited resources to a risky initiative that they had little input in shaping and were not fully committed to. Initiatives are opportunistic. most partners. A compelling vision of how technology can be used in your city has the power to generate excitement and galvanize government.Actionable Visions Cities that develop local visions that are embraced and championed by local organizations will be able to direct organizational effort in more effective ways. All Rights Reserved. This vision was created by a core group of initiative leaders. 3. As it turned out. actionable vision for how technology can improve their city with the participation of the organizations and people that will be responsible for implementing it. organizations and initiatives are having limited impact on their city. 2. cities need to codevelop clear and actionable visions that direct the efforts of people. Summary Current thinking: Organizations have good intentions and given the proper funding they will do things that benefit the city. At a United Kingdom location. they would only remessage their project's activities to fit the agenda of the new party. if any. . This is primarily due to three reasons: 1. actionable visions for the city. Details City leaders fundamentally believe that local organizations have good intentions and given the proper funding they will do things that benefit the city. the initiative would make few. most of these projects have met with mixed success. little benefit had been realized from the partnership. Create compelling. small business and government throughout Europe. these organizations will have limited impact on the city. a non-profit organization partnered with a university to apply for a several million-dollar grant. Two years after receiving the grant. Finding: Without guidance or direction. organizations and initiatives towards activities that are aligned with local interests. This is especially so when it comes to current movements towards technology adoption in cities. the initiative leader indicated that if a new political party were to be elected in the upcoming election. People 26 Copyright 1999. In order to achieve the expected level of impact. they dropped out of the consortium. the partnership was formed solely for the purposes of securing the grant (partnering was a requirement) and the services offered by the non-profit went largely unused by organizations. Andersen Consulting. Recommendation: In order to achieve the desired impact. When it came time for these partners to do actual development work. Initiatives use funding to support work they are already doing. businesses. Asia and the Americas. substantive changes to tie into the new local agenda. As it turned out. Recommendations Without guidance or direction at the local level. This is especially so when it comes to current efforts to promote technology use in cities. Despite the change in agenda. A multi-million dollar trial that wired an entire residential community of one hundred homes near Toronto established a grand vision for on-demand services and high-speed links to healthcare and educational resources. and it garnered great excitement by residents and potential partners who were needed to implement the vision. as well as local educational and healthcare organizations. organizations and residents.

27 .Antwerp’s Telepolis. In order for visions to retain their relevance and applicability to your city. Coalitions of this type have been successfully used in locations such as Aiken. don't assume that there is only one monolithic vision for your city. and then sub-divide into several smaller coalitions to tackle finergrained issues within a specific service sector. Cities can and should have many complimentary visions that address every aspect of daily life. including input from hundreds of people. developed a highspeed network throughout the region that is helping to foster new business growth as well as provide residents better access to government services and free email. want to be a part of a compelling future. Smart cities will use these inclusive coalitions at every stage of the visioning process from developing the vision to the launching individual initiatives. changing the composition of the coalition depending on the stage. - Copyright 1999. they need to be continually revised to reflect changes that are taking place. and a vision that specifically addresses how technology will benefit your city provides the focus and direction to make that future a reality. organizations and residents and the formation of coalitions to structure to the process. South Carolina and at the Next Generation Cities initiative. Visions that don't change over time run the risk of becoming irrelevant to organizations. businesses. Moreover. zoos and cultural institutions. Creating a citywide vision is fundamentally a bottom-up process that requires the participation of government. These visions however also need to be actionable. Andersen Consulting. It is not enough to say that you are going to transform secondary education with computers and Internet connectivity. identifying tangible initiatives such as creating an educational resource network that allows secondary education to access underused University science equipment or creating an online education program with content from museums. Visions need to go further. a public/private partnership corporation. All Rights Reserved. This will erode support for the vision and cause organizations to direct their efforts elsewhere. A coalition might be very large during the initial visioning stage. Modify visions over time so they adapt and respond to change. Reach broadly to develop visions and implement initiatives.

Cities are highly complex and inter-related entities. In most instances however. Initiatives duplicate efforts. In Manchester. limit the impact of each initiative. At a healthcare initiative in the United States. system maps and process diagrams can illustrate what organizations exist in a given area. Fortunately. Andersen Consulting. initiatives are not able to leverage the capabilities and benefits being generated by other initiatives. Recommendations Without a clear picture of how initiatives relate to one another. Despite the fact that the two surveys were nearly identical. cities can more effectively make use of their limited local resources. Only by understanding who and what is in your city can initiatives take full advantage of local resources. the gaps that were being filled by unconventional (and unexpected) health organizations. developing and running initiatives Details Maximizing the potential of initiatives in a city requires a holistic approach. tools exist that can help cut through the complexity and develop a clearer understanding of how all the pieces fit together. they will come" mentality. this is being inadvertently imposed on initiatives by the funding organizations. 3. In several locations visited. In rare instances. user enablement is happening without meaningful applications. it is common for initiatives in the same location to duplicate efforts. Summary Current thinking: People look at lots of activity as evidence of progress. as well as resident data based on geography. Initiatives solve only a part of the problem. limitations placed on funding prevented officials from offering training in certain areas that were in high need of their services. Currently. solve only part of a problem or operate in isolation of each other. which should be involved in an initiative and what types of interactions they will have.Systemic Relationships By viewing their city as one large system of inter-related parts and accounting for it in their plans. and applications are being built without enablement. This is primarily because of a lack of understanding of the complex interrelationships that exist between the organizations operating within a city. This results in inefficient and non-reinforcing efforts that. 1. Finding: People don't realize that if they applied the same money and people differently. an organization was given a grant to conduct a technology assessment survey of residents. 28 Copyright 1999. . in most instances. All Rights Reserved. building and road information. At one site. Unfortunately. partial solutions are the result of an "if you build it. Since funding often comes from many agencies and organizations. most government agencies have initiatives underway to organize statistical data. The results of the two surveys were predictably similar. Tool up. there is a great deal of activity in many cities. This is resulting in initiatives that duplicate efforts. the second survey was conducted to comply with the funding guidelines that called for slightly different metrics than the other survey used. This diagram helped them identify the complex interrelationships between different initiatives. England. Recommendation: Conduct a systemic analysis of your city to identify systemic relationships that can be taken advantage of when planning. they would achieve even greater progress. Many initiatives provide training and equipment without considering exactly what end users are going to do with it. Many related initiatives in a single locality are operating in isolation of one another. Soon after the grant was awarded. Too often. another organization in the city announced the findings of a similar survey they conducted. Initiatives are isolated. For example. each agency was defining its own standards and was unaware of similar initiatives underway in other agencies. but the natural synergies that exist between initiatives are not being exploited. in most instances. 2. a comprehensive systems diagram was developed to help initiative leaders understand how different organizations in their community were addressing the issue of teen pregnancy.

key players in an industry such as a hospital and major governmental agencies or non-profit organizations that touch many other organizations. A college student. real estate developers and landowners. Creating applications that address the needs of high-impact users will greatly benefit those who are most dependent on local products and services. All organizations within a given sector should be encouraged to begin the process of standardization well before any technical integration occurs. 29 . focusing on the publishing industry in some locations can pull in related industries such as the creative arts or printing. recreation facilities and volunteer organizations. All Rights Reserved. Include all parties that could potentially be affected by an outcome in the planning. but its benefit on the locality will be substantially lower. South Carolina. - Focus on high frequency of use areas. but it also gives businesses and government the time they need to understand the full capabilities and potential the technology has to offer. Targeting these areas will benefit a large number of users. Attack foundation areas first. Focus on high-impact user segments. For example. Applications that deal with areas that are accessed frequently by many users have a high potential for success. Areas and user segments that have the potential to pull in related areas and users should be considered a high priority. such as standardizing the segmentation of the user population into age classifications. Focus on areas and user segments with the greatest pull. In the City of Aiken. architects. all city agencies agreed to a set of standards for geographic information before the computer systems were in place to integrate it. The result was a system that radically transformed the permitting process and benefited a much greater number of organizations than originally intended. on the other hand. - - - - Copyright 1999. and with a high frequency of use the benefit will be multiplied many times over with successive use. These areas and user segments can be found by identifying existing networks in a locality and targeting key players in the networks. Even relatively simple efforts. senior citizens typically access many local products and services such as healthcare organizations. will usually access significantly fewer local products and services. This means looking beyond traditional sector definitions. This has enabled them to make significant progress while their technology infrastructure is planned and developed. For example.overlapping areas of interest and potential areas for collaboration. This not only ensures that the essential building blocks for other applications are in place. civil engineers. can lead to significant benefits for measuring and comparing progress. Andersen Consulting. it is important that initiatives be targeted in these areas first. a wide variety of organizations were involved in what appeared to be a simple online permitting initiative. These networks typically revolve around social groups such as ethnic communities. cultural centers. This initiative eventually included government agencies. Targeting low-use areas might result in a successful application. Establish standardized metrics. Within any locality. Since many resident-facing applications depend on business and government computer systems. Look past traditional sector boundaries. construction contractors. At the Smart Permits initiative in California. public transportation. A clearly defined set of standard metrics can help ensure that initiatives are measuring and tracking data in ways that allow cross-comparisons and information sharing happen. the majority of local products and services will be used and consumed by a relatively small percentage of residents.

3. To compensate for this. The city of Aiken is planning to create a multi-faceted Geographic Information System (GIS) incorporating data from numerous agencies. This allows them to - 30 Copyright 1999. Recommendations Application developers need to acknowledge that communication and computing technologies are not yet mature enough to be stable for a long period. 1. Recommendation: Plan for change. resulting in a constant rework of very small amounts of content. Technology often moves faster than initiatives can.Technological Change Cutting-edge technologies can be a powerful attractor for users. and were likely to change significantly in the near future. has a pilot that is designed to accommodate technological change. that one developer commented that the network was outdated and unsustainably expensive the minute it went into the ground. Finding: Technology will continually change. . they will not need to reconstruct the data models. They recognized that delivery platforms were not mature. a Finnish telephone company. or any other viewing platform wins out. so that whether VRML. go for quick wins and don't get tied to one technology. An experiment to put museum content online was held back by the difference between the fast changing multimedia world and the methodical pace of museum content creation. Summary Current thinking: Using cutting-edge technology in applications is the best way to ensure that they will be useful for the long term. They have been experimenting with the creation of a three dimensional model of Helsinki as a navigation methods for local services and social spaces. Plan for change. In addition. they began process changes two years before they plan to actually invest in the technology. Leading edge technologies are often ahead of the technological preparedness of the target population. Potentially useful Internet applications in Barcelona are being underused due to the very low penetration of internet users in that city (9%). Don't roll out the technology prematurely. Therefore. The consortium that backed the broadband residential initiative Netville near Toronto wanted to install the most advanced high-speed network possible. But the technology was so unstable and the area was moving so quickly. HPY. allowing the technology to mature. Findings Application developers often want to employ cutting-edge technology in situations where more mature technologies may be more appropriate. 2. All Rights Reserved. they should consider how important it is to employ cutting edge technologies. Meanwhile. This sometimes leaves the application underutilized. they created data models for the city that were platform and technology independent. Soon after the pilot was released. As was their custom. One of the features they developed was a custom music on demand service. Mixing cutting edge technology with unformed content is extremely difficult. making the pilot application obsolete. they merely need to establish new access links. streamed music and MPEG hit the Internet. they should anticipate the impact of new standards as they emerge. Andersen Consulting. the multimedia partner was repeatedly moving onto the most advanced interface technologies. Recognizing that many of the agencies will need to adjust their internal processes to participate in such a system. the museum personnel were extremely diligent in deciding how to present their material. The pilot ran into problems with its applications as well. but application developers that take a more pragmatic view of technology will achieve better results over the long-term.

they sought to use already existing data so that they could get the system up and running immediately. They will add and refine features over time as more users have access to the system and they understand better what is valuable. but more universally accessible medium to deliver the application. Sometimes the power of an application lies in the data and the capabilities provided by that data. They wanted to ensure that all residents could access the application. - Copyright 1999. Barcelona's Infopime incorporates a GIS database with demographic and business data from many city agencies. Similarly. a text-based TV protocol in Europe. make progress towards their goal without waiting for the technology to be in place. Sometimes low-tech is best. not a highend web site. The successful housing registration application in the Hague was delivered on teletext. When they began. V are able to access The A Blacksburg Electronic Village from home. 31 .000 residents of Blacksburg. not in the technology. which is a dial up modem. and chose an older.Over 85% of the 36. Go for quick wins. Recent research findings highlight how local organizations such as churches and volunteer organizations are fundamentally changing the ways in which they interact with residents as a result of the long-term use of the community network. All Rights Reserved. the Next Generation Cities project in San Francisco is limiting its applications to those that will perform well on least common denominator Internet access speeds. This is allowing their users to get value out of the system now while they improve it further. Andersen Consulting.

. Finding: Cultural and personal attitudes run extremely deep. much less comfortable with groupware. Initiatives should develop profiles for each user type. Andersen Consulting. the majority gains the necessary confidence they need to adopt the technology. but others take months or years to adopt them. with references of others who have had success with an application. it's only a matter of time. Repeated prodding and even peer pressure tactics were required to finally get them online. the development and promotion of applications need to account for these differences. Many of the participants were hands-on practitioners and didn’t relate to technology well. and they were reticent to view these activities as proper use of University resources. This helps initiatives understand how best to tailor applications to users. South Carolina. Document and promote best practices. It gives them something concrete that they can relate to their situation. Use “early adopters” to inform your long-term strategies. - - 32 Copyright 1999. Since each user type has different motivations. Tools for gathering this information include attitudinal surveys. In Aiken. Findings Leaders believe that everyone in a community will adopt new technologies that offer value to them. University teachers did not want to allow students to use email on campus computers. Best practices help users see how others are using technology and how it is adding value. a healthcare coalition was attempting to adopt software to collectively track health statistics. and late adopters are unlikely to turn into technology enthusiasts. 1. it is important to identify: specific characteristics of each user type. In addition. Because early adopters are the first to use the technology. By incorporating the information learned from early adopters into the approaches taken with the majority. Recommendations Since late adopters are likely to remain skeptical of technology. They were afraid that the students would use their limited computing resources for non-school activities. Educators in several locations were aware of the value of letting early adopters lead the way. Many were not even email users. Recognize each user type. and employ communication and training strategies to compensate for engrained attitudes. who users look to for technology guidance. interviews of users and nonusers. And developers are finding that some users do eagerly adopt new technologies. 2. employ research. In addition. Recommendation: Assume that late adopters will remain skeptical of technology. if they do so at all. Help users see and understand the value of new technologies. In developing these profiles.Personality & Culture Visions of widespread technology adoption are compelling but the reality is that some people may never become enthusiastic about trying new technologies. Cultural and personal attitudes run extremely deep and late adopters are unlikely to turn into technology enthusiasts. In one location. communication and training strategies to understand and compensate for engrained attitudes. They did not understand how students rely on email to communicate among themselves. developers can increase adoption rates significantly. All Rights Reserved. they can be a source of insight into how it can be improved and tailored to the needs of the majority and provide success stories and best practices. Many people are slow to see the value in new technology. developers depend on having a critical mass of users adopt their applications. Some members eventually dropped out to focus on more hands-on work. and what factors they consider before adopting technologies. PSummary Current thinking: All we need to do is wait for society to catch up with technology in order to create mass applications. ]Early adopters” can be a powerful tool for understanding how later adopters will use a technology. Hands-on personality types are not attracted to technology. and direct observation of users in their place of work.

33 . but wants proof that it works before he or she commits. All Rights Reserved.The Technology Adoption Life Cycle Framework In addition. Innovators are easy to spot. every population of technology users can be broken down into five types. A framework developed by Geoffrey Moore called the Technology Adoption Life Cycle Framework identifies five types of technology users. Innovators are always the first to adopt new technology. The Late Majority is cautious of new technologies and waits for a dominant standard to emerge. Early Adopters can see the benefits and potential of a technology before it is proven in the marketplace. Like Innovators. This group wants to be assured that solutions work as promised. they understand the potential that technology holds and are willing to put up with the bugs and glitches that often accompany new technologies. At one location. They are always the last group to adopt any technology even if waiting causes great inconvenience for them. Andersen Consulting. The Early Majority user is willing to adopt technologies. rather than promote all of an application's features. According to Moore.. refer to “Crossing the Chasm” by Geoffrey Morre. Copyright 1999. the technologies are just out of the lab or still under development. This enables them to discern what real benefit is coming from the application. The vast majority fall into the Early and Late Majorities and are static. Laggards do not see the need for technology and are often forced into adopting it. choose a select few that apply most directly to the users being targeted. They usually have electronic devices attached to their hip and talk in a techno-speak that only they understand. For more information on the Technology Adoption Lifecycle. that adequate technical support exists and that they are adopting the industry standard. These user types are not distributed evenly throughout the user population. Some Laggards are vocal critics of technology and actively work against attempts to introduce new technologies. local churches and cultural groups were brought in to host computer literacy training to great success. This means that all people fit into one type and they do not change types over time. Proof typically comes to them through examples of how the technology is benefiting others. Employ trusted parties to get people involved. People engage in behavior with people and organizations they know and trust before they turn to unfamiliar organizations. These users are fundamentally pragmatic. Often.

.34 Copyright 1999. All Rights Reserved. Andersen Consulting.

All Rights Reserved. Andersen Consulting. 35 .Copyright 1999.

Copyright 1999. All Rights Reserved. Andersen Consulting 3773 Willow Road Northbrook IL 60062 .