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Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane. This article focuses on organic compounds that are not burned as fuel (see also Petroleum product). Two petrochemical classes are olefins including ethylene and propylene, and aromatics including benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers. Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents, detergents, and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels. Global ethylene and propylene production are ~110 million tonnes and ~65 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is ~70 million tonnes. The largest petrochemical industries are located in the USA and Western Europe; however, major growth in new production capacity is in the Middle East and Asia. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade. Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending on their chemical structure:
Olefins includes ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial chemicals and plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Aromatics includes benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce plastics and synthetic fibers. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
The prefix "petro-" is an arbitrary abbreviation of the word "petroleum"; since "petro-" is Ancient Greek for "rock" and "oleum" means "oil". Therefore, the etymologically correct term would be "oleochemicals". However, the term oleochemical is used to describe chemicals derived from plant and animal fats.
• • •
1 List of significant petrochemicals and their derivatives
1.1 Petrochemicals products
2 See also 3 References
 List of significant petrochemicals and their derivatives
The following is a partial list of the major commercial petrochemicals and their derivatives:
used as a chemical feedstock and ripening hormone ○ ○ ○ polyethylene . tubing.polymerized ethylene ethanol . used as a dry cleaning solvent and degreaser vinyl chloride .ethylene glycol.via ethylene oxide hydration engine coolant .Chemicals produced from ethylene • ethylene .via ethylene oxidation ethylene glycol .the simplest olefin. other things .2-dichloroethane trichloroethylene tetrachloroethylene .monomer for polyvinyl chloride polyvinyl chloride (PVC) .type of plastic used for piping.via ethylene hydration (chemical reaction adding water) of ethylene ethylene oxide .via glycol condensation ethoxylates vinyl acetate 1. water and inhibitor mixture polyesters .any of several polymers with ester linkages in the backbone chain ○ ○ glycol ethers .also called perchloroethylene.
chloro-oxirane. isoprene.a type of polymerizing glue from bisphenol A.feed for making methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or monomer for copolymerization with a low percentage of isoprene to make butyl rubber ○ 1. and some amine • C4 hydrocarbons .2-propanol.a mixture consisting of butanes.used as a monomer and a chemical feedstock ○ ○ ○ ○ isopropyl alcohol .3-butadiene. ABS polypropylene . epichlorohydrin. isobutylene.a diene often used as a monomer or comonomer for polymerization to elastomers such as polybutadiene. used in epoxy resin formation ○ ○ acrylic acid allyl chloride epoxy resins . chloroprene.used in the production of polyurethanes propylene glycol . often used as a solvent or rubbing alcohol acrylonitrile . styrenebutadiene rubber.useful as a monomer in forming Orlon.useful as monomers or co-monomers isobutylene .Chemicals produced from propylene • propylene .used in engine coolant and aircraft deicer fluid glycol ethers . elastomeric polymers are often made .synthetic elastomers made of any one or more of several petrochemical (usually) monomers such as 1.polymerized propylene propylene oxide polyol . or a plastic such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) synthetic rubbers . styrene.3-butadiene (or buta-1.3-diene) . butylenes and butadienes ○ isomers of butylene .from condensation of glycols acrylic polymers epichlorohydrin .
dimethyl ketone. For example. or chloroprene • higher olefins ○ ○ polyolefins such poly-alpha-olefins.with a high percentage of conjugated diene monomers such as 1. examples often made from petrochemicals include ethanol. co-monomers. and other chemical precursors.a plastic polymer made from bisphenol A and phosgene (carbonyl dichloride) solvents . and some amine polycarbonate . used as a monomer polystyrenes . a feedstock in the cumene process phenol . epichlorohydrin. a small amount of 1-hexene can be copolymerized with ethylene into a more flexible form of polyethylene.used as monomers.the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon ○ ethylbenzene . often made by the cumene process acetone .a type of "double" phenol used in polymerization in epoxy resins and making a common type of polycarbonate epoxy resins . isoprene.polymers with styrene as a monomer ○ cumene . which are used as lubricants alpha-olefins .3butadiene.liquids used for dissolving materials. detergent alcohols ○ other higher olefins ○ Chemicals produced from benzene • benzene . isopropyl alcohol. acetone.isopropylbenzene. also often made by the cumene process bisphenol A . toluene.a type of polymerizing glue from bisphenol A.hydroxybenzene.made from benzene and ethylene styrene made by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. xylenes . benzene.
some are from polymerizing caprolactam caprolactam .often include surfactants types such as alkylbenzenesulfonates and nonylphenol ethoxylates ○ chlorobenzene Chemicals produced from toluene • toluene .used as co-monomers with diols or polyols to form polyurethanes or with di.○ cyclohexane . can be a solvent or precursor for other chemicals ○ ○ benzene toluene diisocyanate (TDI) . which can be used as a presursor for a sulfonate surfactant (detergent) detergents .a 6-carbon aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon sometimes used as a nonpolar solvent adipic acid .or polyamines to form polyureas polyurethanes ○ alkylbenzene .a general type of aromatic hydrocarbon.methylbenzene.carboxybenzene nylon .types of polyamides.used as a co-monomer with diols or polyols to form polyurethanes or with di. some are alternating copolymers formed from copolymerizing dicarboxylic acid or derivatives with diamines nylons . nylons .types of polyamides. which can be a precursor used as a co-monomer together with a diamine to form an alternating copolymer form of nylon.or polyamines to form polyureas polyurethanes .a polymer formed from diisocyanates and diols or polyols caprolactam ○ benzoic acid .a 6-carbon cyclic amide ○ nitrobenzene .a 6-carbon dicarboxylic acid.can be made by single nitration of benzene aniline .aminobenzene methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) .
both methyl groups can be oxidized to form (ortho-)phthalic acid phthalic anhydride dimethyl terephthalate . could be a solvent but more often precursor chemicals ○ ○ ortho-xylene .both methyl groups can be oxidized to form terephthalic acid polyesters . purified terephthalic acid . fragr additive .often copolymerized to form polyethylene terephthalate polyesters ○ meta-xylene isophthalic acid alkyd resins Polyamide Resins Unsaturated Polyesters Polymers & Fibers Acrylic fiber Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Acrylonitrile styrene (AS) Polybutadiene (PBR) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Petroleum Lubricants Additives Catalysts Marine fuel oil Petroleum refining  Petrochemicals products Petrochemicals Basic Feedstock Butadiene Ethylene Para-xylene Propylene Intermediates 2-Ethylhexanol (2-EH) Acetic acid Acrylonitrile (AN) Chemic Adhesives and Agrochem Construction c Corrosion contro Cosmetics raw Electronic chem materia Flavourings. polyethylene terephthalate is made from petrochemical products and is very widely used.any of three dimethylbenzene isomers.Chemicals produced from xylenes • mixed xylenes .can be copolymerized to form certain polyesters para-xylene .although there can be many types.
google. Polymer add Specialty and lif chemica Surfactants and cle  See also • • • • • Petroleum Petroleum products Instrumentation in petrochemical industries Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Asia Petrochemical Industry Conference  Petrochemicals in Europe Matar. bo containe Paint.org/w/index. Lewis Frederic (2001). Gulf Professional Publishing.wikipedia.com/? id=PR6pujxc68kC. dyes and prin Packaging. Chemistry of petrochemical processes (2 ed. http://books.). Hatch.  References • • Retrieved from "http://en. Sami.2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride or EDC) Ethylene glycol (EG) Ethylene oxide (EO) Formaldehyde n-Hexene Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) Methanol Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Phenol Propylene oxide Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) Styrene monomer (SM) Urea Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) Polyol Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Styrene butadiene (SBR) Urea-formaldehyde (UF) Specialty and i chemica Specialty and indu Inks.Ammonia Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dioctyl phthalate) n-Butene Cyclohexane Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) Dodecylbenzene Ethanol Ethanolamine Ethoxylate 1.php?title=Petrochemical&oldid=464253557" Source wikipedia . ISBN 0884153150. coatings.
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