Ernst Jünger

1895-1998
SOURCE: Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002.

Year of Birth: 1895 Place of Birth: Heidelberg, Germany Year of Death: 1998 Place of Death: Wilflingen, Germany Genre(s): Essays, Novels, Travel/Exploration, Autobiography/Memoir, Politics/Government One of modern Germany's foremost men of letters, Ernst Jünger is best known for his In Stahlgewittern: Aus dem Tagebuch eines Strosstruppfuehrers, translated as The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front. He has also published highly acclaimed travel books, diaries, and essays. Speaking of the diversity of Jünger's accomplishment, Carl Steiner described Jünger in the Dictionary of Literary Biography as a "soldier-philosopher, a combination with which ancient civilizations such as those of Greece and Rome were quite comfortable. . . . If one adds the categories of naturalist, writer, and essayist, one moves into even more rarified circles. Ernst Jünger, blending the courage of the soldier with the curiosity of the student of life forms, the skill and imagination of the literary stylist with the probing intellect of the researcher, is such an exceptional individual." Jünger, who continued to write well into his eighties and nineties, has created a body of work that reflects the longest life span of any major German literary figure. Indeed, many critics have considered Jünger to be the doyen of twentieth-century German letters. As a young man, Jünger was fascinated by warfare and the military life. His longing to experience battle first-hand asserted itself at the age of sixteen when he ran away from home to join the French Foreign Legion. Jünger's father did not share his son's enthusiasm, however, and with the help of the authorities, located and returned the underage boy to his home. But when World War I erupted, Jünger immediately enlisted in the German Army. He distinguished himself on the Western Front, received Germany's highest military honor, and was wounded seven times. From his World War I experiences came his first book, The Storm of Steel, which was based on the diaries he kept at the time. The book was praised across the United States as a significant and revealing insight into the mind of a German officer. In his introduction to The Storm of Steel, R. H. Mottram asserts that the work was profound and meaningful because the author did not shy away from depicting events and feelings exactly as they occurred; he censored nothing. Mottram's description of Jünger reveals much of the tone of the work: "He was no middle-aged civilian, unwillingly taking up arms and finding all his worst preconceptions abundantly fulfilled. He was nearly as good a specimen as ever worshipped Mars [the Roman god of war], and to what did he come? To that unescapable doom that brings to meet violence precisely such resistance as shall cancel and annul it." Mottram concludes that "on this point the strength and finality of the testimony cannot be missed." Jünger did not apologize in The Storm of Steel for the bloodshed and violence of warfare, but rather reveled in the glories of battle. As he wrote in the book: "War means the destruction of the enemy without scruple and by any means. War is the harshest of all trades, and the masters of it can only entertain humane feelings

as long as they do no harm." A reviewer for New Statesman declared: Jünger "has a remarkable gift for describing certain emotions, complex and hard of analysis, which beset, and still have power to bewilder, the man of even average sensibility who was brought by war into abrupt contact with the most primitive of human experiences." In addition to recommending it to the general public, several reviewers considered The Storm of Steel a book imperative for pacifists to read and study. As F. Van de Water of the New York Evening Post observed, the book "presents a view of battle not generally recognized, yet too logical to be overlooked." A reviewer for Spectator also advised pacifists to heed "this fine book," commenting, "It is even better propaganda than [Erich M. Remarque's] All Quiet on the Western Front, for there is a certain horrible lure in the completeness of that work of genius, whereas this is a ghastly, gripping story whose truth and whose horror stand out all the plainer for the author's psychic blindness." After World War I, Jünger attended the University of Leipzig where he studied both philosophy and zoology, becoming interested particularly in entomology, the study of insects. Hilary Barr, who translated Jünger's Eine geführliche Begegnung as A Dangerous Encounter, told CA that "the [German] term 'Subtiler Jagd,' which Jünger uses throughout his works, refers to his entomological excursions (primarily beetlechasing) as well as to his practice (more a second vocation) of observing close-up the wonders of the animal and plant kingdoms. He is also a passionate collector and renowned entomologist (coleopterist)." Numerous reviewers, in fact, attributed Jünger's probing and analytical approach in writing to his university training in the sciences. It was while a student that he first became politically active and participated in radical right-wing organizations that supported his view that a democracy of all the people could never retain order in the world. Jünger looked forward to the rise of the new "Federation" and the coming of the new man, an industrial individual who would restore order in a chaotic world. He defined and explained these ideas in his 1932 work, Der Arbeiter: Herrschaft und Gestalt. When Hitler came to power, Jünger dropped out of the political scene due to his disillusionment with the Nazi Party. Although the Nazis were striving for totalitarianism, he felt that their interpretation was a mockery of the "true system" he advocated. With this in mind, in 1939 he wrote Auf den Marmorklippen, an allegorical novel based on Nazi practices and later translated as On the Marble Cliffs. A major turning point in his literary career, this work offers a more humanistic and, some insist, almost Christian point of view. On the Marble Cliffs depicts the annihilation of a peaceful and gentle country by "barbarian hordes." Quickly recognized as anti-Nazi when released to English-speaking audiences, the book miraculously escaped the censor's eye when published in Germany in 1939. By the time the German government realized the novel's true meaning and halted further publication, tens of thousands of copies were already in circulation. Jünger's honor was not seriously questioned, however, for he was loyally serving with the German Army at the time. Alfred Werner of the New York Times praised the novel, but complained that "despite its poetical merits and its unmistakable challenge to Hitlerism, [On the Marble Cliffs] fails to uplift the reader because of its impotent hopelessness." A reviewer for the New Yorker claimed that Jünger's "allegory, which is full of the same sort of hobgoblinism that the Nazis themselves went in for--skulls, torches, midnight revels, and so on--is so murky that most readers are likely to miss the point." As an appeal for humanist values, Jünger wrote Der Friede: Ein Wort an die Jugend Europas, und an die Jugend der Welt, translated as The Peace, in late 1941. Jünger began to draft the essay in the fall of 1941, when German arms were most successful. Working on in through the following winter, he kept it hidden in a reinforced safe so that the Gestapo, who had him under continual surveillance, would not find it. Dedicated to the memory of his son Ernstel, who was killed in action in 1944, the 1945 work is an acknowledgement of Germany's guilt and a plea for world peace to end the senseless sacrifice of human life. Although he still repudiated liberalism, Jünger called for a renunciation of nationalism and the affirmation of the individual, and lobbied actively for a politically united Europe. Erik von Kuehnelt-

Leddihn of Catholic World observed that The Peace "is not only a highly prophetic piece of writing in the finest literary style . . . but it is also a blueprint for the sound peace which should have followed this terrible massacre." Jünger employed a fantastic and dream-like style of writing in his next book, Glaeserne Bienen, published in English translation as The Glass Bees. This allegorical novel tells of a former cavalryman, Captain Richard, who must perform extensive feats of strength and endurance in the magical garden of political dictator Zapparoni in order to secure employment. The garden is filled with thousands of glass bees, tiny mechanized robots able to lay waste to all civilization if summoned. According to E. S. Pisko of the Christian Science Monitor, the glass bees symbolize "the destruction Jünger sees modern technology wreaking upon human society." Siegfried Mandel of the New York Times Book Review commended the novel as "harrowing and thought-disturbing," asserting that it "contributes not only to prophetic and nihilistic literature but also to an understanding of the inner and outer forces that shape many a man's attitude toward tyranny." Jünger's third novel to be released in English translation was Aladins Problem, or Aladdin's Problem. Reaching U.S. audiences in 1992, almost a decade after its publication in Germany, the metaphysical novel follows thirty-seven-year-old Friedrich Baroh. Born in Poland into an aristocratic family and drafted into the Polish army during World War II, Baroh rises in rank in the military, but ultimately deserts his post and defects to the West. After the war he moves to Germany, and goes to work for his uncle, a mortician. While on a visit to the vast cemetery at Verdun, he becomes fascinated with the idea of constructing a giant mausoleum in Turkey that he calls Terrestra, wherein could be housed all the world's dead. With the help of a friend, Baroh puts his idea into practice, and soon find that "he has aroused a 'primal instinct,' a desire for some sense of permanence amid the planet's endless upheavals," in the words of New York Times Book Review contributor Eils Lotozo. Unfortunately, as the novel progresses, Baroh's successful venture begins to drive him to madness. The novel's title, "Aladdin's Problem," refers to the lamp which, although roughly hewn and constructed from a simple substance, held the potential to control the world. Aladdin, as possessor of this power, wields it without concern for the human consequences of his actions. In the Washington Post Book World, contributor Thomas McGonigle praised Jünger's epigrammatic novel as an effective vehicle for recalling the author's personal history and making readers "take with appropriate seriousness his [nihilistic] observations about the modern world." And Lotozo concluded of the novel that "Readers will be stirred by its persistent and intriguing questions about the conflicts between nature and technology, the individual and the state, and by its examination of humanity's place in this wasteland of a world that we are rapidly creating." Taking place in Paris in 1888, A Dangerous Encounter--first published in German in 1985 as Eine geführliche Begegnung--also finds aristocratic protagonists attempting to grapple with an increasingly mechanized world. Captain Kargane, an officer in the Germany navy, is married to an unfaithful wife; Ducasse is a wealthy decadent, reduced by the "soulless age of steam and light" in which he lives "to being a mischievous arbiter of elegance at the doubtful tables of rich strangers," according to New York Review of Books contributor Ian Buruma. Arranging a tryst between Kargane's wife and a young German student, Ducasse inadvertently brings about the woman's murder. The event forces a duel between Kargane and the student's second, an old soldier, that restores the sense of traditional honor of both men. Jünger's 1977 novel Eumeswil was translated into English in 1993 and received good reviews from American critics. Eumeswil is a land controlled by the dictator Condor on the shores of north Africa in a dystopic time following the collapse of a world government in the third millennium. The story is narrated by Martin Venator, a history professor who claims to have no political allegiance, and who moonlights as a servant to the dictator. Venator, who in his spare time revisits historical events via his time machine, takes copious notes regarding Eumeswil's history as it has valiantly struggled to save itself from the doom of democracy. Eventually, an overthrow of Condor's regime becomes imminent, and Venator escapes with Condor and his allies into the woods, leaving his journals behind as a legacy. Jack Byrne of the Review of Contemporary Fiction wrote that Jünger's "style is overpowering with literary, philosophical, and historical references," which make Eumeswil "a veritable handbook on political power, dictatorship, and the inevitable corruption that follows in their wake." A critic for Publishers Weekly called the book a

"labyrinthine study of a compromised individual [which] telescopes past and present, playing over the sweep of Western history and culture with a dazzling range of allusions from Homer and Nero to Poe and Lenin." Reviewing particularly Jünger's later works of fiction, Philip Brantingham noted in Chicago's Tribune Books that the philosopher-novelist's "beautifully written and challenging works as a whole provoke much rethinking on subjects often thought to be closed and settled. Aside from his literary artistry, that is perhaps the greatest heritage Jünger will leave us." But in his later years, Jünger gained a semblance of a different kind of notoriety after discussing his extensive drug experimentation--including the use of LSD with the drug's inventor, Albert Hofmann--in his book Annaeherungen: Drogen und Rausch. Nevertheless, key political figures continued to recognize his importance in German letters. He appeared publicly with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and French President François Mitterand in 1984 in a ceremony to commemorate casualties of both world wars, and both leaders visited him at his home in Wilflingen on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday in 1985. When Jünger died at the age of 102 in 1998, he was eulogized in the Economist by a contributor who noted that "writers of obituaries in German newspapers have agonised in their efforts to be honest about Mr Junger. Some have looked at his long life covering the blackest period of German history . . . and note that he never lost his contempt for democracy." The Economist writer concluded that "others say he was simply a patriotic German trying to make the best of the times. The important thing, say his defenders, is that he was one of the finest writers of the century, a great stylist, a master of German, and don't writers make their own rules?"

FURTHER READINGS ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
BOOKS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arnold, Heinz Ludwig, editor, Wandlung und Wiederkehr: Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag Ernst Juenger, Georgi (Aachen, Germany), 1965. Arnold, Heinz Ludwig, Ernst Juenger, Steglitz (Berlin, Germany), 1966. Baumer, Franz, Ernst Juenger, Colloquium (Berlin, Germany), 1967. Bohrer, Karl Heinz, Die Asthetik des Schreckens: Die pessimistische Romantik und Ernst Juengers Frühwerk, Hanser (Munich. Germany), 1978. Brock, Erich, Ernst Juenger und die Problematik der Gegenwart, Schwabe (Basel, Switzerland), 1943. Contemporary Literary Criticism, Volume 125, Gale (Detroit, MI), 2000. Decombis, Marcel, Ernst Juenger: L'homme et l'oeuvre jusqu'en 1936, Aubier (Paris, France), 1943. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 56: German Fiction Writers, 1914-1945, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1987. Figal, Gunter, and Heimo Schwilk, Magie der Heiterkeit: Ernst Junger zum Hundersten, KlettCotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1995. Hietala, Marjatta, Der neue Nationalismus in der Publizistik Ernst Juengers und des Kreises um ihn 1920-1933, Suomalaison Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia (Helsinki, Finland), 1975. Jünger, Ernst, The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front, translation by Basil Creighton, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1929. Katzmann, Volker, Ernst Juengers magischer Realismus, Olms (Hildesheim), 1975. Kerker, Arnim, Ernst Juenger--Klaus Mann: Gemeinsamkeit und Gegensatz in Literatur und Politik, Bouvier (Bonn, Germany), 1974. Kiesel, Helmuth, Wissenschaftliche Diagnose und dichterische Vision der Moderne: Max Weber und Ernst Junger, Manutius (Heidelberg, Germany), 1994. Konitzer, Martin, Ernst Junger, Campus, 1993. Konrad, Helmut, Kosmos: Politische Philosophie im Werk Ernst Juengers, Blasaditsch (Vienna, Austria), 1972.

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Kunicki, Wojciech, Projektionen des Geschichtlichen, P. Lang, 1993. Loose, Gerhard, Ernst Juenger, Twayne (New York, NY), 1974. Martin, Alfred von, Der heroische Nihilismus und seine Uberwindung: Ernst Juengers Weg durch die Krise, Scherpe (Krefeld), 1948. Mohler, Arnim, editor, Die Schleife: Dokumente zum Weg von Ernst Juenger, Arche (Zurich, Switzerland), 1955. Muehleisen, H., and H. P. des Coudres, Bibliographie der Werke Ernst Juengers, Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1985. Mueller-Schwefe, Hans-Rudolf, Ernst Juenger, Barmen (Wuppertal), 1951. Muller, Hans-Harald, and Harro Segeberg, Ernst Junger im 20. Jahrhundert, Wilhelm Fink (Munich, Germany), 1995. Nebel, Gerhard, Ernst Juenger und das Schicksal des Menschen, Marees (Wuppertal), 1948. Paetel, Karl O., Ernst Juenger: Eine Bibliographie, Lutz & Meyer, 1953. Paetel, Karl O., Ernst Juenger in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, Rowohlt (Hamburg, Germany), 1962. Sader, Jorg, Im Bauche des Leviathan: Tagebuch und Maskerade, Anmerkungen zu Ernst Jungers "Strahlungen," Konigshausen & Neumann (Wurzburg), 1996. Schieb, Roswitha, Das teilbare Individuum: Korperbilder bei Ernst Junger, Hans Henny Jahnn, und Peter Weiss, M. & P. (Stuttgart, Germany), 1997. Schroter, Olaf, Es ist am Technischen viel Illusion: Die Technik im Werk Ernst Jungers, Koster (Berlin, Germany), 1993. Schwartz, Hans Peter, Der konservative Anarchist: Politik und Zeitkritik Ernst Juengers, Rombach (Freiburg, Germany), 1962. Stern, Joseph Peter, Ernst Juenger: A Writer of Our Time, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1953. Treher, Wolfgang, Transzendenz und Katastrophe: Ernst Junger im Spiegel der Hegelschen Philosophie; Eine psychopathologische Studie, Oknos (Emmendingen-Maleck), 1993. Woods, Roger, Ernst Juenger and the Nature of Political Commitment, Heinz (Stuttgart, Germany), 1982.

PERIODICALS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Art in America, June, 1995, Brigitte Werneburg and Christopher Phillips, "The Armored Male Exposed, " pp. 44-47. Atlantic, May, 1961. Bloomsbury Review, March, 1994, p. 4. Booklist, April 1, 1994, John Shreffler, review of Eumeswil, pp. 1423-1424. Catholic World, November, 1948, Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, review of The Peace. Chicago Tribune, May 1, 1994, Thomas McGonigle, "Deadly Details and Rules for Living, " p. 6. Christian Science Monitor, March 2, 1961, E. S. Pisko, review of The Glass Bees. Journal of European Studies, March, 1999, Thomas Pekar, "Ernst Junger's Thematic Use of the Orient and Asia, " p. 27. Library Journal, April 1, 1994, Michael T. O'Pecko, review of Eumeswil, p. 132. Nation, March 27, 1948, Louis Clair, review of On the Marble Cliffs, pp. 357-358. New Statesman, August 17, 1929. New Yorker, March 20, 1948, review of On the Marble Cliffs. New York Evening Post, September 28, 1929, F. Van de Water, review of The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front. New York Review of Books, June 24, 1993, Ian Buruma, review of A Dangerous Encounter, pp. 27-30. New York Times, April 4, 1978, Alfred Werner, review of On the Marble Cliffs.

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New York Times Book Review, February 19, 1961; November 22, 1992, Eils Lotozo, "A Booming Necropolis, " p. 24. Observer, December 5, 1993, p. 23. Publishers Weekly, June 21, 1993, p. 85; May 9, 1994, review of Eumeswil, p. 64; March 25, 1996, review of Aladdin's Problem, p. 80. Review of Contemporary Fiction, fall, 1994, Jack Byrne, review of Eumeswil, p. 230. Spectator, June 22, 1929, review of The Storm of Steel. Texas Studies in Literature and Language, winter, 1965. Tribune Books (Chicago), August 1, 1993, p. 4. Washington Post Book World, February 7, 1993, Thomas McGonigle, review of Aladdin's Problem, p. 11. Yale Review, June, 1961.

OTHER
• • Ernst Juenger in Cyberspace, http://www.juenger.org/ (August 24, 2001). Scorpion Magazine Web site, http://www.stormloader.com/thescorpion/ (October 31, 2001).

Obituary and Other Sources:

PERIODICALS
• • Economist, February 28, 1998, p. 89. New York Times, February 18, 1998, David Binder, "Ernst Junger, Contradictory German Author Who Wrote about War, Is Dead at 102," p. D22.*

Source: Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002. Source Database: Contemporary Authors

WRITINGS BY THE AUTHOR:
IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
• In Stahlgewittern: Aus dem Tagebuch eines Strosstruppführers, E. S. Mittler (Berlin, Germany), 1922, published as In Stahlgewittern: Ein Kriegstagbuch, [Hamburg, Germany], 1934, translation by Basil Creighton published as The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1929. Das Wäldchen 125: Eine Chronik aus den Grabenkaempfen 1918, E. S. Mittler (Berlin, Germany), 1925, translation by Basil Creighton published as Copse One Hundred Twenty-five: A Chronicle from the Trench Warfare of 1918, Chatto & Windus (London, England), 1930. Afrikanische Spiele, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1936, translation by Stuart Hood published as African Diversions, Lehmann (London, England), 1954. Auf den Marmorklippen (novel), Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Gemany), 1939, translation by Stuart Hood published as On the Marble Cliffs, New Directions (New York, NY), 1947.

• •

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Der Friede: Ein Wort an die Jugend Europas, und an die Jugend der Welt (essay), Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1945, translation by Stuart Hood published as The Peace, Regnery (Hinsdale, IL), 1948. Glaeserne Bienen (novel), E. Klett, 1957, translation by Louise Bogan and Elizabeth Mayer published as The Glass Bees, Noonday Press (New York, NY), 1960. Eumeswil, E. Klett, 1977, translation by Joachim Neugroschel, Marsilio (New York, NY), 1993. Aladins Problem (novel), Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1983, translation by Joachim Neugroschel published as Aladdin's Problem, Marsilio (New York, NY), 1992. Eine geführliche Begegnung (novel), Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1985, translation by Hilary Barr published as A Dangerous Encounter, Marsilio (New York, NY), 1993.

IN GERMAN; HISTORY
• • • • • Der Kampf als inneres Erlebnis (title means "Struggle as Inner Experience"), E. S. Mittler (Berlin, Germany), 1922. Feuer und Blut: Ein kleiner Ausschnitt aus einer grossen Schlacht, Stahlhelm, 1925, fifth edition, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1941. Gärten und Strassen: Aus den Tagebüchern von 1939 und 1940 (autobiography), E. S. Mittler (Berlin, Germany), 1942. (With Armin Mohler) Die Schleife: Dokumente zum Weg, Arche (Zurich, Switzerland), 1955. Jahre der Okkupation (title means "Years of Occupation"), E. Klett, 1958.

IN GERMAN; TRAVEL
• • • • • • • • • Dalmatinischer Aufenthalt, 1934. Atlantische Fahrt, Kriegsgefangenenhilfe des Weltbundes der YMCA in England (London, England), 1947. Ein Inselfrühling: Ein Tagebuch aus Rhodes, Arche (Zurich, Switzerland), 1948. Aus der goldenen Muschel, 1948. Am Kieselstrand, V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1951. Am Sarazenenturm, V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1955. Serpentara, 1957. San Pietro, 1957. Zwei Inseln: Formosa, Ceylon, Olten, 1968.

IN GERMAN; ESSAYS
• • • • • • • • • • • Der Arbeiter: Herrschaft und Gestalt (title means "The Worker"), Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1932. Blätter und Steine (title means "Leaves and Stones"), Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1934. Geheimnisse der Sprache: Zwei Essays, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1939. Über die Linie (title means "Across the Line"), V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1950. Der Waldgang, V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1951. Der gordische Knoten, V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1953. Das Sanduhrubuch, V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1954. An der Zeitmauer (title means "At the Time Barrier"), E. Klett, 1959. Der Weltstaat: Organismus und Organisation, E. Klett, 1960. Essays, E. Klett, 1960. Sgraffiti, E. Klett, 1960.

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Typus, Name, Gestalt, E. Klett, 1963. Grenzgänge, Olten, 1965. Grenzgänge: Essays, Reden, Traeume, E. Klett, 1966. Zahlen und Götter, Philemon und Baucis: Zwei Essays, E. Klett, 1974. (With Wolf Jobst Sieder) Bäume: Gedichte und Bilder, Propylaeen, 1976.

IN GERMAN; EDITOR
• • • • • • Die Unvergessenen, W. Andermann, 1928. Der Kampf um das Reich (title means "The Struggle for the Empire"), Rhein & Ruhr, c. 1929. Das anlitz des Weltkrieges, Neufeld & Henius, 1930. Franz Schauwecker, Der feurige Weg, Frundsberg, 1930. Krieg und Krieger, Junker & Dünnhaupt, 1930. Antoine Rivarol, Rivarol, V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1956.

IN GERMAN; OTHER
• Das abenteuerliche Herz: Aufzeichnungen bei Tag und Nacht, Frundsberg, 1929, second edition published as Das abenteuerliche Herz: Figuren und Capriccios, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt (Hamburg, Germany), 1938. Luftfahrt ist not!, W. Andermann, 1930. Sprache und Körperbau, Arche (Zurich, Switzerland), 1947. Heliopolis: Rückblick auf eine Stadt (novel), Heliopolis, 1949. Strahlungen (personal narrative; title means "Radiations"), Heliopolis, 1949. Besuch auf Godenholm (short stories; title means "Visit in Godenholm"), V. Klostermann (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 1952. Capriccios: Eine Auswahl, Reclam, 1953. Erzählende Schriften, E. Klett, 1960. Werke, ten volumes, E. Klett, 1960. (Compiler, with Klaus Ulrich Leistikow) Mantrana: Ein Spiel, E. Klett, 1964. Subtile Jagden (memoirs; title means "The Subtle Chase"), E. Klett, 1967. Ad hoc, E. Klett, 1970. Annaeherungen: Drogen und Rausch, E. Klett, 1970. Sinn und Bedeutung: Ein Figurenspiel, E. Klett, 1971. Die Zwille (semi-autobiographical; title means "The Slingshot"), E. Klett, 1973. Ausgewählte Erzaehlungen, E. Klett, 1975. (With Alfred Kubin) Eine Begegnung (letters), Propylaeen, 1975. Collected Works, eighteen volumes, Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1978-83. Siebzig verweht, two volumes, Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1980-81. Autor und Autorschaft (title means "Author and Authorship"), Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1984. Zwei Mal Halley (title means "Halley Revisited"), Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1987. Zeitsprünge (title means "Time-Fissures"), Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1990. Die Schere (title means "The Shears"), Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1990. Siebzig verweht III, Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1993. Ernst Junger, Rudolf Schlichter: Briefe 1935-1955, edited and with commentary by Dirk Heisserer, Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1997. Briefe 1930-1983: Ernst Junger, Carl Schmitt, edited and with commentary by Helmuth Kiesel, Klett-Cotta (Stuttgart, Germany), 1999.

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Coeditor of Standarte, Arminius, Widerstand, Der Vormarsch, and Die Kommenden magazines, late 1920searly 1930s. Coeditor and cofounder, Antaios: Zeitschrift fuer eine freie Welt, 1959. Some of Juenger's work has appeared in French and Swiss editions. Media Adaptations: Edgardo Cozarinsky's film One Man's War is based on Juenger's Parisian diaries; in 1995 Johan Kresnik and Hans Haacke created a dance production called "Ernst Junger," based on the author's life and works.

PEN (Permanent Entry Number): 0000051624 SOURCE: Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002. Source Database: Contemporary Authors PEN (Permanent Entry Number): 0000051624  

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