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Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri Department of Civil Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) 43400 Serdang, Selangor Tel: 03-8946459 Fax: 03-86567129 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Nisfariza Mohd Noor Maris Department of Geography Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Tel: +603-79675714 Fax: +603-79675457 Email: Nish@um.edu.my / email@example.com Paul M. Mather Geographic Information Science Research School of Geography The University of Nottingham UK E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
KEYWORDS: Hyperspectral, mixed pixel, spectral unmixing ABSTRACT: Spectral mixture analysis is a technique developed to address the issue of mixed pixel in remote sensing data classification. It is common that mixed pixels exist in a remote sensing dataset due to the factors related to spatial resolution and the heterogeneity of the landscape. The use of hard classification technique that labels one pixel to only one cover type will result in inaccurate description of the surface. In this study, the spectral mixture analysis technique is applied in the classification of hyperspectral data and the effectiveness of the technique assessed.
This can be visualised as in Figure 1. In a heterogeneous environment for example. in many circumstances. However. (1985) as follows: .INTRODUCTION A ‘hard’ classification scheme assigns one label to each pixel and might be suitable for the classification of a large. 2004). Thus. If a pixel contains two or more land cover classes. spectral unmixing occurs at the sensor. Figure 1. the landscape is complex with high spatial variability and it is difficult to obtain pure pixel values due to the fine scale mixing of vegetation and soil. In order to attain a higher degree of reality. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a physically-based technique that includes a range of methods including the definition and display of the end-member abundances that can be used to map the spatial distribution of surface constituents (Lillesand and Kiefer 2000). a ‘hard’ classification scheme that assigns a single pixel to a single class is inappropriate.. The concept of macroscopic linear mixing (Adapted from RSI. the nature of the sub-pixel composition needs to be resolved. Imaging spectrometer Incident solar irradiance Heterogeneous Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) for a single pixel. 2000). The use of spectral unmixing results in fraction images that convey information regarding the spatial distribution of each end-member. In a linear model. the reflectance ri. Mixture modelling methods have thus become tools of increasing importance in remote sensing analysis (Brown et al. Spectral mixing occurs in a linear fashion if mixing is large (macroscopic) and non-linear for microscopic mixing. homogeneous landscape. The simplest model is the linear mixture model that assumed no interaction between materials. A single photon comes into contact with the surface of the Earth is assumed to be reflected into the field of view of the sensor without interacting with any other ground surface objects. there will be a mixture of land cover types within the instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) of the sensor. thus low classification accuracy will result if ‘hard’ classification is applied to a mixed pixel (Mather. 2006). of a pixel in ith band can be described according to Smith et al.
the abundances of the endmembers are not forced to sum to one and may assume negative values.1 Study area The study area for this research is located within an area known as ‘La Mancha Alta’ that covers an area of approximately 8..n Ri is the reflectance of the mixed spectrum in image band i for each pixel Fj is the fraction of each end-member j calculated by band REij is the reflectance of end-member spectrum j in band i i is the band number. 2001) and can be useful for the monitoring of environmental problem such as wetland change detection.5% of La Mancha wetland areas are in the process of disappearing or have already disappeared with relatively only 2. The constrained model will always force the end-member proportions for each pixel to sum to one so the result will always lie between zero and one. semi-arid areas. Remote sensing has been the most time and cost-effective tool for the monitoring of land degradation processes (Koch. ε is the residual error m represents the number of spectral bands n is the number of end-members. which is suffering from serious land degradation problems. This unique steppe wetland area of La Mancha Alta is regarded as one of the most important areas for migrating and wintering waterfowl in Spain (Oliver and Florin 1995).…. Because of greater demands from agriculture. With the constrained model.. if the model does not fit.R E ij ) + ε i n n =1 (1) Where: i = 1. It contains one of the largest Tertiary sedimentary basins in Spain.m and j = 1. Oliver and Florin (1995) reported that 62. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2..Ri = ∑ (F j . as well as an important steppe-wetland area (Boomer 2000). . Furthermore.000 km2 on the northern side of the Rio Guadiana watershed in Central Spain (Figure 2).. 2004) with the unconstrained unmixing model. the statistics will seem to be ideal even though in fact the RMS image will indicate there are some problems with the model. The impact of changes in land cover on land degradation is significant in marginal. the number of large-scale irrigation schemes has increased.8% of the wetland areas is well-preserved.…. La Mancha in central Spain is a semi-arid wetland area. Two forms of linear unmixing models are available. It is preferred over the constrained model as it allows for the user to assess the fitness of fit of the model. The unconstrained linear mixture model is used in this study. it is not reasonable to use mathematical methods to force it to fit (Mather. The more intensive exploitation of water resources has contributed to losses of wetland. These are termed the constrained and unconstrained models.
Data are generated in 15-bit format for an IFOV of 3. The spatial resolution of the corrected image is 5 m. giving a total coverage of 105.3 km2.2 Hyperspectral data Hyperspectral data was collected from Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (DAIS) 7915. The German Aerospace Centre (DLR) carried out the data acquisition and radiometric. It uses four spectrometers providing 79 wavebands in the range 0. .3 mrad. Data for the area were collected in three parallel strips in which each strip has a width of 3 km and a length of 15 km with 33% overlap area (Koch.4 – 12. at the behest of the Autonomous University of Madrid.6 µm. The DAIS 7915 hyperspectral sensor was built by the Geophysical Environmental Research Corporation (GER). USA. atmospheric and geometric correction. 2. 2001). A DAIS overflight of the study area was conducted in June 2000. The characteristics of the sensor are shown in Table 1.SPAIN N Figure 2: Location map of the study area.
015 – 0.035 2. The PPI is computed by repeatedly projecting n-dimensional scatter plots onto a random unit vector.045 0.. identify and cluster the purest pixels in the image (RSI.90 – 2.50 – 1.00 4 TIR 6 MCT AC 8.05 2 SWIR I 8 InSb AC 1.3 mrad Image pixels per line: 512 Ground resolution: 5 – 20 m 2. The ENVI software package provides a systematic process to select image end-members. 1995). An n-dimensional visualization technique is used in conjunction with the MNF and PPI results in order to locate.00 – 5.Table 1: Characteristics of the DAIS 7915 imaging spectrometer (Adapted from Muller et al.5 μm – 12.5 Radiometric encoding/resolution: 15 bits Main geometric parameters: Swath angle: ± 26° on Do 228 aircraft (max ± 39° ) IFOV: 3.5 μm. Spectra can be thought of as points in an n-dimensional scatterplot. 79 bands) Spectrometer Bands Detector Electronic Wavelength Coupling Range (μm) 1 VIS/NIR 32 Si DC 0. user-selected n-dimensional scatterplots and various rotations are interpreted to belong to the same spectral end-member. The Pixel Purity Index (PPI) is a means to find the most ‘spectrally pure’ pixels which may correspond to endmembers (Boardman et al. Extreme pixels in each projection are recorded and the total number of times each pixel is marked as extreme is noted. 4 spectrometers.80 3 SWIR II 32* InSb AC 1.0 0. 2006). These reference spectra can be extracted from a spectral library or from the image itself. The pixels that are clustered together throughout many. The co-ordinates of the points in n-space consist of “n” values that are simply the spectral reflectance values in each band for a given pixel. The n-D Visualiser in ENVI is then used to identify the groups of pixels belonging to the same spectral end-member class. 1998).3 Selection of end-members Before the physically–based methods of spectral unmixing techniques can be applied.. 1995). The first step is dimensionality reduction of the data using the MNF transformation.50 – 1. Bandwidth (μm) 0. the reference spectra to form the end-members or templates must be defined.030 0. The selected MNF bands are then used in Pixel Purity Index (PPI) processing. These pure pixels can then be used in an interactive visualisation procedure to estimate the number of image end members and their spectral signatures. 2006). DAIS 7915 characteristics: (Wavelength range: 0..50 MIR 1 InSb AC 3. A threshold is determined in order to select the purest pixels. A PPI image is then created such that the digital number of each pixel indicates the number of times each pixel was found to be extreme (RSI.9 .70 – 12. This process will determine the intrinsic dimensionality of the data and thus the maximum number of end-members that it is possible to extract. random. where n is the number of bands (Boardman et al.
279 1. as shown in Table 4.072 1.470 1. 2000).419). 5 = green vegetation.116 0.447). (1 = water. This could be due to the amplification of noise in the first derivative data. Some improvements in terms of the minimum and maximum values are also observed in comparison to the MNF data. it can be observed that the value of the RMS error is also smallest for MNF data (30. However. the value of the RMS error is substantially larger for the first derivative data (710. From Table 3. Table 2.743 -0.019 0.455 1. For example. MNF and first derivative data sets.725 3. the mixing is non-linear rather than linear). the model will always force the result to lie between zero and one. .139 0. Ideally.000 Max 1.821 -0.380 0. or the model is deficient (e. If the constrained linear unmixing is used.035 Stdev 0. A method known as spectral matching is used to compute the similarity of the image end-members and the reference spectra in the spectral library. Evaluation of the RMS error image produced by the unconstrained linear umixing model can also be used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the unmixing model.077 2. 4 = dry vegetation.703 -4. The identities of the end-members are then determined by comparing the image spectra and the spectra from field spectroscopy measurement of the study area. Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Error Min -0. Tables 2 to 4 show the statistics of the abundance images obtained using reflectance.103 -1.271 -0.565 Table 3. 2 = dry salt.552 -0. which would not allow the detection of any problem with the model.478 0.The intrinsic dimensionality of the data is an important property in deciding the maximum number of end-members that make up the landscape components.246) compared to the use of reflectance data (47.and over-shoots compared to the use of reflectance data. 7 = bare soil).279 0.447 Mean 0.261 0. the number of end-members should not exceed the number of spectral bands plus one in order to calculate the magnitude of the error term along with the fractional cover for each end-member (Lillesand and Kiefer.138 0.541 -1.893 -0.263 -0. these values should be close to zero and one respectively. Statistics of the abundance image obtained using MNF data. Any coherent spatial pattern in the RMS error image indicates that additional end-members are needed to be included. 6 = playa.238 0. Statistics of the abundance image obtained using reflectance data.652 0.g.059 7. The use of the first derivative data also generally reduces the minimum and maximum values corresponding to the under. 3 = wet salt. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The goodness of fit of the unconstrained linear unmixing model can be checked by reference to the minimum and maximum values for each end-member.225 47.324 2.
133 0.138 0.126 -0.102 0.244 Table 4.117 0.764 0.000 0.553 30.393 0.334 -2.089 1. Based on the quantitative assessment.108 0.321 0.220 1.582 -1.281 0.307 0.268 1.858 CONCLUSIONS The comparison of generating meaningful land cover maps using the three data sets utilizing linear unmixing technique was explored in this paper.391 -1.193 233. the MNF data produce results with the highest accuracy and lowest computing requirement.590 -0.917 -0.233 57.000 0. The MNF data performs better due to the better separation of signal and noise. .000 0. The improvement in classification result using derivative data over the use of original reflectance data is also encouraging.038 0. Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Error Min -0.634 1.193 1.246 Mean 0.264 1.951 Stdev 0.010 -0.480 -0.118 0. Thus.101 1.419 Mean -0. Results based on the first derivative data appear to give some improvements over the use of the reflectance data.277 1.000 0.031 0.026 -0.542 0.000 0.400 0. As MNF also reduces the dimensionality of the data. but the derivative data suffer from the presence of noise.063 1.Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Error Min -1.621 -0.000 Max 1. but could not be as good as the use of MNF data.222 0.142 1.020 0.581 -0. Better ways of dealing with the noise in the data should yield better results in the use of derivative-based data.114 0. it reduces the computation time.417 710.376 -0. Statistics of the abundance image obtained using first derivative data. the MNF data gives the best results using the linear unmixing technique for the data in this study.353 -0.108 0.000 Max 1.150 1.000 2.312 1.255 1.872 Stdev 0.000 0.
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