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CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 How to Specify the
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How to Specify the Operating
Conditions for a Slurry Pump
J. A. Sharpe
President
J.A.S. Solutions Ltd.
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Presentation Outline
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Presentation Outline
• Background to the use of slurry pumps in oil
sands processing
• Particle size and settling velocities
• Range of flows and pressure drops
• ANSI/HI Standard for Slurry Pumps
• Wear rates
• Conclusions

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In the beginning was the dragline

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 In the beginning was the dragline
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 In the beginning was the dragline

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Followed by the bucketwheel

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Followed by the bucketwheel
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Followed by the bucketwheel

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14 – 2.4 m 3 buckets

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 14 – 2.4 m 3 buckets
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 14 – 2.4 m 3 buckets

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And then miles of conveyors

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 And then miles of conveyors
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 And then miles of conveyors

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Dumping onto a surge pile

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Dumping onto a surge pile
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Dumping onto a surge pile

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Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water

SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Finally into a tumbler, where the oil sand meets hot water

Trucks and Shovels

Benefits

Lower capital cost

Ability to switch units between ore and waste

Flexible for blending ore composition to extraction

Additional capacity is readily available

to extraction Additional capacity is readily available CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump
to extraction Additional capacity is readily available CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump
to extraction Additional capacity is readily available CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump

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In the mid 1990s trucks and shovels replaced the draglines and bucketwheels

Concerns

Labour intensive

High unit cost ($/tonne_km)

Maintenance of haul roads

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Hitachi Shovel at Albian Sands Muskeg River Mine

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Hitachi Shovel at Albian Sands Muskeg River Mine
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Hitachi Shovel at Albian Sands Muskeg River Mine

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Shovel Loading a 320 T truck

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Shovel Loading a 320 T truck
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Shovel Loading a 320 T truck

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Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper

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PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Conveyor from Crusher to Surge Pile

Conveyor from Crusher to Surge Pile

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Conveyor from Crusher to Surge Pile

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Hydrotransport replaced tumblers - Slurry Preparation Towers

SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Hydrotransport replaced tumblers - Slurry Preparation Towers
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Hydrotransport replaced tumblers - Slurry Preparation Towers

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Conveyor Discharging Oil Sand into the Cyclofeeder

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Conveyor Discharging Oil Sand into the Cyclofeeder
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Conveyor Discharging Oil Sand into the Cyclofeeder

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PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Hydrotransport feed Pumpbox

Hydrotransport feed Pumpbox

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Hydrotransport feed Pumpbox

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Weir Hydrotransport Pumps at Syncrude’s North Mine

SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Weir Hydrotransport Pumps at Syncrude’s North Mine
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Weir Hydrotransport Pumps at Syncrude’s North Mine

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3 km later the final destination, the primary separation cell

SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 3 km later the final destination, the primary separation cell
SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 3 km later the final destination, the primary separation cell
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Particle Size and Settling Velocities
Deposition velocity in a pipeline is a function of:
D 50 of the particles in the slurry
Pipe diameter
Particle size distribution
Slurry density
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Typical Particle Size Distribution
100
90
Low
80
Average
70
High
60
Coarse High
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
10
100
1000
10000
Particle Size (microns)
Percent Passing

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Calculation of Deposition Velocity (based on D 50 and dia.)

of Deposition Velocity (based on D 5 0 and dia.) “Deposition-Limit Nomograms for Particles of Various

“Deposition-Limit Nomograms for Particles of Various Densities in Pipeline Flow”, K.C. Wilson, Queen’s University,

Hydrotransport 6, September 1979

Particles of Various Densities in Pipeline Flow”, K.C. Wilson, Queen’s University, Hydrotransport 6, September 1979
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Saskatchewan Research Council Pipeflow Programme
Inputs
Flowrate
Pipe
-
internal diameter, wall roughness and slope
Slurry - specific gravity and temperature
Solids density
Water - density and viscosity
D 50 of coarse particles > 75 µ
Fraction of fines < 75 µ
Carrier fluid viscosity
Outputs
Pipeline velocity
Deposition velocity
Pressure gradient
Solids volume fraction
Parameters outside the range of the database
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Fines % vs Deposition
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Fines % vs Deposition Velocity
(29" I.D. pipe, data from SRC Pipeflow 2003 Programme )
5.5
5
4.5
D50 = 400
4
3.5
D50 = 300
3
D50 = 150
D50 = 200
2.5
D50 = 250
2
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Fines %
Deposition Velocity
(m/s)
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Slurry Density vs
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Slurry Density vs Deposition Velocity
( 2 9 "
id
line,
f ines f ract ion = 2 0 %,
D 50
= 2 0 0 micron
SR C Pip ef low prog ramme)
1650
1600
1550
1500
1450
1400
1350
Reduction in density of 0.1 t/m3
1300
results in approximately 3%
1250
increase in deposition velocity
1200
4.60
4.65
4.70
4.75
4.80
4.85
4.90
4.95
5.00
D eposit ion V elocit y
( m/ s)
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Range of Flows and Pressure Drops
Need to strike a balance between:
Exceeding the deposition velocity in the worst case scenario,
which is usually the highest d 50 with the lowest fines (MUST)
Minimizing the overall wear, which has to take into account
the relative concentrations of the different ores and
minimizing the overall pressure drop and therefore the power
required for the transportation. That is minimize velocity.
Maximizing the allowable turndown to achieve flexible operation
Optimizing the overall processing capability balanced against
the capital and operating costs
Ore Grade Low D 5 0 80, 30% fines Average D 5 0 180, 15%

Ore Grade

Low

D 50 80, 30% fines

Average

D 50 180, 15% fines

High

D 50 250, 10% fines

Coarse high

D 50 400, 5% fines

Deposition velocity m/s

<2

2.8

4.4

5.3

Deposition velocity m/s <2 2.8 4.4 5.3 % of ore body 20 60 17 3

% of ore body

20

60

17

3

% of ore body 20 60 17 3
2.8 4.4 5.3 % of ore body 20 60 17 3 CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump

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29” id pipe, slurry density 1.55 t/m 3

2005200520052005 29” id pipe, slurry density 1.55 t/m 3 Flow rate at deposition velocity 3,068 m

Flow rate at deposition velocity

3,068 m 3 /h 3,220 t/h oil sand

4,295 m 3 /h 4,510 t/h oil sand

6,750 m 3 /h 7,087 t/h oil sand

8,130 m 3 /h 8,535 t/h oil sand

t/h oil sand 4,295 m 3 /h 4,510 t/h oil sand 6,750 m 3 /h 7,087
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 MUST provide
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MUST provide sufficient pumping capacity to process the
coarse high grade 400 µ at a velocity of 5.3 m/s
Capital requirements are based on oil sand tonnage processed,
therefore reduce rate on coarse high grade to 8,000 t/h by
decreasing the slurry density, maintaining the same velocity
Increase the slurry density on other grades to minimize
flow requirements and increase available turndown
Increase tonnage processed to 8,000 t/h on all grades so that
overall throughput is maximized and turndown increased

Ore Grade

Low

D 50 80, 30% fines

Average

D 50 180, 15% fines

High

D 50 250, 10% fines

Coarse high

D 50 400, 5% fines

Slurry density t/m 3

1.58

1.58

1.55

1.52

Operating velocity m/s

4.7

(7,230 m 3 /h)

4.7

(7,230 m 3 /h)

5.0

(7680 m 3 /h)

5.3

(8,130 m 3 /h)

/h) 5.0 (7680 m 3 /h) 5.3 (8,130 m 3 /h) Turndown CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump

Turndown

5.0 (7680 m 3 /h) 5.3 (8,130 m 3 /h) Turndown CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump

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Resultant design basis, 8,000 t/h all grades, 29” id pipe

% 57 40 12 0
%
57
40
12
0

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SG = 1.5

k = 70 µ

Pipe id =29”

Typical

D SRC = 180 µ

cP f = 3 Fines 23%

Coarse

D SRC = 400 µ

cP f = 2 Fines 15%

Section AB is upstream of section CD

Pressure Drop in a Hydrotransport Pipeline

of section CD Pressure Drop in a Hydrotransport Pipeline “Performance of Sand Slurry Pipelines in the

“Performance of Sand Slurry Pipelines in the Oil Sands Industry”, R. Sean Sanders, Jason Schaan, Roxby Hughes and Clifton Shook,

Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 82, Aug 2004

R. Sean Sanders, Jason Schaan, Roxby Hughes and Clifton Shook, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol.

Calculated Pressure Drops

Ore

grade

Low

turndown

Average

High

Coarse

high

Flow rate m 3 /h (USgpm)

Velocity m/s

4620

(20,300)

0.085

3.0

(8.7)

7230

(31,800)

0.19

4.7

(19.4)

7680

(33,800)

0.225

5.0

(22.9)

8130

(35,800)

0.29

5.3

(29.6)

5.0 (22.9) 8130 (35,800) 0.29 5.3 (29.6) Relative Pressure Drop 0.29 0.66 0.72 1.0

Relative Pressure Drop

0.29

0.66

0.72

1.0

(29.6) Relative Pressure Drop 0.29 0.66 0.72 1.0 CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump

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Pressure drop kPa/m (m slurry/km)
Pressure
drop kPa/m
(m slurry/km)

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Coarse high grade head adjusted to 40 m (131 ft) and other points pro-rated

2005200520052005 Coarse high grade head adjusted to 40 m (131 ft) and other points pro-rated
2005200520052005 Coarse high grade head adjusted to 40 m (131 ft) and other points pro-rated
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Pump Spacing Considerations
No.of pumps required = (static head + frictional head)
head developed per pump
The greater the number of close coupled pumps, the higher the
required pressure rating of the pump casing
The more spaced out the pumps are the lower the required
pressure rating, but the higher the infrastructure costs

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Pipeline profile 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1
Pipeline profile
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Elevation (m)

Distance from Plant (km)

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4

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Coarse high grade head adjusted to 50 m (164 ft) and other points pro-rated

2005200520052005 Coarse high grade head adjusted to 50 m (164 ft) and other points pro-rated
2005200520052005 Coarse high grade head adjusted to 50 m (164 ft) and other points pro-rated
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ANSI/HI Standard for
Slurry Pumps
12.1-12.6-2005

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SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Standard viscosity correction procedures can be used for

Standard viscosity correction procedures can be used for homogeneous non- settling slurries provided the apparent viscosity is known

correction procedures can be used for homogeneous non- settling slurries provided the apparent viscosity is known
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For heterogeneous slurries use
Fig 12.20 and:
Correct for solids sg = C s =
((Ss-1)/1.65) 0.65
Fines fraction = C fp =
(1 - fraction<75micron) 2
Solids volumetric conc. = C cv =
(C
v %/15)
Modified Rh = Rh*C s *C fp *C cv
Efficiency reduction follows
head reduction
R eff = R h

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CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Wear Rates in Slurry
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Wear Rates in Slurry Pumps
Influenced by:
Rotational speed
Developed head
Particle size distribution
Slurry density
Flowrate
The first two items are controllable, the
last three are process design issues

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Main Wear Components – GIW TBC Slurry

Shell Hub liner
Shell Hub liner
Shell Hub liner
Shell Hub liner
Shell Hub liner
Shell Hub liner

Shell

Hub liner

2005200520052005 Main Wear Components – GIW TBC Slurry Shell Hub liner Pump Suction side liner Impeller

Pump

Suction

side liner

Impeller

2005200520052005 Main Wear Components – GIW TBC Slurry Shell Hub liner Pump Suction side liner Impeller

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Worn Impeller from a Hydrotransport Pump

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Worn Impeller from a Hydrotransport Pump
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Worn Impeller from a Hydrotransport Pump
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Relative Costs
Initial Capital compared with Cost of Wear Components
Pump + gearbox + couplings + motor + baseplate =
100 units
Cost
Annual usage
Total
Suction side liner
Impeller
Shell
Hub liner
3
3
9
4.5
1.5
6.8
20
1
20
2
1.5
3
Spare parts cost per year
38.8
In approximately 2 1 / 2 years spare parts cost
(excl. labour and downtime) = initial capital
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Cost of Downtime
Oil sand rate
Ore grade
Recovery
Bitumen density
Conversion from m 3 to barrels
Value of bitumen
=
=
8,000 t/h
11% bitumen
=
90%
=
1 t/m 3
=
6.29
=
Cdn$30/bbl
One hour’s production
= 8000*0.11*0.9*6.29*30
=
Cdn$149,450

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SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 A four fold increase in solids size results in 20x casing

A four fold increase in solids size results in 20x casing wear rate

Effect of Solids Size on Casing Wear Rate

casing wear rate Effect of Solids Size on Casing Wear Rate “Prediction of Slurry Pump Component

“Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear and Cost”, A. Sellgren, G. Addie, R. Visintainer and K. Pagalthivarthi. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference, Houston, 2005

G. Addie, R. Visintainer and K. Pagalthivarthi. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference, Houston, 2005

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85% increase in pump head results in 3x increase in suction liner wear rate

D 2 = impeller outside diameter D 1 = impeller inside diameter

Effect of Pump Head on Liner Wear Rate

inside diameter Effect of Pump Head on Liner Wear Rate “Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear

“Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear and Cost”, A. Sellgren, G. Addie, R. Visintainer and K. Pagalthivarthi. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference, Houston, 2005

G. Addie, R. Visintainer and K. Pagalthivarthi. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference, Houston, 2005

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Parts Replacement as per the Sales Brochure

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Parts Replacement as per the Sales Brochure
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Parts Replacement as per the Sales Brochure

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GIW TBC 57 Slurry Pump Installation

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 GIW TBC 57 Slurry Pump Installation
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 GIW TBC 57 Slurry Pump Installation

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Impeller Replacement on GIW Pump

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Impeller Replacement on GIW Pump
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Impeller Replacement on GIW Pump

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GIW LSA 44 Slurry Pump

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Slurry Pumps Installed in Series

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Slurry Pumps Installed in Series
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Slurry Pumps Installed in Series

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GIW WBC - 64” diameter impeller slurry pump

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 GIW WBC - 64” diameter impeller slurry pump
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 GIW WBC - 64” diameter impeller slurry pump
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Cutaway View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump
Outer casing
Volute Liner
Impeller
Back liner
Throatbush

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Exploded View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Exploded View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Exploded View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump

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Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump Installation

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump Installation
PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump Installation

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PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Parts Replacement on a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump

Parts Replacement on a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump

PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Parts Replacement on a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump
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Conclusion
The steps required to successfully specify the operating
conditions of a slurry pump are:
Establish the particle size distribution of the ore body and split
it out into suitable fractions, say 20, 60, 20
Determine the settling velocities for the full range of slurries at
the rates required in various pipe diameters
Establish the most appropriate pipe diameter
Adjust the flow conditions (density) to balance the conflicting
requirements of settling velocity, wear rates and turndown
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Conclusion
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Conclusion (continued)
Calculate the total pressure drop for the system
using an appropriate programme
• Establish the “Service Class” for the slurry
• Specify the number of pumps required in series
• Select the pump based on:
hydraulic fit
anticipated wear rates
time required to overhaul
spare parts cost
and lastly the initial capital cost
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005 Acknowledgements The
CalgaryCalgaryCalgaryCalgary PumpPumpPumpPump SymposiumSymposiumSymposiumSymposium 2005200520052005
Acknowledgements
The assistance provided by the following companies
in the preparation of this presentation is greatly appreciated
Albian Sands Energy Inc.
GIW Industries Ltd.
Syncrude Canada Ltd.
Weir Slurry Group Inc.