Calgary Pump Symposium 2005

How to Specify the Operating Conditions for a Slurry Pump
J. A. Sharpe President J.A.S. Solutions Ltd.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005
Presentation Outline
• Background to the use of slurry pumps in oil sands processing • Particle size and settling velocities • Range of flows and pressure drops • ANSI/HI Standard for Slurry Pumps • Wear rates • Conclusions

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005
In the beginning was the dragline

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Followed by the bucketwheel .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 14 – 2.4 m3 buckets .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 And then miles of conveyors .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Dumping onto a surge pile .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Finally into a tumbler. where the oil sand meets hot water .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Trucks and Shovels In the mid 1990s trucks and shovels replaced the draglines and bucketwheels Benefits Lower capital cost Ability to switch units between ore and waste Flexible for blending ore composition to extraction Additional capacity is readily available Concerns Labour intensive High unit cost ($/tonne_km) Maintenance of haul roads .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Hitachi Shovel at Albian Sands Muskeg River Mine .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Shovel Loading a 320 T truck .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Double truck dump into the crusher feed hopper .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Conveyor from Crusher to Surge Pile .

Slurry Preparation Towers .Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Hydrotransport replaced tumblers .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Conveyor Discharging Oil Sand into the Cyclofeeder .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Hydrotransport feed Pumpbox .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005
Weir Hydrotransport Pumps at Syncrude’s North Mine

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005
3 km later the final destination, the primary separation cell

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005
Particle Size and Settling Velocities
Deposition velocity in a pipeline is a function of:
D50 of the particles in the slurry Pipe diameter Particle size distribution Slurry density

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Typical Particle Size Distribution 100 90 80 Low Average High Percent Passing 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 Coarse High Particle Size (microns) .

Queen’s University. K.) “Deposition-Limit Nomograms for Particles of Various Densities in Pipeline Flow”. September 1979 . Hydrotransport 6.C. Wilson.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Calculation of Deposition Velocity (based on D50 and dia.

density and viscosity D50 of coarse particles > 75 µ Fraction of fines < 75 µ Carrier fluid viscosity Outputs Pipeline velocity Deposition velocity Pressure gradient Solids volume fraction Parameters outside the range of the database .Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Saskatchewan Research Council Pipeflow Programme Inputs Flowrate Pipe . wall roughness and slope Slurry .internal diameter.specific gravity and temperature Solids density Water .

5 3 2. data from SRC Pipeflow 2003 Programme ) 5.5 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 D50 = 150 D50 = 200 D50 = 250 D50 = 400 D50 = 300 Fines % .D.5 Deposition Velocity (m/s) 5 4.5 4 3. pipe.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Fines % vs Deposition Velocity (29" I.

85 4.60 4.70 4.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Slurry Density vs Deposition Velocity ( 2 9 " id line.00 Reduction in density of 0.75 4. f ines f r act io n = 2 0 %.90 4.95 5.65 4.80 4.1 t/m3 results in approximately 3% increase in deposition velocity D ep o sit io n V elo cit y ( m/ s) . D 50 = 2 0 0 micr o n SR C Pip ef lo w p r o g r amme) 1650 1600 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 4.

That is minimize velocity. which is usually the highest d50 with the lowest fines (MUST) Minimizing the overall wear.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Range of Flows and Pressure Drops Need to strike a balance between: Exceeding the deposition velocity in the worst case scenario. which has to take into account the relative concentrations of the different ores and minimizing the overall pressure drop and therefore the power required for the transportation. Maximizing the allowable turndown to achieve flexible operation Optimizing the overall processing capability balanced against the capital and operating costs .

8 4. 30% fines Deposition velocity m/s Flow rate at deposition velocity 3. 15% fines High D50 250.087 t/h oil sand 8. slurry density 1.4 5.750 m3/h 7.55 t/m3 Ore Grade Low D50 80. 5% fines .510 t/h oil sand 6.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 29” id pipe.295 m3/h 4.3 20 60 17 3 Average D50 180.130 m3/h 8.220 t/h oil sand 4.535 t/h oil sand % of ore body <2 2. 10% fines Coarse high D50 400.068 m3/h 3.

000 t/h on all grades so that overall throughput is maximized and turndown increased . therefore reduce rate on coarse high grade to 8.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 MUST provide sufficient pumping capacity to process the coarse high grade 400 µ at a velocity of 5.000 t/h by decreasing the slurry density.3 m/s Capital requirements are based on oil sand tonnage processed. maintaining the same velocity Increase the slurry density on other grades to minimize flow requirements and increase available turndown Increase tonnage processed to 8.

29” id pipe Ore Grade Low D50 80.230 m3/h) High D50 250. 10% fines 5.230 m3/h) 57 40 12 0 Average D50 180.58 1. 8.000 t/h all grades.130 m3/h) .55 1.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Resultant design basis.3 (8.58 1. 30% fines Slurry density t/m3 Operating velocity m/s Turndown % 1. 5% fines 5.7 (7.52 4. 15% fines 4.0 (7680 m3/h) Coarse high D50 400.7 (7.

Roxby Hughes and Clifton Shook. Vol.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 SG = 1.5 k = 70 µ Pipe id =29” Typical DSRC = 180 µ cPf = 3 Fines 23% Coarse DSRC = 400 µ cPf = 2 Fines 15% Section AB is upstream of section CD “Performance of Sand Slurry Pipelines in the Oil Sands Industry”. R. 82. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. Jason Schaan. Sean Sanders. Aug 2004 Pressure Drop in a Hydrotransport Pipeline .

0 .0 7230 (31.7 7680 (33.29 0.66 0.800) 5.300) 3.3 0.19 (19.225 (22.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Calculated Pressure Drops Ore grade Low turndown Average High Coarse high Flow rate m3/h (USgpm) Pressure drop kPa/m Velocity m/s (m slurry/km) 4620 (20.7) 0.9) 0.4) 0.800) 5.800) 4.085 (8.29 (29.6) Relative Pressure Drop 0.72 1.0 8130 (35.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Coarse high grade head adjusted to 40 m (131 ft) and other points pro-rated .

the higher the required pressure rating of the pump casing The more spaced out the pumps are the lower the required pressure rating.of pumps required = (static head + frictional head) head developed per pump The greater the number of close coupled pumps. but the higher the infrastructure costs .Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Pump Spacing Considerations No.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Pipeline profile 200 180 160 140 Elevation (m) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Distance from Plant (km) .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Coarse high grade head adjusted to 50 m (164 ft) and other points pro-rated .

6-2005 .1-12.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 ANSI/HI Standard for Slurry Pumps 12.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Standard viscosity correction procedures can be used for homogeneous nonsettling slurries provided the apparent viscosity is known .

20 and: Correct for solids sg = Cs = ((Ss-1)/1. = Ccv = (Cv%/15) Modified Rh = Rh*Cs*Cfp*Ccv Efficiency reduction follows head reduction Reff = Rh .fraction<75micron)2 Solids volumetric conc.65 Fines fraction = Cfp = (1 .Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 For heterogeneous slurries use Fig 12.65)0.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Wear Rates in Slurry Pumps Influenced by: Rotational speed Developed head Particle size distribution Slurry density Flowrate The first two items are controllable. the last three are process design issues .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Main Wear Components – GIW TBC Slurry Pump Shell Hub liner Suction side liner Impeller .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Worn Impeller from a Hydrotransport Pump .

8 Shell 20 1 20 Hub liner 2 1.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Relative Costs Initial Capital compared with Cost of Wear Components Pump + gearbox + couplings + motor + baseplate = 100 units Cost Annual usage Total Suction side liner 3 3 9 Impeller 4. labour and downtime) = initial capital .5 1.8 In approximately 21/2 years spare parts cost (excl.5 3 Spare parts cost per year 38.5 6.

11*0.29*30 = Cdn$149.450 .000 t/h 11% bitumen 90% 1 t/m3 6.29 Cdn$30/bbl = 8000*0.9*6.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Cost of Downtime Oil sand rate = Ore grade = Recovery = Bitumen density = Conversion from m3 to barrels = Value of bitumen = One hour’s production 8.

Visintainer and K. Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference. Sellgren. 2005 .Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Effect of Solids Size on Casing Wear Rate A four fold increase in solids size results in 20x casing wear rate “Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear and Cost”. Addie. G. R. A. Pagalthivarthi. Houston.

Pagalthivarthi. Visintainer and K. A. G. Houston.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Effect of Pump Head on Liner Wear Rate 85% increase in pump head results in 3x increase in suction liner wear rate D2 = impeller outside diameter D1 = impeller inside diameter “Prediction of Slurry Pump Component Wear and Cost”. 2005 . Paper presented at Western Dredging Association Conference. Addie. Sellgren. R.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Parts Replacement as per the Sales Brochure .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 GIW TBC 57 Slurry Pump Installation .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Impeller Replacement on GIW Pump .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 GIW LSA 44 Slurry Pump .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Slurry Pumps Installed in Series .

64” diameter impeller slurry pump .Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 GIW WBC .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Cutaway View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump Outer casing Volute Liner Impeller Back liner Throatbush .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Exploded View of a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump Installation .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Parts Replacement on a Weir 600 HTP Slurry Pump .

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Conclusion The steps required to successfully specify the operating conditions of a slurry pump are: • Establish the particle size distribution of the ore body and split it out into suitable fractions. 20 • Determine the settling velocities for the full range of slurries at the rates required in various pipe diameters • Establish the most appropriate pipe diameter • Adjust the flow conditions (density) to balance the conflicting requirements of settling velocity. say 20. wear rates and turndown . 60.

Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Conclusion (continued) • Calculate the total pressure drop for the system using an appropriate programme • • • Establish the “Service Class” for the slurry Specify the number of pumps required in series Select the pump based on: hydraulic fit anticipated wear rates time required to overhaul spare parts cost and lastly the initial capital cost .

Syncrude Canada Ltd. GIW Industries Ltd.Calgary Pump Symposium 2005 Acknowledgements The assistance provided by the following companies in the preparation of this presentation is greatly appreciated Albian Sands Energy Inc. . Weir Slurry Group Inc.