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Module No Course No Course Title Assignment No : : : : 37 MQS 113 Construction Technology Fifty Four

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ASSIGNMENT 1. What is Soil Stabilization? What are the various methods of Stabilization? Explain these briefly. 2. Prepare Concrete formwork and Concrete reinforcement checklists?

1. What is Soil Stabilization? What are the various methods of Stabilization? Explain these briefly?

Soil Stabilization:
Soil stabilization is the method of soil improvement, soil improvement is a combination of physical and chemical methods for regional or mass densification, reinforcement, cementation, and control of drainage and volume stability of soil when it is used as a construction material.

Principle of Soil Stabilization:

Soil stabilization is the collective term for any physical, chemical,or biological method, or any combination of such methods, employed to improve certain properties of a natural soil to make it serve adequately an intended engineering purpose As understood and practiced by the geotechnical engineers, soil stabilization is divided into two parts : 1.The improvement of native soils for construction of shallow foundations, especially for highways, airfields, parking lots, and similar facilities. 2. The improvement of deep foundation soils or large soil masses used for engineering purposes (construction of dams)

Various methods of stabilization:

Among many theoretical and practical possibilities of stabilizing soils, the following have been identified as practical and economical solutions. (1) Granular Stabilization is a combination of physical and chemical stabilization methods in which granular bearing skeleton is modified with pore-filling and/or cementing natural and extraneous materials (Clay and other concretes and mortars)

(2) Chemical Stabilization is a general term for all those methods in which chemical rather than physicochemical and physical interactions play a predominant role. It covers the methods in which one or more chemical compounds are added to the soil for treatment.

Some of the widely used and emerging systems are summarized below :
(i) Soil Cement (Portland cement) : In this method Portland cement used for Stabilization (ii) Soil Lime Stabilization of clay or clay fraction of soil using slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), quick lime (calcium oxide), lime fly ash (LFA), Lime-gypsum are used for Stabilization (iii) Soil Bitumen Stabilization (modified granular bearing skeleton) ; Sand-bitumen (added cohesion); water proofed granular stabilization ;oiled earth surface (iv) Soil-Resin stabilization - Waterproofing cohesive soils with small amounts of resin (less than 2% by dry weight of soil); Waterproofing and cementing cohesive or non cohesive soils by means of artificial or natural resins such as cement resin nixes (polymer cements); organic resins (epoxy, acrylic, polyacrylate, polyurethane, solvinated resins) (v) Soil-power plant wastes Stabilization of cohesive soils by adding pozzolanic minerals coal ash, which can be in the form of fly ash, bottom ash or FGD (flue gas desulfurization) sludge.

(3) Thermal Stabilization is a physical method of stabilization that utilizes heating or freezing for long or short-term improvement of properties of difficult soil a. Heating of soils to high temperatures (typically above 300 C) by method that may involve combustion, electricity, microwave, or later beam application, to cause permanent changes in their physical properties. Heating methods may be divided up into two groups: 1. In-situ treatment by using road burners, or heating elements placed in the ground 2. Treatment of the backfill soil in stationary kilns to produce artificial material.

b. Freezing is used to achieve temporary ground stability or control of ground water in soft grounds or excavation below the ground water table. The method is applicable to all soils and the benefits include reduction of permeability and increase in compressive strength.

(4) Electro kinetic Stabilization of soils by influence of an electric field has been used to facilitate consolidation of fine grained soils and movement of stabilizing agent through dense soils, and to detour natural seepage by providing flow batteries. Currently, electro kinetic phenomena are under investigation to develop efficient techniques of in-situ decontamination of soil and ground water in waste disposal areas and contaminated soils.

2. Prepare Concrete formwork and Concrete reinforcement checklists? CONCRETE FORMWORK CHECHLIST i. Check location of forms. ii. Check interior condition of forms for soundness and proper surface finish. iii. Check form supports for conformance with form drawings and basic soundness. iv. Check shoring and bracing in accordance with the shoring checklist. v. Form work is often made up of reused lumber; Check for grade and soundness. vi. Forms should be wet down prior to use to swell them. vii. Forms should be cleaned out before pour viii. Where for ties are used; check installation and number. ix . Metal forms should be oiled rather than wetted, but surplus oil should not be on formwork x . Steel reinforcement is to be placed within forms in accordance with rebar drawings. Count the number and check sizes. Xi. Reinforcing bars should be supported by chairs or if permitted by specification, concrete blocks to hold them the proper distance away from the outside face of the concrete. Where the final surface will be exposed, specifications usually call for plastic, galvanized tipped, or stainless steel chairs or accessories to avoid rust marks.

CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT CHECHLIST i. In inspecting reinforcing steel the inspection team should first be certain approved placement drawings are available ii . Reinforcing bars should be checked for conformance with specifications in terms of grade, size and type. iii. After placing, the proper depth of concrete cover should be checked as well as proper placement or bars in terms of numbers size and configuration.

iv. The laps and splices should be checked for length and strength. v. The stability of reinforcing should be checked prior to placement of concrete so that the material will not move around when the fluid pressures of the concrete vibrating equipment and workers placing the material are imposed

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Construction Technology Course Material Foundation Engineering Chemical Grouting and Soil Stabilization

NICMAR Hsai-Yang Fang Reuben H Karol