SORIN, NISTOR, assistant PhD. stud. eng, University of Oradea, Faculty of Architecture and Constructions, e-mail: ing_nistor@yahoo.com NORBERT-SZABOLCS, SUBA, assistant PhD. stud. eng, University of Oradea, Faculty of Architecture and Constructions, e-mail: suba_norbert@yahoo.com Abstract: Over time the development of various methods of geodetic data processing was a major concern of both the geodetic and the mathematicians. The reason is simply because although he can measure different areas of interest these data should be graphical represented and to get to this graphic we have to calculate the coordinates of the measured points. In the computation process we meet various obstacles - such as what of the developed models should be used for data processing. Certain restrict concerning different processing models was due to technological development which in recent years is no longer a problem. As we know the measurements are always affected by errors and reducing or even eliminate the problem of errors can be made by different processing methods of geodetic data. In this article we present different processing models used in geodesy and the theoretical limitations, what models can be recommended for different types of measurements. The question we are trying to answer is whether the effort is justified to obtain the expected values Keywords: processing models, measurements, errors, expected values, justification

1. Introduction
Control surveying is that part of surveying in which high precision instruments and techniques are employed to locate points for subsequent surveying operations. Because it is used as a base for further work, it needs to be performed with more care and greater accuracy. Control is used for many purposes. Photogrammetry and topographic mapping require control, as does construction layout. Control provides the basic framework of coordinates required for many other surveying applications. Traversing is the method of using lengths and directions of lines between points to determine positions of the points. Traverse networks involve placing survey stations along a line or path of travel, and then using the previously surveyed points as a base for observing the next point. Traversing is normally associated with the field work of measuring angles and distances between points on the ground. Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks. A traverse may be either open or closed

The correction term could be either positive or negative. instrumentation. Traverse closure and adjustment procedures are used to distribute error in measurements. observational techniques. Control networks can be produced only by making very accurate measurements which are referred to identifiable control points. calibration procedures. The error can be expressed as: E=R±T The steps to calculate the misclosure are: Step 1 ± Calculate the E and N for each line [2] [1] To be able to calculate the errors in a traverse we have to begin by calculate the misclosure Step 2 ± Calculate the perimeter of the traverse using the length of each line .Fig. 1 Types of traverse Closed traverses provide the primary method used in checking surveying field work. The basis for evaluation of errors and corrections is based on a very simple relationship. and data reduction methods is known as a measurement system. It should be recognized that the error (E) has the same magnitude as the correction but with opposite sign. Mathematical traverses performed on a computer are used to check surveying work such as mapping and legal descriptions. T=R+C Where: T = the true value R = the recorded field value C = the correction to be applied to the field measurement What we see is that the correction term is always added to the recorded value. E = -C. The combination of survey design.Thus.

how? 3. The bearing needs to reflect the direction from expected position to the calculated position. Compass Rule The Compass Rule is a simple method and is most commonly employed for engineering. Adjustment theory Mathematics is a product of our mind. Often the misclose is represented as a bearing and distance. instruments. The calculus of observations deals with:  The description and analysis of measurement processes. How to describe the effect of 1 on the final result? Is it possible that the final result is still corrupted with non-detected gross errors? Once we are able to answer questions like these. instead of two. the results are simply wrong and not usable. 2. Travers adjustment types  compass or Bowditch rule  Crandall¶s rule  Transit Rule  Least squares rule A. of the uncertainty in measurements. From experience we know that measurements produce results that are only sharp to a certain level. we will be able to determine the required measurement set-up from the given desired quality of the end product. the three angular measurements will usually not sum up to 180 degrees). Repeating a measurement does usually not give the same answer.  Guidelines for the design of measurement set-ups.g. construction. Some experience in surveying will for instance already lead to questions such as: 1.Step 3 ± Calculate the sum of E and N for the entire traverse The value of the total E and N represents the misclose. all three angles of a triangle are measured). 2. its meaning comparable to what mechanics means for the civil-engineer or mechanical-engineer. Can these errors be traced and if so. whereas with measurements one is dealing with humans. and boundary surveys . The calculus of observations is essential for a geodesist. What is the best way to perform such an adjustment? 4. usually measured with redundant observations (e. How to describe this phenomenon? 2.1. which not always follow the laws of logic. and other materialistic things and circumstances. This means that you need to change the E and N to a bearing and distance. Measurements are executed to obtain quantitative information.These redundant observations will usually not obey the mathematical rules that hold true for these geometric figures (e.g.  The description of the quality of measurement and of the results derived there from. Results of measurement can be corrupted by systematic or gross errors. because of 2.  Computational methods that take care.g. information which is accurate enough for a specific purpose and at the same time cheap enough for that purpose. a triangle) are. so as to reach optimal working procedures. An adjustment is therefore needed to obtain consistent results again. in some sense. There is a certain vagueness attached to them and sometimes even. Geometric figures (e.

as was shown back on Figure 3-8. compute each traverse station X-Y (or N-E or departure-latitude) position from the beginning to the closing station. To compute a traverse. starting with the fixed azimuth at the known starting point. If the angular error of closure is less than the allowable angular error of closure for the order of traverse the azimuths of the traverse may be adjusted. At the closing station. It was the first serious rival to Bowditch¶s Method of adjustment. then reobservations may be necessary. Angle computations and adjustments. The azimuth closure error is obtained by subtracting the known closing azimuth from the computed closing azimuth.X and Y. and the order of the control survey. On occupation of each successive station. Verify the computed closing azimuth agrees with the computed fixed closing azimuth. The fundamental concepts were that angle measurement was far better than distance measurement. Traverse position computations. the first step is to compute the back azimuth of the preceding leg (the azimuth from the occupied station to the rear station). Compute adjusted coordinates of the traverse stations. Traverse computations and adjustments require the following steps (Wolf and Brinker 1994): Adjust angles and directions to fixed geometric conditions based on angular misclosure. surveyors determine the azimuth for each traverse leg. The corrections to the latitudes and departures can be written as:     Where:  misclosure in  misclosure in  length between points Overall Traverse Length B. By reversing this sign. The azimuth for each succeeding leg is then determined by adding the value of the measured angle at the occupied station to the value of the azimuth from the occupied station to the rear station. Azimuth correction. the azimuth correction (with the appropriate sign) is obtained. and the measured distances (as corrected to sea level and grid scale). compute the adjusted azimuth (or bearing) of each leg by using the starting azimuth and the adjusted angles at each traverse station. Calculate latitudes (dY or dN) and departures (dX or dE) of the traverse misclosure. the number of traverse stations. The angular correction is then distributed systematically (equally) among the angles in the traverse. Crandall¶s rule Crandall¶s Adjustment was developed by Charles Crandall. The linear misclosure at the closing station is determined in both X (departure or easting) and Y (latitude or northing) coordinates-. a known object. After the angles are adjusted as described above. The azimuth of a line is the horizontal angle (measured clockwise) from a base direction to the line in question. The Compass Rule is based on the assumption that angular errors have accumulated gradually and systematically throughout the traverse. the azimuth carried forward is compared with the computed azimuth from the closing station to the reference azimuth mark. Azimuth adjustment. and published in 1914. as described above. This fixed azimuth is typically that computed between the fixed starting station and some azimuth reference point (another monument. Calculate final adjusted lengths and azimuths between traverse points b. General. Using the adjusted azimuths (or bearings) for each leg. If the azimuth error is larger than the allowable closure error. Distribute the misclosure latitudes and departures over the traverse. This difference provides the angular closure error with the appropriate sign. The allowable error of closure (or misclosure) depends on the instrument.a. and that the small random errors in the angles of a traverse could be properly adjusted by simple distribution of the angular [3] [4] . c. or astronomical).

all the random errors. However the angles are adjusted. that the angular misclosure is zero. It is a good idea to run the traverse through one of the closure programs to make sure that there are no gross or systematic errors in the traverse. Equations [8] can be rewritten as: . (The third condition. they should be adjusted to bring the misclosure to zero. prior to adjustment. Angle Adjustment The angular misclosure of the traverse can be adjusted by any reasonable means. This is because the adjustment process assumes that only random errors are present in the data. and the latitude of each line by .e. i. The misclosure can be distributed evenly among all the angles. Crandall used least squares adjustment by condition equations for the adjustment. Distance Adjustment With the angular misclosure adjusted to zero. the adjustment will produce erroneous results. perhaps because of short lines or poor lies of sight. If the length of each line in the traverse is Mi. This adjustment changes only the lengths of the sides of the traverse. and then the azimuths of each line calculated. the number of conditions was reduced to two. and vi will be the correction to the measured length of each line to obtain the adjusted length:   [5] The conditions to be met can be expressed as:       [6] Substituting Equation [5] into the above equations gives:                   [7] Re-arranging and gathering terms produces:    Where:                 [9]         [2] [8] So and are obtained directly from the closure check of the traverse. while i is its azimuth. so a full least squares adjustment by condition equations can be performed. or larger amounts may be apportioned to angles that can be assumed to be less reliable. By avoiding having to adjust the angles as part of the adjustment proper. done after the angles are adjusted and azimuths computed. then di will be the adjusted length of each line in the traverse. so these were all that was adjusted by Crandall¶s Adjustment. could be accounted for by the distances alone. The angles are already adjusted and so held fixed.misclosure among the traverse¶s angles.. If this assumption is not correct. has been met by adjusting the angle ahead of this point. This meant that all the remaining misclosure in the traverse.) Solution of a 2 × 2 matrix is straightforward. there are now only two conditions that must be met to have a consistent traverse. Representing the departure of each line by . which greatly simplified the calculations.

 The method of adjusting a traverse by the transit is similar to the method using the compass rule  The main difference is that with the transit rule the latitude and departure corrections depend on the length of the latitude and departure of the course respectively instead of both depending on the length of the course  The transit rule has no sound theoretical foundation since it is purely empirical. The best fit in the least-squares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals.. we need to quantify what we mean by ³best fit´. to determine what the ³best fit´ line is to the data.          [10] The theory of least squares now allows the development of what are termed the normal equations (named after the normal distribution. The rule is based on the assumption that the angular measurements are more precise than the linear measurements and that the errors in traversing are accidental  The transit rule may be stated as follows: The correction to be applied to the latitude (or departure) of any course is equal to the latitude (or departure) of the course multiplied by the ratio of the total closure in latitude (or departure) to the arithmetical sum of all the latitudes (or departures) of the traverse These corrections are given by the following equations      misclosure in  misclosure in  length between points  sum of the absolute values of the latitudes and departures [11] [12] D. which expresses the relationships between observed data and unknowns. i. requiring just some calculus and linear algebra. Least-squares method The least-squares method was first described by Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794 The Method of Least Squares is a procedure to determine the best fit line to data. There is also some evidence to suggest that this method may be better than the Compass Rule. sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns. which describes the distribution characteristics of the random errors) C. when the traverse legs run parallel to the axes used in the traverse coordinate system. The functional or mathematical model. The Method of Least Squares is a procedure. which will require a brief review of some probability and statistics. The most important application is in data fitting. The method of least squares is a standard approach to the approximate solution of overdetermined systems. can be defined by the system of equations: [13] . Of course. even when the distance and angle measurements have comparable precisions.e. Transit Rule This method is preferred when the angular measurements are more precise than the distance measurements. the proof uses simple calculus and linear algebra. "Least squares" means that the overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the errors made in solving every single equation.

3 -4.005 0.2741 78.005 -0.0025 0.0015 0.2 -4.3241 86.2409 94.0001 -0.2 Using the least square method we were able to obtain the ellipse error with a confidence level of 95%.2 14.8 13.241 30.0050 -0.0 6. Table 1 Measurements and adjustment results Standard Error Least Squares residuals Dist STN1 STN1 STN2 STN2 STN3 STN3 STN2 STN3 STN1 STN3 STN1 STN2 57.0046 0 -0.0 -15.0021 0.0024 -0.0023 0.236 45.2 4.7 -12. l represents the vector of observed data.2 VA STN1 STN1 STN2 STN2 STN3 STN3 STN2 STN3 STN1 STN3 STN1 STN1 93.7 6.6 14.005 0.005 0.0046 -0.7 7.27 78. Observations are commonly supposed to follow normal distributions and therefore their statistical behaviors are modeled by means of a variance-covariance matrix that is usually noted by .3911 307.6 7.7 26.4446 2 2 2 4.0027 Bowditch residuals Transit residuals Crandall residuals HA STN1 STN2 STN3 32.0049 -0.991 0.0056 -0. the most likely solution for the system [13] along with the weighting matrix [14] is obtained by the least-squares estimator  which provides the unknowns vector: [16] [15] 3.2741 5 5 5 5 5 5 15.622 57.8 7. or differences between observed and approximate data.0 111.0088 0.9 6.7 14.0004 -0.5 4.005 0.6 7.7 14.0069 0.5 7.0091 0.6 26.8 28. Its inverse provides the weighting matrix  [14] Thus.where A is the coefficient matrix for the x vector of unknowns.7 79.1 14.0 14.7 14. Case study The case study was made in Oradea near the Oradea Museum.3 13.7 14.6 14.7 76. In the table is presented the results of the experiment.98 45.626 30.3636 101.0 7.0009 0.0072 0.0006 -0.0015 0.2 4.0043 0 0.8 4.8 135.0005 0. . and v is the residuals vector.0007 0.005 0.2 -4.2347 100.2 -4.6 26.

Geodesy and Least Squares.uaic.Fig. J. and E. 1914. Geodetic and Control Surveying.pdf [5] The Australian Surveyor.pdf [3] Us Army Corps of Engineers. Boston.1Iunie 2002 [4] http://www..com/nwjh/HP-35S/HP-35s_Clos_6A. [7] Surveying Engineering Department. Choice of method is probably not important in cases where misclosure are very small and has little relevance where misclosure are large.2 Error ellipse 4. 5. 4 th [6] Anderson. Ferris State University. Bibliography [1] CRANDALL. 7 edition.ro/~leoreanu/depozit/Istoria%20matematicii-1. The most important aspect of this different types of adjustment is the fact the only the leastsquares method offers the possibility to use redundant observation. No. 1998.mac. But with the development of powerful computers the mathematical model of least square no longer presents a problem. Least-squares adjustment of a geodetic network is the best alternative when neither gross nor systematic errors affect the observations nor the mathematical model. 1167p. The least-squares adjustment provides then the most likely solution for the network. Also using the last square method we obtain the error ellipse ± were this is showing us with a degree of confidence level the position of the determined points. 31. Decembre. 1982. The results show¶s us small difference between different types of adjustment but if we use redundant observation we can improve the results. Conclusion Numerous methods are available for adjustment of a closed traverse survey.math. Charles L. Each has peculiar advantages and disadvantages and generally. Vol. New York : John Wiley and Sons [2] http://homepage. WCB McGraw Hill. TRAVERSING AND TRAVERSE ADJUSTMENTS . Surveying: Theory and Practice. Mikhail. an associated theoretical rationale.

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