BACK AND SPINE PART 1: SKELETAL ANATOMY

IAP MUSCULOSKELETAL SERIES
CHRISTIAN ORENSE, PTRP

FUNCTION
n SUPPORTS THE WEIGHT OF THE HEAD n PROTECTION n EXIT OF SPINAL NERVES n SITE FOR MUSCLE ATTACHMENT n MOVEMENT

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

DEVELOPING VS MATURE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
VERTEBRAL SEGMENT CERVICAL THORACIC LUMBAR SACRAL COCCYGEAL TOTAL DEVELOPING 7 12 5 5 4 33 MATURE 7 12 5 1 1 26

Function of Vertebral Column
Anterior Column: weight and shock absorption + mobility

Posterior Column protection of Spinal Cord, guidance and limitation of motion

PRIMARY VS SECONDARY CURVES

!thoracic and sacral curves are

termed primary curves (KYPHOSIS)

!cervical and lumbar curves are

compensatory or secondary (LORDOSIS)
!Cervical !Lumbar

formed at 2-3 months formed at 10-12 months

PRIMARY VS SECONDARY CURVES
• PRIMARY CURVES / KYPHOSIS: THORACIC AND
SACROCOCCYGEAL

• SECONDARY / LORDOSIS: • CERVICAL FORMED 2-3 MOS • LUMBAR FORMED 10-12 MOS

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL VERTEBRA
VERTEBRAL BODY TRANSVERSE PROCESS

PEDICLE

LAMINA VERTEBRAL FORAMEN SPINOUS PROCESS

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL VERTEBRA
SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS

INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL VERTEBRA

INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMEN

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC
• Found between the vertebral
bodies

• For shock absorption and bending
of vertebral column

• Nucleus Pulposus • Annulus Fibrosus

TYPICAL CERVICAL VERTEBRA
• Small vertebral
body

• Bifid spinous
process

• Transverse

Foramen -Vertebral aa, vein, sympathetic vein

ATYPICAL CERVICAL VERTEBRA (C1, C2, C6, C7)

C1/ ATLAS NO VERTEBRAL BODY NO SPINOUS PROCESS RING-SHAPED ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT

ATYPICAL CERVICAL VERTEBRA (C1, C2, C6, C7)
• ODONTOID PROCESS • LARGELY BIFID SPINOUS
PROCESS

• SHORT TRANSVERSE
PROCESSES LAMINAE

• THICK AND STRONG • ANTLANTO-AXIAL JOINT

C2: AXIS

ATYPICAL CERVICAL VERTEBRA (C1, C2, C6, C7)
• LONGEST, NON-BIFID
SPINOUS PROCESS PROCESS

• LARGE TRANSVERSE • SMALL TRANSVERSE
FORAMEN

C6 OR C7

TYPICAL THORACIC VERTEBRA (T3-T8)
• HEART SHAPED AND
MEDIUM SIZED VERTEBRAL BODY

• SMALL, CIRCULAR • LONG, DOWNARD-

VERTEBRAL FORAMEN INCLINED SPINOUS PROCESS

SUPERIOR ARTICULAR FACET

SUPERIOR COSTAL DEMIFACET FOR HEAD OF RIB

ARTICULAR FACET FOR TUBERCLE OF RIB INFERIOR COSTAL DEMIFACET FOR HEAD OF RIB

INFERIOR ARTICULAR FACET

COSTAL FACETS

• Present on VERTEBRAL BODIES for
articulation with HEAD of the RIB

• Present on TRANSVERSE PROCESS for

articulation with the TUBERCLE of the RIB (except 11 and 12)

ATYPICAL THORACIC VERTEBRAE (T1, T9, T10, T11, T12)

T1

• SUPERIOR FACET • INFERIOR DEMIFACET • NO TRANSVERSE FORAMEN • VERY MUCH SIMILAR TO C7

T9

• ONLY 2 SUPERIOR • NO INFERIOR
DEMIFACET

COSTAL FACET ON VERTEBRAL BODY

T10

• NEARLY COMPLETE FACET ON
TRANSVERSE PROCESS VERTEBRAL BODY

• 2 SUPERIOR COSTAL FACETS ON

T11

• 2 SUPERIOR COSTAL FACETS • NO FACET ON TRANSVERSE PROCESS • NO INFERIOR DEMIFACET

T12

• 2 SUPERIOR COSTAL FACETS • NO INFERIOR DEMIFACET • NO FACET ON TRANSVERSE PROCESS • SHORT SPINOUS PROCESS

TYPICAL LUMBAR VERTEBRA
n LARGEST &

STRONGEST

n KIDNEY shaped

VERTEBRAL BODY

n SHORT, THICK,

QUADRANGULAR & BROAD SPINE

n (+) MAMMILLARY

PROCESS

LONG AND SLENDER TRANSVERSE PROCESSES NO TRANSVERSE FORAMEN NO FACETS

ATYPICAL LUMBAR VERTEBRA (L5)

MORE MASSIVE VERTEBRAL BODY BROAD CONICAL TRANSVERSE PROCESS

SACRUM
n is a large, triangular

bone at the base of the spine and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones

COMPOSITION
A.SACRAL PROMONTORY B. SACRAL CANAL C.SACRAL HIATUS D.MEDIAN SACRAL CREST

COCCYX
n as the tailbone n final segment of the

human vertebral column n Consists of 4 vertebrae n 1st coccygeal vertebra is usually not fused or incompletely fused with the 2nd vertebra

LIGAMENTOUS STRUCTURES
1. ALL 2. PLL 3. LIGEMENTA FLAVA 4. INTERSPINOUS 5.SUPRASPNOUS 6. INTERTRANSVERSE

END OF LECTURE
PLEASE PREPARE FOR POST-LEC

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