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Domain technique Aviation studies

Project Landing gear


Final report

Group: 2A2I Names: Abdulhakim Acar, Milan Blonk, Sietze Klijnsma, Stefan van der Meulen, Monika Nicatia and Kiky Stronkhorst Attendant: Victor Laban
Study year: 2011/2012 Amsterdam, 13 October 2011

Inhoud
Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 3 1. Construction and function analysis ............................................................................................ 4 1.2 Steering.......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.2.1 Nose gear................................................................................................................................ 5 1.2.2 Main gear................................................................................................................................ 8 1.2.3 Side-effects ............................................................................................................................. 8 1.3 Folding system ............................................................................................................................... 9 1.3.1 Tilt actuator ............................................................................................................................ 9 1.3.2 Extension and retraction systems ........................................................................................ 10 1.3.3 Proximity sensor system....................................................................................................... 11 1.4 Wheels and energy absorbing ..................................................................................................... 12 1.4.1 Wheels .................................................................................................................................. 12 1.4.2 Shock struts .......................................................................................................................... 15 1.4.3 Braking units ......................................................................................................................... 16 1.5 Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 18 1.5.1 General requirements .......................................................................................................... 18 1.5.2 Part M ................................................................................................................................... 20 2. Mechanical Analysis ............................................................................................................... 21 2.1 Loads............................................................................................................................................ 21 2.1.1 Limit Loads ............................................................................................................................ 21 2.1.2 Center of gravity and MAC ................................................................................................... 22 2.2 Phases of flight ............................................................................................................................ 24 2.2.1 On ground ............................................................................................................................. 24 2.2.2 Landing ................................................................................................................................. 27 2.2.3 Rejected take-off .................................................................................................................. 31 2.3 Materials...................................................................................................................................... 33 2.3.1 High strength steel ............................................................................................................... 33 2.3.2 Aluminum ............................................................................................................................. 33 2.3.3 Titanium................................................................................................................................ 34 2.3.4 Magnesium ........................................................................................................................... 34 2.3.5 Carbon .................................................................................................................................. 34 2.4 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 34 3. Operation analysis .................................................................................................................. 35 3.1 Finding ......................................................................................................................................... 35 3.1.1 Cause .................................................................................................................................... 35 3.1.2 Consequences....................................................................................................................... 36 3.1.3 Maintenance......................................................................................................................... 37 3.2 Minimum equipment list ............................................................................................................. 39 3.3 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 40 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................... 41

Summary
The direction of ALA has given their technical department the assignment to do a research on the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200ER and to make a report of this which includes a problem that may happen concerning the landing gear. The landing gear is there to support the aircraft and to enable maneuvering when the aircraft is on the ground. Also, it has been designed so that it is able to withstand forces that act upon the landing gear during touchdown and when the aircraft uses the brakes to slow down and stop. The Boeing 777s main landing gear has a multi-bogey construction with a six wheel truck on each of the two main landing gears. The nose landing gear has two wheels and its main function is to enable steering of the aircraft. The complete landing gear can be retracted for flight so that there will be less drag during flight. Before landing the landing gear is extended and locked. The main landing gear is equipped with brakes that can be controlled manually or with the autobrake system in combination with the anti-skid system. The latter two enable maximum braking effectiveness and thus are responsible for the main horizontal energy absorption. For the vertical energy absorption the shock struts are used. EASA set requirements for the strut to be able to withstand the force that comes upon the strut when the aircraft lands with the takeoff weight with a minimum vertical speed of 3,7 m/s. When making a mechanical analysis to determine the centre of gravity it is made clear that 90% of the weight of the Boeing 777 is carried by both main landing gears. In the case of a maximum takeoff weight of 298460 kg, this results in about 266700 kg that is carried by the main landing gear. During a normal landing with maximum landing weight, the vertical force acting on the shock strut of a single main landing gear is 1479,5kN. During landing, the brakes are used to slow down the aircraft by converting the kinetic energy of the aircraft to heat in the brakes. For a normal landing, the energy absorbed by the brakes is about 643,21 MJ. A rejected take-off happens when the aircraft is about to takeoff, having a speed which is less or equal to V1, but gets canceled because the pilot thinks the aircraft is not safe to fly. The aircraft must then use the brakes to stop before the end of the runway is reached. The energy absorbed by the brakes during this rejected take-off is about 973,497 MJ, almost twice as much than a normal brake session. The limit, using maximum take-off weight and the maximum brake energy speed, is at about 1195,73 MJ. In this situation the brakes temperature can reach its limit of about 1970,15 Kelvin. From this mechanical analysis it may be clear that appropriate material is used. Titanium is used for the main part of the landing gear for its strength and resistance against corrosion. The brakes are made out of carbon because of its low weight ,hardness and ability to withstand heat. An overweight landing happens when the aircraft is landing with more weight than the maximum landing mass. And overweight landing might cause a hard landing which could cause damage to the gear. The maximum landing mass is 213188 kg. This means a weight increase of 5% would mean an overweight landing of 223847 kg. For the brakes, this would not be a problem since they will reach a temperature of about 941,81 K. For the strut however, the consequences might be more severe. If the amount of oil in the strut has decreased, it means there was too much pressure on the struts which caused the oil to leak out of the strut. With oil decreasing, the ability to absorb kinetic energy decreases and thus the impact on the fuselage could become damaging. An overweight landing could create a dangerously high pressure in the tires, possibly making them explosive. All of these findings will be made clear during the daily maintenance check followed after the hard overweight landing. The Minimum equipment list will give information about the airworthiness of the aircraft. It is used to determine whether or not the aircraft may take flight after the damage that has been taken. It shows the items with the amount of them onboard, the amount needed before the aircraft may take flight and exceptions. A shock strut needs to be refilled in case of a leakage. Overheated brakes need to cool down and exploded tires needs to be replaced. All of this is the responsibility of the part M engineer. And the engineer will ultimately be responsible for the airworthiness of the aircraft.

Introduction
The Hogeschool van Amsterdam (HVA) assigned Project Group 2A2I to the part M engineers of Amstel Leeuwenburg Airlines (ALA) to write a report on the landing gear of a Boeing 777-200ER. ALA requested its engineering department to make a technical analysis. ALA requested the report to contain a structural and mechanical analysis of the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200ER during several phases. Finally the management of ALA request an operational analysis of the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200ER, the management wants to know what failure can occur in the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200ER, what the reason is for this failure, what happens because of this failure and how the failure can be prevented. This report consists out of the three chapters. In chapter one the basic principles of the Boeing 777-200ERs landing gear will be established and there will be a description of the purpose of the landing gear along with a description of the required systems. In chapter one also an overview of the requirements regarding to CS-25 is given (1). In chapter two a mechanical analysis is made of the landing gear. This chapter also includes the operational forces that are acting on the landing gear during several phases. Based on the calculations, the used materials for critical components are criticized (2). Chapter three includes an operational analysis of the landing gear. In this chapter the landing and the influence on the airworthiness of the aircraft are analyzed. The consequences of the hard overweight landing are also presented. Finally a solution is given (3). The main sources for this report are: Maintenance and operational manuals, 777 flight crew operations manual volume II, 777-200/300 airplane characteristics for airport planning, Boeing 777 Norris G. , Wangner M. , 777 training manual airplane general, 777-200ER weight and balance control and loading manual. At the end of this report a bibliography is included. A list of the appendices can be found in the appendix booklet. The appendix booklet includes the project assignment (appendix I), pyramid model (appendix II) and the process review (appendix XXVI)

1. Construction and function analysis


Aircraft have a landing gear. These landing gears have a few purposes during maneuvering, take-off and landing (1.1). When on ground, the pilot is able to maneuver the aircraft because of the steering system (1.2). During cruise flight an extended landing gear would only generate lots of drag. Also the landing gear could be damaged by debris in the air or flying objects like birds. Therefore the landing gear has been made retractable. The folding system tilts the wheels and moves the landing gear up, in the fuselage of the aircraft (1.3). Attached to the landing gear is a set of wheels. Inside of the wheels are brakes, which are designed to absorb the longitudinal energy of the aircraft when landing. During landing there is also a vertical speed. This vertical speed is absorbed by the shock struts in the landing gear. The brakes and shock struts can absorb enough energy to bring the aircraft to a full stop (1.4). To the landing gear of aircraft some requirements are set (1.5). These requirements are set by EASA and by ALA.

1.1 Purpose
The majority of aircraft have a landing gear. These aircraft are fitted with a landing gear to prevent any damage to the aircraft while landing, take-off and to make it possible to maneuver the aircraft on ground. The landing gear got several purposes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Steering Supporting Absorbing energy Extension and retraction

Ad 1. Steering The landing gear makes it possible to steer the aircraft on ground, to taxi the aircraft around the airport and to line up straight in front of the runway for take-off. At some aircraft the main landing gear can also steer to prevent tire scrubbing. Ad 2. Supporting The aircraft is supported by the landing gear to assure ground clearance. This will prevent the fuselage of the aircraft from making direct contact to the ground and so preventing damage. Ad 3. Absorbing energy Absorbing energy is done by the shock struts in the landing gear, by the brakes and a little by the tires. The shock struts absorb the vertical kinetic energy of the aircraft. Shock struts work a lot like the suspensions in cars; they absorb energy over time, creating a damping effect. Brakes absorb the longitudinal kinetic energy of the aircraft to slow the aircraft down. Tires also absorb some of the energy in both directions, vertical and longitudinal. Ad 4. Extension and retraction To prevent any damage to the landing gear during flight, the landing gear has been made retractable so it can be stored inside the fuselage of the aircraft during flight. An extended landing gear also generates a lot of extra drag. Retracting the landing gear into the fuselage is the solution for this problem too. When the landing gear is retracted, the body of the aircraft will be clean and smooth again, reducing drag and thus making the aircraft more fuel efficient. When landing the landing gear is extended again.

1.2 Steering
Steering is needed to move the aircraft on ground. Small aircraft only possess nose steering systems, but the large aircraft have also main gear steering. If an aircraft wants to take-off, the pilot has a landing gear switch in the cockpit which ensures that the landing gear will retract after take-off. The B777 has a tricycle landing gear. The nose gear is a conventional steerable two wheel unit (1.2.1). The main landing gear of the B777 is in a standard two-post arrangement, but features six-wheel trucks (1.2.2). With these systems, there can arise some side-effects. Due to the flexibility of tire sidewalls, an unstable vibration known as shimmy is induced into the nose undercarriage. Such sideeffects can be reduced in several ways (1.2.3). 1.2.1 Nose gear Nose wheel steering is powered by the center hydraulic system. The position of the nose gear is important to distribute the weight correctly between the nose gear and the main gear. The nose gear is usually subjected only to direct compression loads. To turn the nose wheel trough the full range of travel, a tiller steering is needed (1.2.1.a). The design is also important to carry between eight and fifteen percent of the maximum take-off weight. Nose landing gear (NLG) steering system consists of two components; an upper cable loop, which connects to a lower cable loop and is installed in the fuselage connected to the pilots steering input (1.2.1.b). And the lower cable loop, which creates the inputs for the NLG metering valve module (1.2.1.c). 1.2.1.a Tiller steering The captains and first officers position are equipped with a tiller steering (figure 1.1 ) control to turn the nose wheel trough the full range of travel at low taxi speeds. The tiller steering is controlled with the tiller (1). The steering tillers are connected to a gear box assembly (2), which is used to change the angle of rotation from tiller to the torque shaft (3). A torque shaft connects the gear box to the drum mechanism which moves the upper cable loop. To rotate, the nose wheels must be turned up to 70 degrees in either direction pulling on the nose wheel steering tiller (appendix III). Then the rudder pedal steering must be overridden. The main gear aft axle steering is slaved to the nose wheel steering. The tiller position indicator shows the tiller displacement from the straight-ahead, neutral position. During a turn, a positive pressure is needed on the tiller to prevent the nose wheel from abruptly returning to its center. Rudder pedal steering turns the nose wheel trough a limited range of travel. Large radius turns and straight ahead steering may be accomplished with rudder pedal steering. If while turning the nose wheel scrubs, it reduces the steering angle and taxi speed. A stop in a turn should be avoided, as excessive thrust is required to start taxiing again.

1. 2. 3.

Tiller Gear box assembly Torque shaft

Figure 1.1: Steering tiller

During tight turns at high weights, differential thrust may be required. This should only be used as required to maintain the desired speed in the turn. After completing a turn, the nose wheel should be centered to allow the aircraft to roll straight ahead. This relieves stresses in the main and nose gear structure prior to stopping. The use of nose wheel steering is not recommended above 20 knots. 5

If a pilot uses the nose wheel steering tiller above 20 knots, they must use a caution to avoid overcontrolling the nose wheels resulting in possible loss of directional control. Maximum nose wheel steering effectiveness when above taxi speeds is available by using rudder pedal steering. 1.2.1.b Upper cable loop The function of the upper cable loop (appendix IV) is to connect the steering inputs to the lower cable loops. There are several components on the upper cable loop: Drum mechanism Centering and rudder interconnect mechanism Broken cable compensator Pivot link

Ad 1. Drum mechanism The drum mechanism (appendix V) is attached under the gear box and consists out of pulleys. The purpose of the drum mechanism is to let the upper cable loop move. Ad 2. Centering and rudder interconnect mechanism The NLG centering and rudder interconnect mechanism (appendix VI) (figure 1.2) is operated by rudder pedals. The NLG centering and rudder interconnect mechanism is located below the flight deck floor. When an input (1) is given by rudder pedals, a force will push the rudder pedal arm (2). This arm pushes against one of the rollers (3) and causes to move one of the free arm assemblies (4). The roller pushes and moves the cable quadrant arm (5) which causes a movement of the upper cable loop. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rudder input Rudder pedal arm Rollers Free arm assemblies Cable quadrant

Figure 1.2: Centering and rudder interconnect mechanism.

When input is given by the tillers the upper cable loop directly moves the cable quadrant and cable quadrant arm. The cable quadrant arm pushes on one of the rollers which cause to move the free arm assemblies and pulling the other one with centering springs. The rudder pedal arm will not be affected due to spring forces because the rudder pedal centering force is greater than the force that pulls on the centering springs. The tiller input has priority over the rudder pedals. Ad 3. Broken cable compensator The purpose of the broken cable compensator (appendix VII) is to protect the steering system against a broken cable. The broken cable compensator is located on the aft side of the NLG wheel well and consists of two pulleys, two force links, a roller and an output cam and shaft. The upper cable loop pulls the force links. This keeps the roller in the output cam which causes to move output cam. When a cable breaks, the tension will be lost in one cable. The roller slips out the output cam. This stops all steering inputs. 6

Ad 4. Pivot link The Pivot link (appendix VIII) connects the broken cable compensator to the centring mechanism. 1.2.1.c Lower cable loop The lower cable loop (appendix IV) converts the input to a NLG steering metering module. There are several components on the lower cable loop: Centering mechanism Summing mechanism Metering valve module Actuators Collar

Ad 1. Centring mechanism The purpose of the centring mechanism is to lock the NLG steering system when it is being retracted. The centring mechanism is located on the top of the NLG. The centring mechanism consists out of the following components: spring cartridge, crankshaft, driver and cam assembly and a cam follower. When retracting the NLG, the lock link moves the spring cartridge. A crank and spring cartridge lifts the mechanism through the shaft. This mechanism pushes against the cam follower to the centred position. Ad 2. Summing mechanism When the left seat pilot makes an input to the rudder pedals in the nose wheel steering mode and the right seat pilot makes the same input, the input is combine and the rudder pedal command position is summed and appropriately scaled by computer software and transmitted to a summing network. From this summing network, a nose wheel steering command is sent to a comparison network, as well as to the steering servo system. Ad 3. Metering valve module When the directional control valve within the landing gear control is commanded to retract, hydraulic fluid is routed into the retract lines and directly to the main gear actuators. Retract pressure also centres the nose wheels prior to retracting. This actuates the brake metering valve (appendix IV). This provides anti-spin brake pressure when the gear is extended and it pressurizes the extend side of the up lock actuators to make sure the up lock hooks are in the proper position to receive the up lock rollers. Ad 4. Actuators The nose landing gear contains a hydraulic steering actuator (appendix IX) that is actuated electrically and hydraulic through the use of the general-purpose computers, the pilots rudder pedals or the commanders through the use of the pilot's rudder pedals in the direct mode. If one of the hydraulic systems is inoperative, the nose wheel steering will change to caster mode, and the commander would then apply pressure to the brake pedals to apply hydraulic pressure to the left and right main gear brakes as required for directional control using differential braking. Ad 5. Collar The torque links (appendix IV) are the connection between the nose wheel assembly, fork, the steering collar (appendix IX) and shimmy dampener. The upper end of the torque links is attached to the steering collar, so shimmy is transmitted from the wheel to the torque links, then to the collar. Collar only moves in a rotational motion around the strut. Any up and down movement of the collar will allow shimmy. 7

1.2.2 Main gear The pilot must be able to steer the landing gear when the aircraft is landed. The pilot can steer the nose landing gear, but the pilot cannot steer the main landing gear. The aircraft can maneuver into gates easier with a steerable main landing gear. The main landing gear is attached to the wing. A lever in the cockpit activates the retraction mechanism of the landing gear. The retracted main gear is held up in the fuselage of the aircraft. With the help of up locks the main landing gear is held up. Each main gear has six wheels, these wheels are positioned two by two, six on a truck (figure 1.3). The two aft wheels of the main gear (1) can be turned, this happens automatically. The NLG steering tiller position controls the steering of the main landing gear (appendix X). When the nose gear steering has an angle higher than thirteen degrees a signal is send to the main gear, this signal makes the main gear controllable. Both main gears can move eight degrees up in each direction. The Main Gear Steering Control Unit (MGSCU) controls the main landing gear steering and sends, trough the ARINC 629, fault data to the AIMS for indications in the cockpit. The warning electronic system (WES) gets the aft angle lock status from the MGSCU, the WES uses this data for take-off configuration warning. The main gear works with hydraulic pressure, this pressure comes from the center hydraulic system. The hydraulic pressure is available when the last axle is steered and the main gear is unlocked or when the center position when the aircraft is turned. When the main gear of the aircraft is not being steered, the main gear is locked in the center position.

1. After axle

Figure 1.3: Main landing gear

1.2.3 Side-effects When an aircraft is steered, side-effects can occurs. One of the side-effects is tire scrubbing what is a negative side-effect, because it wears out the tire (1.2.3.a). Tire scrubbing occurs mostly while making turns. Another side-effect what occurs at the Boeing 777 is shimmy, because of the steerable nose gear (1.2.3.b).

1.2.3.a Tire scrubbing A disadvantageous effect that occurs during steering is tire scrubbing. This effect mostly occurs while making turns with the aircraft. When the nose gear is steered in a different direction, the aircraft starts to make a turn. It is known that the main gear turns slower in the new direction than the nose gear, because the main gear is original not made for steering. Also there is a tendency to stay in the original direction of movement what causes horizontal loads that will act on the main gear causing the main gear being scrubbed into the new direction. The Boeing 777 has a way to reduce the tire scrubbing. The wheels on the aft axis on each main gear are able to move to eight degrees. They start to move when the nose gear is moved to a position of more than thirteen degrees. 1.2.3.b Shimmy Because the Boeing 777 has a steerable nose gear there is a side effect called shimmy. Shimmy can be caused by instability of a wheel, a lack of structure stiffness in the gear, an insufficient trail or worn parts. Shimmy can be reduced by friction damping, hydraulic damping and an inclining the gear.

1.3 Folding system


One of the purposes of the landing gear is to fold the landing gear to retracted and extended position. There is a variety of methods to fold the landing gear of an aircraft. The truck assembly of the B777-200ER is too large to retract in extension position. For this reason a tilt actuator is installed on the truck assembly (1.3.1). The extension and retraction system extends and retracts the main landing gear and nose landing gear (1.3.2). To give information about landing gear position the proximity sensor system is used (1.3.3). 1.3.1 Tilt actuator To retract the truck assembly a tilt actuator (figure 1.4) (1) is installed on the forward end of the MLG truck. There are two ends on the MLG tilt actuator: head (2) and rod end (3). The head end is situated to the shock strut and rod end is situated to the MLG truck beam.

Figure 1.4: Tilt actuator

The purpose of the tilt actuator is to move the MLG truck to tilt position during the retraction and to move the MLG truck to stowed position during the extension. The tilt actuator (appendix XI) consists of a main piston (1) and a floating piston (2). When the aircraft is in the air, the pressure goes to both sides of the floating piston and rod side of the main piston. This moves the truck assembly to 13 degrees forward wheel up (3) (Tilt position). When the gear starts to retract, the pressure goes between the floating piston and rod side of the main piston. After this action the pistons move and the floating piston touches the rod end shoulder on the cylinder rod end. This makes the truck move 5 degrees in down position (4) (stowed position). Also a pressure valve (5) is installed on the actuator to protect the actuator against high pressure and loads during touchdown. 1.3.2 Extension and retraction systems The retraction and extension of the aircrafts landing gear is controlled electrically with a lever and actuated hydraulic (1.3.2.a). The main landing gear assembly holds the main landing gear in the extended position and gives support when landing and when on ground (1.3.2.b). The nose landing gear provides the option to steer the aircraft during taxi and gives support to the front of the aircraft (1.3.2.c). If a normal extension would fail, pilots can manually extend the landing gear using the alternate extension system (1.3.2.d). 1.3.2.a Extension and retraction controls The landing gear extension and retraction systems extends and retracts the landing gear so drag in flight will be reduced and to damage is prevented. Landing gear control is electrical and the signal input for retracting or extending the landing gear comes from the landing gear control lever (appendix XII). The lever has two positions, UP and DOWN. The lever must be pulled out first before the lever can be lowered or raised. The lever has seven internal switches and four of these switches control power and ground to the down solenoids in the nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) selector/bypass valves. Two switches signals go to the electrical load management system (ELMS) to control power to the up solenoids in the NLG and MLG valves. One switch resets the gear door valve modules after an alternate gear extension or ground door operation. When the aircraft is on the ground, the landing gear lever is locked in the DOWN position. The module also has a solenoid controlled lever lock mechanism which prevents accidental movement of the control lever when the airplane is on the ground. When the aircraft takes off, the solenoid gets electrically powered and releases the lever lock. Automatic shutdown relays in the ELMS remove the gear-up signal ten seconds after the landing gear as been retracted. This removes the pressure from the landing gear components. 1.3.2.b Main landing gear extension and retraction Because the MLG and NLG are similar in how they retract and extend, the part of the construction which is involved with the retraction and extension will be covered using the MLG. The MLG doors open and close to permit respectively MLG extension and retraction. The doors close afterwards to aerodynamically seal the wheel wells. The MLG side braces assembly and the MLG drag brace assembly hold the main landing gear in the extended position (figure 1.5). They also supply lateral support to the main landing gear. The MLG side brace assembly (1) is on the aft side of the main landing gear. Side brace Lock links (2), which are connected to the strut (3), and the drag brace lock links (4) hold the drag brace and side brace in the extended position. Upper and lower toggles connect to the upper and lower lock links. These toggles move to an over-center locked position when the gear is down and are held by two springs. A hinge (5) is used to connect the upper and lower drag braces of the side brace assembly and the drag brace assembly (6). The drag brace assembly is on the forward side of each main landing gear. The retract actuator (7) is a hydraulic 10

actuator. It retracts to raise the gear and it will extend when the gear extends. The actuator is not pressurized when the gear is being extended. Flow restrictors control the hydraulic flow rate in both directions of the actuator motion. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Side brace assembly Side brace lock links Strut Drag brace lock links Hinge Drag brace assembly Retract actuator

Figure 1.5: Main landing gear assembly

1.3.2.c Nose landing gear extension and retraction The NLG extension and retraction system extends and retracts the nose landing gear and opens and closes the NLG doors (appendix XIII). The center hydraulic system is used to supply pressure to operate the NLG. The NLG door operated sequence valve controls hydraulic pressure to the NLG retract actuator and lock actuator. The locking mechanism is there to hold the NLG in the extended or the retracted position (appendix XIV) The lock actuator unlocks the locking mechanism at the start of an extension or retraction and locks the mechanism when the NLG is fully extended or retracted. Before retraction starts, the lock actuator retracts and unlocks the locking mechanism so that the NLG will be able to retract. The hydraulic pressure stays on the retract side of the lock actuator while the gear is changing from retraction to extension. The lock actuator moves the locking mechanism to the lock position when the NLG is in the retracted position. With the extension, the lock actuator extends, unlocking the lock mechanism and permitting extension. Hydraulic pressure now stays on the extended side during transit and the lock actuator moves the locking mechanism to the locked position when fully extended. The NLG-operated sequence valve is there to ensure that the doors do not move if the NLG is extended, changing from retraction to extension or vice versa. 1.3.2.d Alternate extension system The Alternate Extension System (AES) is used when extension must be done manually in case of a failure of the normal extension system or if there would be no center hydraulic system pressure. It can also be used to open the landing gear doors and operates independently of the normal extension and retraction system. The hot battery bus will supply power to control and operate the AES. The ELMS contains relays that control this power to the alternate extend power pack, which has a hydraulic pump that is being operated by an electric motor. The power pack pressurizes fluid from the center hydraulic system which feeds pressurized fluid to the door modules for each landing gear and unlocks, unlocking the doors. The doors open and the gear extend by air loads and their own weight, but the tires may contact the landing gear doors during this extension. The pressure switch stops operation of the power pack after the extension has been completed. 1.3.3 Proximity sensor system The purpose of the proximity sensor system (PSS) is to show position and control of some mechanical moving parts of the aircraft, like such as landing gear, thrust reserves and tail strike system. The PSS system includes: 1. Proximity sensors 2. Two proximity sensor electronic units (PSEU) 11

Ad 1. Proximity sensors The position of the aircraft moving parts such as landing gear, cargo doors is send to the PSEUs by sensors. On the B777 approximately 96 proximity sensors are located. There are two types of the sensors: Flange mount and thread mount (appendix XV). The sensor consists of the sensor itself and target. Target is corrosion resistant steel. When a moving part of the aircraft moves the target gets closer to the sensor. This results change in the inductance of the sensor. Ad 2. PSEU The PSEUs are the central components of the system and located in main equipment center. There are two PSEUs in the system. PSEU 1 gets the input from the sensors and gives this information via ARINC 629 busses to several subsystems like such as landing gear indication, tail strike indication, cargo door control and left engine thrust reverser. The PSEU 2 gets also information from sensors. This information is used for the door indication, landing gear indication and right engine thrust reverser (appendix XVI). The PSEU 1 is sourced with 28v dc left main bus and PSEU 2 is sourced with 28v dc right main bus. Also a battery bus is attached to assure alternate power for the two PSEUs. On the proximity sensor system various circuit cards are located. Each PSEU contains several cards categorized in: Comm. /processor card, proximity driver card, Aux/driver card and power supply card (appendix XVII). The function of the Comm. /Processor cards is to control the operation of the PSEU and monitor functions. Proximity driver cards provide power to PSEU and able to know if the target is far or near. The function of the Aux/driver card is to control the cargo doors. Power supply cards provide power to the independent systems such as landing gear sensors.

1.4 Wheels and energy absorbing


The landing gear of the aircraft has to be able to withstand and absorb energy of the aircraft when on ground. The only parts of the landing gear that is in direct contact with the ground are the wheels and tires (1.4.1). The tires must not lose grip, making the aircraft uncontrollable and unable to brake. Also shock struts are mounted in the frame of the landing gear to absorb energy of the aircraft in vertical direction (1.4.2). The vertical energy is at its maximum during a hard landing. The energy of the aircraft in longitudinal direction is absorbed by the brakes (1.4.3). The brakes are mounted inside the rims of the wheels. 1.4.1 Wheels In total the Boeing 777 has fourteen wheels, two at the nose gear and twelve at the two main gears. Every wheel consists of two major parts; the first part is the tire (1.4.1.a). The second part is the rim of the wheel, in the rim is enough space for the brake unit, plugs and sensors (1.4.1b). 1.4.1.a Tires The tire of a wheel is the first part that makes contact with the ground. Things that will be discussed are : 1. Construction 2. Tire pressure 3. Tire wear 4. Aquaplaning

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Ad 1. Construction The construction of a tire can be divided in four sections (figure 1.6). The first section is the tread of the tire (1). The tread is the first thing that hits the ground at a landing so it has to be designed to withstand the wear of normal operation. The second section is the shoulder of the tire (2). From the shoulder of the tire outwards, the thickness of the tire changes. The third section is the side wall (3). This section is the thinnest section of the tire so also the weakest section. It is designed to bend when loads are acting on the tire. The fourth section is the bead (4). This part is designed to fit on the rim of the wheel. A layer of casing plies provides the strength of the tire. These plies are mostly made of a series of cords which are made of steel and coated in rubber and laid up as a sheet.

Figuur 1.6 : Construction of a tire

Ad 2. Tire pressure The tire of an aircraft is filled with nitrogen that pressurized. The reason why nitrogen is used to fill a tire is because the tire filled with nitrogen will not light up when the tire become hot. The nitrogen will extinguish it, because nitrogen is an inflammable gas. Another reason why nitrogen is used and not for example oxygen is; because in the nitrogen filled tire the pressure does not decrease that fast then when a tire would be filled up with oxygen. This is because the molecules of oxygen are smaller and so escape faster through the rubber of the tire than the molecules of nitrogen who are bigger. Also nitrogen barely expands and decreases in volume when subjected to the temperature range an aircraft tire has to go through. Tires can be classified into high and low pressure tires. High pressure is for pressure above 315 psi and low pressure is for pressures below 200 psi. When a tire is over pressurized or the ground speed is too high for a tire type, that tire can possibly explode. The tire pressure of the nose gear of the Boeing 777 is 218 psi and the main gear between 218 and 221 psi, depending on the type of Boeing 777. In every wheel of the main gear there is a tire pressure sensor. The tire pressure sensor sends tire pressure to the gear synoptic screen of the primary display system (appendix XVIII). When the pressure in a tire is above or below normal range, the EICAS will give the message TIRE PRESS (appendix XIX). At every wheel there are three thermal fuse plugs which will melt when their temperature becomes over 182 degrees. The melting of the fuse plugs will cause a release of nitrogen, releasing pressure, what prevents the tires from exploding. Ad 3. Tire wear Landing and braking causes the tread of the tire to wear, because a tire is subject to high loads, high temperatures and high rolling speeds. The most wear is caused by braking after a landing or a rejected take-off; this is around eighty percent of all the wear on a tire. Tire wear is also caused by tire scrubbing while taxiing to the gate or to the runway. A third of tire wear is caused by the tires hitting the ground at a touchdown; this is because the wheels are not spinning with the same speed as the speed of the aircraft. When the lining of the tire is visible, this is a sign that the tire needs to be replaced.

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Ad 4. Aquaplaning Aquaplaning is the effect that occurs when a wheel is essentially lifted from the surface because there is a thin layer of water on the surface. Because of that there is a reduction of grip. There are three forms of aqua planning, these are reverted rubber, dynamic and viscous aquaplaning. Reverted rubber aquaplaning occurs at touchdowns. Because of the heat generated by friction, hot steam is created at high pressure under the footprint of the tire. The high temperature causes the rubber to revert to its uncured state and creates a seal around the tire. This form of aquaplaning occurs on damp runways or an isolated damp spot on the runway. Dynamic aquaplaning occurs when the depth of standing water on the runway is greater than the tread depth of the tire. Because of this the tire cannot make full contact over its total footprint area with the pavement. The leading edge of the wheel makes contact with the water what causes a wedge of water. The wedge of water causes the wheel to be lifted from the surface (figure 1.7). Dynamic aquaplaning can cause losses of stability and braking.

Figuur 1.7: Dynamic aquaplaning

Viscous aquaplaning is a low speed phenomenon what occurs on a wet runway or taxiway when there is contamination such as oil, grease, a layer of dust or when the runway surface has become smooth. An effect of viscous aquaplaning is that skidding occurs at lower speeds. 1.4.1.b Rim The wheels of the main gear are radial tire wheels (figure 1.8). Radial tire wheels consist of two halves, an inner (1) and an outer half (2). The two halves are kept together by tie bolts (3). In the inner half of the rim are brake rotor drive keys (4), because the brake unit is installed in the inner half. Also in the inner half there are thermal fuse plugs (5). These thermal fuse plugs prevent the tire from exploding. In the outer half a pressure sensor (6) can be found which measures the tire pressure and sends it to the tire pressure indication system. In the outer half there are two valves, the inflation valve (7) and an over-pressure valve (8). When the tire 1. Inner wheel pressure is 2. Outer wheel above 375-450 3. Tie bolt psi the valve 4. Drive keys releases tire 5. Thermal fuse plug pressure. 6. Tire pressure sensor 7. Inflation valve 8. Over-pressure valve 14

Figuur 1.8 Rim

1.4.2 Shock struts Where small aircraft can still rely on the elastic properties of materials in the landing gear to absorb lateral energy, the people carriers apply too much force on the landing gear to be able to use the properties of elastic materials in the landing gear. In people carriers shock struts are used to absorb the lateral energy. The phase of flight in which the most lateral energy of the aircraft has to be absorbed by the shock strut is during touchdown. There are two basic shock strut designs: the single stage shock strut (1.4.2.a) and the double stage shock strut (1.4.2.b). Both designs squeeze fluid through narrow openings creating friction, a temperature rise and a damping effect (1.4.2.c). 1.4.2.a Single stage oleo shock strut The single stage oleo shock strut (figure 1.9) is usually filled with oil (1) and gas (2). When a force (red arrows) is applied on the shock strut, the sustaining ram (3) will be forced up into the cylinder (4). While the sustaining ram is forced into the cylinder the oil is forced from the upper section of cylinder into the part inside the sustaining ram through holes (shown by the green arrow). These holes limit the flow of oil and create friction, making a damping effect. Also the chamber filled with gas in the sustaining ram below the separator (5) is becoming smaller when sustaining ram is forced inwards. This will make the gas pressure rise because the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure. The pressure will generate a force from the inside of the sustaining ram outwards, making the shock strut stiffer the further the sustaining ram is pressed inwards. When the force onto the shock strut is suddenly removed the force of the compressed gas will force the sustaining ram out again. Because the sustaining ram is forced out the oil has to move out of the sustaining ram into the cylinder. The flow of the oil 1. Oil will press the valve plate (6) against the holes. The 2. Gas valve plate contains smaller holes than the holes in the 3. Sustaining ram sustaining ram, limiting the flow of oil and thereby 4. Cylinder 5. Separator preventing a rebound. 6. Valve plate 1.4.2.b Double stage oleo shock strut The double stage oleo shock strut (figure 1.10) works the same as the single stage oleo shock strut. The only difference is in the gas chamber. Where the single stage oleo shock strut got only one gas chamber, the double stage oleo shock strut got two gas chambers. One of these two gas chambers got a gas that is already under a higher pressure. When the low pressure gas chamber is maximally compressed the high pressure gas chamber will compress. The advantage of a double stage oleo shock strut is that the damping is smoother than the single stage oleo shock strut because of the two stages of compression. Shock struts can have more than two stages, but the complexity of the shock strut increases significantly with each added stage.
Figure 1.9: Single stage oleo shock strut

Figure 1.10: Dual stage oleo shock strut

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Instead of, or in addition to the second chamber a calibrated taper pin (figure 1.11) can be added. This pin is placed instead of the valve plate. It limits the flow of oil more, the further the shock strut is compressed, the narrower the opening for the oil to flow through and the more friction is created. The pin can be calibrated to smoothen the damping.
Figure 1.11: Calibrated taper pin in a shock strut

1.4.2.c Damping effect As can be seen in figure 1.12 the single oleo shock strut (F resulting) is not even nearly proportional (interrupted line). The red line, dual stage oleo shock strut, is more proportional than the single oleo shock strut because of the two stages of compression, and thus will feel like a more smooth absorption of energy. A fuse is integrated in the shock strut. The fuse must guarantee that the shock strut will not become explosive when too much force is applied. The fuse will open when the shock strut is overstressed, releasing the gas out of the shock strut. An overstressed strut can be recognized by its completely compressed state. 1.4.3 Braking units

Figure 1.12: F-S diagram

Brakes are used to slow or stop the aircraft (1.4.3.a). When brakes are used, there is a chance for the wheels to skid over the surface and thus, being damaged and losing grip. To prevent this, an antiskid system is used (1.4.3.b). To automatically let the brakes stop, pilots can rely on the autobrake system (1.4.3.c). 1.4.3.a Brake Assembly A brake assembly is placed in each of the twelve main landing gear wheels and tire assemblies. In the NLG wheels there are no brakes. Brake rotor drive keys are in the inner half of each wheel. The MLG wheel brakes use hydraulic pressure to either slow or stop the aircraft. A wheel brake unit weighs 101kg. The brake assembly is a unit that uses carbon discs as rotors and stators (appendix XX) which are being compressed between the pressure plate and the end plate assembly when the brakes are used. When this happens, a lot of energy will be absorbed, in the form of heat. Self-adjusting pistons apply brake system hydraulic pressure to the pressure plate and automatically adjust for brake wear. Brake wear is shown by two indicator pins on the inboard side of the brake housing. The brake units mount on bushings which ride on replaceable landing gear axle sleeves.

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1.4.3.b Antiskid system With the antiskid system it is possible to prevent wheel skid because the metered brake pressure from the hydro-mechanical or the autobrake systems are limited. It also allows the maximum amount of braking effectiveness despite the runway condition (figure 1.13). As the use of the brakes increases, the friction coefficient increases as well until it reaches the maximum effectiveness (1). From that point, if the break would continue to be used more, skidding starts (2). Antiskid attempts to keep the wheel right at the verge of skidding, because then the coefficient of friction is highest and braking will be most efficient.

1. Maximum break effectiveness 2. Skid


Figure 1.13: Graph showing development of friction coefficient when braking.

The antiskid system is controlled using the brake system control unit (BSCU) (appendix XXI). The normal brake valves send pressure from the right hydraulic system or the accumulator via the autobrake shuttle valves to the normal antiskid valve modules. The BSCU sends signals to the normal antiskid valve modules to control the pressure to each brake. The pressure goes through the antiskid shuttle valve modules to the brakes. An antiskid surge accumulator absorbs pressure surges in the return lines from the left normal antiskid valve module. This is essential since the pressure surges can occur during antiskid operation. It is not necessary for the right normal antiskid valve to have a surge accumulator because it is near the right system reservoir. If the alternate brakes are used, the metered valves send pressure from the center hydraulic system to the alternate antiskid valve modules. The BSCU then will send signals to the alternate antiskid valve modules to control the metered pressure supplied to each aft brake and to forward-middle brake pairs. The pressure is going through the antiskid shuttle valve modules to the brakes. The BSCU sends signals to the autobrake valve module to control pressure. The autobrake valve module meters right hydraulic system pressure to the brakes. The autobrake pressure runs in the autobrake shuttle valves, the normal antiskid valves and the antiskid shuttle valves. The normal antiskid operates when the autobrake operation is executed. There is an antiskid transducer for each wheel of the MLG in each axle. Antiskid transducers supply wheel speed data to the BSCU to get wheel deceleration input. These data also goes to the BSCU for autobrake operation. 1.4.3.c Autobrake system The autobrake system is there to automatically set the brakes to stop the aircraft when it is landing or when there is a rejected take-off (RTO). The autobrake operation is controlled by the BSCU and the rate of deceleration can be selected by the pilot with the autobrake selector (figure 1.14) The autobrake selector has eight positions and when a position has been selected, it will stay in that position because of a latch solenoid which is controlled by the BSCU. If the disarm condition occurs when the selector is in the 1 through MAX AUTO position, the latch solenoid releases the selector to DISARM. To move the selector from OFF to DISARM or vice versa, the selector must be pushed in before turning. For selecting RTO position, the selector must be pulled before turning. Positions 1 through MAX AUTO set the speed with which the aircraft will slow down. For each selection that can be 17

made, the BSCU controls the autobrake pressure to a maximum limit. It takes a tenth of a second after the selection has been made for the BSCU to carry out the requested deceleration. For a rejected take-off the maximum amount of brake pressure will be used and there will be no delay to carry out the RTO request. The latch solenoid releases the selector from the RTO position to the OFF position when the aircraft is flying. There are two brake metered pressure transducers in the normal and alternate brake system which sends brake pressure data to the BSCU. For the normal system, the autobrake valve module sends hydraulic pressure to the autobrake shuttle valve. But the autobrake shuttle valve sends autobrake valve module metered pressure to the normal brake system if normal brake valve pressure is lower than autobrake pressure. When all the conditions for arming and application have been met, the BSCU controls the autobrake valve module. The location of these Autobrake shuttle valves are in the left and the right main gear wheel wells on the forward walls inboard of the brake metering valves. The autobrake valve module is on the keel beam in the forward section of the right main wheel well. The alternate brake metered pressure transducers are on the landing gear beams inboard of the alternate antiskid valves.

Figuur 1.14: Autobrake settings

1.5 Requirements
An aircraft must be airworthy, to keep the aircraft safe there are requirements set. In Europe there is an agency that makes these requirements for the safety of the Boeing 777-200 ER landing gear, this agency is the: European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). EASA stores these requirements in documents, the requirements about the landing gear are stored in CS-25, large aeroplanes (1.5.1). Besides EASA also ALA has a couple of requirements that have to be taken into account (1.5.2). 1.5.1 General requirements EASA has set many requirements for landing gears. The requirements for the landing gear are divided in six groups: 1. General requirements 2. Shock absorption 3. Retracting mechanism 4. Wheel and tires 5. Brakes and braking systems 6. Nose wheel steering Ad 1. General requirements The landing gear has to be designed so no fuel can be spilled with an overweight landing or take-off, to prevent fire (CS-25.721). The landing gear must be designed so that it is not possible that there are pipes leakages that can cause fuel spillage. Fuel spillage may lead to wheels-up landing on a paved runway. With the engine nacelle design, there must be taken into account that it can touch the ground. When such failure occurs no fuel should be spilled. When the Boeing 777 is loaded till its 18

maximum landing weight (213.188 kg), it must be able to withstand a minimum vertical velocity of 3.7 m/s when the aircraft lands. With these requirements there can be no fire hazard. The B777200ER has a maximum operating altitude of 43,100 ft. Ad 2. Shock absorption Energy absorption test must be done for the dynamic characteristics; this is to ensure that the design is valid for the design conditions (CS-25.473). The test must prove that the landing gear can sustain the design take-off-weight. Demonstrating its reserve energy absorption capacity, simulation a velocity of 3,7 m/s at design landing weight, assuming that the lift of the aircraft is not greater than the weight during the landing impact. The aircraft may not fail this test. When there is a small change in a previously approved design it must be underpinned with an analysis based on earlier tests. Ad 3. Retracting mechanism The B777 has a landing gear that is retractable. The retracting mechanism must be designed for the loads acting on the landing gear in different phases of flight, like friction and loads that occur with the when braking. The landing gear and the doors must be strong enough to withstand the loads during flight when the landing gear is extended position. When the landing gear is extended on ground it must be locked. The landing gear and doors must be locked when the landing gear is retracted in flight. Unless it can be shown that it is not dangerous when the landing gear is extended. There must be an emergency operation for extension for when there occurs a failure. In the cockpit must be shown that the landing gear is fully extended or retracted. Parts that are crucial to land an aircraft safe must be protected against fire. Ad 4. Wheel and tires The nose wheel and all the main wheels must be approved. The maximum limit load must be higher or equal to the limit load determined by CS-25. The wheel must fit in a suitable tire approved by EASA. The tires must have enough space when the landing gear is retracted, so that they do not touch other components. The tires must be inflated with dry nitrogen so that there is no oxygen in the tire, unless there can be demonstrated that there will be no danger with oxygen in the tires. Ad 5. Brakes and braking systems Everything must be approved by EASA. The braking system must be designed so that there cannot occur a fire when a hydraulic system is leaking after a failure. The braking system must still work after a failure so that the aircraft can land safely with a braked roll stopping distance (CS-25.125). The brake controls do not use all of their assets during operation. The aircraft must have a parking brake, when the parking brake is set; it should appear at a display in the cockpit. Means must be trustable and readily visible. The runway must be at least 3.536 meters when the aircraft has a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW), the MTOW of the Boeing 777-200ER is 298.460kg. The brakes are important in rejected take-off (RTO), the RTO autobrake setting commands maximum braking pressure if the aircraft is on the ground with a groundspeed over 85 knots. If an RTO is below 85 knots, the RTO autobrake function does not operate. Ad 6. Nose wheel steering The nose wheel steering system must be designed so that exceptional skill is not required during take-off and landing. When there occurs a failure it must not affect the nose-wheel position. The design for towing on ground must not cause any damage to the steering system.

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1.5.2 Part M Before making a technical analysis of the landing gear of a modern airliner, ALA has a few requirements for Part M. ALA has a company that exist of aircraft operator and CAMO. First of all, the type aircraft may not be a short haul type, like a Boeing 737. The requirement is to choose a long haul type. So Part M has chosen for a Boeing 777 that was recommended by the principal. The safety factors of the B777 are lower than the B737. It is important to investigate possible interference regarding the brakes. To do this, there has to be made a construction analysis, mechanical analysis, operational analysis and a function analysis, which consists out of; maneuvering, supporting and braking. So this analysis will consist out of three parts. First of all: a detailed description of the construction and technical operation of the chosen system. Then, a structural mechanical analysis with a few of the critical components is discussed. An operational analysis where potential failures may occur and where maintenance checks are discussed. Finally the purpose is to keep this landing gear airworthy.

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2. Mechanical Analysis
All knowledge has been gathered about construction and its functions of the B777 landing gear, now it is possible to do a mechanical analysis. Mechanics is a part of physics that deals with the state of rest or motion of bodies subject to the action of the forces. These forces are acting on the components of the landing gear and cause inner loads. To calculate these loads the basic knowledge of the mechanics is essential (2.1). The most basic position is when the aircraft is on the ground, but sometimes the aircraft has to deal with greater forces, like during a rejected take-off (RTO) or landing (2.2). On the base of the calculations, the used materials for critical components will be discussed (2.3). Finally a conclusion is made about what the effects are of the forces during different stages and if landing gear of the B777 is able to deal with all these loads (2.4).

2.1 Loads
The landing gear of the aircraft is exposed to various loads. To understand these loads, the basic knowledge is required (2.1.1). To calculate these loads the position of the center of gravity must be determined (2.1.2). 2.1.1 Limit Loads The whole mechanics of rigid bodies has been formulated on the base of the three motion laws of the Newton. These laws are: Newtons first law: An object or particle that is in rest or moving in a straight line with constant velocity will remain in that state if no forces are exerted on the object or when the forces are in balance with each other. The first law of Newton can be shown with following equations (formula 1): Formula 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) F = Force (N) Newtons second law: An object or particle that is subjected with a force will experience an acceleration or deceleration. That force can be calculated with the formula 2: Formula 2 F = Force (N) m = Mass (kg) a = Acceleration (m/s2)

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Newtons third law: The action and reaction forces between interacting bodies are equal in magnitude, opposite in direction and have the same line of work.

Because the forces do not seize in one point, there is a distances between them. The distance to the CG of that object is called the lever arm or arm. When a force does not seize in the CG of the body, the body turns around his CG by the forces. This called momentum (formula 3): Formula 3 M = Moment (N m) F = Force (N) r = lever arm (m) Besides the external loads there are also internal loads. A load can be resolved into normal forces and shear force. In order to describe the normal load, the force that perpendicular is exerted must divided by the area of the cross section. When a force acts parallel to the cross section, a stress component is created. This called shear stress. The normal and shear stress can be calculated with formula 4: Formula 4 = Normal stress (N/m2) = Shear stress (N/m2) N = Force (N) A = Area (m2) 2.1.2 Center of gravity and MAC The center of gravity (CG) is the point where the total mass of the aircraft is assumed to be concentrated. The center of gravity can be calculated by using the momentum equation where a datum is chosen (2.1.2.a). With the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) (2.1.2.b) it is possible to express to center of gravity to a percentage of the MAC (2.1.2.c). 2.1.2.a CG with respect to a datum The center of gravity can be calculated by calculating the momentum equation around a chosen datum (calculation 1). This datum will be the front of the aircraft. For the total moment the weight on the nose and main gear needs to be multiplied with the arm of the nose and main gear to the datum. The CG will be calculated for maximum taxi weight what is 298460 kilogram. The weight on the nose gear is 31760 kilogram and the weight on the main gear is 266700 kilogram1. The arms of the nose gear to the datum is 5,89 meters and the arm of the main gear to the datum is 31,77 meters2. With this data the location of the CG aft of the datum can be calculated.

1 2

777-200/300 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning 777-200/300 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning

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Calculation 1

CG = Position of center of gravity (m) Total moment = Total weight = Maximum taxi weight (kg) g = gravitation force ( )

When all the data are filled in the formula, a CG of 29,02 meters after the front of the aircraft is calculated. The calculated CG and the other data are drawn in a figure (figure 2.1).

Figuur 2.1 Position of center of gravity

2.1.2.b Mean aerodynamic chord The mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) is the chord of an imaginary airfoil that has all the aerodynamic characteristics of the actual airfoil (figure 2.2) (1). With the MAC it is possible to express the location of the CG to a percentage of the MAC. The MAC has a leading edge (2) and a trailing edge (3) called the LEMAC and TEMAC. The LEMAC is necessary later to calculate the CG in percentage of the MAC.

1. 2. 3.

MAC LEMAC TEMAC

Figure 2.1, Position of CG Figuur 2.2: Location of MAC

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2.1.2.c CG with respect to MAC Another way to express the center of gravity is expressing it in percentage with respect to the mean aerodynamic chord of the aircraft. This can be calculated with formula 5. For the center of gravity the calculated position of paragraph 2.1.2.a can be taken. The LEMAC is 27,483 meters3 aft of the front of the aircraft. The third value necessary is the length of the MAC. The length of the MAC is determined by Boeing and is 7,074 meters4. ( ) Formula 5

CG = Position of center of gravity (m) LEMAC = Position of leading edge of MAC from datum (m) MAC = Mean aerodynamic chord (m) ( )

Out of the calculation follows a percentage of 21,7%. This means that the CG is on 21,7% of the MAC. In meters this means the CG is 1.54 meters aft of the leading edge of the MAC.

2.2 Phases of flight


The landing gear has to be capable to withstand forces in all phases. These phases are; on ground, take-off, cruise, landing and RTO. During these phases different parts of the landing gear are stressed. The forces on these parts have to be calculated to determine the limits. When on ground, there is only a static force, keeping the aircraft up, on the shock struts (2.2.1). The forces on the landing gear during take-off are not too different from the supporting force like in ground phase and thus do not have to be calculated. While in cruise phase the landing gear is retracted and will not be exposed to any force. When landing the aircraft the shock struts will have to absorb all energy of the aircraft in vertical direction and the brakes have to absorb the energy in longitudinal direction (2.2.2). Another stressing phase is a RTO (2.2.3). During RTO the brakes will have to absorb even more energy than during landing, because of the higher speed. 2.2.1 On ground When the aircraft is on ground, the aircraft is supported by the landing gear. All gravitational forces have to be counteracted by an upward force, the normal force of both the nose landing gear and the main landing gear (2.2.1.a). These forces are exerted on the shock struts in the landing gear. Beside these external forces, there are also internal forces (2.2.1.b). These forces are exerted onto the wheels and bogie axels. 2.2.1.a External forces To counteract the gravitational force the landing gears will have to produce a force upwards. This gravitational force of the aircraft is divided over the nose landing gear and main landing gear (figure
3 4

Weight and balance control and loading manual KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Weight and balance control and loading manual KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

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2.2). The gravitational force and distances to the nose landing gear and main landing gear are known, so when the momentum around the main landing gear is calculated the force on the nose landing gear can be determined (calculation 2).

Figure 2.2: Forces on the landing gear

Calculation 2

Fg = Gravitational force (N) MMLG = Momentum around the main landing gear (N) FNLG = Force on the nose landing gear (N) FMLG = Force on the main landing gear (N) r = distance of the force to the point of calculation (m)

With the force of the nose landing gear and the gravitational force known, the only remaining force is the force on the main landing gear, which is calculated by deducting the force of the nose landing gear of the gravitational force (calculation 3). Calculation 3

Vertical force on single MLG : Fg = Gravitational force (N) MMLG = Momentum around the main landing gear (N) FNLG = Force on the nose landing gear (N) FMLG = Force on the main landing gear (N)

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The forces that are calculated in (calculation 4) are forces needed in vertical direction to support the aircraft. However, the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200 ER is at an angle. The nose landing gear is at an estimated angle of 2 and the main landing gear is at an estimated angle of 10. By calculating the force at these angles, matching the needed vertical force, the force on the shock struts is determined during support. Calculation 4

FNLG = Force on the nose landing gear (N) FMLG = Force on the main landing gear (N) FNLG shock strut = Force on the shock strut in the nose landing gear (N) FMLG shock strut = Force on the shock strut in the main landing gear (N)

2.2.2.b Internal forces During parking the aircraft is in rest. Besides the external forces there are also internal forces on the landing gear. A shear stress acts on the bogie axle of the wheels. The shear stress on the main landing gear and also on the nose landing gear can be calculated with the force per wheel and surface area of the bogie axle. The diameter of the axle at main landing gear is 0,163m and at the nose landing gear 0,113m. The area of the axle on main landing gear is 20861mm 2 and on nose landing gear is 10028,749mm2. The force per wheel on main landing gear 1.308.387/6=218.064,5N and on nose landing gear 311.116,8721/2=155.558,436 N. Using formula 6 the shear stress on the main landing gear and nose landing gear is calculated. In this case the shear stress on main landing gear is 10,45Mpa and nose landing gear is 15,51Mpa. Formula 6 ( ) Daxle MLG = 0,163m Daxle NLG = 0,113m A = Axle area (m2 ) D = Axle diameter (m) =Shear stress (PA) V = Force per wheel (N)

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2.2.2 Landing When the aircraft is in landing there are acting different forces on the aircraft. The main gear hits the ground first, and so it will absorb all the vertical forces during touch down (2.2.2.a). When the aircraft is landed, the brakes slow down the speed. Energy is absorbed by the brakes when the aircraft is braking (2.2.2.b). The aircraft must also land when there is a crosswind (2.2.2.c). The landing gear must absorb all of these forces, without breaking. 2.2.2.a Touch down At touch down there are different forces acting at the landing gear (figure 2.3). All the forces on the aircraft can be calculated, this calculation at touch down will be at mean sea level (MSL). The lift that the aircraft has on the wings is positive and there is a negative lift on the horizontal stabilizer. At touch down there is lift dump, the positive and negative lift force will then cancel each other out. The gravitation of the aircraft is the mass of the aircraft times the acceleration of the gravity (formula 7).

Figure 2.3: Forces at touch down

Formula 7 Fz = gravitation (N) m = mass (kg) g = acceleration of the gravity: 9,81 (m/s2) When the formula is know there can be a calculation of how much the gravitation there will be on the landing gear (calculation 5). The maximum landing mass of the Boeing 777-200 ER is 213.188 kg5. Calculation 5

For calculating the normal force must be used the formula of the sum from the vertical forces (formula 8).

Weight and balance control and loading manual KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

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Formula 8 Fy = the sum of the vertical forces (N)

The vertical forces are the normal force, the gravitation and the force of the impact. There is a formula to calculate the force of the impact (formula 9). Formula 9

Fv = force of the impact (N) m = maximum landing mass (kg) v = vertical velocity (m/s)

Almost all the information of this formula is known, the final velocity will be zero because this is the vertical velocity when the aircraft is landed. The initial velocity is the maximum vertical speed, this speed can be calculated when the approach speed and the glide path angle is known. This glide path angle will be the standard angle of 3o. The approach speed is calculated with the landing reference speed (Vref) for flaps 20. The Vref for flaps 20 with a single operative engine and a maximum landing mass is 151 knots6. With the Vref, the maximum vertical speed can be calculated (calculation 6). Calculation 6

The struts capture the impact of the landing. With formula 9 the force of the impact can be calculated (calculation 7). Calculation 7 ( )

The main gear captures the highest forces, thus there will be made a calculation on the struts on the main gear. There are now forces on the side struts, only the main strut must catch the forces. The
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Boeing 777 Quick reference handbook

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force of the impact is negative because the force is going down. When the impact force is known the normal force can be calculated (calculation 8). Calculation 8

( )

The main gear must be strong enough to absorb these forces. When the forces are known that are acting on the main gear at touchdown, the compression of the struts can be calculated (formula 10). Formula 10 ( v= terminal velocity (m/s) (m/s) 2 a = acceleration (m/s ) s = end position of the strut (m) s0 = initial position of the strut (m) All the information is known. The terminal velocity is zero, because this is the vertical speed when the aircraft is landed. The initial velocity is 4,07 m/s. The acceleration is 1,9 G, what is 18,64 m/s2. Now the compression of the strut can be calculated (calculation 9). )

Calculation 9 ( )

The compression of the struts will be 0,444 m. 2.2.2.b Brakes After touchdown the aircraft has to be slowed down by braking where longitudinal kinetic energy is lost and converted to heat. There will be assumed that only the brakes will absorb the kinetic energy, because there will be assumed that the thrust of the engine will rule out the friction force of the braking. The amount of kinetic energy depends on the maximum landing weight and with the speed the aircraft is landing. The situation whereby the kinetic energy will be calculated is the same as in paragraph 2.2.2a. The aircraft is braked by the autobrake on autobrake 3, because in this situation the runway is a or a short runway or the runway is wet or slippery. Autobrake 3 gives a deceleration of 1,829 m/s. The energy that has to be absorbed by the brakes can be calculated (formula 11). Formula 11 T1 = Longitudinal kinetic energy at begin of braking U1-2 = The energy that the brakes has to absorb (MJ) T2 = Longitudinal kinetic energy at end of braking (MJ) 29

The values are known, so the formula can be filled (calculation 10). Calculation 10

The energy is lost during the braking is 643,21 MJ and this is the energy that has to be absorbed by ten of the twelve brakes. In total there are twelve brakes, but the aircraft has a limit braking of ten brakes what means that one brake has to absorb 643,21/10 = 64,32 MJ. Now the energy is known which the brakes has to absorb, the increase in temperature of the brakes can be calculated with a formula (formula 12). For this formula the mass of one brake unit, the specific heat of carbon and the heat that one brake unit has to absorb. For the temperature of a brake unit before braking is negligible, because of the expected huge increase of heat. Formula 12 () (kg) ( ( ) )

The values are known, so the temperature can be calculated (calculation 11). Calculation 11

The temperature rise of one brake will be 897 Kelvin. 2.2.2.c Crosswind landing An unfavorable landing situation is a crosswind landing. This is because at a crosswind landing there will act lateral forces on the landing gear which will not be absorbed by the struts or any other 30

component. Because the energy will not be absorbed it will go straight into the frame of the aircraft. For a crosswind landing there are different techniques to land the aircraft. The most used technique is the crab technique. With the crab technique the wings are kept level in approach and at touchdown. The main landing gear of the aircraft will generate a friction force at touchdown. This friction force will create a momentum around the center of gravity of the aircraft because the perpendicular distance between the forces of the two main landing gears to the center of gravity differs. When assuming the aircraft is landing on a runway with a crosswind from the right, the aircraft will turn its nose slightly to the right of the runway to counteract the crosswind, but still keeping its motion in the direction of the runway. When landing in this position the perpendicular distance between the friction force and the center of gravity of the left landing gear will be larger than the perpendicular distance between the friction force and the right landing gear. Because of this difference the aircraft will generate a momentum around its center of gravity in anti-clockwise direction. This will turn the aircraft in the direction of its motion, aligning with the runway 2.2.3 Rejected take-off A rejected take-off (RTO) happens when the pilot aborts the take-off. A RTO can only be performed if the aircrafts speed is below the take-off decision speed (V1). For larger multi-engine Aircraft this V1 is calculated before every flight. Below the decision speed the aircraft should be able to stop safely before the end of the runway. If a serious failure occurs or is suspected above V1 but the aircrafts ability to fly is not in doubt, the take-off is continued despite the failure and the aircraft will attempt to land again as soon as possible. Before the take-off roll is started, the autobrake system of the aircraft is set to the RTO mode. During an RTO a lot of energy has to be absorbed which will be calculated (2.2.3.a). After that, the temperature of the brakes will be calculated and whether the limit of temperature is exceeded or not (2.2.3.b). 2.2.3.a Energy absorption A free body diagram has been made to show the different aspects involved in the situation (figure 2.4). In this free body diagram the forces F2 (thrust) and F4 (shape drag) cancel each other out so that the only force that attempts to slow and eventually stops the aircraft is the force of the brake. This force will be expressed in energy. To calculate the energy, V1 and the mass are needed. The mass is based on the maximum take-off weight (MTOW), which is 298460 kg. The energy can be calculated by using formula 13. V1 is 157 knots and is equal to 80.768m/s. With this data, the energy can be calculated:

Figure 2.4: Free body diagram RTO

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Formula 13

m = mass of aircraft in kg v = v1 speed of aircraft in m/s U1-2 = Energy in MJ

The minus sign is for the lost energy. The lost energy over all the brakes is 973,497 MJ. Per brake is the energy: 973,497/10= 97,35 MJ. This is based on the minimum number of brakes required as stated in the MEL, 10 brakes are used instead of 12. With the absorbed energy of the brakes known the force created by the brakes can be calculated (calculation 12). First the time that is needed to stop to aircraft has to be calculated. Calculation 12

2.2.3.b Temperature of the brake Now the absorbed energy is known, the heat of the brake can be calculated with formula 14. The energy absorbed by one brake is 97,35 MJ. The mass of the brake is 101 kg7. The specific heat of carbon is 710 J/Kg K. With this data the temperature can be calculated.

This mass of the brake van be found in the weight and balance manual

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Formula 14 = Energy absorption of one brake in J (is equal to = Mass of the brake in kg = Specific heat of carbon in J /Kg K = Rise in Temperature of the brakes in Kelvin =

above)

The temperature rise will be 1357,55 K. The final temperature will become the temperature plus the temperature at the begin of braking which is 303,15 K. Quick reference handbook (QRH) of the Boeing 777 states that the maximum brake energy speed is 194 kts at an outside air temperature of 30C and a pressure altitude of 0 ft (MSL). Since the calculation is done for an RTO using 10 brakes, the QRH mentions that the VMBE must be decreased by 20 knots. Thus, the VMBE used to calculate the maximum heat the brakes can handle will be 174 kts. Using the same equation from formula 14, the result will be that the maximum energy that can be absorbed by one brake is 119,573 MJ. Using this value in the equation of formula 14, a maximum temperature of 1970,15 Kelvin is found, which shows that the speed V1 used for the RTO will not be exceeding the limits because 1660.698 K is less than the maximum heat of 1970,15 Kelvin.

2.3 Materials
High strength steels are normally used for the landing gear of aircraft (2.3.1). Aluminum is a metal used in combination with other materials to make a light, strong material. (2.3.2) Titanium alloys are a good choice for when the material needs to be able to withstand a lot of heat (2.3.3). Magnesium belongs to the steels which are very light and strong at the same time (2.3.4). Carbon is used in some components of the landing gear brakes (2.3.5). 2.3.1 High strength steel The requirements for the materials used for landing gear are high strength against fatigue and deformation. They need to have resistance against corrosion and heat they need to be able to withstand friction when surfaces move against each other. For a large part the landing gear consists of parts which are made of high strength steel. The reason for this is the great strength and stiffness of the material which helps to minimize the amount of steel used in terms of space. Disadvantages are its weight and steel is not elastic. This steel is made out of a combination of multiple materials which is called an alloy. The high strength steel alloy consists of mainly iron and carbon and is strengthened by a heat treatment which further increases its strength 2.3.2 Aluminum The advantage of aluminum is its low weight of 2700 kg/m3 but aluminum by itself is not very strong and it cannot withstand heat. To combine its low weight with more strength aluminum can be alloyed with zinc, copper, magnesium or manganese. Aluminum has an impenetrable oxide-skin which protects against atmospheric corrosion.

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2.3.3 Titanium Titanium is a material of high strength with a density of 4507 kg/m3 and resistance against fatigue and corrosion. In comparison with high strength steel alloys titanium alloys are about half as heavy. And unlike aluminum, titanium is resistant against high temperatures. An advantage, which can be a disadvantage as well, is that titanium has a high melting point. This causes high costs for the production of titanium parts. 2.3.4 Magnesium Magnesium is a very light material with a density of 1740 kg/m3 and is very ductile and strong but has the problem of being vulnerable to corrosion and cannot withstand heat. For this reason it is not used so much by itself anymore. Yet, because of its strength and elasticity, it is used in alloys. 2.3.5 Carbon Carbon is a light weight material of about 2620 kg/m3 and is stable when there is no oxygen. Carbon is can resist temperatures lower than 2204C in vacuum, hence the development of carbon composites. The composites consist of carbon fibers incorporated into a carbon matrix. The advantage of this is that these composites are resistant to temperatures above 2204C. At temperatures above the 510 C it starts to be vulnerable to oxidation without protection. External and internal coatings are two methods for oxidation protection and this will make them composites which are usable for aircraft brakes.

2.4 Conclusion
In this chapter a mechanical analysis of the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200 ER is created and there are limits announced that the aircraft flies. There are calculations made about forces during several movements, like parking, RTO and landing, and there are some materials described. The purpose of this chapter was to calculate the loads during critical situations. Out of these analysis can be concluded that the external forces are increased during RTO and landing compared with parking situation. The force that the main strut must catch is increased with 11,57 percent during landing compared with parking situation. Also during RTO and crosswind landing is observed that the kinetic energy and the temperature in the brakes are increased. The energy absorbed by all the brakes is 974,5 MJ during RTO and 643,21 MJ during landing. The temperature of the brakes will be 1170,15 Kelvin during landing and 1660.698 Kelvin during RTO. The materials used on the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200 ER are carefully chosen based on advantages and disadvantages. Keeping the advantages and disadvantages in mind high strength steel, aluminum, titanium, magnesium and carbon are the materials that are used in the landing gear. After calculating all situations accurately the landing has proven to be the situation which causes the most stress on the landing gear. With this information, the finding in the last chapter can be analyzed.

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3. Operation analysis
Although the landing gear of the B777-200ER has been designed by the regulations of EASA still some failures can occur (3.1). Sometimes the aircraft can still keep flying, despite the failure. Whether it is allowed to continue flying with a failure can be found in the MEL (3.2). Finally the main question can be answered (3.3).

3.1 Finding
The finding that has been chosen got a cause (3.1.1). The cause of the chosen finding is an overweight hard landing. This overweight hard landing will have its consequences (3.1.2). Some critical components of the landing gear could have failed. These components will have to be looked at. Also the aircraft is checked regularly to make sure problems will be found at an early stage (3.1.3). 3.1.1 Cause When there has been a miscalculation of the amount of fuel required to get to the destination. Or when an extra stop is required, because of a defect to the aircraft that requires the pilot to land immediately. An overweight landing may be made. An overweight landing is when the aircraft lands with a weight that is exceeding its MLM. An overweight combined with a hard landing, because of bad weather, could result in some serious problems. Struts could be overstressed when landing, brakes could overheat when slowing down on the runway and tires might fail because of the hard touchdown. An overweight of 5% seems like a reasonable amount of overweight. If the aircraft would have more overweight the pilots might consider using the fuel dump instead of taking the risks of landing with overweight. Further calculations will apply an overweight of 5%. The weight of the aircraft with the 5% overweight can be calculated (calculation 12) Calculation 12

ow% = Percentage of overweight (%) MLM = Maximum landing mass (kg)

With the mass of the aircraft known the force that is absorbed by the shock struts during touchdown can be calculated (calculation 13). Calculation 13

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The extra weight of the aircraft will also increase the amount of energy the aircraft has when landing in longitudinal direction. The brakes will absorb this kinetic energy of the aircraft (calculation 14). Calculation 14

580,212 MJ is the total amount of energy that is absorbed by the brakes. With 10 active brakes the energy absorbed by each brake would be 58,021 MJ. The absorbed energy will result in a rise of the temperature of the brakes. This temperature rise of the brakes can be calculated (calculation 15). Calculation 15

() (kg) ( ( ) )

This rise of temperature should be handled very well by the brakes, since the brakes are designed to handle a RTO at MTOM. At an RTO with MTOM the brakes would rise 1660.698 K in temperature. After the overweight and hard landing the brakes would only need to be cooled. 3.1.2 Consequences After the overweight landing the accidence computer in the cockpit shows this landing is a hard landing. In this case the phase I, option B inspection must be done. This is applicable when the landing is an overweight landing and also a hard landing. For a hard landing is overweight the peak recorded vertical acceleration exceeds G-level thresholds. This is approximately more than 1,9G. During this phase different parts of the aircraft are examined (appendix XXII). During inspection is observed that some parts of the landing gear like shock strut and tires of the main landing gear are damaged. There was not a misalignment with the brakes. The brakes are not a problem for an overweight landing because the brakes are sized to handle a rejected takeoff at maximum takeoff 36

weight. Also thrust reversers are used to prevent brake damages during overweight landing. In this case the brakes must be only cooled. When the damage is found in the phase I, the phase II (appendix XXIII) inspections must be done that is described in Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM). In the phase II is noticed that oil volume in the strut is low. This happens that too much stress is on the shock strut during overweight landing and therefore the oil springs out of the strut. Because the oil is uncompressible the oil will press against the air cylinder and absorb the kinetic energy of the landing. When the oil volume is low this would affect the ability to absorb the kinetic energy. To solve this, the inspections must be done that described in the AMM 12-15-01 (appendix XXIV). Due to the overweight landing also the tires of the main and the nose landing gear are damaged. There are several ways that the tires can be damaged. One of the moments that too high wear is on tires. In the case of an overweight landing and accompanied with a hard landing the tires can rupture and possibly explode because of the high wear. To solve this, inspections must be done that mentioned in the AMM 32-45-01 (appendix XXV). During the overweight landing there occurs a vertical impact between the landing gear and fuselage. This impact can be calculated using formula 9. The approach speed of the aircraft by flap 200 is determined. This equals to 151 kts. This landing angle will be the standard glide patch angle of 30. The mass of the aircraft is 223.847,4 kg, because this is an overweight landing. The impact (Fv) is calculated and is 911,059kN. During overweight landing the shock strut compressed more than normal situations due to too much stress on the main landing gear. The end position of the strut during overweight landing can be calculated (formula 15). Formula 15 ( v = terminal velocity (m/s) v0 = initial velocity (m/s) a = acceleration (m/s2) S = end position of the strut (m) S0 = initial position of the strut (m) Almost all the information of this formula is known, the terminal velocity will be zero because this is the velocity when the aircraft is landed. The initial velocity is the maximum vertical speed, this speed is calculates and equals to 4,07 m/s. This is the velocity in landing with two engines. And the acceleration is 1,9G by overweight landing. This is approximately 18,64 m/s2 (calculation 16). Calculation 16 ( ) )

3.1.3 Maintenance Maintenance is an important aspect that ensures the safety of the aircraft, it also extends the durability. The maintenance of the landing gear is essential because the landing gear is a reliable system. If the landing gear will not extend or a wheel is blocked accidents can take place. The maintenance divides into four checks: A, B, C and D-checks. Besides these checks there are checks that take place daily: 1. Daily check 37

2. 3. 4. 5.

A-check B-check C-check D-check

Ad 1. Daily check Some parts of the landing gear go through several inspections before each flight. Other parts of the landing gear are checked every 48 hours. Daily check does not include pre-flight inspection and should normally be accomplished before the first flight of the day. The following parts of the landing gear are checked during daily check: Inspect NLG/MLG wheels for damage Check NLG/MLG tire pressure with TPIS Check brakes for damage, wear and leakage Check tires for damage Ad 2. A-check A check is performed every 500-800 flight hours and done usually done overnight at the platform of an airport. The following parts of the landing gear are checked during A-check: All inspections that are done during daily checks Visual check of the brakes pins Cleaning of the shock strut surface and visual inspection of the shock strut Ad 3. B-check B-check is performed every 3-6 months. It is done usually in a hangar. The following items of the landing gear are checked during landing: Visual inspection of all landing gear assemblies Lubrication of the landing gear assemblies All A-check inspection Ad 4. C-check C-check is performed every 15-21 months or when the determined number of the flight hours reached. It is done usually in a hangar and takes time of one to two weeks. During this check the aircraft is out of the service. The following parts of the landing gear are checked during the C-check: Service the shock struts Check all the landing gear extension and retraction system Inspection the oil pipes of all the landing gear All B-check inspection Ad 5. D-check The most intensive and complex check is the D-check. This is also known heavy maintenance check and performed every five to six years. During this check the entire aircraft is taken apart and every component examined, repaired and replaced. During this check the following items of the landing gear are checked: Check all components of the landing gear like wires, pulley Check all landing gear assemblies Discard all landing gear life time limited parts and replaced these Check and inspect all C-check items After an overweight and hard landing there must be done inspection of the landing gear if there are indications that structural parts are damaged. In this case the following checks must be done for the landing gear: 38

Examine landing gear mounting clamps for defects Check clamp bolts of the landing gear for cracks Examine wheel track and wheel base Remove and check the fairings for delaminating, deformations and cracks Check the tires for the cuts Check brake discs for impacts

3.2 Minimum equipment list


The minimum equipment list (MEL) gives information about the airworthiness of the aircraft when a finding occurs. It is used to decide if an aircraft can be used for flights or the aircraft has to stay on the ground to repair the inoperative item. All MEL items have a time interval in which the items have to be repaired. The time intervals are categorized A, B, C and D. An A category item has to be repaired in time interval specified in the provisos of the item. A B category item has to be repaired within three consecutive calendar days. A C category item has to be repaired within ten consecutive calendar days and a D category item has to be repaired within 120 consecutive calendar days. The MEL has a standard lay-out (figure 3.1). At the left side of the table the relevant item can be found (1). In the column next to the item the time repair interval can be found (2). In the next column are the number of installed items listed (3). In the next column the number of items required for dispatch is shown (4). In the last column are remarks or exceptions described (5). In this last column the symbols M, O and T. The M symbol indicates a requirement for a specific maintenance procedure. These procedures are the responsibility of Part M. The symbol O indicates a requirement for a specific operation procedure. The T symbol a technical deficiency report (telex) is supplied. This is supplied when a aircraft is dispatched with a technical deficiency affecting ground handling or flight planning. The T symbol can be given by an aircraft maintenance technician.

Figure 3.1 Lay-out of the MEL

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Item Repair interval time Number of items installed Number of items required for dispatch Remarks or exceptions

When an overweight landing is made, a few findings can occur. By example, the brakes can become overheated, if this happens the brakes have to be cooled before it can be used again. An overweight landing could overstress the shock struts, what can cause the nitrogen and oil to release out of the strut. When this happen the force acting on the strut is passed to the sheer pins which the landing 39

gear is mounted to the fuselage. The strut has to be filled up again with nitrogen and oil and there has to be done an inspection to find out if other damage has been caused by the overweight landing to other parts like the sheer pins. When damage is found, there has to be decided if the damage has to be fixed or the aircraft is still airworthy. Another finding that can occur at an overweight landing is a blowout of a tire. In this case the tire must be replaced for a new tire before the aircraft is allowed to operate again.

3.3 Conclusion
The landing gear provides support for the aircraft during take-off and landing and consists of a nose gear and two main gears. The nose landing gear is used for maneuvering the aircraft. The main landing gear provides shock absorption during touchdown and needs to carry 191.869 kg which is about 90% of the total maximum landing weight of the aircraft. Shock absorption is done using a shock strut and the force acting on each shock strut normally is about 1479,5kN. Each main landing gear consists of a six-wheel truck and each wheel has its own brake. During landing, the brakes reach an individual temperature of 1212,96 Kelvin. An anti-skid system is used to prevent the wheels from skidding. The complete landing gear is retractable, which enables a better aerodynamic flow over the fuselage. In case of an overweight landing and the landing gear is extended there can occur failures. There is an overweight landing when the weight of the aircraft exceeds the maximum landing weight of 213.188 kg. The maximum landing weight is the limit for the aircraft. When this is exceeded the landing gear may not be able to absorb the energy without deforming. The landing gear must undergo maintenance after this kind of landing. Phase I, option B inspection must be done. The landing gear will then be inspected for damage, when there is damage found there must be done a second check, phase II. After these checks there can be concluded that the landing gear needs some replacements and repairs or that the aircraft could make another safe flight without having repairs. The MEL sets out what should happen to make the aircraft airworthy again after a failure occurs at the aircraft. With an overweight landing the shock struts can be overstressed. This must be repaired before the aircraft is allowed to go into flight again and the strut must be refilled. Also, if an overweight landing causes a tire to have damage in such a way that it needs replacement, then tire must be replaced before the aircraft may operate again. EASA has set requirements, the aircraft must comply with these requirements to make the risk of a failure be as small as possible. During this project the team kept one question in mind: The management of ALA requests a technical analysis of the landing gear of a Boeing 777-200, the management wants to know: what failure can occur in the landing gear of the Boeing 777-200, what is the reason for this finding, what happens because of this failure and how can the failure be prevented? The question can be answered now: In some cases where a flight needs to be cancelled while it is already in the air, an overweight landing may happen and this could cause a hard landing. This overweight landing occurs when the weight of the aircraft is more than the maximum landing weight. In such a situation the landing gear could deform and take damage. This failure is a result of another problem, where during flight there must be chosen for either an immediate landing, or a dump fuel to decrease the weight. With the latter option, the environment below the aircraft must allow a fuel dump since it will fall down. It seems overweight landings will then still be used in some situations, which means the material which need to absorb the energy may need to be strengthened even more so that the maximum landing weight will be increased. But this should only be done when the frequency of an overweight landing increases in such a way that the costs for repairs become higher than the costs for increasing the weight of the aircraft. Since that is not the case at the moment, the system would remain the same as it is now. 40

Bibliography
Books and manuals: Air France Industries Boeing 777 Aircraft Maintenance Manual Paris, October 2010 Continental Airlines Boeing 777 Training Manual Airplane General EASA Boeing 777 Type Certificate Data Sheet Issue 8.0 Seattle, February 2010 Jelle Hieminga, Simon IJspeert, Pieter van Langen Projectboek periode 5 : Landing Gear Amsterdam, Augustus 2011 Hogeschool van Amsterdam KLM - Royal Duth Airlines Boeing 777 Flight crew operations manual Volume II Amstelveen, 2010 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Boeing 777 Minimun Equipment List Revision number: 8a Amstelveen, February 2011 KLM - Roal Dutch Airlines Boeing 777-200ER Weight and balance control and loading manual Washington, June 2005 Norman S. Currey Aircraft Landing Gear Design : Principles and Practices 1st Edition Marrieta, Georgia, 1998 Norris, G., Wangner, M. Boeing Jetliners 1st Edition Osceola, WI, 1996 The Boeing Company Boeing 777-200/300 Airplane characteristics for airport planning Seattle, July 1998 The Boeing Company Boeing 777 Flight Crew Operating Manual Revision number: 46 Chicago, June 2010 41

The Boeing Company Boeing 777 Flight Crew Training Manual Revision number: 8 Seattle, June 2010 The Boeing Company Boeing 777 Flight Planning and Performance manual Revision number : 8 Seattle, Washington, December 2006 Sites: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/faqs/arcandapproachspeeds.pdf Datum site : 03-01-2011 Geraadpleegd op 28-09-2011 http://www.smartcockpit.com/data/pdfs/plane/boeing/B777/systems/B777-Landing_Gear.pdf Datum site : onbekend Geraadpleegd op 01-09-2011 http://www.boeing.com/commercial/777family/pf/pf_200product.html Datum site : onbekend Geraadpleegd: 26-09-2011

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