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ASCEManualandReportsofEngineering

Practice111
Practice111

ReliabilityBasedDesignof
UtilityPoleStructures
Birmingham,Alabama
October15,2006
ShortCourseCoordinatedby:
Dr.H.J.Dagher
Dagher,P.E.
hd@umit.maine.edu
hd@umit.maine.edu

OrderfromASCEwebsite:
https://
https://www.asce.org/bookstore/book.cfm?book
www.asce.org/bookstore/book.cfm?book=6366
=6366

10/15/06

ASCEManual111Workshop

SessionOutline
u
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1:00Overviewofcourse
1:05 UtilityPerspective
1:15NESCHistory
1:35RBDMethodology

(Dr.H.Dagher
Dagher,P.E.,5minutes)
(MikeVoda
Voda,P.E.,10minutes)
(NelsonBingel
Bingel,P.E.,20minutes)
(Dr.H.Dagher
Dagher,P.E.35minutes)

2:10Break(15minutes)
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2:25ReliabilityCalibration (MichaelVoda
Voda,P.E.,25minutes)
2:45Loads
(Dr.JerryWong,P.E.20minutes)
3:05NominalResistance (Dr.H.Dagher
Dagher,P.E.,25minutes)

3:35Breakrefreshmentsserved
u
u

3:50DesignExamples

(15minutes)

(RonRandle,P.E.,70minutes)

5:00adjourn
Earnsatotalof3.5
PDH'sASCEManual111Workshop
Pleasesignformonceinbackofroom!
Pleasesignformonceinbackofroom!
10/15/06

ThankYouCommitteeMembers!
u
u Dr.JerryWong

FPL
u
Hydro1
u MagdiIshac
u
IUSI
u BrianLacoursiere
u
AISI
u CamilleRubeiz
u
u Dr.JamesDavidson Shakespeare
u
Newmark
u WesOliphant
u
DukeEnergy
u DavidWest
u
HMRollins
u MartinRollins
u
ElectricalConsultants
u GaryBowles
u
OutsideCons.
u LarrySlavin
u
BCHydro
u AlecZoltoochin
BCHydro
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TheUtilityPerspective
TheUtilityPerspective
presentedby
presentedby

MichaelVoda,P.E. PrincipalCivilEngineer
SaltRiverProject
SaltRiverProject

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TheUtilityPerspective
RBD?
Wedon
Wedontneedno
stink
stinknRBD!
RBD!

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TheUtilityPerspective
TheUtilityPerspective
u
u

TheNESChasbeeninusedfordesign
foranumberofyears

Thiscodeisnotintendedasadesign
specificationorasaninstruction
manual.
manual.
u
u

ButItworks

u
u

Whydoweneedsomethingnew?

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Challenge#1
NESCLoadsOldMethod
OldMethod::

DifferentLoadDependingOnPoleMaterial
DifferentLoadDependingOnPoleMaterial

Economicalengineeredalternativestowood
areavailable.
areavailable.
Differentfactoredloadsdependingon
materialofpole.
ofpole.
Doactualwindandiceloadsvaryifthepole
materialisdifferent?
materialisdifferent?

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Challenge#2
NESCStrength:
NESCStrength: DefinedDifferentlyDepending

OnPoleMaterial
OnPoleMaterial

Naturalwoodpolesuse
Naturalwoodpolesusemeanstrength
meanstrength

Engineeredmaterialsuse
Engineeredmaterialsuseminimum

strength
strength

Whatisthe
Whatistherelativemeasure
relativemeasureofstrengthto
insureequivalentreliabilityacrossmaterials?
insureequivalentreliabilityacrossmaterials?

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Challenge#3
LoadingOnDistributionPoles:
Poles:

Historically,designcontrolledbyclearances
Historically,designcontrolledbyclearances

notloads.
notloads.

PolesareloadinguptoNESClimitswith
communications
communicationshowisreliabilityimpacted?
howisreliabilityimpacted?
NESCLoadDistricts:Loadboundariesfollow
follow
political
politicalboundaries>>
boundaries>>

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WeatherRelatedLoads

u
u

Dotheydifferacross
Dotheydifferacrosspolitical
politicalboundaries???
boundaries???

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Needs
u
u

u
u

LoadDefinition
Amethodofdefininglineloadingthatisindependentof
thematerialusedforthesupportingstructure.
Weatherloadsthatreflectactualmeasuredeventsto
insureconsistentstructuralreliabilityacrossthe
country.
NominalPoleStrength
Aconsistentmethodforcomparingrelativestrengthsof
polesmadeofdifferingmaterials.
Amethodthatwillresultinsimilarstructuralreliability
acrossthevariousmaterials
acrossthevariousmaterials
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12

Next:
Next:

NESC
AHistoricalPerspective
presentedby

NelsonBingelVP
VPEngineering
OsmoseUtilitiesServices
OsmoseUtilitiesServices

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13

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14

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15

NationalElectricalSafetyCode
NationalElectricalSafetyCode

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NationalElectricalSafetyCode
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
Section1.
Introductiontothe
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
010.Purpose
Thepurposeoftheserulesisthepracticalsafeguardingofpersons
duringtheinstallation,operation,ormaintenanceofelectricsupply
andcommunicationlinesandassociatedequipment.
Theserulescontainthebasicprovisionsthatareconsidered
necessaryforthesafetyofemployeesandthepublicunderthe
specifiedconditions.Thiscodeisnotintendedasadesign
specificationorasaninstructionmanual.
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NationalElectricalSafetyCode
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
Section1.
Introductiontothe
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
010.Purpose
Thepurposeoftheserulesisthepracticalsafeguardingofpersons
duringtheinstallation,operation,ormaintenanceofelectricsupply
andcommunicationlinesandassociatedequipment.
Theserulescontainthebasicprovisionsthatareconsidered
necessaryforthesafetyofemployeesandthepublicunderthe
specifiedconditions.Thiscodeisnotintendedasadesign
specificationorasaninstructionmanual.
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NationalElectricalSafetyCode
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
Section1.
Introductiontothe
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
010.Purpose
Thepurposeoftheserulesisthepracticalsafeguardingofpersons
duringtheinstallation,operation,ormaintenanceofelectricsupply
andcommunicationlinesandassociatedequipment.
Theserulescontainthebasicprovisionsthatareconsidered
necessaryforthesafetyofemployeesandthepublicunderthe
specifiedconditions.Thiscodeisnotintendedasadesign
specificationorasaninstructionmanual.
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19

NationalElectricalSafetyCode
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
Section1.
Introductiontothe
NationalElectricalSafetyCode
010.Purpose
Thepurposeoftheserulesisthepracticalsafeguardingofpersons
duringtheinstallation,operation,ormaintenanceofelectricsupply
andcommunicationlinesandassociatedequipment.
Theserulescontainthebasicprovisionsthatareconsidered
necessaryforthesafetyofemployeesandthepublicunderthe
specifiedconditions.Thiscodeisnotintendedasadesign
specificationorasaninstructionmanual.
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NationalElectricalSafetyCode
NationalElectricalSafetyCode

safetyofemployeesandthepublic
underthespecifiedconditions.

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NESCEditions
u
u 1914

FirstEdition

u
u 1916+

2nd Edition,3rd Edition

u
u 1926

4th Edition

u
u 1948

5th Edition

u
u 1962

6th Edition

u
u 1977,1980,1984
u
u 1987,1990,1993,1997,2002
1987,1990,1993,1997,2002
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NESCLoads,LF&SF
WoodLF
Editon

SteelLF

WoodSF
B

SteelSF
B

4th

8psf 8psf 12psf

5th

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.54

2.2

0.25

0.5

1977

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.5

2.2

1987

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.5

1.75

2.5

2.2

0.65

0.85

2002

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.5

1.75

2.5

1.75

0.65

0.85

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0.439 0.658 0.788 0.909

23

TRANSVERSE

LO

NG

IN
T

UD

IN

AL

V
E
R
T
I
C
A
L

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ANSI O5.1
2ft

Lc
Applied
BendingLoad=Lc x D(ft
D(ftlb)
lb)

D
Class14,500lb
Class23,700lb
Class33,000lb
Class42,400lb
Class51,900lb
Class51,900lb
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ANSI O5.1
Lc

k x

BendingCapacity=
fiberstrength x C3 (ft
(ftlb)

Tension(psi)
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Compression(psi)
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FiberStrength
26

ANSIO5.1
Lcc

Bending =
Capacity
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k x fiberstrength x C3 (ft
(ftlb)
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DeterministicLoads
NESC
RADIALICEONCONDUCTOR
Light MediumHeavy

HEAVY

Ice
(radialthickness)

0" .25" .5"

MEDIUM

LIGHT
lb

Wind 9lb 4

4lb

(persq.ft.)

HAWAIILIGHT
ALASKAHEAVY
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28

DeterministicLoads
NESC
Light Medium
Heavy
HEAVY

Ice
(radialthickness)

0" .25" .5"

MEDIUM

LIGHT

Wind 9lb 4lb 4lb


(persq.ft.)

HAWAIILIGHT
ALASKAHEAVY
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29
29

DeterministicLoads
NESC
Light Medium
Heavy
HEAVY

Ice
(radialthickness)

0" .25" .5"

MEDIUM

LIGHT

Wind 9lb 4lb 4lb


(persq.ft.)

HAWAIILIGHT
ALASKAHEAVY
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30

WorkingLoad
WorkingLoad
4 lb.
Transverse
Wind

.25
ICE

Medium Loading District

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31

Durability
Gradeof
Construction
NESC

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GRADEB
ANSIO5.1

NESC

900 lb
Working Load

Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5

x4
=3600lb

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4500 lb
3700 lb
3000 lb
2400 lb
1900 lb

33
33

GRADEC
ANSIO5.1

NESC

900 lb
Working Load

Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5

x2
=1800lb

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4500 lb
3700 lb
3000 lb
2400 lb
1900 lb

34
34

NESCLoads,LF&SF
WoodLF
Editon

SteelLF

WoodSF
B

SteelSF
B

4th

8psf 8psf 12psf

5th

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.54

2.2

0.25

0.5

1977

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.5

2.2

1987

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.5

1.75

2.5

2.2

0.65

0.85

2002

4psf 4psf

9psf

2.5

1.75

2.5

1.75

0.65

0.85

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0.439 0.658 0.788 0.909

35

LRFD
LRFD
Load Resistance Factored Design
Load * Factor < Resistance * Factor
(Strength)

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36

Standardvs.Alternate
OverloadFactors
OverloadFactors
OverloadStrength
Factor
Factor

WoodB
WoodC

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2.50
1.75

.65
.85

Alternate
Method

= 3.85
= 2.06

ASCEManual111Workshop

4.0
2.0

37
37

GRADEB
900 lb
Working Load

Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5

x4
=3600lb

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4500 lb
3700 lb
3000 lb
2400 lb
1900 lb

38
38

LRFD
LRFD
Load Resistance Factored Design
Load * Factor < Resistance * Factor
(Strength)

900 lb * 2.5
2250 lb
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<

3700 lb

<
ASCEManual111Workshop

* .65

2405 lb
39
39

LRFD
LRFD
Load Resistance Factored Design
Load * Factor < Resistance * Factor
(Strength)

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40

LRFD
Reliability
ReliabilityBased

Load Resistance Factored Design


Load * Factor < Resistance * Factor
(Strength)

LoadRP <5%LEL
LEL
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41

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42

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43

Next:
Next:

RBDMethodology
RBDMethodology
presentedby
presentedby

Dr.H.J.Dagher,P.E.
Director,AdvancedStructuresand
CompositesLaboratory
UniversityofMaine

ObjectiveofTalk
Describeworkof
ASCE/SEICommitteeonPoleRBD
ASCE/SEICommitteeonPoleRBD

Oct00
Oct00present
present

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CommitteeCharter
Write:
ASCE/SEIManualofEngineeringPractice:
StructuralReliabilityBasedDesign
ofUtilityPoles
Goal:
Goal:
Achieverelativelyconsistentstructural
reliabilitiesacrossmaterials&locations
reliabilitiesacrossmaterials&locations
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18ActiveCommitteeMembers
Producers(wood,steel,concrete,FRP)
u
u Universityfaculty
u
u Utilityengineers
u
u 8meetings
2
23dayseach
over1.5yrs
over1.5yrs
Regularconferencecalls
Regularconferencecalls
u
u

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OfficialCommitteeRoster(27)
Aichinger,Richard
Bingel,Nelson
Bowles,Gary
Brewer,WilliamA.
Costa,Richard
Dagher,Habib
Davidson,James
Slavin,Larry
Fouad,Fouad
Garcia,MichaelC.
Goodwin,Tip
Gromala,David
Ishac,Magdi
10/15/06

ValmontIndustries
Osmose,Inc.
ElectricalConsultants
RochesterGasand
ElectricCo.
NationalGrid
UMaine
Shakespeare
OCS
UofAlabamaBirm.
TampaElectricCo.
Entergy
Weyerhaeuser
Hydro1NetworksInc.

Lacoursiere,Brian
Martirossian,Robert
Moritz,Terence
Oliphant,Wes
Randle,Ron
Rollins,Martin
Rubeiz,Camile
Snyder,Dan
Vandergriend,Larry
Voda,Michael
West,David
Wolfe,Ron
Wong,Jerry
Zolotoochin,Alec

ASCEManual111Workshop

IUSI
PEPCO

ArizonaPublicServiceCo.
NewmarkInternational,Inc.

EDM
H.M.Rollins
AISI
AISI
HughesBrothers
SaltRiverProject
DukeEnergy
ForestProductsLab
FloridaPower&Light
BCHydro
48

Outline
1. WhywastheRBDCommitteeformed?
2. WhatisRBD?
3. Areallstrengthguidescreatedequal?
4. Whatistheprobabilityoffailureofa
poleandwhyshouldwecare?
5. Whatisreliabilitycalibration?
6. OutlineofPoleRBDManual
7. WhatwillRBDdofortheindustry?
WhatwillRBDdofortheindustry?

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1.WhywastheASCERBD
CommitteeFormed?
u
u

Poleindustrycontroversies

u
u

NESCfactorsnotreliability
NESCfactorsnotreliabilitybased

u
u

Strengthguidesinconsistent

u
u

Newmaterialscannotbeincluded

u
u

Howmuchfat
fatisthereintoday
isthereintodays
designs?

u
u

Howreliablearetoday
Howreliablearetodaysdesigns?

u
u

ASCE/SEItoprovideguidance
ASCE/SEItoprovideguidance

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97
97,02&07NESCLoad&StrengthFactors

WindRule250BDistrictloadingNotcrossing
Notcrossing
GradeCLFforsteelreducedin2002
GradeCLFforsteelreducedin2002
Steel
GRADE
GRADE LF

Wood

SF

LF/SF LF

SF

LF/SF

0.65 3.85

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.2
1.75

2.2
1.75
88%
70%

1.75 0.85 2.06

C/B
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53%
51

2.WhatisReliability
2.WhatisReliabilityBased
Design(RBD)?
Eachpolehasaprobabilityoffailure
u
u RBDgivesconsistenttargetreliability
u
u Usesmultiplepartialsafetyfactorsrather
thanone
u
u Partialsafetyfactorsdependonloadand
strengthstatistics&targetreliability
strengthstatistics&targetreliability
u
u

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LRFDversus
Reliability
ReliabilityBasedLRFD?
u
u

LLoadandR
ResistanceFFactorD
Design
R5 >QRP
RP
f Rn >
>S gi Qi
0.9Mn >1.2MDL+1.6MLL

fsand
sandgsjudgementbased,soft
sjudgementbased,soft
calibrated,orreliability
calibrated,orreliabilitybased
based

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IsitHardertoDesignwithRBD?
u
u

No,youwon
No,youwontneedaPh.D.instatistics!

u
u

Everydaydesigneffortwillbethesame

u
u

Wehavedoneallthehardwork:
TheASCEManualwillprovideloadand
strengthfactors
strengthfactors

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WillRBDRequireMore
ExpensivePoles?
u
u

No,ontheaverage,designswillbe
equivalenttoNESCgradesBandC
equivalenttoNESCgradesBandC

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3.AreallStrengthGuidesCreated
Equal?
Equal?
Manual72forsteelpoles
PCIguideforP/Cpoles
ANSI05.1forwoodpoles

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Strength
u
u

Experiment:Test100identicalpoles
tofailure(cantilevertest)
Mean=averagestrength
STD=standarddeviation
COV

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=standarddeviation/mean
IfSTD=20mean=100
COV=20/100=0.2
IfSTD=40mean=200
COV=40/200=0.2
COV=40/200=0.2
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NominalStrengthRn
u
u

Predictedstrengthusingacode
procedure:
Manual72forsteelpoles
PCIguideforP/Cpoles
ANSI05.1forwoodpoles
ANSI05.1forwoodpoles

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LowerExclusionLimit(LEL)
1.645STD

Strength
Mean
Mean

5%LEL=5thweakestin100identicalpoles
IfthepoleCOV=20%,then
5%LEL=m1.645(0.2m)
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=0.67m

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NominalStrength
inCurrentDesignGuides?
1.645mV
1.645mV

Strength
Strength

1%LEL
Manual
72?
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Mean
5%LEL
Manual
ANSI
72?
05.1?
FRP?
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WhereistheNominalStrength
inANSI05.1?

Strength

33%LEL
=0.92xMean
SP<50
SP<50
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71%LEL
=1.2xMean
SP>50
SP>50
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82%LEL
=1.13xMean
DF>50
DF>50
61

ASCEManualRecommendation:
AllStrengthValuesat5%LEL
1.645mV

Strength

5%LEL

5%LEL

5%LEL

PCIP/C
PCIP/C

Manual
72

ANSI05.1

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StrengthFactor
StrengthFactor f
Manual111LRFDEq
Eq.2.1
.2.1aa

QRP

f Rn >Effectof[1.1DL+
>Effectof[1.1DL+ g Q50 ]

5%LEL

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Load
factor

50yearRP 50yearRP
Ice+wind
wind

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Strengthfactor
Strengthfactorf
COVR

Nominal
Strength
Exclusion
limit,e(%)

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1
0.1
1
2
5
10
10
20
20
50
50

1.01
0.97
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.90
0.87

1.16
1.07
1.04
1.00
0.96
0.92
0.85

1.44
1.23
1.17
1.08
1.00
0.92
0.78

1.71
1.37
1.26
1.12
1.01
.89
.69

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Example
ConvertWoodPoleStrengthto5%LEL
6,250/8,661=0.80

Strength

ASCEPoleRBD
Manual
Rn =6,250psi
LEL=5%

ANSI05.1
SPPole<50ft
Rn =8,000psi
LEL=32.6%
LEL=32.6%

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ANSI05.1AnnexC,
SPPole<50ft
Mean=8,661psi
COV=0.17
65

4.WhatisProbabilityofFailure?
LoadQ

Difficultto
predict
accurately!
Usebeta b
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Mean

StrengthR

Mean

Regionwhere
Load>Strength
fRQ[r,q]drdq
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WhatLoadsareIncludedina
ReliabilityAnalysis?
Fourloadcategories:
u
u CategoryI
CategoryI: Loadproducedbyclimaticphenomena
ice,wind,temperature,combinations
u
u CategoryII:Loadproducedbynatural/accidental

eventsthatcannotbedescribedstatistically
defects,wear,landslides,sabotage,etc.
u
u CategoryIII: Loadsproducedfromconstructionand
maintenanceapplications
u
u CategoryIV: LegislatedLoads
LegislatedLoads
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Challenges
InEstimatingFailureProbability
u
u

u
u

PoleStrengthPDF
LackoftestdataFRP,P/C
NostandardnominalstrengthequationsforFRPPoles
InterpretationsofANSI05.1?
LoadsPDF
50
50yearWindonIceLoads?
Uncertaintyinwindprofiles<60ft?
60ftexemption(
60ftexemption(ifhighestpartofpoleisbelow60ft,

donotdesignforwindonwires

u
u

Transferfunctionsfromwindspeedtoforce
Shapefactor(dragcoefficient)
Gustresponsefactors
Velocitypressurecoefficient
Velocitypressurecoefficient

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ConventionalReliabilityIndex
ConventionalReliabilityIndexb
b
LoadQ

StrengthR

mQ

b=
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mR

mR mQ
(sR2 +sQ2)0.5

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5.ReliabilityCalibration?
u
u

u
u

Establishminimumtargetpolereliability:
Howreliablehavedesignsbeenoverthe
past50yearsthatmeetonlyminimum
NESCrequirements?
Developloadfactorstoachievethis
minimumreliability
minimumreliability

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40ftGradeBSPNESC
NESC77

AnnualProb.Failr.
ExtremeW ind

0.0397 to0.0493
0.0299 to0.0397
0.0201 to0.0299
0.0103 to0.0201
0.0005 to0.0103
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(1)
(1)
(1)
(3)
(29)

40ftGradeCSPNESC
NESC77

AnnualProb.offailure
ExtremeWind
0.09086 to 0.23112 (12)
0.05722 to 0.09086 (1)
0.05512 to 0.05722 (1)
0.0432 to 0.05512 (1)
0.02687 to 0.0432
(2)
0.02044 to 0.02687 (2)
0.0201 to 0.02044 (1)
0.0196 to 0.0201 (15)

10/15/06

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72

HowWereCalibration
ResultsUsed?
u
u

Selectingtargetbetas

u
u

GradeB,GradeC

Whathavewelearnedfromthereliability
calibrations?

Doesreliabilitychangegeographically?

HowreliableisGradeBversusC?

Whatdoesthe60ftexemptionreallydo?
Whatdoesthe60ftexemptionreallydo?

10/15/06

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73

LoadFactor
LoadFactorg
f Rn >Effectof[1.1DL+
>Effectof[1.1DL+g Q50]]
Factor g forASCE74Loads
Grade

ExtremeWind
WindForce:1.0

WindForce:0.5*

Ice+Wind
WindForce:1.0
IceThickness:1.0
WindForce:1.0
IceThickness:0.5

* Ifanyportionofthestructureoritssupportedfacilitiesexceeds60ft,Use1
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6.OutlineofManual111
1.Introduction
2.RBDFormat: LRFDequations,loadand
strengthfactorstoachieverelatively
consistentreliabilitiesacrossmaterials
3.Loads:ASCE7,Manual74
4.Strength: 3methodstoobtainpole
strengthstatistics
Appendices: A
ADesignexamples
B
BExamplestoobtainR
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75

7.WhatwillRBDdoforthe
Industry?
Industry?

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76

BenefitsofRBD
1.Moreconsistentreliabilitiesacross
materials.
2.Moreconsistentreliabilitiesacross
geographicalregions
3.Opensdoorforusingnewmaterials
4.Uniformdefinitionofnominalstrength
5.DefinesreliabilitylevelsforGradeB&C
DefinesreliabilitylevelsforGradeB&C
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77

BenefitsofRBD
6. Allowsutilitiestoselectdesiredreliability
level(whichmaybedifferentfromGrade
BorC)
7. Encouragesmanufacturerstoimprove
theirproductsbyprovidingincentivesfor
smallerCOVsandmorestrengthdata.
8. Bringspolestructuraldesigninlinewith
well
wellestablishedReliability
establishedReliabilityBasedDesign
codessuchasAASHTO,AISC,IEC,the
NDS.
NDS.
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78

TheFuture
TyingthePiecesTogether
Loads:
Manual74,NESC
ASCEManual72
steelPole
PCIGuide
ASCEConcretePole

ASCESubstation
Guide
10/15/06

ASCESteel
LatticeStandard
ASCE
RBDStandard
ASCEFRP
PoleGuide
ANSI05.1
WoodPoles

ASCEManual111Workshop

ASCEDistribution
PoleStandard

79

TwoPointstoRemember
NominalStrengthat5%LEL
u
u Sameloadsandloadfactorsforall
materials
materials
u
u

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80

Quiz:Whatstrengthshouldweuse?
Whatloadshouldweuse?
StrengthR

LoadQ

mQ

10/15/06

Q50

ASCEManual111Workshop

R5

mR

81

Quiz:Howdoweachieverelatively
consistentreliabilityacross
materialsandlocations?
StrengthR

LoadQ

mQ

10/15/06

R
Q
5
50

mR

ASCEManual111Workshop

82

NextSteps
ASCEManual111Development
Userfeedback
u
u Startworkonsecondeditionin2008
Startworkonsecondeditionin2008
u
u

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83

Next:
CalibrationofReliabilityBased
DesignMethod
DesignMethod
presentedby

MichaelVoda,P.E.PrincipalCivilEngineer
SaltRiverProject
SaltRiverProject

RBDCalibration:

RBD
NESC
RBD NESC

10/15/06

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85

ReliabilityCalibration
Design240WoodPolesUsingNESC77:
Design960PolesUsingNESC:
40locationsx3types(40,65,70)
40locationsx4types(40',65',70',110')
X2grades
x2Gradesx3Materials

DevelopStrengthPDFs
960poles
960poles

DevelopLoadPDFs
40locations:WindIce+Wind

BestPoleAnalysisTechniques:
Transferfunctions
NonlinearStructuralAnalysis
AnnualProb.ofFailure:Wind,Ice+wind
MonteCarloSimulations
TargetReliabilityLevels
GradeB,GradeC
LoadandStrengthFactorsforRBD
10/15/06

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86

DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
Distribution1
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u

10/15/06

40ftpole
3Phase336ACSR
Neutral3/0AAAC
2Communication
250ftspan
LLM
MHDistricts
GradeB&C
ASCEManual111Workshop

87

DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
Distribution2
65ftpole
u
u 556ACSRPhases
u
u 3/0Neutral
u
u 2Communication
u
u

u
u
u
u
u
u
10/15/06

350ftspan
LLM
MHDistricts
GradeB&C
ASCEManual111Workshop

88

DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
Transmission1

u
u

70ftpole
3/8
3/8steelstatic
795ACSRPhases
2Communication
450ftspan
LLM
MHDistricts&ExtWind
GradeB&C

10/15/06

ASCEManual111Workshop

u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u

89

DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
NESC1977:GradeC
PoleClass:

LoadDistrict
Light

Medium

Heavy

Dist140ft

Dist265ft

Trans170ft

10/15/06

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90

DesignPolesPerCurrentPractice
NESC1977:GradeB
PoleClass:

LoadDistrict
Light

Medium

Heavy

Dist140ft

Dist265ft

H2

H1

Trans170ft

H4

H1

H3

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91

StrengthPDF
ANSI05.12002

Dist1SYP40ftpoles
mean=8000psi
COV=0.20
mean=

Dist2SYP65ftpoles
mean=8000psi
COV=0.20
mean=

Trans1DF70ftpoles
mean=8000psi
COV=0.20
mean=

NormalDistributionusedforFiberStrength
usedforFiberStrength
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92

LoadPDF
u
u Wind

ExtremeTypeIDistribution((Peterka
Peterka,
1998).OnePDFforContinentalUSand
anotherforHurricanezones.
u
u Icewithconcurrentwind

ModifiedParetoDistribution(Jones)
(Jones)

10/15/06

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93

CalculateAnnualReliability(
CalculateAnnualReliability(
))
u
u MonteCarloSimulation
u
u 200,000simulationsperpoleperlocation
u
u Results=AnnualProbabilityofFailure(Pf)

P
Pf =No.Failures/No.Simulations
u
u Relationshipbetween

andPf
Pf =
=[[
]

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94

MonteCarloSimulation
LoadQ

Mean
10/15/06

StrengthR

Mean
ASCEManual111Workshop

PASS!!
PASS!!
95

MonteCarloSimulation
LoadQ

Mean
10/15/06

StrengthR

Mean
ASCEManual111Workshop

FAIL!!
FAIL!!

96

Dist.140ftWindGradeB
ReliabilityIndexBeta

4
Heavy

Medium

Light
Light

0 ND

CO

MN

IN

NE

IL

OR

TX

CO

WY

UT

NV

MS

FL

Location
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97

Dist.265ftWindGradeB
ReliabilityIndexBeta

4
Heavy

Light
Light

0
10/15/06

Medium

ND

CO

MN

IN

NE

IL

OR

TX

CO

WY

Location
ASCEManual111Workshop

UT

NV

MS

FL

98

Trans.170ftWindGradeB
ReliabilityIndexBeta

4
Heavy

Light
Light

0
10/15/06

Medium

ND

CO

MN

IN

NE

IL

OR

TX

CO

WY

Location
ASCEManual111Workshop

UT

NV

MS

FL

99

SelectTarget
3

0
10/15/06

Dist1

Dist2

ASCEManual111Workshop

Trans1

100

EstablishLoadFactor
Pf =1
=1[
]
WhenStrengthR
RP,
WhenStrengthR5 =LoadQ
=LoadQRP
1/RP<Pf <1/2RP

LF=
(ReturnPeriod
Period))

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101

ReturnPeriodvsLoadFactor
ExtremeTypeIDistribution
LoadFactor

1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0

0.5
0.0
0

50

100

200

300

400

ReturnPeriod(yrs)
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102

LoadFactor
ExtremeWindGradeB
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1/RP
10/15/06

1/2RP

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103

ExtremeWindGradeB
Selected
2.0

u
u

WindForce
LoadFactor=
LoadFactor=1.0
1.0

u
u

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104

Howdoesa1977NESCpolefare
whenevaluatedusingRBD?
u
u

ASCE7WindMap:50yr3secgust

u
u

ASCE74LoadingMethods

u
u

RBDLoadFactor=1.0
WindGradeB
WindGradeB

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105

Dist.140ftWindGradeB
2
Heavy

Medium

Light
Light

Utilization

1.5

0.5

10/15/06

ID

C
O

TN

A
K

U
T
C
A

A
Z
M
S
G
A

N
D

V
T
IA

M
N

SD

M
I
N
E
P
A

M
E
O
R

W
A

Location

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106

Dist.265ftWindGradeB
2.0
Heavy

Medium

Light
Light

Utilization

1.5

1.0

0.5

FL

S
M

N
V

T
U

W
Y

C
O

TX

O
R

IL

N
E

IN

N
M

C
O

N
D

0.0

Location
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107

Trans.170ftWindGradeB
2.0

Utilization

Heavy

Medium

Light
Light

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
D
N

10/15/06

IN

E
N

IL

R
O

TX

Location
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Y
W

FL

108

RBDLoadFactors:
GradeB

GradeC

ExtremeWindLoad
Factor

1.0

.5(a)

IceThicknessFactor

1.0

.5

ConcurrentWindLoad
Factor

1.0

1.0

(a) For Poles/wires with any portion greater


than60ftaboveground,use1.0
10/15/06

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109

Next:
Loads
Loads
presentedby

Dr.JerryWong,P.E.StaffEngineer,
FloridaPowerandLight
FloridaPowerandLight

Loads& LoadEffects

Section3

u
u LoadTypes(ASCEManual#74)

WeatherRelatedLoads(Reliability)
u
u ExtremeWind,CombinedIceandWind,HighIntensityWind
u
u SpatialInfluences
u
u AlternativeSources
ConstructionandMaintenance(Safety)
FailureContainment (Security)
u
u LoadFactors

LineSystemCharacteristics
ReturnPeriodAdjustments
ReturnPeriodAdjustments

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111

ExtremeWind

Section3.1.1

3secondGustWind
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112

ExtremeWind

Section3.1.1
Section3.1.1

u
u AirDensity
u
u BasicWindSpeed
u
u TerrainRoughness
u
u GustResponseFactor
u
u ForceCoefficient
u
u TopographyEffects
u
u StructureandLineCharacteristics

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113

ExtremeIceandConcurrentWind

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Section3.1.1
Section3.1.1

114

ExtremeIceandConcurrentWind
u
u
u
u

VerticalWeight
IceBuildup

u
u

Section3.1.1
Section3.1.1

ProjectedArea
Forcecoefficient

Tension

10/15/06

HigherTension
UnbalancedTension

FreezingRain
FreezingRain

In
InCloudIcing
CloudIcing

WetSnow
WetSnow

Hoarfrost
Hoarfrost

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115

HighIntensityWind

Section3.1.1

From ASCE7

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116

HighIntensityWind
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u

Section3.1.1
Section3.1.1

ShortLived
RandomlyOccurring
HighIntensity
SmallImpactedArea

ASCE#74recommends, whenjustifiedandrequired,
F2
F2scaletornado(157mph,86%)

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117

Loads& LoadEffects

Section3

u
u LoadTypes(ASCEManual#74)

WeatherRelatedLoads(Reliability)
u
u ExtremeWind,CombinedIceandWind,HighIntensityWind
u
u SpatialInfluences
u
u AlternativeSources
ConstructionandMaintenance(Safety)
FailureContainment (Security)
u
u LoadFactors

LineSystemCharacteristics
ReturnPeriodAdjustments
ReturnPeriodAdjustments

10/15/06

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118

LineSystemCharacteristics

Section3

u
u TransmissionSystem

Coverslargerserviceterritoryandcouldhave
substantialeffectswhensystemisnotavailable
Structuresupportslongerspanandhigherphysical
profileandismoredifficulttorebuildorrepairwhen
damaged
Thestabilityofelectricalgridcouldbedisturbedbya
singleunplannedfailureevent
singleunplannedfailureevent

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119

LineSystemCharacteristics

Section3

u
u DistributionSystem

Limitedimpactinarelativelysmallarea
Doesnotneedsignificantresourcestorebuildor
repairwhendamaged
Electricalgridstabilityisnotdependentuponthe
availabilityofoneparticulardistributionstructure
event
event

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120

LineSystemCharacteristics

Section3

u
u DistributionSystem

Lowprofilewindturbulenceismoresevereandless
predictable
Impactsforice
Impactsforicecoveredbrokentreebranchesare
moresignificant
Debrisinduceddamagesoccurmoreoftenandmay
carryhigherenergy
FailureContainmentLoadstypicallyNOTconsidered
considered

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121

ReturnPeriodAdjustment

Section3.4

Table3.4
Table3.41
ProbabilityofExceedingDesignLoadDuringReferencePeriod
Return
Period
(years)
(years)

Annual
Probability

25

ReferencePeriod,n(years)
1

10

25

50

100

0.040

0.04

0.18

0.34

0.64

0.87

0.98

50

0.020

0.02

0.10

0.18

0.40

0.64

0.87

100

0.010

0.01

0.05

0.10

0.22

0.40

0.64

200

0.005

0.005

0.02

0.05

0.10

0.22

0.39

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ReturnPeriodAdjustment

Section3.4

Table3.4
Table3.42ApproximateLoadFactors
(ExtremeWindLoad2%annualProbability)
2%annualProbability)

10/15/06

ReturnPeriod(year)

WindLoadFactor

25

0.85

50

1.00

100

1.15

200

1.30

400

1.45

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123

ReturnPeriodAdjustment

Section3.4

Table3.4
Table3.43ApproximateLoadFactors
(CombinedIceandWindLoad2%annualProbability)
2%annualProbability)
ReturnPeriod(year)

10/15/06

IceThicknessFactor CurrentWindLoadFactor

25

0.80

1.00

50

1.00

1.00

100

1.25

1.00

200

1.50

1.00

400

1.85

1.00

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124

Next:
Next:

SinglePoleLRFD
NominalResistance
NominalResistance
presentedby
presentedby

RonWolfeResearchEngineer
USForestProductsLaboratory

NominalResistance(
NominalResistance(Rn)
q
q

q
q

q
q

10/15/06

Definition5%tolerance
Purposeequitablereliability
assessmentacrosspoletypes.
Responsibility
q
q

IndustryAssociations

q
q

individualpoleproduces
individualpoleproduces

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126

Objective
q
q

q
q

Discussthreeoptionsfortheevaluationof
nominalresistanceforLRFD(Section4)
Relateoptionstomaterialbeingused
Relateoptionstomaterialbeingused

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127

PoleLoadsandBoundary
Conditions
1. Cantileverbending+axial
load
2. Taperedbeam/column
3. Anchoragefixed
4. Centroidofloadvariable
5. Solidsectionforwood
6. Hollowsectionfor
fabricatedpoles
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128

PoleStrengthValues
q
q

q
q

TestData

StandardMaterialPropertyTests

Full
FullscalePoleTest

TheoreticallyDerived

10/15/06

SolidWoodANSIstandard:linear
staticanalysisprobabilitytheory
Tubular(Concrete,steel,FRP)vary
withmanufacturer:oftenbasedon
nonlinearFEA.
nonlinearFEA.
ASCEManual111Workshop

129

OptionstoDetermine
NominalResistance
q
q

q
q

q
q

10/15/06

FullScaleTests
MonteCarloSimulationwith
limitedfullscaletests
DefaultValues
DefaultValues

ASCEManual111Workshop

130

FullScaleTests
q Providesreliableestimates
ofmeanstrengthand
strengthvariabilityofwood
poles
q Failurelocationmayvary
withboundaryconditions

10/15/06

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131

EmpiricalDerivationofRn
Rn =R(1k*COV)

R=meanstrength
k=factorsdependentonsamplesize
Derivedtogive50%confidencein5%
LTL.
COV=Mean/standarddeviation
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132

5%LTL
Rn =R(1k*COV)
SampleSize

10/15/06

k
50%Conf
1.78

k
75%Conf
2.46

40

1.66

1.83

100

1.65

1.76

120

1.65

1.75

200

1.65

1.72

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133

Examples,Method1,
50%confidence
Species

MOR

COV

5%LTL

DougFirTreated<50
DougFirTreated<50

8660
8660

17%
17%

143
5

1.649
1.78

6,233
6,039

DougFirTreated>50
DougFirTreated>50

7165

20.6% 120

1.649

5,460

SPTreated<50
SPTreated<50

8660

13.5% 118

1.649

6,732

W.R.Cedar>50
W.R.Cedar>50

5200

19.2% 100

1.650

3,550

FromANSI05.1AnnexC

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134

Examples,Method1,
75%confidence
Species

MOR

COV

DougFirTreated<50
DougFirTreated<50

8660
8660

17%
17%

DougFirTreated>50
DougFirTreated>50

7165

SPTreated<50
SPTreated<50
W.R.Cedar>50
W.R.Cedar>50

N
143
5

5%LTL

1.74
2.464

6,098
5,032

20.6% 120

1.75

4,582

8660

13.5% 118

1.75

6,614

5200

19.2% 100

1.76

3,443

FromANSI05.1AnnexC

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135

MonteCarloSimulation

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136

TestModelAccuracy
q

Assessmodelsensitivitytoeachvariable

Evaluatecovariancematrixforimportant
variables
q

Verifymodelbytestingextremesof
influencingvariables.
q

EvaluateModelAdjustmentFactor

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137

Variableeffectsonstrength
DodecagonalTubes
1.40
1.30

Fcr/Fy

1.20
1.10
1.00
0.90
0.80

test

0.70

1.45Fy(1.00129sqrt(Fy)w/t)

0.60
100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Sqrt(Fy)*w/t
FromASCEManualNo72

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138

AssessAccuracyofModel
AssessAccuracyofModel
#
#

Fy

tt

Pred

Test

Ratio

((ksi
ksi)

(in)

(in)

((ksi
ksi)

((ksi
ksi)

tst/pred

69.3 8.10 .189

58.3

59

1.01

71.4 7.95 .224

61.7

64.1

1.04

72.1 8.03 .252

63.7

67.0

1.05

70.9 8.04 .311

64.3

66.1

1.03

65.2 8.67 .377

63.9

65.0

1.02

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139

EvaluateModelAdjustment
Factor
1.06
1.055
1.05
Ratiopred/test

1.045
1.04
1.035
1.03
1.025
1.02
1.015
1.01
1.005
100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Sqrt(Fy)*w /t

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140

MonteCarloSimulationResult
MonteCarloSimulationResult

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141

Default
1. Pre
Preestablishedvalues(NBS577)
2. Useanalyticalmodeltoestimatemeanandusethe
followingmodeltopredictvariability
VR2 =VM2 +VP2 +VF2 +VO2
M=material,P=model(professional),
F=fabrication,O=othereffects
F=fabrication,O=othereffects

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142

Conclusions
u
u

u
u

u
u

u
u

Empiricalderivationsrequirerepetitivetestingand
analysisfollowingstandardizedprocedures.
MonteCarlosimulationismostappropriatefor
manufacturedpoles.
Defaultvaluesshouldbeconservativelyderivedto
encouragemorerigorousmodeldevelopmentand
testverification.
Timeandexperienceprovidetheultimatetestof
structuralreliability.
structuralreliability.
10/15/06

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143

TwoPointstoRemember
NominalStrengthat5%LEL
u
u Sameloadsandloadfactorsforall
materials
materials
u
u

10/15/06

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144

Quiz:Whatstrengthshouldweuse?
Whatloadshouldweuse?
StrengthR

LoadQ

mQ

10/15/06

Q50

ASCEManual111Workshop

R5

mR

145

Quiz:Howdoweachieverelatively
consistentreliabilityacross
materialsandlocations?
StrengthR

LoadQ

mQ

10/15/06

R
Q
5
50

mR

ASCEManual111Workshop

146

Next:
Next:

AppendixB
DesignExamples
presentedby
presentedby

RonRandle EDMInternational
Ft.Collins,Colorado
Ft.Collins,Colorado

DesignExamples
u
u Load
Q
Q

LoadCalculation:
u
u ExtremeWindLoading
u
u CombinedIceandWindLoading

DifferencesinGradesofConstruction
PoleConfigurations
u
u TransmissionPole
u
u DistributionPole

u
u Strength
R
R

PoleMaterials
u
u Wood
u
u Steel

AllExamplesuseEnglishUnits

u
u Concrete
u
u FRP
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LOAD

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149

WindLoadCalculation
F=Q * Kz * (V)2 * G * Cf * A where,
u Q=airdensityfactor
u Kz =velocitypressureexposurecoefficient
u V=3secondgustwindvelocity
u G=gustresponsefactor
u Cf =shapefactor
u A=projectedwindarea

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LoadDesignExample
u
u Wire:

Linnet
LinnetACSR336.4(26/7)

Dia=0.721
Dia=0.721
Wt=.463#/ft
ConductorHeight:H=60ft
Span=500ft(wind&weight)
u
u Structure:80
Structure:80ftRoundPole(embedment=10ft)
u
u Loading:
CaseA:ExtremeWind:90mphExposureC
C
CaseB:CombinedIce&Wind:50mph+11//44ice
ice

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VelocityPressureExposureCoefficient
F=Q * Kz * (V)2 * G * Cf * A
K
Kz =VelocityPressureExposureCoefficient
ForWires:

K
Kz=2.01(h/900)(2/9.5)

ForStructure:
where,

K
Kz=2.01(0.67h/900) (2/9.5)
h=structureorwireheight

Wire: K
Kz =2.01(60/900)(2/9.5) =1.137
Structure: K
Kz =2.01(0.67*70/900)(2/9.5) =1.079
1.079
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GustResponseFactor
F=Q * Kz * (V)2 * G * Cf * A
G=GustResponseFactor
ForWires:
G=[1+(2.7E
Ew B
Bw0.5)]/k
)]/kv2
ForStructure:
G=[1+(2.7E
G=[1+(2.7Es B
Bs0.5)]/k
)]/kv2
where,h=structureorwireheight,L=spanlength,kkv =1.43
E
Ew =0.346
0.346*(33/h)1/7 = 0.346
0.346*(33/60)1/7 =.318
E
Es =0.346
=0.346*[33/(0.67h)]1/7=0.346
=0.346*[33/(0.67
[33/(0.67*70)]1/7=.329
B
Bw =1/(1+0.8L/220)=1/(1+0.8
1/(1+0.8L/220)=1/(1+0.8*500/220)=.355
B
Bs =1/(1+0.375h/220)=1/(1+0.375
1/(1+0.375h/220)=1/(1+0.375* 70/220)=.893
Wire: Gw =[1+(2.7*.318*.3550.5)]/1.432 = 0.739
Structure: G
Gs =[1+(2.7*.329*.8930.5)]/1.432 =0.851
0.851
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ShapeFactor
F=Q * Kz * (V)2 * G * Cf * A
Cf =ShapeFactor:
ForWiresCf =1.0
ForMembersCf =
0.9
1.0
1.4
2.0

forcircularand16sidedshapes
for12sidedshapes
for8and6sidedshapes
forsquareandrectangularshapes

Wires: Cf =1.0 andRoundPole: Cf =0.9


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154

SummaryofWindLoadFactors
u
u ExtremeWind:90mphExposure
C
C

Wire
Structure
Q= 0.00256
same
Kz = 1.137
1.079
V= 90mph
same
G=
0.739
0.851
Cf =
1.0
0.9
u CombinedIce&Wind
V= 50mph
same
10/15/06

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(ASCEManual741991Table2.63)

155

LoadCalculations
F=Q * Kz * (V)2 * G * Cf * A
u ExtremeWind:
Tw =.00256 * 1.137 * (90)2 * 0.739 * 1.0 * A=17.4 * A
Ts =.00256 * 1.079 * (90)2 * 0.851 * 0.9 * A=17.1 * A
u CombinedIceandWind:

Tw =.00256 * 1.137 * (50)2 * 0.739 * 1.0 * A=5.37 * A


Ts =.00256 * 1.079 * (50)2 * 0.851 * 0.9 * A=5.29 * A

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156

LoadFactors(
LoadFactors(g)
u
u NESCGrade
B
BConstruction
Construction

b =2.0
u
u NESCGrade
C
CConstruction
Construction b =1.5
LoadCase:
ReliabilityIndex:
WindForce
IceThickness
DeadLoad(Wires+Str.Weight)
a
b

LoadFactors(g)
ExtremeWind
Ice+Wind
b =2.0
b =1.5
b =2.0
b =1.5
1.0
0.5a
1.0
1.0
b
na
na
1.0
0.5b
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

Ifanyportionofthestructureoritssupportedfacilitiesexceed60ftaboveground,aloadfactorof1.0shouldbeused.
Theloadfactorfortheicethicknessistobeappliedtothethicknessoftheicepriortocalculatingtheassociatedload.

Reference: RBDManual111Table2.3

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Example:ExtremeWind
u WindVelocity=90mph
u Wire:ACSR336.4(26/7)
Dia=0.721
Dia=0.721Wt=.463#/ftSpan=500ft
Tw = gw * 17.4 * A=1.0 * 17.4 * (0.721/12) * 500= 523lbs
u Structure:RoundPole(70ftaboveGL)
Diatop =9.0in.Diagl =19.5in.
Ts = gw * 17.1 * A=1.0 * 17.1 * [(9.0+19.5)/(2 * 12)] * 70
=1421lbs
u GradeofConstruction(tallerthan60ftaboveGL)

GradeB: gw =1.0 gdl =1.1


GradeC: gw =1.0 gdl =1.1
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158

ShorterPoleExtremeWind
LoadCase:
ReliabilityIndex:
WindForce
IceThickness
DeadLoad(Wires+Str.Weight)
a
b

LoadFactors(g)
ExtremeWind
Ice+Wind
b =2.0
b =1.5
b =2.0
b =1.5
a
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.0
b
na
na
1.0
0.5b
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

Ifanyportionofthestructureoritssupportedfacilitiesexceed60ftaboveground,aloadfactorof1.0shouldbeused.
Theloadfactorfortheicethicknessistobeappliedtothethicknessoftheicepriortocalculatingtheassociatedload.

u GradeofConstruction(60ftorlessaboveGL)

GradeB: gw =1.0 gdl =1.1


GradeC: gw =0.5 gdl =1.1

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Example:Ice+Wind
u Wire:ACSR336.4(26/7)

Dia=0.721
Dia=0.721Wt=.463#/ftSpan=500ft
T50 = gwind * 5.37 * A= gwind * 5.37 * [(gice * 2.5+0.721)/12] * 500=
GradeBConstruction(gwind =1.0 gice =1.0): T50 =721lbs
GradeCConstruction(gwind =1.0 gice =0.5): T50 =441lbs
u Structure:RoundPole

Diatop =9.0in.Diagl =19.5in.


T50 = gwind * 5.29 * A=5.29 * [(9.0+19.5)/(2 * 12)] * 70=
GradeBConstruction(gwind =1.0): T50 =440lbs
GradeCConstruction(gwind =1.0): T50 =440lbs
u VerticalLoads(exceptice)

GradeB: gdl =1.1


GradeC: gdl =1.1

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160

STRENGTH

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161

Example#1TransmissionPole
5

OHGW

u
u

Length:75ft

u
u

Shape:Varies

u
u

Embedment:10%+2
Embedment:10%+2ft

u
u

Wires:
Cond
Cond:Drake ACSR795(26/7)

OHGW: 3/8
3/8inchEHS

Comm.Wire: (1)2.0
(1)2.0in.dia.
in.dia.
ASCEManual111Workshop

9.5

10/15/06

Comm.Wire

35.5

Wind/WtSpan:500ft

56
56

75ft

u
u

14

Conductors

162

ASCEManual74: ExtremeWind
F=Q * Kz * (V)2 * G * Cf * A,where
0.00256
Q=airdensityfactor:
Kz =velocitypressureexposurecoefficient:
forconductors= 1.114
forshieldwire= 1.154
forcomm.wire= 1.018
and,forpole=
1.063
90mph
V=3secondgustwindvelocity:
G=gustresponsefactor=(1+2.7xExB0.5)/kv2,whereE=exposure
factorandB=responseterm

forconductors= 0.759

forshieldwire= 0.906

forcomm.wire= 0.743

and,forpole=

Cf =shapefactor:forwires= 1.0

andforpole=

0.737
varies

A=projectedwindarea(ft2)

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163

ExtremeWindForces
Line
Component
WindonConductors(ea)
WindonShieldWire
WindonCommWire
WindonPole

Wind
Pressure
(psf)
17.16
17.64
16.01
19.97*Cf

Wind
Wind
Area
Force
2
(ft )
(lbs)
46.17
792
15.00
265
83.33
1334
Varieswithpolegeometry

ExtremeWindOver60ftaboveGL
GradeB&GradeCarethesame

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164

SteelPoleDesign
u
u

u
u

PoleProperties:(
PoleProperties:(Dtop =8.00in.,Dgl =18.76in.,12
=18.76in.,12sided
t=3/16in.,Fy =65ksi)
C
Cf =1.0
=1.0(windpressure=19.97psf)
Strengthvalues:5%LEL&10%COV
Strengthvalues:5%LEL&10%COV
f =1.0
((RBDManualSection2.6.2)

u
u

Usingnon
Usingnonlinearanalysistechniques:
GLM=250,851ft
GLM=250,851ftlbs
lbs Fb =57.2ksi
=57.2ksi
<65ksi
<65ksi PoleisOK
Note!!!
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline

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165

WoodPoleDesign
u
u

PoleProperties:ClassH2
PoleProperties:ClassH2DouglassFir
D
Dtop =9.87in.,D
Dgl =18.33in.,C
Cf =0.9
=0.9 (windpressure=17.97psf)

u
u

Strengthvalues:DesignatedFiberStress(MeanStrength)
=8,000psi andCOV=20%
andCOV=20%

f =0.79

((RBDManual111Table2
Table22)
2)

F
Fb =0.79
=0.79* 8,000=6,320psi
10/15/06

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166

WoodPoleDesign(cont
(contd)
u
u

Usinglinearanalysistechniques:GLM=
Line
Component
WindonTopConductor
WindonMiddleConductor
WindonBottomConductor
WindonShieldWire
WindonCommunicationWire
ConductorEccentricity
Subtotal(withoutpolewindforce)

Windonpole

Force
(lbs)
792
792
792
265
1334
546

Distance
(ft)
59.5
54.5
49.5
64.5
35.5
5.5

g
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1

GLM
(ftlbs)
47,124
43,164
39,204
17,093
47,357
3,300
197,242

=17.97 * [(9.87+18.33)/(2 * 12) * 65.5] * 29.47=


=40,758ftlbs

TotalGLM=197,242+40,758=238,000ftlbs
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167

WoodPoleDesign(cont
(contd)
TotalLinearGLM=197,242+40,758=238,000ftlbs
PlusPD EffectUsingGereCarterMethod:
AmplificationFactor=1.112
GLM=1.112 * 238,000=264,656ftlbs
Sreqd =264,656 *

12/6320psi=502.5in3

CH2 =57.58in. ClassH2DFPoleisOK

Creqd=
54.14in.

[NoteCH1 =54.16in,butPD Effectwouldbegreater]


Note!!!
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline
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168

Example#2DistributionPole
4

Length:45
Length:45ft
Shape:Varies

u
u

Embedment:10%+2
Embedment:10%+2ft

u
u

Wind/WtSpan:275ft

u
u

Wires:

4.5

u
u

Neutral:(1)ACSR3/0(6/1)

Comm.Wire:(1)1.5
Comm.Wire:(1)1.5in.
in.
6.5

Cond
Cond:(3)ACSR336.5(26/7)

Neutral

Comm.
Wire

45ft

Conductors

29

u
u

2 2 2
2

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169

ASCEManual74:Ice+Wind
F=Q
F=Q* K
Kzz * (V)22* G
G* C
Cff * A,where
Q=airdensityfactor=

0.00256

K
Kz =velocitypressureexposurecoefficient:
forconductors=

forneutralwire= 1.005

1.029

forcomm.wire= 0.975

forpole= 0.951

V=3secondgustwindvelocity=50mph
u G=gustresponsefactor=(1+2.7xExB0.5)/kv2,whereE=exposure
factorandB=responseterm
u
u
u
u

forconductors= 0.807
forcomm.wire= 0.819
Cf =shapefactor:forwires=
A=projectedwindarea(ft2)

10/15/06

forshieldwire= 0.812
and,forpole= 0.948
andforpole= varies
1.0

ASCEManual111Workshop

170

CombinedIce&WindForces
Component
WindonConductors(ea)
WindonNeutralWire
WindonComm.Wire
WindonCrossarm
WindonPole

Wind
Pressure
(psf)

GradeB
Wind
Wind
Area
Force
(ft )

(lbs)

(ft )

(lbs)

5.31
5.22
5.11
5.31
5.77*Cf

73.79
67.93
91.67
0.36
varies

392
355
468
2
varies

45.15
39.28
63.02
0.36
varies

240
205
322
2
varies

GradeC
Wind
Wind
Area
Force

Windareaforwires=Length * [(WireDia.+ g * (2 * IceTk)]


EGForComm.Wire:
GradeB:A=275 * [1.5+1.0 * (2 * 1.25)]/12=91.67sf
GradeC:A=275 * [1.5+0.5 * (2 * 1.25)]/12=63.02sf
10/15/06

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171

CalculationofGroundlineMoment
Usingmanualmethodstocalculatelinearmoment:
Component
WindonallConds.
WindonNeutral
WindonComm.
Eccentricity:Conds.
Eccentricity:Cond.Ice
WindonCrossarm
WindonPole

Subtotals:
(w/opole)

10/15/06

Distance

(ft)

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0

37.5
33.5
29
4.3
4.3
37.0
varies

GradeB
Force
GLM

GradeC
Force
GLM

(lbs)

(ftlbs)

(lbs)

(ftlbs)

1176
355
468
137
842
2
varies

44,100
11,892
13,572
648
3,621
74
varies

720
205
322
137
287
2
varies

27,000
6,868
9,338
648
1,234
74
varies

GradeB=73,097ftlbs
GradeC=45,162ftlbs
ASCEManual111Workshop

172

ExtremeWindLoad
u PerNESC
poleisshorterthan60ft
PerNESC:If poleisshorterthan60ft

Designforwindonpoleonly(nowires)
u PerManual111
poleisshorterthan60ft
PerManual111:If poleisshorterthan60ft
Designforwindonpoleandwires
u
u Loadfactor(
Loadfactor(g): DependentonGradeofConstruction
GradeB:
GradeB:g =1.0 andGradeC:
GradeC:g =0.5
=0.5
Component
WindonConductors(ea)
WindonNeutralWire
WindonComm.Wire
WindonCrossarm
WindonPole
10/15/06

WindPressure(psf)
GradeB
GradeC
17.20
16.91
16.55
17.20
18.69Cf

ASCEManual111Workshop

8.60
8.46
8.28
8.60
9.35Cf
173

WoodPoleDesignGradeB
u
u

AssumeClass2Pole((D
Dt =7.96in.,D
=7.96in.,Dg =12.83in.)A=33.35sf

u
u

LinearGLM=76,171ft
*33.35*17.75]
73,097+1.0* (0.9*5.77)
(0.9*5.77)*33.35*17.75]
LinearGLM=76,171ftlbs [[73,097+1.0

u
u

P
PD =1.312AmplificationFactor(Gere
=1.312AmplificationFactor(GereCarter)
GroundLineDesignMoment=99,936ft
GroundLineDesignMoment=99,936ftlbs

u
u

DFPole:8,000psi andCOV=20%
andCOV=20%

u
u

FFallow =8,000*0.79=6,320psi

f =0.79
=0.79

(ANSIO5.1
(ANSIO5.12002&RBDManual111Table2
Table22)
u
u

3
S
Sreq
reqd =99,936*12/6,320=189.8in

u
u

S
Sfurn =207.3in

Class2DFPoleisOK
Class2DFPoleisOK

Note!!!
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline
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174

WoodPoleDesignGradeC
u
u

AssumeClass4Pole((D
Dt =6.68in.,D
=6.68in.,Dg =11.08in.)A=28.49sf

u
u

LinearGLM=47,775ft
*28.49*17.66]
45,162+1.0* (0.9*5.77)
(0.9*5.77)*28.49*17.66]
LinearGLM=47,775ftlbs [[45,162+1.0

u
u

P
PD =1.221AmplificationFactor(Gere
=1.221AmplificationFactor(GereCarter)
GroundLineDesignMoment=58,333ft
GroundLineDesignMoment=58,333ftlbs

u
u

SPPole:8,000psi andCOV=20%
andCOV=20%

u
u

FFallow =8,000*0.79=6,320psi

f =0.79
=0.79

(ANSIO5.1
(ANSIO5.12002&RBDManual111Table2
Table22)
u
u

3
S
Sreq
reqd =58,333*12/6,320=110.8in

u
u

Class4DFPoleisOK
S
Sfurn =133.8in Class4DFPoleisOK
Note!!!
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline
Stressesalsoneedtobecheckedatpointsabovegroundline

10/15/06

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175

FRPPoleDesignGradeC
u
u

FRPPole: D
Dt =12in.,Non
=12in.,NontaperedSquarePole

A=38.50sf

u
u

Strengthdatabasedonatestsampleof5poles:

MeanStrength=111,550ft
lbs)
(StdDev=17,228ftlbs)
MeanStrength=111,550ftlbs&COV=15.5%(StdDev=17,228ft

AssumingNormal
NormalDistributionwitha50%Confidence
Confidence:
5%LTL=111,5501.78*17,228=80,884
*17,228=80,884
(Ref.RBDManual111
Table4
1)
1)
(Ref.RBDManual111Table4

u
u

LinearGLM=52004ft
*38.5*19.25]
45,162+1.0*(1.6*5.77)
(1.6*5.77)*38.5*19.25]
LinearGLM=52004ftlbs [[45,162+1.0

u
u

P
PD =1.45AmplificationFactor(Gere
=1.45AmplificationFactor(GereCarter)
GroundLineDesignMoment=75,406ft
GroundLineDesignMoment=75,406ftlbs

u
u

75,406ft
75,406ftlbs<80,884ft
lbs<80,884ftlbs
lbs

10/15/06

FRPPoleisOK
FRPPoleisOK

ASCEManual111Workshop

176

TwoPointstoRemember
NominalStrengthat5%LEL
u
u Sameloadsandloadfactorsforall
materials
materials
u
u

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177

Quiz:Whatstrengthshouldweuse?
Whatloadshouldweuse?
StrengthR

LoadQ

mQ

10/15/06

Q50

ASCEManual111Workshop

R5

mR

178

Quiz:Howdoweachieverelatively
consistentreliabilityacross
materialsandlocations?
StrengthR

LoadQ

mQ

10/15/06

R
Q
5
50

mR

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10/15/06

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180
180