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Homeostasis
Contents:
1- Homeostasis Text
Definition Components Extracellular Fluid Origin of Nutrients: - Respiratory System - Gastrointestinal Tract Removal of Metabolic End Products: - Respiratory System - Kidneys Control Systems Nervous System Hormonal System Control Mechanisms Negative feedback Positive feedback Examples of Homeostasis Regulation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure Regulation of Temperature Homeostasis Imbalance

2- Homeostasis Ultra-super Summary

Homeostasis

Mohsen R. 2012

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Homeostasis
Definition: Regulation & balance of the body's internal environment (Extracellular Fluid) to maintain a stable ,constant condition. Components: Homeostasis Process involves 3 main parts 1- Stimulus & Receptor 2- Control Center 3- Effect & Effector organ Extracellular Fluid: - E.C.F is in constant motion throughout the body. - It is transported rapidly in the circulating blood and then mixed between the blood and the tissue fluids by diffusion through the capillary walls. - Contains large amounts of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions plus nutrients, such as oxygen, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. It also contains carbon dioxide that is being transported from the cells to the lungs to be excreted, plus other cellular waste products that are being transported to the kidneys for excretion. ( i.e Nutrients & Waste products) 1- Origin of Nutrients: - Respiratory System The blood picks up oxygen in the alveoli, that needed by the cells. - Gastrointestinal Tract - Different dissolved nutrients, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids, are absorbed from the ingested food into the blood. - Liver ,as not all substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract can be used in their absorbed form by the cells. The liver changes the chemical compositions of many of these substances to more usable forms. 2- Removal of Metabolic End Products: - Respiratory System Removal of Carbon Dioxide at the same time that blood picks up oxygen in the lungs, carbon dioxide is released from the blood into the lung alveoli.

Homeostasis

Mohsen R. 2012

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- Kidneys Passage of the blood through the kidneys removes different end products of cellular metabolism, such as urea , uric acid and excesses of ions and water. Control Systems: Nervous System: - Regulates mainly muscular and secretory activities of the body. - Including 3 major parts sensory input ,central nervous system and the output effect. - Large segment of this nervous system is called the autonomic system that controls many functions of the internal organs. Hormonal System: - Regulates many metabolic functions of the body. - Eight major endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Control Mechanisms: Negative feedback - Most control systems of the body act by negative feedback. - In this case system acts negative to the initiating stimulus. - Ex. o Carbon dioxide high concentration initiates events that decrease the concentration toward normal (which is negative to the initiating stimulus). o High arterial blood pressure initiates events that decrease pressure to normal . Positive feedback - Not lead to stability but to instability. - Useful Ex. o Blood clotting, is an example of a valuable use of positive feedback. When a blood vessel is ruptured and a clot begins to form, multiple enzymes called clotting factors are activated within the clot itself. Some of these enzymes act on other unactivated enzymes of the immediately adjacent blood, thus causing more blood clotting. This process continues until the hole in the vessel is plugged and bleeding no longer occurs. On occasion, this mechanism can get out of hand and cause the formation of unwanted clots. In fact, this is what initiates most acute heart attacks, which are caused by a clot
Homeostasis Mohsen R. 2012

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beginning on the inside surface of an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery and then growing until the artery is blocked. o Childbirth, When uterine contractions become strong enough for the babys head to begin pushing through the cervix, stretch of the cervix sends signals through the uterine muscle back to the body of the uterus, causing even more powerful contractions. Thus, the uterine contractions stretch the cervix, and the cervical stretch causes stronger contractions.

o Generation of nerve signals, That is, when the membrane of a nerve fiber is stimulated, this causes slight leakage of sodium ions through sodium channels in the nerve membrane to the fibers interior. The sodium ions entering the fiber then change the membrane potential, which in turn causes more opening of channels, more change of potential, still more opening of channels, and so forth. Thus, a slight leak becomes an explosion of sodium entering the interior of the nerve fiber, which creates the nerve action potential. - In each case in which positive feedback is useful, the positive feedback itself is part of an overall negative feedback process. For example, in the case of blood clotting, the positive feedback clotting process is a negative feedback process for maintenance of normal blood volume. Examples of Homeostasis: Regulation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide: - Oxygen concentration regulated in tissue fluid due to the affinity of Hemoglobin to oxygen ,that its not released until oxygen decreased in tissue fluid through tissue capillaries . - Carbon Dioxide concentration above normal stimulates the respiratory centre to cause deep and rapid breathing to remove the excess from blood and tissue fluid. Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure: - Baroreceptor system ,in the walls of bifurcation region of carotid arteries and arch of aorta, stimulated by stretch when pressure rises ,then it send impulses to the medulla in the brain ,that inhibits the vasomotor centre ,which in turn decrease the impulses to the heart and blood vessels causing
Homeostasis Mohsen R. 2012

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diminished pumping activity of the heart and peripheral vasodilatation of blood vessels . Regulation of Temperature: - Stimulus & Receptor: Cold exposure , cutaneous cold receptors & slight decrease in blood temperature. - Centre of control: Hypothalamus. - Effect & effector organs: through Nervous System & Hormonal System. - Nervous System: - Somatic effects as shivering & increase muscle tone - Autonomic effects as vasoconstriction of skin blood vessels & decrease sweating. - Hormonal System: - Adrenalin secretion, hypothalamus stimulate adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline,which - Stimulates metabolic rate , - Stimulates glycogenolysis in liver to produce glucose for oxidation. - Stimulates secretion of ACTH of anterior pituitary stimulate secretion of glucocorticoids from suprarenal cortex gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose from amino acids) - Thyroxin Secretion, hypothalamus stimulate anterior pituitary to secrete TSH ,that stimulate thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin which stimulates metabolic activities in all cells. - Adrenocortical Hormons, hypothalamus stimulate anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH stimulate secretion of more glucocorticoids from suprarenal cortex gluconeogenesis . Homeostasis Imbalance: - Can lead to many diseases as Diabetes ,hypertension , hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and gout.

Homeostasis

Mohsen R. 2012

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Homeostasis Summary
Definition: Regulation & balance of the body's internal environment (Extracellular Fluid) to maintain a stable ,constant condition. Components: Homeostasis Process involves 3 main parts 1- Stimulus & Receptor 2- Control Center 3- Effect & Effector organ Extracellular Fluid: - Mixing between blood and tissue fluids by diffusion through capillary walls. - Contains Nutrients & Waste products. 1-Origin of Nutrients: - Respiratory System Blood gets oxygen in the alveoli. - Gastrointestinal Tract Blood gets carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. 2-Removal of Metabolic End Products: - Respiratory System Carbon Dioxide released blood to alveoli. - Kidneys as urea , uric acid and excesses ions and water. Control Systems: Nervous System: - Regulates muscular and secretory activities of the body. - Large segment of this nervous system is called the autonomic system that controls many functions of the internal organs. Hormonal System: - Regulates metabolic functions of the body. - Eight major endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Control Mechanisms: Negative feedback - Most control systems of the body act by negative feedback. - In this case system acts negative to the initiating stimulus. - Ex. o Carbon dioxide high concentration initiates events that decrease the concentration toward normal (which is negative to the initiating stimulus). o High arterial blood pressure initiates events that decrease pressure to normal . Positive feedback - Not lead to stability but to instability. - Useful Ex. o Blood clotting, enzymes and platelet accumulation lead to activation of more clotting . On occasion, this mechanism can get out of hand and cause the
Homeostasis Mohsen R. 2012

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formation of unwanted clots. As in coronary artery and then growing until the artery is blocked. o Childbirth, the uterine contractions stretch the cervix, and the cervical stretch causes stronger contractions. o Generation of nerve signals, slight leak becomes an explosion of sodium entering the interior of the nerve fiber, that creates the nerve action potential. Examples of Homeostasis: Regulation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide: - Affinity of Hemoglobin to oxygen , so no release until oxygen decreased in tissue fluid. - Carbon Dioxide high concentration stimulates respiratory centre. to cause deep and rapid breathing . Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure: - Baroreceptor system , stimulated by stretch when pressure rises ,then it send impulses to the medulla in the brain ,that inhibits the vasomotor centre , causing diminished pumping activity of the heart and peripheral vasodilatation of blood vessels . Regulation of Temperature: - Stimulus & Receptor: Cold exposure , cutaneous cold receptors & slight decrease in blood temperature. - Centre of control: Hypothalamus. - Effect & effector organs: - Nervous System: - Somatic effects as shivering & increase muscle tone - Autonomic effects as vasoconstriction of skin blood vessels & decrease sweating. Hormonal System: - Adrenalin secretion, hypothalamus adrenal medulla - metabolic rate . - glycogenolysis in liver glucose . - secretion of ACTH of anterior pituitary secretion of glucocorticoids from suprarenal cortex gluconeogenesis (glucose) Thyroxin Secretion, hypothalamus anterior pituitary to secrete TSH thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin which stimulates metabolic activities. Adrenocortical Hormons, hypothalamus anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH stimulate secretion of more glucocorticoids from suprarenal cortex gluconeogenesis (glucose).

Homeostasis Imbalance: - Can lead to many diseases as Diabetes ,hypertension , hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and gout.

Homeostasis

Mohsen R. 2012