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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by eukaryotic protists of the genus Plasmodium

. The disease results from the multiplication of Plasmodium parasites within red blood cells, causing symptoms that typically include fever and headache, in severe cases progressing to coma or death. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. Severe disease is largely caused by Plasmodium falciparum while the disease caused by Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale,[1] and Plasmodium malariae is generally a milder disease that is rarely fatal. Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonosis that causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans.[2][3] Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by distribution of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water (where mosquitoes breed). The challenge of producing a widely available vaccine that provides a high level of protection for a sustained period is still to be met, although several are under development.[4] A number of medications are also available to prevent malaria in travelers to malaria-endemic countries (prophylaxis). A variety of antimalarial medications are available. Severe malaria is treated with intravenous or intramuscular quinine or, since the mid-2000s, the artemisinin derivative artesunate,[5] which is superior to quinine in both children and adults.[6] Resistance has developed to several antimalarial drugs, most notably chloroquine.[7] There were an estimated 225 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2009.[8] An estimated 655,000 people died from malaria in 2010,[9] a 5% decrease from the 781,000 who died in 2009 according to the World Health Organization's 2011 World Malaria Report, accounting for 2.23% of deaths worldwide.[8] Ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, with the majority of deaths being young children. Plasmodium falciparum, the most severe form of malaria, is responsible for the vast majority of deaths associated with the disease.[10] Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, and can indeed be a cause of poverty[11] and a major hindrance to economic development.

Signs and Symptoms:

Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia (caused by hemolysis), jaundice, hemoglobinuria, retinal damage,[13] and convulsions. The classic symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting four to six hours, occurring every two days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, and every three days for P. malariae.[14] P. falciparum can have recurrent fever every 36–48 hours or a less pronounced and almost continuous fever. For reasons that are poorly understood, but that may be related to high intracranial pressure, children with malaria frequently exhibit abnormal posturing, a sign indicating severe brain damage.[15] Malaria has been found to cause cognitive impairments, especially in children. It causes widespread anemia during a period of rapid brain development and also direct brain damage. This neurologic damage results from cerebral malaria to which children are more vulnerable.[16][17] Cerebral malaria is associated with retinal whitening,[18] which may be a useful clinical sign in distinguishing malaria from other causes of fever.[19] Severe malaria is almost exclusively caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, and usually arises 6–14 days after infection.[20] Consequences of severe malaria include coma and death if untreated—young children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), severe headache, cerebral ischemia, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, and hemoglobinuria with renal failure may occur. Renal failure is a feature of blackwater fever, where hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine. Severe malaria can progress extremely rapidly and cause death within hours or days.[20] In the most severe cases of the disease, fatality rates can exceed 20%, even with intensive care and treatment.[21] In endemic areas, treatment is often less satisfactory and the overall fatality rate for all cases of malaria can be as high as one in ten.[22] Over the longer term, developmental impairments have been documented in children who have suffered episodes of severe malaria.


A Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the cytoplasm of a mosquito midgut epithelial cell in this false-color electron micrograph. falciparum account for about 90% of the deaths from malaria. however.g.[24][25] While P.[26] Parasitic Plasmodium species also infect birds. P. infections by P.[28] Malaria parasites contain apicoplasts. vivax is responsible for the largest number of malaria infections worldwide. P. fatty acid bio-synthesis. these are mostly of limited public health importance. malariae. monkeys.[26] Parasitic Plasmodium species also infect birds. 466 proteins have been found to be produced by apicoplasts[31] and these are now being looked at as possible targets for novel anti-malarial Cause A Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the cytoplasm of a mosquito midgut epithelial cell in this false-color electron micrograph. knowlesi.[27] There have been documented human infections with several simian species of malaria. an organelle usually found in plants. ovale. knowlesi. chimpanzees and rodents. falciparum account for about 90% of the deaths from malaria. P. Malaria parasites are members of the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa). with the exception of P. In humans malaria is caused by P. knowlesi. Malaria parasites are members of the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa). an organelle usually found in plants. these are mostly of limited public health importance. falciparum. P. ovale. P. vivax is responsible for the largest number of malaria infections worldwide. complete with their own functioning genomes. infections by P. vivax and P. however. chimpanzees and rodents.[27] There have been documented human infections with several simian species of malaria. malariae.[28] Malaria parasites contain apicoplasts. vivax and P. [30] To date.[24][25] While P. falciparum. These apicoplast are thought to have originated through the endosymbiosis of algae[29] and play a crucial . P. reptiles. with the exception of P. knowlesi. reptiles. complete with their own functioning genomes. In humans malaria is caused by P. monkeys. These apicoplast are thought to have originated through the endosymbiosis of algae[29] and play a crucial role in various aspects of parasite metabolism e.

but most often it is 4–7 days. with around 50–100 million people infected yearly. DENGU Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes. or into dengue shock syndrome. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive. using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease. people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever. Symptoms include fever. principally A. but only short-term immunity to the others. The incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s. resulting in bleeding. infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no vaccine. where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. muscle and joint pains. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Early descriptions of the condition date from 1779. [30] To date.g.Typically. and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. 466 proteins have been found to be produced by apicoplasts[31] and these are now being looked at as possible targets for novel anti-malarial drugsDengue fever (UK: /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/. and in a small proportion it is life-threatening. Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is endemic in more than 110 countries. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes. work is ongoing on a vaccine. headache. prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites. and its viral cause and the transmission were elucidated in the early 20th century.[4] Therefore.[1][2][3] Others have more severe illness (5%).[6] but are more susceptible to the severe complications. US: /ˈdɛŋɡiː/). The virus has four different types. travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home. aegypti. also known as breakbone fever. fatty acid bio-synthesis.[5] CAUSES .role in various aspects of parasite metabolism e. [1][3] The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3–14 days. low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage.[5] Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common cold and gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea). and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. as well as medication targeted directly at the virus.

[4] Therefore.[1][2][3] Others have more severe illness (5%).[5] Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common cold and gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea). travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. and if this is not tolerated or doesn't provide quick enough treatment.Typically.[1 CHOLERA holera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. and in a small proportion it is life-threatening. but most often it is 4– 7 days.[6] but are more susceptible to the severe complications. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and death in some cases.[1][3] The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3–14 days. people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever.[5] Signs and symptoms . intravenous fluids can also be used. The primary treatment is with oral rehydration solution (ORS) to replace water and electrolytes. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces of an infected but asymptomatic person. Antibiotics are beneficial in those with severe disease to shorten the duration .

[3] If the severe diarrhea and vomiting are not aggressively treated it can. From Latin: rabies. and a rapid pulse RABIES Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. sunken eyes.[2] Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show. the infection is . Note the sunken eyes and decreased skin turgor which produces wrinkled hands The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse painless diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid.[1] These symptoms usually start suddenly.000– 130. depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. A person with severe dehydration due to cholera.[1] The diarrhea is frequently described as "rice water" in nature and may have a fishy odor.[1] It is zoonotic (i. ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. transmitted by animals).[1] An untreated person with cholera may produce 10–20 litres of diarrhea a day[1] with fatal results. most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. one to five days after ingestion of the bacteria. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans.e. within hours.and severity.[2] Cholera has been nicknamed the "blue death" due to a patient's skin turning a bluish gray hue from extreme loss of fluids. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. Worldwide it affects 3–5 million people and causes 100.000 deaths a year as of 2010.[1] The typical symptoms of dehydration include low blood pressure. result in life-threatening dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. For a human. Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by epidemiological methods SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. poor skin turgor (wrinkled hands). For every symptomatic person there are 3 to 100 people who get the infection but remain asymptomatic..

Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms.[2] Worldwide. violent movements. the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis. paranoia. however.effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise. hallucinations. Japan. roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites. Soon after. In 2005. and hydrophobia. cerebral dysfunction. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency. the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol. the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy. including Australia. progressing to acute pain. abnormal behavior. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks. transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected .[9] TYPHOID Typhoid fever. and the United Kingdom. also known as Typhoid. anxiety. rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely.[8] and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. shows panic when presented with liquids to drink. in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed. uncontrolled excitement. eventually leading to coma. depression. but can be as long as two years. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%. confusion.[1] Finally. and cannot quench his or her thirst. progressing to delirium. this can result in hydrophobia. agitation. animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies.[3] In the United States. insomnia. terror.[2][7] The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease.[4] In several countries. headache and fever.[1] is a common worldwide bacterial disease.

the patient lies prostrate with high fever in plateau around 40 °C (104 °F) and . Less commonly. profuse sweating and gastroenteritis. "stupor").[4] The impact of this disease fell sharply with the application of modern sanitation techniques. In the first week. The classic Widal test is negative in the first week. with eosinopenia and relative lymphocytosis.[2][3] The bacteria then perforate through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages. a positive reaction and blood cultures are positive for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi. such as gastric fever. A bloody nose (epistaxis) is seen in a quarter of cases and abdominal pain is also possible. This fever received various names. a rash of flat. slow fever. abdominal typhus. malaise. In the second week of the infection.6°F – human body temperature. there is a slowly rising temperature with relative bradycardia. The bacterium grows best at 37°C / 98.[5] Classically. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Typhoid fever is characterized by a slowly progressive fever as high as 40 °C (104 °F). headache.person. the course of untreated typhoid fever is divided into four individual stages. etc. each lasting approximately one week. pythogenic fever. which contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica. serovar Typhi. nervous fever. The organism is a Gram-negative short bacillus that is motile due to its peritrichous flagella. and cough. The name of "typhoid" comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus (from Greek τῦϕος. rose-colored spots may appear. infantile remittant fever. a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells. There is leukopenia.

a number of complications can occur: Intestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding in congested Peyer's patches. classically with a dicrotic pulse wave. constipation is also frequent. Intestinal perforation in the distal ileum: this is a very serious complication and is frequently fatal. The abdomen is distended and painful in the right lower quadrant where borborygmi can be heard. Metastatic abscesses. and there is elevation of liver transaminases. There are rhonchi in lung bases. Blood cultures are sometimes still positive at this stage. green with a characteristic smell. It may occur without alarming symptoms until septicaemia or diffuse peritonitis sets in. frequently calm. with picking at bedclothes or imaginary objects. However. but sometimes agitated. (The major symptom of this fever is that the fever usually rises in the afternoon up to the first and second week. this can be very serious but is usually not fatal. Delirium is frequent.bradycardia (sphygmothermic dissociation). The spleen and liver are enlarged (hepatosplenomegaly) and tender. comparable to pea soup. Diarrhea can occur in this stage: six to eight stools in a day.) In the third week of typhoid fever. cholecystitis. Rose spots appear on the lower chest and abdomen in around a third of patients. endocarditis and osteitis The fever is still very high and oscillates very little over 24 hours. Dehydration ensues and the patient is delirious . This delirium gives to typhoid the nickname of "nervous fever". Encephalitis Neuropsychiatric symptoms (described as "muttering delirium" or "coma vigil"). The Widal reaction is strongly positive with antiO and antiH antibodies.

or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air. sneeze. The classic symptoms are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in (extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. latent infection. night sweats. Diagnosis relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays). blood tests. infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria. It is spread through the air when people who have an active MTB infection cough.[2] Most infections in humans result in an asymptomatic. MTB. a tuberculin skin test.(typhoid state). TB Tuberculosis. and weight loss (the last giving rise to the formerly prevalent colloquial term "consumption"). usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. and in many cases lethal.[3][4] and new infections occur at a rate of about one per second. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination. as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids.[1] Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. which. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with M. kills more than 50% of those infected. fever. By the end of third week the fever has started reducing this (defervescence). if left untreated.[3] In 2007 there were an estimated . and about one in ten latent infections eventually progress to active disease. usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. tuberculosis. Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) is a common. This carries on into the fourth and final week.

runny nose. acute coryza. and sinusitis the sinuses. and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days.[5] and in 2010 8. or a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system which affects primarily the nose. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks. population test positive. pharyngitis the throat. with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks.[7] The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe. Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. and 1. with the common cold primarily affecting the nose.S. Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect. rhinopharyngitis. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Only about 5-10% of those without HIV. while only 5–10% of the U. about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries test positive in tuberculin tests.[6] In addition. mostly in developing countries.45 million deaths. infection with tuberculosis develop active disease. Symptoms include a cough. . sore throat.7 million chronic active cases.[9] Extrapulmonary TB may co-exist with pulmonary TB.8 million new cases.[9] In contrast 30% of those co-infected with HIV develop active disease.[10] COMMON COLD The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis. Well over 200 viruses are implicated in the cause of the common cold. more people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because their immune systems are more likely to be compromised due to higher rates of AIDS.13.[6] The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006 and new cases since 2002. the rhinoviruses are the most common.

meaning liver. meaning "inflammation" (c. and loss of appetite. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The typical symptoms of a cold include cough. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of . the root being hepat. 1727). fatigue.[4] A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections.There is no cure for the common cold but the symptoms can be treated. but often leads to jaundice. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity. headache. and suffix -itis.[3] In adults. a fever is generally not present but it is common in infant and young children.[3] While a cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of influenza in adults. Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms. there is a great deal of similarity between these two conditions.[3] The cough is usually mild compared to that accompanying influenza.[1] A sore throat is present in about 40% of the cases and a cough in about 50%. anorexia (poor appetite) and malaise.[2] while muscle ache occurs in about half. runny nose. The name is from the Greek hepar (ἧπαρ).[5] [6] HYPATITIS Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.[1] The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis. sometimes accompanied by muscle ache. nasal congestion and a sore throat.(ἡπατ-). It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to three colds a year and the average child contracting between six and twelve.

The occurrence of jaundice indicates advanced liver damage. dark urine. some industrial organic solvents and plants). common to almost all acute viral infections and may include malaise. in 5%) or splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen. diarrhea.e. This may become life-threatening and occasionally requires a liver transplant. in which the liver is unable to clear harmful substances from the circulation (leading to confusion and coma due to hepatic encephalopathy) and produce blood proteins (leading to peripheral edema and bleeding). jaundice) and abdominal discomfort.. tiredness and weakness. aversion to smoking among smokers.[3] A small proportion of people with acute hepatitis progress to acute liver failure. Physical findings are usually minimal.[4] Extensive damage and scarring of liver (i. On physical examination there may be enlargement of the liver.e. nausea or vomiting. fever. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Acute Initial features are of nonspecific flu-like symptoms. other infections and autoimmune diseases. certain medications. but it can also be due to toxins (notably alcohol. and often leads to no symptoms at all. in 5%). Some exhibit lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes. More specific symptoms. and headache. [edit]Chronic Chronic hepatitis often leads to nonspecific symptoms such as malaise.hepatitis worldwide. easy bruising and bleeding tendencies. with the total illness lasting 2 to 6 weeks.[2] Acute viral hepatitis is more likely to be asymptomatic in younger people. Symptomatic individuals may present after convalescent stage of 7 to 10 days. It is commonly identified on blood tests performed either for screening or to evaluate nonspecific symptoms. which can be present in acute hepatitis from any cause. muscle and joint aches. are: profound loss of appetite. cirrhosis) leads to weight loss. apart from jaundice in a third and tender hepatomegaly (swelling of the liver) in about 10%. yellowing of the eyes and skin (i. peripheral edema (swelling of the legs) and accumulation of ascites (fluid in the .

Yellow discoloration of the skin. This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid.[4] The term "icterus" itself is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to jaundice that is noted in the sclera of the eyes. for example by gallstones or pancreatic cancer. This is sometimes referred to as scleral icterus. meaning yellow.[1] attributive adjective: icteric) is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin. or less commonly be congenital in origin. oral cavity) is due to carotenemia . JAUNDICE Jaundice (also known as icterus. the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes). especially on the palms and the soles. It may also indicate obstruction of the biliary tract. the sclera themselves are not "icteric" (stained with bile pigment) but rather the conjunctival membranes that overlie them. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The conjunctiva of the eye are one of the first tissues to change color as bilirubin levels rise in jaundice.e. Eventually. however its more common and more correct . but not of the sclera and mucous membranes (i. A concentration higher than 1. Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma does not normally exceed 1 mg/dL (>17µmol/L).abdominal cavity).8 mg/dL (>30µmol/|L) leads to jaundice.[2] The term jaundice comes from the French word jaune. cirrhosis may lead to various complications: esophageal varices (enlarged veins in the wall of the esophagus that can cause life-threatening bleeding) hepatic encephalopathy (confusion and coma) and hepatorenal syndrome (kidney dysfunction).a harmless condition [3] important to differentiate from jaundice. However. and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). The yellowing of the "white of the eye" is thus more properly termed conjunctival icterus.

The disease is a major health problem in many parts of the world. usually rather negative or critical." AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[1][5] It was once believed persons suffering from the medical condition jaundice saw everything as yellow. exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy. left me with the palsied heart. including . wrote: "All seems Infected that th' Infected spy.[7] In 2007. and is considered a pandemic. This susceptibility gets worse as the disease continues. blood transfusion.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2. the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33. AIDS killed 2. including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not affect people with working immune systems. HIV is transmitted in many ways.[4][5] The virus and disease are often referred to together as HIV/AIDS.[1][2][3] The illness interferes with the immune system making people with AIDS much more likely to get infections. childbirth.1 million people in the course of that year. vaginal fluid. vaginal or oral sex. with 2. By extension. contaminated hypodermic needles. or breast milk from an infected person. preseminal fluid. semen.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS."[6] Similarly in the mid-19th century the English poet Alfred Lord Tennyson wrote in the poem Locksley Hall: "So I triumphe'd ere my passion sweeping thro' me left me dry.[6] In 2009. in "An Essay on Criticism" (1711). a disease outbreak that is not only present over a large area but is actively spreading. such as the blood. Alexander Pope. such as anal. It can be transmitted by any contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid that has the virus in it. As all looks yellow to the Jaundic'd Eye. and left me with a jaundiced eye. UNAIDS estimated: 33.0 million annual deaths due to AIDS. and breastfeeding.meaning is entirely synonymous with jaundice. the jaundiced eye came to mean a prejudiced view.2 million people worldwide had AIDS that year.

there is no known cure or HIV vaccine. viruses.[8] According to UNAIDS 2009 report.[9] Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.[12] Although treatments for HIV/AIDS can slow the course of the disease. and 76% of those deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa.[14] These infections affect nearly every organ system.330. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the deaths and new infections from HIV/AIDS. identified in the early 1980s.[10][11] AIDS was first recognized by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause. but these drugs are expensive and the medications are not available in all countries. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria. worldwide some 60 million people have been infected since the start of the pandemic.000 children. cervical cancer and cancers of the immune . fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages. People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma. and 14 million orphaned children in southern Africa alone. with some 25 million deaths. S. with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes in attempts to slow the spread of the virus.[13] Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection. Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS. HIV. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic.

Additionally. chills. and weight loss. people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers. swollen glands. weakness. Pulmonary GTA CHEATS avi swam aeroplane swam helicopter vedant vani swamp bike rocketman swam jetpack getship hesoyam swam ship be rich Unstopable Coach You must be in possesion of a coach which you can find around the Malibu area.[15][16] The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives. sweats (particularly at night). Now use the GRIPISEVERYTHING (type during gameplay) cheat once and the ONSPEED (also typed during gameplay) cheat .system known as lymphomas.

drive down that road (straight) and on your right there should be some parking meters. If you go to a Pay n Spray while doing the mission. You must deliver 50 in a row to complete the mission. the cops will come after you in a short while. but get it quick because it disappears quickly!!! Cherry Popper Ice Cream Mission Description: Use your Mr. When you drive your coach it will send any car including swat vans flying. If the coach starts smoking or its tires pop just type ASPIRINE (like the other.twice. this code is also typed in directly during the game). Unlimited pistol bullets first you need Ocean View hotel and to be able to change clothes[you need to do the first mission for your lawer]. hit them at a really high speed and lots of money should be coming out. A good idea is to sell some ice cream in one area. If they catch you. you will lose your Wanted Stars for a . Important Buttons: [L3] -> plays Ice Cream truck music. or you die.then go outside and kill a cop and take his pistol then go upstairs of Ocean View and go to your room and go to the shirt simbol that says street above it get it then your wanted level will dissapear do this as many times as you like but dont do over 2 stars because getting new clothes with over 2 stars wont do a thing SO BE CAREFULL! Free Money This is not a code.Whoopee to distribute treats to the locals around town. you will fail the mission and have to start over. Since the ice cream is filled with drugs. what you do is go to the hideout at the top of the second island near the stadium and go straight through some barriers so you are outside of the Global Cafe. and then go to another for a new batch of people.

.short while.$10 per salePassword YOUCANTLEAVEMEALONE DEMONSPEED Can't die What it does Makes everything superfast Spawn a helicopter AMERICAHELICOPTER JETCOMES Spawn a jet AIRSHIP Makes big boats fly for a short perioud of time NOISY BIKE Spawn a pcj 600 HOPING GIRL iamricherich Makes girls to hop more money boatcomes spawn boat ... The best place to sell the ice cream is around Pay n Sprays...............$8 per sale All Others.. Here is a list of the money you will make depending on the area of Vice City you are in: Airport.$14 per sale Little Havana.........$12 per sale Starfish Island... such as the Docks area where a lot of people are.$8 per sale Little Haiti......$18 per sale Prawn Island.. It is a good idea to keep your wanted level below 2.. This is key to beating the mission.....