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Lecture 7

Outline
ž  ž  ž  ž 

Algebra of Complex Numbers Phasor Transformation Impedance, Admittance, Reactance, Susceptance Frequency-Domain Circuit Analysis

Outline
ž 
ž  ž  ž 

Algebra of Complex Numbers
Phasor Transformation Impedance, Admittance, Reactance, Susceptance Frequency-Domain Circuit Analysis

Algebra of Complex Numbers
Definition: A complex number consists of a real part and an imaginary part. For example, given

A = a + jb
A is a complex number with real part equal to a and an imaginary part equal to b. Note: j= − 1 . Example: The following complex numbers are expressed in the rectangular-coordinate form.

A = 3 + j4 C = −0.5 − j3

B = 2.5 − j3.5

D = −6 + j4.25

The Complex Plane Definition: The complex plane is a Cartesian coordinate system where the abscissa is for real numbers and the ordinate is for imaginary numbers. j4 j2 -2 E=-4+j3 Imaginary Axis A=3+j4 D=0+j2 C=4+j0 2 4 6 8 Real Axis -8 -6 -4 F=-3-j3 -j2 -j4 B=2.5 .5-j3.

From the figure. we get Imag jb Thus. A = a +b −1 b θ = tan a 2 2 A θ a + Real A = a + jb = A ∠θ . the magnitude and angle of the complex number is specified. Consider the complex number A=a+jb.Polar-Coordinate Form Definition: In the polar-coordinate form.

87° can be expressed as A = 10(cos 36. we get jb A = a + jb = A ∠θ. we can also write A = A (cos θ + j sin θ) For example.87° + j sin 36. A θ a + Real Imag a = A cos θ b = A sin θ Thus.Trigonometric Form Consider the complex number From the figure. A=10∠36.87°) = 8 + j6 .

then A + B = (a + c) + j(b + d) A − B = (a − c) + j(b − d) For example.Addition or Subtraction Addition or subtraction of complex numbers can only be done in the rectangular-coordinate form. given A=8+j6 and B=4+j10 A + B = (8 + 4) + j (6 + 10) = 12 + j 16 A − B = (8 − 4) + j (6 − 10) = 4 − j 4 . Given A = a+jb and B = c+jd.

we get AB = (a + jb)(c + jd) = a(c + jd) + jb(c + jd) = ac + jad + jbc + j2bd Since j2=-1. the product is AB = (ac − bd) + j(ad + bc) .Multiplication Multiplication of complex numbers can be done using the rectangular-coordinate or polar form. Given A = a+jb =|A|∠θA and B = c+jd =|B|∠θB. then in the rectangular-coordinate form.

13o and B=4+j3=5∠36.Given A = a+jb =|A|∠θA and B = c+jd =|B|∠θB.87o AB = (3 + j4)(4 + j3) or = 12 + j9 + j16 + j212 = j25 = 25∠90o AB = 5(5)∠(53. then AB = ( A ∠θA )(B ∠θB ) The rule is multiply magnitude and add angles.87o ) = 25∠90o . We get AB = A B ∠(θA + θB ) For example.13o + 36. given A=3+j4=5∠53.

13o and B=-4-j3=5∠-143.13o . given A=3+j4=5∠53.Conjugate of a Complex Number Definition: The conjugate Imag of a complex number A=a jb +jb=|A|∠θA is defined as A a -jb Real A* = a − jb = A ∠ − θA A* For example.13o A* = 3 − j4 = 5∠ − 53.13 o B* = −4 + j3 = 5∠143.

we get or A a + jb c − jd = • B c + jd c − jd ac − jad + jbc + bd = c2 + d2 A ac + bd bc − ad = 2 +j 2 2 2 B c +d c +d .Division Division of complex numbers can be done using the rectangular-coordinate or polar form. Given A = a+jb =|A|∠θA and B = c+jd =|B|∠θB. then in the rectangular-coordinate form.

13o and B=4-j3=5∠-36.87o o .87o A 5∠53. We get A A = ∠(θA − θB ) B B For example. given A=3+j4=5∠53. then A ∠θA A = B B ∠θB The rule is divide magnitude and subtract angles.13 = = 1∠90o = j1 B 5∠ − 36.Given A = a+jb =|A|∠θA and B = c+jd =|B|∠θB.

Admittance. Susceptance Frequency-Domain Circuit Analysis .Outline ž  Algebra of Complex Numbers ž  ž  ž  Phasor Transformation Impedance. Reactance.

14 cos(ωt + 20o ) A o .Phasor Transformation Define a transformation from the time domain to the complex frequency domain such that f(t) = Fm cos(ωt + α) F( jω) = Fm 2 ∠α For example. given f1(t)=311 cos (377t+60o) volts and F2(jω)=10∠20o Amps F1( jω) = 220∠60 V f2 (t) = 14.

we get vR Transformation gives = RiR = RIm cos ωt VR ( jω) = RIm 2 ∠0o IR ( jω) = Im 2 ∠0 o and VR (jω) Dividing.The Resistor Consider a resistor. we get =RΩ IR (jω) . Let the current be described by iR R + vR - iR = Im cos ωt From Ohm s law.

we get = ωL∠90o = jωL Ω IL ( jω) . Let the current be described by iL L + vL - diL From vL= L . we get vL = −ωLIm sin ωt dt =ωLImcos(ωt+90o) Transformation gives iL = Im cos ωt IL ( jω) = Im 2 ∠0 o and VL ( jω) = ωLIm 2 ∠90o VL ( jω) Dividing.The Inductor Consider an inductor.

we get = = Ω o IC ( jω) ωC∠90 jωC IC ( jω) = Im 2 ∠0 o and VC ( jω) = Im ∠ − 90o .The Capacitor Consider a capacitor. Let the current be described by iC C + vC - Im 1 From vC= ∫ iC dt. we get v C = sin ωt C ωC Transformation gives iC = Im cos ωt 2ωC VC ( jω) 1 1 Dividing.

Outline ž  ž  Algebra of Complex Numbers Phasor Transformation ž  ž  Impedance. Admittance. Reactance. Susceptance Frequency-Domain Circuit Analysis .

respectively. ZC = 1/jωC = -jXC in Ω (4)  XL and XC are the reactance of L and C.Impedance Definition: The ratio of transformed voltage to transformed current is defined as impedance. ZL = jωL = jXL in Ω (3) For a capacitor. . Note: V( jω) Z = I( jω) (1) For a resistor. ZR = R in Ω (2) For an inductor.

YL = 1/jωL =-jBL in Ω-1 (3) For a capacitor. respectively. YC = jωC = jBC in Ω-1 (4)  BL and BC are the susceptance of L and C. 1 I( jω) Y = = Z V( jω) Note: (1) For a resistor. .Admittance Definition: The ratio of transformed current to transformed voltage is defined as admittance. YR = 1/R in Ω-1 (2) For an inductor.

The phasor transformation was defined for a cosine function. .e. Mesh Analysis. V(jω) = Z I(jω) (Ohm s Law) 2. Nodal Analysis. The magnitude is based on the RMS value. The equation describing any impedance is algebraic. no derivatives. i. Superposition. no integrals. All the methods of analysis developed for resistive networks (e.g. 3. Thevenin s and Norton s Theorems) apply to the transformed network. Other phasor transformations exist.Summary 1.

Reactance.Outline ž  ž  ž  ž  Algebra of Complex Numbers Phasor Transformation Impedance. Admittance. Susceptance Frequency-Domain Circuit Analysis .

Network Reduction Impedances in Series: + - Z1 Z2 V(jω) I( jω) Zeq V( jω) = = Z1 + Z2 I( jω) Impedances in Parallel: I(jω) + Zeq Z2 V(jω) Z1 - V( jω) Z1Z2 = = I( jω) Z1 + Z2 I( jω) = = Y1 + Y2 V( jω) Yeq .

Transform the source 8Ω + + i v(t) vL 0.71∠0° volts Convert R and L to impedances ZR = R = 8 Ω ZL = jωL = j(10)(0.6H - - V( jω) = 100 2 ∠0° = 70. Find i(t) and vL(t).Example: Given v(t)=100 cos 10t volts.6) = j6 Ω .

71∠0o o = = 7.87 i(t) = 10 cos(10t − 36.071∠ .36.87°) A .Transformed Network The total impedance is + ZR + I(jω) ZT = ZR + ZL = 8 + j6 Ω V(jω) - VL(jω) ZL - The transformed current is V( jω) 70.71 ∠0 I( jω) = = ZT 8 + j6 o Division of complex numbers We get 70.87 A o 10∠36.

13o V o From the inverse transformation.13o ) V Note: The current i(t) lags the source voltage v(t) by an angle of 36.From Ohm s Law.43 2 cos (10t + 53. we get vL (t) = 42. .43∠53.87o )(j6) = (7.87°.071∠ − 36.071∠ − 36. VL (jω) = I(jω)(ZL ) = (7. we get the inductor voltage.87o )(6∠90o ) = 42.13 ) = 60 cos (10t + 53.

87o = 42.71∠0o ) 8 + j6 6∠90o = (70.We can also apply voltage division to get the voltage across the inductor.71∠0o ) 10∠36.13° V Note: Voltage division is applied to the transformed network.43∠53. ZL VL ( jω) = V( jω) ZL +ZR j6 = (70. .

i2 and i3. + Find i1.2) = j12 Ω ZL2 = jωL2 = j(10) (0.01F 0.Example: Given v(t)=200cos10t volts. - 6Ω 1.01) .5H V( jω) = 200 2 ∠0o = 141.42∠0o V ZL1 = jωL1 = j(10) (1.5) = j5 Ω 1 1 ZC = = = − j10 Ω jωC j(10) (0. v(t) Transform the network.2H i1 i2 5Ω i3 0.

Transformed network + Z1 = 6 + j12 Ω V(jω) Z2 = 5 + j5 Ω ZC = − j10 Ω Z1 I1(jω) I2(jω) Z2 I3 ( jω) ZC Solution 1: Use network reduction to get the input impedance. Z2ZC − j10(5 + j5) Zeq = = Z2 + ZC 5 + j5 − j10 50 − j50 = = 10Ω 5 − j5 Zin = Z1 + Zeq = 16 + j12 Ω .

071∠ − 36.87 ) = 7.071∠ − 36.071∠ − 45o o o = 10.Solve for current I1(jω). ZC − j10 I2(jω) = I1(jω) = (7.42∠0o 141.87° = 7.87o ) Z2 + ZC 5 − j5 (10∠ − 90 )(7.071∠ − 36.87° A Apply current division to get I2(jω).87o A .0∠ − 81. V( jω) 141.42∠0o I1( jω) = = = Zin 16 + j12 20∠36.

87o ) A i3 (t) = 10 cos (10t + 53. i1(t) = 10 cos (10t . and I3(jω).81.Use KCL to get I3(jω).0∠ − 81.14 cos (10t .36. I2(jω).87o = (5.07∠ − 36.24 + j5.9) = 4.87o − 10.13o A Inverse transform I1(jω).07∠53.87 ) A i2(t) = 14.24) − (1. I3(jω) = I1(jω) − I2(jω) = 7.66 − j4.13 o ) A o .66 = 7.41 − j9.

Solution 2: Use mesh analysis. Z1 + Z1 = 6 + j12 Ω V(jω) Z2 = 5 + j5 Ω ZC = − j10 Ω mesh 1: mesh 2: I1(jω) Z2 I3 ( jω) ZC V(jω) = Z1I1(jω) + Z2[I1(jω) − I3(jω)] 0 = ZC I3(jω) + Z2 [I3(jω) .2 = (6 + j12)I1(jω) + (5 + j5)[I1(jω) − I3(jω)] 0 = − j10I3(jω) + (5 + j5)[I3(jω) − I1(jω)] .I1(jω)] Substitution gives 141.

071∠ − 45 = 1∠90o I1(jω) = j1 I1(jω) Substitute in (1) 141.2 = (11 + j17) I1(jω) − (5 + j5) I3(jω) (1) 0 = −(5 + j5) I1(jω) + (5 − j5) I3(jω) (2) From (2). we get 141.2 = (11 + j17) I1(jω) − (5 + j5) jI1(jω) . we get 5 + j5 7.071∠45o I3( jω) = I1( jω) = I ( jω) o 1 5 − j5 7.Simplifying the equations.

2 = (16 + j12) I1(jω) 141.87o A Solve for I3(jω). We get I3 ( jω) = jI1( jω) = (1∠90 o ) I1(j ω) = (1∠90o )(7. We get or 141.2 I1( jω) = = 16 + j12 20∠36.071∠ − 36.2 141.87o ) = 7.071∠ − 36.87o = 7.1 o A .Solve for I1(jω).071∠53.

87o ) A i3 (t) = 10 cos (10t + 53.87 .071∠ − 36.24 + j5.90 = 10.Finally.13 o o = (5. I2(jω) can be found using KCL. o A i1(t) = 10 cos (10t .0∠ − 81.66) = 1.24) − (4. I2(jω).7.14 cos (10t . I2(jω) = I1(jω) − I3(jω) = 7.81.87 Inverse transform I1(jω).41 − j9.66 − j4.071∠53. and I3(jω).13 o ) A o .87 ) A i2(t) = 14.36.

71∠0o V IS ( jω) = 7.Example: Given vs=100cos10t volts + o) is=10cos(10t+30 vs amps.01) . Transform the network 5Ω 0.5) = j5 Ω 1 1 ZC = = = − j10 Ω jωC j(10)(0.01F is VS ( jω) = 70 .5H iX 10Ω .071∠30 o A ZL = jωL = j(10)(0. Find iX.

071∠30 = ⎢ + + ⎥ VX ( jω) − 5 + j5 ⎣5 + j5 10 − j10 ⎦ o .Transformed network Z1=5+j5Ω Z2=10Ω Z3=-j10Ω + Z1 Ix(jω) + VX(jω) Vs(jω) - Z2 Z3 REF Is(jω) Solution 1: Nodal Analysis VX (jω) − VS(jω) VX ( jω) VX (jω) IS(jω) = + + Z1 Z2 Z3 Substitution gives ⎡ 1 1 1 ⎤ 70.71 7.

1 + j0.071∠45o Substitution gives or 7.Evaluate the coefficient of VX(jω) 1 5 − j5 5 − j5 ⋅ + 0.1 5 + j5 5 − j5 50 = 0.071∠30 o + 10∠ − 45o ] .71∠0o = = 10∠ − 45o 5 + j5 7.2 Evaluate the constant term 70.1 = + 0.071∠30o = 0.1 + j0.2VX (jω) − 10∠ − 45o VX ( jω) = 1 0.71∠0o 70.2 [7.

12 + j3. we get iX (t) = 9. using inverse transformation.54 + 7.0 − j17.7 = 68.33∠ − 15 Solve for Ix(jω).83∠ − 15o 10 A Thus.Simplifying. we get Vx (jω) = 5[6.15 ) A o .07 − j7. o V VX ( jω) IX ( jω) = = 6.66 cos (10t .07] = 66.

+ Z1 Is1(jω) Ix1(jω) Vs(jω) Get the input impedance. - Z2 Z3 Zeq Z2Z3 10(− j10) = = Z2 + Z3 10 − j10 − j10 1 + j1 = ⋅ = 5 − j5Ω 1 − j1 1 + j1 Thus. Zin = Z1 + 5 − j5 = 10Ω .Solution 2: Superposition Consider the voltage source alone.

71∠0o Is1( jω) = = = 7.54 A .14∠ − 45 = 5∠ − 45o = 3.071∠0o A Zin 10 Using current division.54 − j3.The source current is Vs ( jω) 70. we get Z3 IX1(jω) = Is1(jω) Z2 + Z3 10∠ − 90o o = (7.071∠0 ) o 14.

Z1 Ix2(jω) + VX(jω) Z2 From KCL.36∠30o V .Consider the current source alone.2VX (jω) or o VX ( jω) = 35. we get Z3 REF Is(jω) ⎡ 1 1 1 ⎤ IS ( jω) = ⎢ + + ⎥ VX ( jω) ⎣5 + j5 10 − j10 ⎦ Substitution gives 7.071∠30 = 0.

77 = 6.83∠ − 15 A iX (t) = 9. we get Ix (jω) = IX1(jω) + IX2(jω) = 3.77 A Thus.6 − j1.06 + j1.54 + 3.06 + j1.77 A Applying.54 − j3. = 6.Solving for the current.15 ) A o o . we get VX ( jω) 35.66 cos (10t .54∠30 = 3. superposition.36∠30 Ix2 ( jω) = = Z2 10 o o = 3.

We get Vs ( jω) + j10Is ( jω) I1( jω) = 5 − j5 .Solution 3: Thevenin s Theorem + For mesh 1. we get Vs(jω) - Z1 + Vth(jω) I1(jω) - Z3 Is(jω) Vs (jω) = Z1I1( jω) + Z3[I1(jω) + Is (jω)] Substitution gives Vs (jω) = (5 + j5)I1(jω) − j10 [I1(jω) + Is (jω)] Solve for I1(jω).

Simplifying.24 = 5 − j5 70.07∠30o ) I1( jω) = 5 − j5 35.71∠0o + j10(7. we get 70.07∠30o ] .71∠60o o = = 10∠105 o 7.36 + j 61.071∠ − 45 The Thevenin voltage is Vth(jω) = − j10 [I1(jω) + Is (jω)] = − j10[10∠105o + 7.

12 + j3.54) = 131.66 + 6. we get Vth(jω) = − j10(−2.6∠ − 15 Find the Thevenin impedance o V Z1 a b Zth = Zab Zth Z3 Z1Z3 (5 + j5)(− j10) = = = 10 Ω Z1 + Z3 5 − j5 .Simplifying.36 = 136.59 + j9.94 − j35.

6∠ − 15o o = = 6.The Thevenin equivalent network Vth( jω) = 136. we put back the 10Ω resistor and solve for the current.6∠ − 15 o V Zth Zth = 10 Ω + Vth(jω) Finally.83∠ − 15 A 20 . - IX (jω) 10Ω Vth( jω) IX ( jω) = Zth + 10 136.