This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The ILO has recently estimated that some 246 million children aged 5-17 years are engaged in child labour around the world. Of these, some 179 million are caught in the worst forms of child labour. Roughly 2.5 million children are economically active in the developed economies, 2.4 million in the transition countries, 127.3 million in Asia and the Pacific, 17.4 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 48 million in Sub-Saharan Africa and 13.4 million in the Middle East and North Africa. Workers under 18 face particular hazards. For example, in the US, the rate of injury per hour worked appears to be nearly twice as high for children and adolescents as adults. Similarly, a survey of 13 to 17 year olds in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1998-99 revealed injury rates ranging from 3 to 19% of children working before or after school. In the developing countries, an ILO study found average rates of injury and illness per 100 children ranging from a low of 12% in agriculture (for boys) to a high of 35% (for girls) in the construction sector. Africa has the greatest incidence of economically active children: 41 percent of children in the continent are at work. On average, more than 30% of African children between 10 and 14 are agricultural workers. In Rwanda, there are an estimated 400,000 child workers. Of these, 120,000 are thought to be involved in the worst forms of child labour and 60,000 are child domestic workers. A recent survey by the Ministry of Public Service and Labour in Rwanda of children involved in prostitution in several large Rwandan cities found that 40% of child prostitutes had lost both of their parents, 94% lived in extreme poverty and 41% had never been to school.
without proper lighting and ventilation . there are some 595. Between 10. Only 3. ineligible for any form of employment under the Employment of Young Persons Act. Of these.000 and 15.9 million children. children as young as eight years old dig 30 metres underground in mines for eight hours a day. only a third had opportunities to learn skills and half came from families that were in a precarious economic situation with difficult living conditions. cooks or sex slaves in Africa. During the peak coffee picking season in Kenya. some 4. between the ages of 5-17. In Tanzania. are working children. .2% of these children have attained a secondary school education and 12. In Tanzania. It has been estimated that as many as 5 million children in Zimbabwe between the ages of five and 17 years are being forced to work in Zimbabwe.000 children from Mali are working on plantations in Côte d'Ivoire. The Government of Kenya has recently reported that 1. Fact Sheet International Labour Office InFocus Programme on Promoting the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work WORK IN FREEDOM According to the Government of Zambia. 58% are 14 or younger and.7% have no formal schooling at all.600 children are estimated to be working in small-scale mining.000 children under the age of 18 are thought to have been coerced into taking up arms as child soldiers. Some 120. it has been estimated that up to 30% of the pickers are younger than 15. thus. messengers. or military porters.000 child workers in Zambia.constantly in danger of injury or death from cave-ins. An IPEC survey of children working in small scale mines in Madagascar showed that more than half (58%) were aged 12 or under.
138) has been ratified by 116 countries. ratified by 117 countries. It is estimated that 50. mainly in agriculture and the informal sector. child prostitution. Uganda. 1973 (No. But we believe in the resources of Asia. Asia: Child labor in Asia is a huge burden.Many of them are victims of child trafficking.000 children are working as domestics in Morocco. in any case. Nigeria. raising general awareness of this problem and building the capacity of institutions with responsibility for child labour. IPEC programmes in more than 75 countries have had considerable impact in both removing hundreds of thousands of children from the workplace. the CRC is monitored by the Committee on the Rights of the Child. cultural and social rights of children. 10 national programmes were launched or expanded in 2000-2001 including Ghana. Mali. We also believe in the vitality and wisdom of child workers themselves. Since its inception in 1992. civil. 1999 (No. focuses on the abolition of the worst forms of child labour for children under 18 years of age. The problem of child labor cannot be solved without the participation of children. ILO ACTION . Niger. In West Africa. Senegal. Burkina Faso. The ILO's Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention. 182). OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS Other relevant international standards include: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Togo and Benin. Zambia. Its aim is the effective abolition of child labour in those children under the age of completion of compulsory schooling or.EXAMPLES The ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) is the world's largest technical cooperation programme on child labour. outlining the economic.000 children are in commercial sexual exploitation. they have their own strategies not only for survival but also their . Ratified by all UN member States except two. In sub-Saharan Africa. the Optional Protocols to the CRC (2000) extending CRC obligations relating to the sale of children. an estimated 35. and. under the age of 15 years. ILO CONVENTIONS The ILO 's Minimum Age Convention. child pornography and to the involvement of children in armed conflict. They have their own analysis of society. The objective of these programmes is the elimination of the worst forms of child labour.
" In May. according to some of the children who managed to return. Jul-Sept 1985 Child Workers in Asia (CWA) was established in 1985 as a support group for child workers in Asia. Since the problem is closely linked to the continent's poverty. According to the ILO. according to his mother. Nayala. We can learn from them. partners of CWA met at the 5th CWA Regional Consultation and reaffirmed the need for Asian NGOs to sustain their role as catalysts for social change. and can only be eliminated with increases in family incomes and children's educational opportunities. And like a number of other countries in Africa. They uncovered a recurring story: countless children. "the highest authorities of our country could not simply cross their arms or close their eyes. the ILO and other groups are focusing initially on the . Child labour rooted in Africa's poverty Campaigns launched against traffickers and abusive work By Ernest Harsch In some of the poorest provinces of Burkina Faso. it launched a campaign. Furthermore. and other groups of children in the worst forms of child labor. often at great risk to their health. and the NGOs working with them. From a small group of five organizations. community leaders and rights activists have begun educating parents about the dangers of child labour. In almost all cases. Eric Bationo. the partners agreed to pursue actions for the identified priority groups of children: child domestic workers. the national government ratified Convention 182 of the International Labour Organization (ILO) prohibiting the worst forms of child labour. have left their families in search of work elsewhere in the country or across the border in neighbouring Côte d'Ivoire.1. secretary-general of Kadiogo province. remain as a part of the major actors in agenda-setting from local to international levels. villages are "haemorrhaging" their children. Photo: © UNICEF / Radhika Chalasani Faced with a clear increase in "such abominable practices. Boniface Coulibaly. we have to. slightly more than 51 per cent of all children in Burkina between the ages of 10 and 14 work. suffering from gangrene. trafficked children.1.from the Editorial of Child Workers in Asia newsletter. was kidnapped in 1997 and did not come back until three years later. It facilitates sharing of expertise and experiences between NGOs and strengthens their collaboration to jointly respond to the exploitation of working children in the region. they ended up in arduous and poorly paid jobs on plantations or in domestic service. In February 1999." stated Mr. several local journalists reported after a recent tour through Sanguié.conditions of work. it now brings together over 50 groups/organizations working on child labor in 14 countries. a child in Réo. mostly under the age of 14. Vol. and ensure children's participation in the formulation of programs and policies. child welfare experts. Local government authorities. For the last fifteen years. Some departed "voluntarily" or at the urging of their parents to escape the severe poverty of their home areas. their conditions in life. No. a number that could rise to 100 million by 2015. CWA has been a venue for interaction between big and small NGOs. Kossi and other parts of that West African nation. bonded child laborers. sometimes beaten or prey to sexual predators. -. even though the labour code bars employment under 14. It has tried its best to support the emergence of local actions for working children and for the promotion of children's rights. The network has strived to contribute to the development of the understanding of the situation of children who work and are exploited. UNICEF. Across Africa. Others were ensnared by labour traffickers. to oppose the practice. supported by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and other agencies. there are an estimated 80 million child workers.
However. Africa accounts for the highest number of children employed and exploited. While experts blame the system. adult unemployment. poverty. prostitution. Beyond this there are almost 55 million bonded child labourers hired across various other industries. In fact. alike. Here is a look at the various labour activities involving children. children are in a pathetic condition. Child Labour in India India accounts for the second highest number where child labour in the world is concerned. in 1976 the Indian Parliament enacted the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act. young ones below the age of 14 have become an important part of various industries. and occupations that are especially dangerous to children's health and security. the fact remains is that this system of working still continues. at the cost of their innocence. child labour in India was allowed to increase with each passing year. they are starved so that people feel sorry for them and give them alms.000 children are employed in the glass and bangle industry and are made to work under extreme conditions of excessive heat. across the length and breadth of India« Bonded Child Labour : This is also known as slave labour and is one of the worst types of labour for children and adults. they sell flowers and other items. herein declaring bonded illegal. Street Children : Children on the streets work as beggars. yet the fact is that the entire nation is responsible for every crime against a child. In fact. Children Employed At Glass Factories : According to recent estimates almost 60. They go hungry for days to gather. childhood. instead of being sent to school. According to certain experts approximately 10 million bonded children labourers are working as domestic servants in India. These include forced labour and slavery. The fact is that across the length and breadth of the nation."worst forms" of child labour. Child Labour in The Agricultural Sector : According to a recent ILO report about 80% child labourers in India are employed in the agriculture sector. Child Labour in Matchbox Factories : . Instead of nipping the problem at the bud. illiteracy. And today. health and for that matter their lives. The children are generally sold to the rich moneylenders to whom borrowed money cannot be returned. employment in the drug trade and other criminal activities.
000 children are employed in the carpet industry of India.00.000 labour force in the matchbox industry. many think it to be a phenomenon that has just begun to surface. However. This is because these regions have been developing and provide a lot of opportunities to earn. beginning work at around 4 am. a minor is an individual below the age of sixteen-years. There are juvenile labourers employed in the workshops and factories. In fact. . Less education opportunities in the rural regions. The Other Industries : According to researchers there are about 50. This is so despite that there have been strict official regulations that ban employment of minors. The high school fees even in the rural regions. According to a recent People's Daily Report the use of children is maximum in the following industries: Toy manufacturing Production Textiles Construction Food production Light mechanical work The reasons for increasing child labour in this country include the following : The number reason. experts claim that 35% are children below the age of 14.000 children employed in the brass industry of India and around the same amount in the lock industry. And according to the laws of China. Carpet Industry Child Labour : According to a recent report by the ILO almost 4. Due to poverty. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA China accounts for the third largest number where child labour is concerned.Of the 2. teenagers and younger children have been migrating to the southern and coastal regions of China. the fact is that child labour in China has been there for years. as for any nation is poverty. They are made to work over twelve hours a day.20. everyday.
week after week. This continued for 16 hours a day. culture and the prospect of future generations. as they realize the value of their own income for their family. then they had to work again. and is often regarded as a form of child abuse or exploitation of children. They were allowed a twohour break. Most children do not tell their parents. Their plan was to work in the weaving industry and return home with lots of money to surprise their parents. When Almayo and Wandamu heard news from their village that their father was seriously ill. Little did they know that they would be trapped in child labour. Now. Many international bodies such as the United Nations (UN) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) have included the abolition of child labor on their agenda. It is written in an anthropological style with no jargons and for the reading pleasure of both academicians and general public. ³I started my education. weaving clothes for the next seven years. MALAYSIA Child labour is a widespread global phenomenon. They were beaten for any mistake they made. ³I¶m happy and excited. An estimated 30 percent of Angolan . the boys travelled 12 hours by bus to the capital. The law on child labor should be modified to take into consideration other factors such as culture. From their village in rural Ethiopia. ETHOPIA When Almayo was 10. a senior government official said on Tuesday. The brothers had to endure terrible working conditions. Most parents are not aware of the grueling circumstance under which their children work. seven days a week. the boys finally found their courage to escape. The brothers have been back home for five years. at age 22. ANGOLA Child labor remains widespread in Angola where many families struggling to make a living after a civil war still rely on their children for money.´ World Vision contributes to Almayo¶s school fees while he works at a part-time job to earn some income for his family.´ he said. Almayo. the place was cold and crowded. years of living in fear and abuse are behind them.The income children bring helps improve to certain extent the financial situation of the family. This in-depth study shows the complexity surrounding the issue of child labor. he and his older brother Wandamu thought they were embarking on an exciting adventure when they ran away from home. is back in school doing Grade Three. slaving away for no money and no hope. Addis Ababa. until midnight. The boys were forced to work from six in the morning until six in the evening. education system and social environment that are important determinants of child labor. and they slept on the floor with other workers. year after year. It reveals that child labor may not be a consequence of poverty which most previous studies emphasized. It is a book for those who are concerned with the Malaysian education system.
Although the oil-rich nation has become one of the world's fastest growing economies after the civil war in 2002. Hundreds of teachers are being hired and new schools built across the country. About 300 people live in the cluster of slum housing around Minas Talco (Talc Mine) where soapstone . much of its wealth has failed to trickle down to the population -.-backed $4 million project aimed at ending child labor in Angola. according to a United Nations report published in 2001. noting the government was building hundreds of schools across Angola. said that although he has found no cases of child slavery. the U. the practice of child labor is widespread in the southwestern African nation." Paula said. In the tiny community where child labour has been an accepted fact of life for many generations. ceramics. Angola's deputy education minister.is extracted in rock form. who survive on an average of less than £2 a day. BRAZIL Brazilian children as young as five are working in unregulated mines. which specialises in labour issues." Luis Cevallos. Angola has one of the worst child mortality rates in the world.S.N figures remain more or less the same today. Experts say that when it comes to Angola. the lead researcher. by gathering talc rocks spread around the mine areas. medicine." he said. The report . "We have found some extreme situations: children carrying weight above their capabilities. locals claim they call Minas Talco which sends a truck to pick them up." Ana Paula. the German chemical company Basf and the German crayon manufacturer Faber-Castell have purchased processed talc from the mine. Cevallos said: "Although there may have been changes here and there. with two in every five children dying before they reach the age of five. The non-governmental Social Observatory. carried out an undercover investigation in the state of Minas Gerais (General Mines) focusing on the deprived community of Mata dos Palmitos near the tourist town of Ouro Preto." Angola's government has pledged to spend over one third of a $42 billion budget for 2009 to improve education and health. according to a report by a Sao Paulo group.called The Age of Stone . Others became orphans of parents who are still alive because their parents rely on them for money. "The government of Angola wants to end this now.a mixture of talc and other minerals . soaps and cosmetics. the children in the impoverished community help their families.almost two thirds of Angolans live on less than $2 a day. But we did not find children who worked without getting paid. "Some children lost their parents to the war. each weighing roughly 18kg. After collection the talc is processed and sold to multi-nationals for use in the production of paints. TEACHERS Asked if the UN figures for 2001 on child labor still reflected Angola's reality. who heads a U. the report still applies.claims that ICI paints. Working for an average of 25 hours a week. and his team witnessed children loading the large talc deposits from the mine into wheelbarrows. Marques Casara. Despite categorical denials from directors of Minas Talco that child labour is used.children aged 5 to 14 years are working and 40 percent do not attend school. When they have collected enough. The 1990 conservation of the . said at a conference. helping to produce talcum used by international companies including the British-based ICI paints. NEW SCHOOLS. paying R$250 (£70) for 12 tons. children working with chemicals and children who work under the sun for long hours. coloured pencils. the team estimate about 20 children from five to 17 years old work informally to assist in the haulage of unprocessed talc ore rocks. "We want to make sure every child goes to school and that every parent has the means of education their children by providing free and compulsory education.
000 per cent and exported.it is impossible that they do not. despite a commitment to eradicate child labour by President Lula da Silva. Both Basf and Faber-Castell said they were appalled by the Social Observatory's findings. It is a fairly direct use of child labour by this company. making enforcement of the code is extremely difficult. denied it had any knowledge of the practice. The products are then marked up by as much as 1. is best known in Britain for its Dulux range "As a socially responsible company Tintas Coral is checking the facts and if the charge is proven will no longer purchase any type of product from this supplier. But the region." The companies contacted by the Social Observatory all reacted with horror to the claims and pledged to cut links with the supplier pending a full investigation. has only six inspectors. helping their families earn the money they need to survive. The company has cancelled its contract with the supplier. which they sold to local companies for about 25p. who worked as a shoeshine boy at the age of eight. which is approximately the size of France. "The children go to school in the morning and in the afternoons many work in the extraction of ore from the mines." said Mr Casara. The company. The report also found that. the Brazilian arm of ICI paints which uses the talc. "Minas Talco know that children work in the collection of rocks because this happens within their land . The research team also found children employed as "artisans" carving sculptures and dishes with soapstone from the same mine. Using child labour is not only a violation of the Brazilian statute but of international codes on child rights of which Brazil is a signatory. In a statement. Tintas Coral. which achieved sales of £5.world-famous Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro was also completed with soapstone extracted from the same mine." a spokesman said in response to the report.6bn in 2004. researchers discovered. only 10 of 30 children were receiving the support of the government programme for the eradication of child labour which pays children R$25 (£7) a month to go to school rather than work .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.