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Determination of DO & BOD in a water sample

© KCl

Objective Using volumetric analysis, the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in a water sample can be found. On standing another sample for 5 days, the difference between these two values is defined as biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5). The aquatic life needs certain amount of DO for survival, whereas the value of BOD reflects the water quality. Principle In alkaline solution, dissolved oxygen will oxidize manganese(II) into manganese(III): 4Mn2+(aq) + 8OH-(aq) + O2(aq) + 2H2O(l) → 4Mn(OH)3(s) The amount of DO can be found by titrating the iodine produced from potassium iodide by manganese(III) with sodium thiosulphate: 2Mn(OH)3(s) + 2I-(aq) + 6H+(aq) → 2Mn2+(aq) + I2(aq) + 6H2O(l) I2(aq) + 2S2O32-(aq) → 2I-(aq) + S4O62-(aq) Chemicals water sample, MnSO4, conc.H2SO4, alkaline KI, standard Na2S2O3, starch solution Apparatus titration apparatus, pipette, 250cm3 volumetric flask x2, beaker, droppers, magnetic stirrer, white tile Procedure 1.> Collect a water sample with two 250cm3 volumetric flasks. Remember to fill the flasks completely with water without trapping any air bubbles.

Until the solution becomes pale yellow.H2SO4 well below the surface. Data Analysis Concentration of standard Na2S2O3 at the first day: 0. and keep in a cool. 6. The difference between 2 DO is defined as BOD5. add about 1 cm3 of MnSO4 solution well below the surface with a dropper.> Similarly. dark place (avoid the photosynthesis of phytoplankton) for 5 days.04935 x 32 = 1.1974) = 0.0149 M Volume of 0.0987 mmol Amount of Mn(OH)3 generated = 0. Stop the flask and using a magnetic stirrer to mix the solution until the precipitate dissolves.04935 mmol = 0. titrate with standard Na2S2O3 solution.25 x 0.1974 mmol Amount of I2 generated = 1/2 (0.00 . add a few drops of starch solution and complete the titration. 7.0149M Na2S2O3 used = 40.> To one of the volumetric flask. 5. 3. Be sure that no air becomes entrapped and then invert the stopped flask to distribute the precipitate uniformly. 4. investigates the sample by repeating the steps 1-5.> While another volumetric flask containing the sample is stopped. introduce about 1 cm3 of conc. without adding any chemicals.> After 5 days.1974) = 0.2.0149M Na2S2O3 used = 13.1974 mmol Amount of O2 present in 200 cm3 of aquarium water at room temperature = 1/4 (0.26.75 = 13.25 cm3 Amount of 0.> Measure 200 cm3 of the acidified sample into a 500 cm3 conical flask.5792 mg Dissolved oxygen (DO0) in aquarium water in the first day at . introduce about 1 cm3 of alkaline KI solution to the same flask.> When the precipitates has settled at least 2 cm below the stopper.0149 = 0.0987 x 2 = 0.

40 .> Avoid exposure to overflow of the solution in volumetric flask.22.1454 mmol Amount of I2 generated = 1/2 (0.45 cm3 Amount of 0.45 x 0.1454) = 0.896 mgdm-3 Precaution 1.0127 M Concentration of standard Na2S2O3 after 5 days: Volume of 0. 4.> At all stages.03635 x 32 = 1.> Handle conc.0727 mmol Amount of Mn(OH)3 generated = 0.H2SO4 with great care.0127 = 0.816 mgdm-3 Biochemical oxygen demand for 5 days (BOD5) = DO5 .5792 ÷ (200x10-3) = 7.DO0 = 2.0727 x 2 = 0.> Keep the set-up in dark before measuring DO5 to avoid . 5.03635 mmol = 0. wear gloves.0127M Na2S2O3 used = temperature = 1. as the blue-black precipitate formed between starch and I2 at high concentration is hard to decolourize. 3. every method should be made to assure that oxygen is neither introduced to nor lost from the water sample.1454 mmol Amount of O2 present in 200 cm3 of aquarium water (stood for 5 days) at room temperature = 1/4 (0.1632 mg Dissolved oxygen (DO5) in aquarium water stood for 5 days at room temperature = 1. 2.> Starch solution should not be introduced too early. as the solution is quite alkaline.1632 ÷ (200x10-3) = 5. 6.95 = 11.0127M Na2S2O3 used = 11.geocities.> Sodium thiosulphate needs to be standardized before use since it will be oxidized by atmospheric oxygen easily.08mgdm-3 © KCl http://hk. if possible.1454) = 0.

it indicates that a lot of organic waste is present and a lot of oxygen is needed to break down the waste.> Oxygen is introduced or lost from the sample. If BOD is high and if the oxygen depleted is greater than the oxygen replenished. 2. If the water sample has a high BOD. e.photosynthesis taken place by microscopic algae in water which will produce oxygen. It can be used as an indicator of water pollution. Dissolved oxygen can be used as an indicator of oxygen content in water. DO0 is 7.> Chlorinated water sample will oxidize I. air bubbles inside volumetric flask. 2.g.> Oxygen dissolved in water is necessary for aquatic life. thus more I2 is formed than expected.90 mgdm-3. It's measured in milligrams of oxygen per litre of water (mgdm-3 / ppm). 3. A minimal amount of DO is needed for survival of aquatic life and reducing odour smell due to anaerobic degradation of organic I2. Natural clean water has a BOD of about 1-4 mgdm-3 only. oxygen is always replenished by air pump and the DO is enough for fishes. Discussion 1. organic debris accumulates and . Biological degradation of waste matter can cause depletion of oxygen whereas aeration can replenish oxygen.> In the experiment. then some fishes may die.> Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the amount of oxygen required to break down the organic matter present in a water sample. Possible Error 1. A low BOD indicates only small amount of organic matter is present but there is still a little organic pollution. This value is higher than the minimum requirement for fishes (4-6 mgdm-3). As the water used is aquarium water.

4. .anaerobic microorganisms begin to multiply. the DO is slightly higher than other water samples.> Since air pump is applied to the water sample continuously. producing unpleasant taste and smell. Conclusion The value of DO and BOD can be used as an indicator of water pollution and the quality of the living environment of aquatic life.