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Welding Institute Pontstraße 49 52062 Aachen Director: Prof. Dr.-Ing. U.



Welding Fabrication Methods II
“Welding Metallurgy”

Hollow spaces/cavities and cracks absorb the radiation to a substantially lesser degree than the metal – thus. The workpiece which is to be tested is penetrated by electromagnetic radiation. E. is mainly responsible for hot crack formation. the X-rays hit the film which is positioned behind the workpiece with varying intensity distributions. [4 P. Which non-destructive testing methods are best for the detection of pores in welds? Please specify and describe the method and explain by means of two general advantages and disadvantages why you have chosen this particular method. when a component is radiographically tested.: Welding over of hollow spaces/cavities. [4 P. shop primers on the surface.: hydrogen or nitrogen pores. different solubilities of gases in different temperatures of the molten metal 2.] Mechanically generated pores: In this case. Please specify and explain both mechanisms. 3. Please explain briefly the mechanisms of their formation and specify also the alloying element. The reason are segregation actions of alloying elements. Two different mechanisms may lead to pore formation in welds.Page 2 Student-ID: Exercise 1 Testing of Materials (40 points) 1. This results in different blackenings/optical densities of the film.] Radiographic testing (X-rays). gases are trapped by the solidifying molten metal. E. gas turbulences and injector effects Metallurgically generated pores: Dissolved gases and/or evaporated material are trapped in the weld metal by the welding process in the form of pores. which.g. .] Solidification crack: Tensile stresses lead to the cracking of the solidifying molten pool in phases with a low melting point.g. Please specify the two types of hot cracks. in steel materials. contaminations on the joint surfaces. [5 P.

low toughness. hit. The impact energy is determined from the residual energy of the hammer.Page 3 Student-ID: Liquation crack: In a previously solid phase the welding heat causes the phases with a low melting point to melt. The responsible alloying element is sulphur. [5 P.] High energy-per-unit length: coarse grain. 6. The tensile stresses which developed through the heat cause cracking in these areas. low strength Low energy-per-unit length: high degree of hardening. Which influence does a simple pass weld of unalloyed and low alloyed steels with too high and/or too low an energy-per-unit length exert on the structure formation in the heat affected zone? [2 P. Please explain how these properties may be improved by a multiple pass welding and which effects cause the improvement. [3 P.] Notch bending test: A notched. shattered or bent with a standardised hammer impact testing machine. subsequently the residual energies are entered into a diagram with regard to time.] Less heat input leads to finer structure: The welding over of the first passes is an additional heat treatment. cuboid specimen is positioned on two counter bearings and is. on the side opposite of the notch. These tests are carried out with different temperatures. higher strength 5. Which testing methods are used to determine the toughness values of steels? Please specify the method. 4. . Large-volume single-pass welds are characterised by unfavourable toughness values. explain in a few words its sequence and sketch the results for a body-centred cubic (bcc) and a face-centred cubic (fcc) steel.

Page 4 Student-ID: 7. elastic moduls and yield point are determined. The necessary force and displacement values are recorded and elongation. [4 P] • • • • ageing cold work hardening solid-solution strengthening grain refinement 8. Please specify four metallurgical mechanisms for the strength improvement of steels. in general until it breaks.] Tensile test: A tensile-test specimen is stretched. Please specify the method for the determination of the strength of steels. tensile strength. [5 P. Explain the test sequence and sketch the test results for the steels S235J2G3 and X5CrNi1810 in two separated diagrams. S235J2G3 Spannung σ [N/ mm²] Spannung σ [N/ mm²] X5 CrNi 18 10 Dehnung ε [%] Dehnung ε [%] .

Please explain the heat treatment method for the reduction of welding residual stresses. the determination of the residual stresses is possible via the depth.] Up to the yield point.Page 5 Student-ID: 9. Toroidal core method: An annular groove is chamfered around a triaxial strain gauge. the bore-hole with a diameter between 1 to 5 mm is drilled. The residual stresses cause deformations which allow conclusions about the degree of the residual stresses. 600 to 650°C 10. [4 P. for the most part. detached from the forces’ compound and the stress is relieved. The core is. Advantage: Only insignificant damage to the surface Disadvantage: Only stresses which are close to the surface are measurable .] Stress relief annealing. in this case also the resiliency of the core is measured. Specify the method and explain the temperature range with which the method is normally carried out. Specify a method for the measurement of residual stresses. Afterwards. strain gauges are fixed around the future bore-hole.] Bore-hole logging: On the workpiece surface. As. Which degree may residual stresses reach in the steel S355J2G3? [2 P. [2 P. Explain the method and name one advantage and disadvantage each. 355 MPa 11.

22%[2P] 5. besides hydrogen concentration.Page 6 Student-ID: Exercise 2 Material Science (40 points) 1.5P] or welding parameter selection [0. How high must the carbon content (%C) generally be in welding of unalloyed steels when cracks as a consequence of hardening shall be avoided? 0. Which influential factors.5P]. Steels with a higher carbon content than those you mentioned in 4 are restrictedly weldable: By which measures may these types of steel be welded without cracks? Please explain the necessary measures in detail.5P].5P] Pre-drying of the flux [1P] and cleanness of the weld preparation [0.5P] for the reduction of the hydrogen input [0.5P]/ flux/electrode coating [0. Which measures effect in practice the decrease of the hydrogen-induced cold cracking? Prolongation of the cooling time [1P] by pre-heating [0. plate paint coat [0. Which parameter is generally taken for the evaluation of the weldability of a lowalloy steel? Carbon equivalent [2P] 6. Cooling conditions/hardness structure [1P] 2.5P]. air humidity [0.5P] 4. welding filler metal: electrode [0.5P].5P] 3. are responsible for the formation of hydrogen-induced cold cracks in the weld? Residual stresses/external stresses [1P]. oils/greases [0. How does the hydrogen enter the weld pool? Base metal [0. .

pearlite decomposition [1P]. coarse grain [1P].5P]) Welding with a high energy input [1P]: similar to pre-heating [1P]. welding method [0.5P]. thus reduction of the risk of hardening [1P]. weld [1P]. Please sketch qualitatively the hardness traverse of a high-strength.5P/0. C-content [0. marking of the axes[0.5P] . pre-heating temperature [1P]= f( wall thickness [0.5P].5P]. Figure 1: Sketch the hardness Härte 310 SL 300 Grundwer kstoff WEZ Schweißgut Härte HV 10 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Messpunkte Härte GW [1P].Page 7 Student-ID: Pre-heating [1P]: Reduction of the cooling speed [1P]. weld shape [0. reduction of the cooling speed [1P] Post-heating [1P] from the welding heat [1P] for the reduction of residual stresses [1P] 7. quenched and tempered fine-grained structural steel in the weld area along the white line in Figure 1.

Specify three characteristic zones in the macro-section. Brinell [1P]. Specify three standardised hardness testing methods. Base metal [1P].Page 8 Student-ID: 8. Diamond tip [1P]. weld metal/weld [1P] 9. 100N [1P] . Rockwell [1P] 10. heat-affected zone [1P]. Vickers [1P]. Explain the material of the appropriate penetrator for a test in accordance with HV 10 and specify the applied force.

Page 9 Student-ID: Exercise 3 Welding of Aluminium Materials (40 points) For weight reduction two different aluminium alloys.5. Which special characteristics of aluminium compared with steel must be considered during welding? Lower melting point. 4. lower heat conductivity1. Which one of the two listed materials belongs to the age-hardenable/heat treatable alloys? Please explain the term. AlMgSi1-. oxide layer with higher melting temperature than liquid metal 2. Please sketch schematically the stress-strain diagram for steel and aluminium. Age-hardenable alloy. 1. have – instead of structural steel . higher heat conductivity. Please sketch/explain schematically the micro hardness traverses for both materials: • • in the initial state.been used for a car body. For the explanation see script. AlMgSi1 and AlMg4. immediately after welding 1 Irrtum? . Al-Legierung Stahl Spannung Dehnung 3. high expansion coefficient.

Which one of the two materials is susceptible to hot cracking and why? Please explain two possibilities for the avoidance of those hotcracks. incubation period overageing See Skript 6.and Si-content Pre-heating Filler material . Reason: critical ( approx. AlMgS1. 5. natural ageing. Please explain the following terms: • • • • artificial ageing. 1%) Mg.Page 10 Student-ID: • • 10 hours after welding after a 10-hour-ageing period in a furnace (heated with 120°C) Please use the attached diagrams in Figure 2.

(1 P) ∆ UP (1 P) UP (1 P) EB EB (3 P) ∆ 3. Hardness = 326 [1] + HV30 [1] [Insgesamt 9P]. The EB weld shall be replaced by a submerged arc weld (SA) with a higher energy-per-unit length. continuous TTT [1]. Please sketch the curves in the given diagrams on the conditions of equal austenitizing temperatures. During test welds of a steel of the quality S440 the cooling times t8/5 were measured in the range between 10 and 11 seconds. Ferrite = 10% [1].Page 11 Student-ID: Exercise 4 TTT Diagram (40 points) 1. Please chose. 2. Please determine the time when the temperatures 800°C and 500°C are reached. . by means of the attached TTT-diagram Figure 4. Figure 3 (left) shows a qualitative time-temperature-diagram (TTT) with the cooling curve of an electron beam weld (EB). Zw = 63 % [1]. the cooling curve which corresponds with these welding conditions. Martensite=27 % [2] . Please designate the expected percentage structure composition and the hardness in the HAZ at room temperature. 800 oC → 0-1s [2]. Isothermal TTT [1]. 500 oC → 10-11s [1]. The right side shows the appropriate timetemperature curve. Please specify two types of time-temperature transformation diagrams (TTT).

yield strength approx. After laser beam welding of a steel of the quality S440 a hardness of 386 HV30 has been measurend in the HAZ. 1100-1150 N/mm2 [3]. Ac1? Ac3 is the temperature of the transition during heating of the two-phase region ) α + ? γ [1] to the one-phase region [1] of the austenite (γ? in hypoeutectoid [3] steels. What is the meaning of the lines in the TTT-diagrams marked with Ac3 .Page 12 Student-ID: 4. 850-870 N/mm2 [3]. Impact energy 10-11 J [tensile strength approx. Please determine the: • • • • • impact energy. strain after fracture/fracture elongation 9-10% [2]. ? [1] Ac1 is the transition from the two-phase region α + M3C [1] to the two-phase region [1] α + γ (hypoeutectoid steels [1]) or to γ + M3C [1] hypereutectoid steels[1]) [Insgesamt 11P] . Please use the attached TTT-diagram and characteristics diagram. tensile strength proof strength/stress elongation after fracture and area reduction at fracture/weld metal reduction of area which are to be expected in the HAZ. weld metal reduction of area 25-27 % [2] [Insgesamt 12P]. 5.

Page 13 Student-ID: Figure 3: TTT diagram and time-temperature curve of an EB welding Figure 4: TTT-diagram and cooling curves of steel S440 .

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