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Welding Fabrication Methods II
shop primers on the surface. The workpiece which is to be tested is penetrated by electromagnetic radiation. E. 3. Two different mechanisms may lead to pore formation in welds. which. This results in different blackenings/optical densities of the film. [4 P.g. The reason are segregation actions of alloying elements.] Radiographic testing (X-rays). Please specify and explain both mechanisms. is mainly responsible for hot crack formation.: Welding over of hollow spaces/cavities. gases are trapped by the solidifying molten metal. E. Please specify the two types of hot cracks. Which non-destructive testing methods are best for the detection of pores in welds? Please specify and describe the method and explain by means of two general advantages and disadvantages why you have chosen this particular method. [5 P.: hydrogen or nitrogen pores. when a component is radiographically tested. Hollow spaces/cavities and cracks absorb the radiation to a substantially lesser degree than the metal – thus. [4 P.Page 2 Student-ID: Exercise 1 Testing of Materials (40 points) 1. Please explain briefly the mechanisms of their formation and specify also the alloying element.g.] Solidification crack: Tensile stresses lead to the cracking of the solidifying molten pool in phases with a low melting point. the X-rays hit the film which is positioned behind the workpiece with varying intensity distributions. . contaminations on the joint surfaces.] Mechanically generated pores: In this case. gas turbulences and injector effects Metallurgically generated pores: Dissolved gases and/or evaporated material are trapped in the weld metal by the welding process in the form of pores. in steel materials. different solubilities of gases in different temperatures of the molten metal 2.
The responsible alloying element is sulphur. shattered or bent with a standardised hammer impact testing machine. 6. explain in a few words its sequence and sketch the results for a body-centred cubic (bcc) and a face-centred cubic (fcc) steel.] High energy-per-unit length: coarse grain. These tests are carried out with different temperatures. hit. higher strength 5. The tensile stresses which developed through the heat cause cracking in these areas. [5 P. Large-volume single-pass welds are characterised by unfavourable toughness values. Which testing methods are used to determine the toughness values of steels? Please specify the method. cuboid specimen is positioned on two counter bearings and is. on the side opposite of the notch.] Less heat input leads to finer structure: The welding over of the first passes is an additional heat treatment.] Notch bending test: A notched. subsequently the residual energies are entered into a diagram with regard to time. low strength Low energy-per-unit length: high degree of hardening.Page 3 Student-ID: Liquation crack: In a previously solid phase the welding heat causes the phases with a low melting point to melt. [3 P. 4. The impact energy is determined from the residual energy of the hammer. Which influence does a simple pass weld of unalloyed and low alloyed steels with too high and/or too low an energy-per-unit length exert on the structure formation in the heat affected zone? [2 P. low toughness. . Please explain how these properties may be improved by a multiple pass welding and which effects cause the improvement.
Page 4 Student-ID: 7. S235J2G3 Spannung σ [N/ mm²] Spannung σ [N/ mm²] X5 CrNi 18 10 Dehnung ε [%] Dehnung ε [%] . tensile strength.] Tensile test: A tensile-test specimen is stretched. Please specify four metallurgical mechanisms for the strength improvement of steels. in general until it breaks. The necessary force and displacement values are recorded and elongation. [4 P] • • • • ageing cold work hardening solid-solution strengthening grain refinement 8. elastic moduls and yield point are determined. [5 P. Explain the test sequence and sketch the test results for the steels S235J2G3 and X5CrNi1810 in two separated diagrams. Please specify the method for the determination of the strength of steels.
Please explain the heat treatment method for the reduction of welding residual stresses. the bore-hole with a diameter between 1 to 5 mm is drilled. detached from the forces’ compound and the stress is relieved. 600 to 650°C 10. Explain the method and name one advantage and disadvantage each.] Bore-hole logging: On the workpiece surface. Specify the method and explain the temperature range with which the method is normally carried out. The core is. [4 P. strain gauges are fixed around the future bore-hole. 355 MPa 11.] Stress relief annealing. Specify a method for the measurement of residual stresses.] Up to the yield point. Which degree may residual stresses reach in the steel S355J2G3? [2 P. the determination of the residual stresses is possible via the depth.Page 5 Student-ID: 9. for the most part. The residual stresses cause deformations which allow conclusions about the degree of the residual stresses. As. Afterwards. [2 P. Advantage: Only insignificant damage to the surface Disadvantage: Only stresses which are close to the surface are measurable . Toroidal core method: An annular groove is chamfered around a triaxial strain gauge. in this case also the resiliency of the core is measured.
5P]. besides hydrogen concentration.5P]. oils/greases [0.5P] Pre-drying of the flux [1P] and cleanness of the weld preparation [0. plate paint coat [0.22%[2P] 5. Which influential factors. Steels with a higher carbon content than those you mentioned in 4 are restrictedly weldable: By which measures may these types of steel be welded without cracks? Please explain the necessary measures in detail.5P] for the reduction of the hydrogen input [0.5P]. . How does the hydrogen enter the weld pool? Base metal [0. How high must the carbon content (%C) generally be in welding of unalloyed steels when cracks as a consequence of hardening shall be avoided? 0.5P] 4. Which measures effect in practice the decrease of the hydrogen-induced cold cracking? Prolongation of the cooling time [1P] by pre-heating [0. Cooling conditions/hardness structure [1P] 2.Page 6 Student-ID: Exercise 2 Material Science (40 points) 1. are responsible for the formation of hydrogen-induced cold cracks in the weld? Residual stresses/external stresses [1P]. welding filler metal: electrode [0.5P]/ flux/electrode coating [0. air humidity [0. Which parameter is generally taken for the evaluation of the weldability of a lowalloy steel? Carbon equivalent [2P] 6.5P].5P] 3.5P] or welding parameter selection [0.
5P/0. thus reduction of the risk of hardening [1P].5P].5P]) Welding with a high energy input [1P]: similar to pre-heating [1P].5P]. pearlite decomposition [1P]. coarse grain [1P]. welding method [0.5P].5P] .Page 7 Student-ID: Pre-heating [1P]: Reduction of the cooling speed [1P]. Please sketch qualitatively the hardness traverse of a high-strength. weld [1P]. C-content [0. pre-heating temperature [1P]= f( wall thickness [0. Figure 1: Sketch the hardness Härte 310 SL 300 Grundwer kstoff WEZ Schweißgut Härte HV 10 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Messpunkte Härte GW [1P]. quenched and tempered fine-grained structural steel in the weld area along the white line in Figure 1. marking of the axes[0. weld shape [0. reduction of the cooling speed [1P] Post-heating [1P] from the welding heat [1P] for the reduction of residual stresses [1P] 7.
100N [1P] . weld metal/weld [1P] 9. Vickers [1P]. Brinell [1P]. Rockwell [1P] 10. Specify three standardised hardness testing methods. heat-affected zone [1P]. Base metal [1P]. Explain the material of the appropriate penetrator for a test in accordance with HV 10 and specify the applied force. Diamond tip [1P].Page 8 Student-ID: 8. Specify three characteristic zones in the macro-section.
immediately after welding 1 Irrtum? . 4. Please sketch schematically the stress-strain diagram for steel and aluminium. lower heat conductivity1.5. AlMgSi1 and AlMg4. Which special characteristics of aluminium compared with steel must be considered during welding? Lower melting point. AlMgSi1-. have – instead of structural steel . Which one of the two listed materials belongs to the age-hardenable/heat treatable alloys? Please explain the term. oxide layer with higher melting temperature than liquid metal 2. For the explanation see script.Page 9 Student-ID: Exercise 3 Welding of Aluminium Materials (40 points) For weight reduction two different aluminium alloys. high expansion coefficient. 1.been used for a car body. higher heat conductivity. Please sketch/explain schematically the micro hardness traverses for both materials: • • in the initial state. Age-hardenable alloy. Al-Legierung Stahl Spannung Dehnung 3.
1%) Mg. Which one of the two materials is susceptible to hot cracking and why? Please explain two possibilities for the avoidance of those hotcracks. natural ageing.and Si-content Pre-heating Filler material . incubation period overageing See Skript 6.Page 10 Student-ID: • • 10 hours after welding after a 10-hour-ageing period in a furnace (heated with 120°C) Please use the attached diagrams in Figure 2. 5. Please explain the following terms: • • • • artificial ageing. Reason: critical ( approx. AlMgS1.
continuous TTT .Page 11 Student-ID: Exercise 4 TTT Diagram (40 points) 1. The right side shows the appropriate timetemperature curve. 2. Hardness = 326  + HV30  [Insgesamt 9P]. 500 oC → 10-11s . Isothermal TTT . Please chose. by means of the attached TTT-diagram Figure 4. Ferrite = 10% . (1 P) ∆ UP (1 P) UP (1 P) EB EB (3 P) ∆ 3. . During test welds of a steel of the quality S440 the cooling times t8/5 were measured in the range between 10 and 11 seconds. Please determine the time when the temperatures 800°C and 500°C are reached. 800 oC → 0-1s . Please specify two types of time-temperature transformation diagrams (TTT). The EB weld shall be replaced by a submerged arc weld (SA) with a higher energy-per-unit length. the cooling curve which corresponds with these welding conditions. Please designate the expected percentage structure composition and the hardness in the HAZ at room temperature. Martensite=27 %  . Figure 3 (left) shows a qualitative time-temperature-diagram (TTT) with the cooling curve of an electron beam weld (EB). Please sketch the curves in the given diagrams on the conditions of equal austenitizing temperatures. Zw = 63 % .
Page 12 Student-ID: 4. After laser beam welding of a steel of the quality S440 a hardness of 386 HV30 has been measurend in the HAZ. Please determine the: • • • • • impact energy. 1100-1150 N/mm2 . ?  Ac1 is the transition from the two-phase region α + M3C  to the two-phase region  α + γ (hypoeutectoid steels ) or to γ + M3C  hypereutectoid steels) [Insgesamt 11P] . Impact energy 10-11 J [tensile strength approx. What is the meaning of the lines in the TTT-diagrams marked with Ac3 . yield strength approx. strain after fracture/fracture elongation 9-10% . Ac1? Ac3 is the temperature of the transition during heating of the two-phase region ) α + ? γ  to the one-phase region  of the austenite (γ? in hypoeutectoid  steels. Please use the attached TTT-diagram and characteristics diagram. 5. 850-870 N/mm2 . tensile strength proof strength/stress elongation after fracture and area reduction at fracture/weld metal reduction of area which are to be expected in the HAZ. weld metal reduction of area 25-27 %  [Insgesamt 12P].
Page 13 Student-ID: Figure 3: TTT diagram and time-temperature curve of an EB welding Figure 4: TTT-diagram and cooling curves of steel S440 .
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