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# Single Transistor and Multiple Transistor Amplifiers

SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni

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Overview
Introduction
Modeling

Single Transistor amplifiers
Common emitter/source Common base/gate Common collector/drain Common emitter/source with degeneration

Multiple transistor amplifiers
Common collector-common emitter Common collector-common collector Cascode Simple cascode Active cascode

Differential pairs
DC transfer of common emitter/source pairs DC transfer of common emitter/source pairs with degeneration Small signal characteristics Device mismatch
SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 2

Modeling
Two port modeling
Express the relation between input and output Superposition of the each source contribution

i1 v1

Two port network

i2 v2

i1 = y11v1 + y12 v2 i2 = y21v1 + y22 v2

y11

y12v2 y21v1

y22

SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni

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) Feedback Bilateral Unilateral => y12=0 i1 v1 Zi Gmv1 Zo i2 v2 Other terms Short-circuit transonductance => Gm=y21 Input impedance => Zi=1/y11 Output impedance => Zo=1/y22 Norton to Thevenin Knowing any two parameters leads to the third parameter v av = 2 v1 i2 =0 = −Gm Z o i1 v1 + i2 _ Zi avv1 Zo v2 The key is to understand the effect of loading on performance SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 4 .Modeling (cont.

Common Emitter Large signal Collector current is related to base current Output voltage is defined by considering load line IB = V  IC I S exp i  = V  IB βF  T     V Vo = VCC − RC I S exp i V  T Ri = rπ = Small Signal Input resistance Transconductance Output resistance Open circuit voltage gain βo gm Gm = g m Ro = RC || ro av = − g m (ro || RC ) SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 5 .

Common Source Large signal Output voltage related to input Transition from cutoff => active => triode Vo = VDD − µCox W 2 L RD (Vi − Vt ) 2 Small signal Input resistance Transconductance Output resistance Open circuit voltage gain Ri → ∞ Gm = g m Ro = RD || ro av = − g m (ro || RD ) The maximum voltage gain for CS is proportional to 1/√ID. in contrast to BJT that is independent of current SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 6 .

the input resistance is reduced by (1+b) as well the the current gain Ri = re Gm = gm r 1+ b rπ Ro = RC av = g m RC SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 7 .Common Base Small signal Modifying π-model to T model to decouple the dependent current source between input-output ports Input resistance Transconductance Output resistance Open circuit voltage gain Compare to common emitter.

Common Gate Large signal Not much interesting Small signal Input resistance Transconductance Output resistance Open circuit voltage gain Ri = 1 g m + g mb Gm = g m + g mb Ro = RD av = ( g m + g mb )RD SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 8 .

Common Gate (cont.) Considering a case with ro => bilateral because of feedback provided by output => input resistance depends on output load Small signal Input resistance Transconductance Ri = ro + RD || RL 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro Ro has no effect since this is measured with output shorted Gm = g m + g mb Output resistance Ro = R || (( g m + g mb )ro RS ) SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 9 .

Common Collector Emitter follower Ideally base-emitter voltage remains constant. independent of collector voltage In reality it is not quite constant It is not unilateral Small signal (π model) Input resistance Voltage gain Output resistance Ri = rπ + (β o + 1)(RL || ro ) av = 1 RS + rπ 1+ (β o + 1)(RL || ro ) Ro = rπ + RS || ro βo +1 SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 10 .

Io=100µA. output resistance. SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 11 . and voltage gain of the emitter follower. ro =>∞. rb=0.Example Calculate the input resistance. Assume RS=RL=1kΩ. β=100.

source follows gate voltage In reality. it deviates due to body effect and channel modulation effect Small signal Input resistance Voltage gain Depends on body effect av = g m ro 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro + 1 g m + g mb + 1 1 + ro RL ro RL Ri = ∞ Output resistance Ro = SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 12 .Common Drain Source follower Ideally.

Common Emitter with Emitter Degeneration Adding the resistance to emitter: Reduces the transconductance. and increases output/input resistances Small signal Input resistance Transconductance R    ro + C  βo +1  Ri = rπ + (β o + 1)RE   ro + RC + RE      Output resistance   R   1− E   β o ro Gm = g m    1 + g m RE 1 + 1 + 1      β  g m ro   o    Ro = (rπ || RE ) + ro [1 + g m (rπ || RE )] SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 13 .

Common Source with Source Degeneration Small signal Input resistance Transconductance Output resistance Ri = ∞ Gm = gm 1 + ( g m + g mb )RS Ro = RS + ro [1 + ( g m + g mb )RS ] SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 14 .

Single Transistor Summary Configuration Common Source Source-Follower Common-Gate Common-Emitter Emitter-Follower Common-Base Voltage gain Av > 1 Av ~ 1 Av > 1 Av > 1 Av > 1 Av > 1 Current gain Ai ~ 1 Ai > 1 Ai > 1 Ai ~ 1 Input resistance ∞ ∞ Low Moderate High Low Output resistance Moderate to high Low Moderate to high Moderate to high Low Moderate to high 15 SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni .

but it is a function of loading (input/output resistance) of each stage => need specific analysis Stage 1 Av1 Ri1 Ro1 Ri2 Stage 2 Av2 Ro2 Rin Stage n Avn Ron Some popular combinations Common collector.common emitter & Common collector. input/output impedance adjustments In general.Multiple Transistor Amplifiers In many applications performance of a single stage amplifier is not sufficient to meet various requirements Need to combine multiple transistors to achieve voltage. the overall voltage/current gain is not simply the product of all the stages.common collector Cascode Super source follower Differential pair SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 16 . current.

also gives two stages of current gain Consider a combined transistor Small circuit analysis Input resistance Transconductance Ri = rπ 1 + (β o + 1)(rπ 2 || ro )       1 Gm = g m 2   rπ 1 1+      ( β + 1)r   π2    o Current gain Output resistance SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni β c = β o (β o + 1) Ro = ro 2 17 .Common Emitter Goal: To achieve higher input resistance and gain Operation principle: Ibias provides the DC biasing Q2 appears as load on emitter of Q1 => input resistance increases.Common Collector.

Darlington Configuration Similar to: cc-cc: as discussed cc-ce: but in Darlington collector of Q1 gives feedback path=> reduction of output resistance & increase of input capacitance BiCMOS version finds many applications High input resistance Large transconductance SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 18 .

Cascode Configuration Bipolar version Common emitter.common base Small circuit analysis Input resistance Transconductance Voltage gain Output resistance Ri = rπ 1 Gm = g m1 Av = − βo η SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni     g m 2 ro1  Ro = ro 2 1 +  g r  1 + m 2 o1   βo   19 .

common gate Output resistance can be tuned => limited by power supply voltage and signal swing Small circuit analysis Input resistance Transconductance Output resistance Ro = ( g m 2 + g mb 2 )ro1ro 2 SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 20 Ri → ∞ Gm ≈ g m1 .) MOSFET version: Common source.Cascode Configuration (cont.

Cascode Configuration (cont.) Active cascode Using an amplifier to to provide negative feedback and increases the output resistance Only works at frequencies amplifier has gain SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 21 .

Super Source Follower Goal: Reduce output resistance of source follower => useful if you need to drive a resistive load Small signal Output resistance Ro = 1 1 (g m1 + g mb1 ) g m 2 ro1 SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 22 .

g.. noise sources) and amplify differential input signal Analysis Large signal Bipolar: Linear region 26mV around zero MOSFET: Small signal SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 23 .Differential Pair Goal: to eliminate the common sources (e.

BJT Differential Pair Large Signal Analysis Assuming Rtrail very large and ro can be ignored 2 Steps: Write KCL for input signals to emitter of transistors Relate Ic1 and Ic2 to Itrail Relate output voltages to input voltages 1 Highlights Useful range ~ Linear range ~ <VT ~26mV Voltage gain av = α f I Train RC VT How to increase the useful range? Emitter degeneration SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 24 .

MOSFET Differential Pair Large Signal Analysis Assuming Steps: Rtrail very large and ro can be ignored 2 Write KCL for input signals to emitter of transistors Relate Id1 and Id2 to Itrail Relate output voltages to input voltages Highlights Useful range ~ Linear range 1 2 I Trail W  k '  L ≤ Voltage gain ≈ k ' I Trail RD How to increase the useful range? W/L Over-drive SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 25 .

Example Compare the forward transconductance of a MOSFET differential gain against a bipolar differential gain? (assume ITrail=500µA and k’=100µA/V2. W/L=1.αF=1) 4 I Trail I k' W 2 Vid I d 1 = Trail + − Vid 2 4 L k ' (W / L) g m (max) = ∂I d 1 k ' I Trail W |Vid =0 = ∂Vid 4 L MOSFET BJT  v  1 + exp − i1   V   T ∂I α I g m (max) = c1 |Vi1=0 = F Trail 2VT ∂Vi1 I c1 = α F I Trail g m (max) = 35µA / V g m (max) = 9766 µA / V SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 26 .

in reality they are not A Common mode rejection CMRR = dm Acm ratios (CMRR) Other important ratios Adm Acm− dm Vid/2 -Vid/2 -Vic Adm Adm −cm SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 27 .Differential Pair Small Signal Analysis Breaking analysis to: Differential mode vod = Adm vid + Acm− dm vic voc = Adm −cm vid + Acm vic Common mode Ideally we like Adm-cm=0 and Acm-dm=0.

Differential Pair Small Signal Analysis (cont.) In a balanced differential pair. increase if current in path 1. means current in path 2 decreases by same amount Voltage across Rtrail stay constant Dropping Rtrail makes no difference 1 2 Voltage gain Adm = − g m (R ro ) The gmb has no effect since source to ground stays at a constant potential SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 28 .

Differential Pair Small Signal Analysis (cont.) Due to symmetry. we could assume no current flows between two sections Breaking the circuit into two sections 1 2 Each of these sections present a degenerate source follower configuration Common mode gain Degenerate Source follower Gm = gm 1 + ( g m + g mb )RS Acm = −Gm RD = − g m RD 1 + ( g m + g mb )2 RTrail In case ro>0 Acm = −Gm RD = − gm RD {2 RTrail + ro [1 + ( g m + g mb )2 RTrail ]} 1 + ( g m + g mb )2 RTrail Note: increase of Rtrail leads to increase of CMRR CMRR ≈ 1 + 2( g m + g mb )RTrail SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 29 .

RC=100kΩ.  20 µA  Adm = − g m RC = −   V 100 KΩ = 78  T  Acm = − gm RC = −0. and neglect rb. RTrail=10MΩ.Example Find the differential-mode gain. and differential-mode input resistance for a bipolar differential pair? (assume ITrail=20µA. βο=150. and rµ. ro. common-mode gain. VEE=VCC=5V.005  1  1 + g m RTrail 1 +   β  o   SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 30 .

3-9.Summary Review of various single and two state amplifiers. including differential pairs End of chapter problems: 3-2. 3-7. 3-4. 3-14. 3-24 SJSU EE223 by Koorosh Aflatooni 31 . 3-16.