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JAKUB MAREK BORKOWSKI

Performance of Cell ID+RTT Hybrid
Positioning Method for UMTS

MASTER OF SCIENCE THESIS













EXAMINER: ProIessor Jukka Lempiäinen
M.Sc. Jarno Niemelä




TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
SUBJECT APPROvED BY THE DEPARTNENT
COUNC!L ON DECENBER 10
th
, 2003



Preface

This thesis has been written Ior Master oI Science degree in the Department oI
InIormation Technology at Tampere University oI Technology in Finland. The research
work realized in the Irame oI this thesis has been carried out during my work at the
Institute oI Communication Engineering at Tampere University oI Technology.
I would like to express acknowledgements to my supervisor ProIessor Jukka Lempiäinen
Ior his assistance and excellent guidance. I would also like to thank my colleagues Irom
the research group Jarno Niemelä and Tero Isotalo Ior their helpIul comments and Ior
creating a relaxed and pleasant working atmosphere. I would like to thank Nokia
Networks Ior providing NetAct Planner tool Ior simulations, FM Karta Ior providing the
digital map, and National Agency oI Finland Ior Iunding the work.
I would like to express appreciation to all employees at Institute oI Communication
Engineering under the leadership oI ProIessor Marku RenIors Ior their kindness and help
in daily matters. Moreover, I would like to thank Tarja Erälaukko, Ulla Sittaloppi, and
Elina Orava Ior their great help with all practical arrangements.
Special thanks are directed to Technical University oI Szczecin in Poland, where I have
started higher education and to Tampere University oI Technology Ior the never Iorgotten
time spent in the extraordinary surrounding.
Finally, I would like to express warm thanks to my parents Alina rest in peace and
Marek, and the rest oI my Iamily, especially my cousin ZoIia Ior their love and support.


Tampere, January 9
th
, 2004


Jakub Marek Borkowski
jakub.borkowski¸tut.Ii

Insinöörnikatu 60A 25
33720 Tampere
FINLAND
Tel. ¹358 44 544 8568







Table of Contents

PreIace


Table oI Contents


Abstract


Abbreviations


1. Introduction to Thesis 1
1.1 Research objectives 2
1.2 Thesis organization

2
2. UMTS System Overview 3
2.1 Evoluation oI cellular systems 3
2.1.1 Architecture 3
2.1.2 Standardization 7
2.2 CDMA in cellular radio networks 8
2.2.1 Spread spectrum modulation 9
2.2.2 Multiple access 10
2.2.3 Universal Irequency reuse 11
2.2.4 SoIt handover 11
2.2.5 Power control 11
2.3 WCDMA Ior UMTS 12
2.3.1 Basic terminology 12
2.3.2 Radio interIace protocol 13
2.3.3 MAC protocol and logical channels 14
2.3.4 RLC protocol and Quality oI Service 15
2.3.5 RRC protocol and UE states 16
2.3.6 Transport and physical channels 17
2.3.7 Timing and synchronization 18
2.3.8 Radio Resource Management 19
2.4 Radio propagation channel and environment 24
2.4.1 Radio propagation environments 24
2.4.2 Multipath propagation and RAKE receiver 25
2.4.3 Fading 26
2.4.4 Propagation models

27
3. Location Technologies 29


3.1 Overview 29
3.1.1 FCC E911 accuracy requirements 30
3.1.2 Standardization work 31
3.1.3 Location-based services in the market place 32
3.1.4 Evaluation criteria Ior location technologies 35
3.1.5 Location accuracy degradation sources 36
3.2 Cellular networks positioning methods 39
3.2.1 Cell ID 40
3.2.2 Signal strength 41
3.2.3 Time-biased 42
3.2.4 Angle oI Arrival 49
3.3 Satellite-based positioning methods 50
3.3.1 Introduction to GPS 50
3.3.2 Standalone GPS 51
3.3.3 Wireless Assisted GPS 52
3.4 Hybrid Systems 56
3.4.1 Cell ID ¹ RTT 57
3.4.2 E-CGI 58
3.4.3 AOA ¹ RTT 59
3.4.4 OTDOA ¹ AOA 59
3.5 Location techniques and repeaters

59
4. Detailed study on Cell ID ¹ RTT 63
4.1 Atteinable accuracy 63
4.1.1 Accuracy oI the deIined areas in the diIIerent
topology cases
64
4.1.2 Accuracy oI the deIined areas with repeaters

73
5. System Simulations 77
5.1 Simulation environment 77
5.1.1 Nokia NetACT WCDMA Planning tool 77
5.1.2 Simulation parameters 78
5.2 Simulation results 79
5.2.1 3-sector/65´ with 3 km cell spacing 79
5.2.2 3-sector/65´ with 1 km cell spacing 82
5.2.3 6-sector/65´ with 1 km cell spacing 86
5.2.4 6-sector/33´ with 1 km cell spacing

88
6. Discussion and conclusions 90
ReIerences 93

Abstract

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
International Master Degree program in InIormation Technology
Institute oI Communications Engineering
Borkowski, 1akub Marek: PerIormance oI Cell ID¹RTT Hybrid Positioning Method
Ior UMTS
Master oI Science thesis, p.108
Examiner: ProIessor Jukka Lempiäinen, M.Sc. Jarno Niemelä
Funding: National Technology Agency oI Finland (TEKES)
Department oI InIormation Technology
January 2004

The new generation oI mobile telecommunication introduces a new age in multimedia
services. Mobile positioning is an important Ieature oI UMTS radio networks and plays a
signiIicant role in the current research. Knowledge oI exact location oI user provides
Iirstly saIety but also great market opportunities Ior commerce applications. This area has
been already widely studied, however most oI the accessible research in the Iield
concentrates on complex solutions, whereas basic location methods have not been studied
so detailed.
The objective oI the research done in the Irame oI this thesis is to propose the most
applicable positioning technique providing satisIying accuracy and availability, which
could be deployed in near Iuture in the European UMTS networks.
This thesis considers various available positioning technologies Ior users oI the Iuture
UMTS networks. Detailed analysis is concentrated on the Cell ID¹RTT hybrid
positioning method, which is chosen due to its applicability, availability, and satisIying
accuracy. First, a theoretical accuracy analysis oI diIIerent network topologies Ior rural
and urban environments are made and subsequent, the distribution oI the areas with
diIIerent degree oI accuracy Ior each topology scenario is studied and included in the part
related to availability oI this location method.
The research results presented in the thesis show a slight disagreement between optimum
base station site deployment strategy Ior location services and radio network planning.
However, by changing the power allocation decreasing power Ior the signalling
channels, and thus increasing available power Ior the data transmission, acceptable
outcomes oI the network perIormance have been observed Irom both points oI view.
Finally, general rules Ior radio network planning Irom positioning and netowrk
perIormance perspective have been derived.






Tiivistelmä

TAMPEREEN TEKNILLINEN YLIOPISTO
Tietotekniikan kansainvälinen koulutusohjelma
Tietoliikennetekniikan laitos
Borkowski, 1akub Marek: Solun tunnisteeseen ja kiertoaikaan perustuvan
paikannustekniikan suorituskyky UMTS-verkossa
Diplomityö, 108 s.
Tarkastajat: ProIessori Jukka Lempiäinen, DI Jarno Niemelä
Rahoittaja: TEKES
Tietotekniikan osasto
Tammikuu 2004

Matkaviestinnän uusi sukupolvi tuo mukanaan uusia multimediapalveluja. Paikannus on
tärkeä ominaisuus UMTS-verkoissa, ja alan tutkimus keskittyy tällä hetkellä
voimakkaasti siihen. Matkaviestimen paikan tietäminen antaa käyttäjälleen turvallisuutta,
mutta tuo mukanaan myös uusia markkinoita kaupallisille sovelluksille. Paikannusta on
jo tutkittu laajasti, mutta tutkimus on lähinnä keskittynyt monimutkaisiin sovelluksiin.
Yksinkertaisempia paikannusmenetelmiä ei ole tutkittu yhtä perusteellisesti.

Tätä diplomityötä varten tehdyn tutkimuksen päämääränä on esitellä paikannustekniikka,
joka voitaisiin ottaa käyttöön UMTS-verkoissa, ja joka olisi helposti saatavilla ja tarjoaisi
riittävän tarkkuuden.

Tässä diplomityössä käsitellään useita saatavilla olevia paikannustekniikoita
tulevaisuuden UMTS-verkon käyttäjille. Tarkempi analysointi on keskittynyt solun
tunnisteen ja kiertoajan (Cell ID¹RTT) yhdistävään menetelmään. Syitä tämän
menetelmän valitsemiseen ovat saatavuus, soveltuvuus ja riittävä tarkkuus. Aluksi työssä
tarkastellaan menetelmän teoreettista tarkkuutta eri verkkokonIiguraatioilla sekä tiheään
rakennetussa kaupunki- että harvaan rakennetussa maaseutuympäristössä. Eri
verkkokonIiguraatioden paikannustarkkuuksia ja tarkkuusalueiden jakaumia on vertailtu
kappaleessa, jossa käsitellään tämän paikannusmenetelmän saatavuutta.

Tutkimuksen tuloksissa voidaan havaita vähäisiä ristiriitoja optimaalisessa
tukiasemakonIiguraatiossa paikannuksen ja radioverkkosuunnittelun välillä. Kuitenkin
tehonjakoa muuttamalla vähentämällä signalointiin käytettävää tehoa ja siten lisäämällä
tiedonsiirtoon käytettävää tehoa voidaan saavuttaa molemmilta kannoilta hyväksyttävä
ratkaisu. Lopuksi on johdettu yleisiä sääntöjä radioverkkosuunnitteluun sekä
paikannuksen että verkon suorituskyvyn kannalta.







Streszczenie

UNIWERSYTET TECHNICZNY W TAMPERE
Miçdzynarodowy program magiesterski w inIormatyce
Instytut telekomunikacji
Borkowski, 1akub Marek: Wydajnosc Cell ID¹RTT hybrydowej metody
pozycjonowania dla radiowych sieci UMTS.
Praca magisterska, s.108
Egzaminatorzy: ProIesor Jukka Lempiäinen, Mgr Jarno Niemelä
Finansowanie: Narodowa Agencja Technologii w Finlandii (TEKES) w ramach projektu
MOT (Advanced Techniques Ior Mobile Positioning)
Wydzial InIormatyki
Styczen 2004

Telekomunikacja ruchoma nowej generacji poczatkuje nowa erç uslug multimedialnych.
Pozycjonowanie teleIonow komorkowych jest wazna cecha radiowych sieci UMTS oraz
odgrywa znaczaca rolç w obecnych badaniach naukowych. Znajomosc dokladnej
lokalizacji uzytkownika zapewnia dezpieczenstwo oraz stanowi nieograniczone
mozliwosci dla aplikacji komercyjnych. Ten obszar nauki byl juz szeroko
rozpoznawaany, jednak wiçkszosc dostçpnych wynikow badan koncentruje siç na
zlozonych rozwiazaniach, podczas gdy podstawowe metody lokalizacyjne byly dotad
badane marginalnie.
Celem pracy wykonanej w ramach tej pracy magisterskiej jest zaproponowanie
najbardziej uzytecznej metody pozycjonowania zapewniajacej satysIakcjonujaca
dokladnosc i dostçpnosc, ktora moze byc zaimplementowana w bliskiej przyszlosci w
europejskich sieciach UMTS.
Ta praca magisterska rozwaza rozne technologie pozycjonowania dostçpne dla
uzytkownikow przyszlych sieci UMTS. Szczegolowa analiza jest skoncentrowana na Cell
ID¹RTT hybrydowej metodzie pozycjonowania, ktora zostala wybrana ze wzglçdu a jej
stosowalnosc, dostçpnosc i zadawalajaca dokladnosc.
Najpierw wykonano teoretyczna analizç dokladnosci wybranej metody w roznych
topologiach sieciowych, a nastçpnie zbadano rozklad obszarow z roznym stopniem
dokladnosci dla kazdej konIiguracji sieciowej.
Wyniki badan zaprezentowane w tej pracy pokazuja lekka niezgodnosc miçdzy
planowaniem sieci ze wzglçdu na wydajnosc pozycjonowania i planowaniem sieci w
dotychczasowym ujçciu. Jednak, zmieniajac alokacje mocy zmniejszajac moc dla
kanalow sygnalizacyjnych, i prze to zwiçkszajac dostçpna moc na transmisje danych,
akceptowalne wyniki wydajnosci sieci zostaly zaobserwowane z obu punktow widzenia.
Ostatecznie, ogolne zasady planowania sieci z obu perspektyw pozycjonowania i
planowania sieci zostaly zdeIiniowane.





List of Abbreviations


2G Second Generation
3G Third Generation
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
AC Admission Control
AICH Acquisition Indication Channel
AM Acknowledge Mode
AOA Angle oI Arrival
ASC Access Service Class
ATM Asynchronous Transport Mode
BCH Broadcast Channel
BGCF Breakout Gateway Control Function
BLER Block Error Rate
BMC Broadcast/Multicast Control Protocol
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station Set
BTFD Blind Transport Format Detection
BTS Base Transceiver Station
C/A Coarse Acquisition
CA-ICH Channel assignment indication channel
CAMEL Customized Applications Mobile Enhanced
Logic
CCCH Common Control Channel
CDICH Collision detection indication channel
cdI cumulative distribution Iunction
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
Cell ID¹TA Cell ID ¹ Timing Advance
CERP Circular Error Probability
CGALIES Coordination Group on Access to Location
InIormation by Emergency Services
CID Cell ID
CN Core Network
CPCH Common Packet Channel
CPICH Common Pilot Channel
CS Circuit Switched
CSCF Call State Control Function
CSICH CPCH Status Indication Channel

CTCH Common TraIIic Channel
CVB Cumulative Virtual Blanking
DA Dominance Area
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCH Dedicated Channel
DGPS DiIIerential GPS
DL Downlink
DoP Dilution oI Precision
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel
DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel
DS Direct Spread
DSCH Downlink Shared Channel
DTCH Dedicated Transport Channel
E
b
/N
0
Bit Energy to Noise Ratio
EC European Commission
E
c
/I
0
Chip Energy to InterIerence Ratio
E-CGI Enhanced Cell Global Identity
EDGE Enhanced Data rates Ior GSM Evolution
E-OTD Enhanced Observed Time DiIIerence
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards
Institute
FACH Forward Access Channel
FCC Federal Communications Commissions
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FRAMES Future Radio Wideband Multiple Access
System
GERAN GPRS/EDGE Radio Access Network
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMSK Gaussian Minimum ShiIt Keying
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPRS General Pocket Radio System
GPS Global Positioning System
GSM Global System Ior Mobile Communication
GTD Geometrical Time DiIIerence
HDoP Horizontal Dilution oI Precision
HLR Home Location Register
HO Handover
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data

HSS Home Subscriber Server
HW Hardware
INFSO InIormation Society
IP Internet Protocol
IPDL Idle Period Downlink
LBS Location-Based Service
LC Load Control
LCS Location Services
LMU Location Measurement Unit
LOS Line oI Sight
MAC Medium Access Control
MC Multi Carrier
MGCF Media Gateway Control Function
MGW Media Gateway
MRC Maximal Ratio Combining
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
NB NodeB
NLOS Non Line oI Sight
NRT Non-Real Time
NT Network
ODMA Opportunity Driven Multiple Access
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access
OSA Open System Architecture
OTDOA Observed time DiIIerence oI Arrival
PC Power Control
PCCH Paging Channel (logical channel)
PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
PCH Paging Channel (transport channel)
PCPCH Physical Common Packet Channel
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDCP Packet Data Converge Protocol
pdI probability distribution Iunction
PDoP Position Dilution oI Precision
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PE-IPDL Position Elements IPDL
PHY Physical Layer
PICH Paging Indicator Channel
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
PRN Pseudo Random Noise
PS Packet Switched
PSAP Public SaIety Answering Point
QoS Quality oI Service
RAB Radio Access Bearer
RACH Random Access Channel
RAN Radio Access Network
RLC Radio Link Control
RMSE Root Mean Square oI Squared Error
RNC Radio Network Controller
RRM Radio Resource Management
RT Real Time
RTD Real Time DiIIerence
RTT Round Trip Time
SAS Standalone SMLC
SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
SCH Synchronization Channel
SCP Service Control Point
SERP Spherical Error Probability
SIHO SoIter Handover
SFN System Frame Number
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SGW Signaling Gateway Function
SHO SoIt Handover
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SMLC Serving Mobile Location Center
SPS Standard Positioning Service
SRB Signaling Radio Bearer
SRNC Serving RNC
SV Satellite Vehicle
SW SoItware
TA-IPDL Time Alignment - IPDL
TCH Transport Channel
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TDOA Time DiIIerence oI Arrival
TFCI Transport Format Combinator Indicator
TFI Transport Format Indicator
TM Transport Mode

TOA Time oI Arrival
TPC
TTFF Transmit Power Control
UE Time to First Fix
UL User Equipment
UMTS Uplink
UTC Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services
UTRAN Universal Coordinated Time
UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VDoP UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (ETSI)
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (3GPP)
VLR Vertical Dilution oI Precision
WCDMA Visitor Location Register
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

1
1. Introduction to Thesis


During last Iew decades, Iixed line communication has been a constant powerIul engine
that drives the development oI the communication world. Mobile communication, which
had been in a supplementary position, is entering a level oI magnitude comparable to that
oI wire communication due to perIect mobility through technological innovation.
Nowadays, GSM technology is in use by more then 1 billion subscribers, and moreover it
is expected to continue a growth with an exponential speed in coming years.
The GSM technology is evolving continuously. The current mobile communication
system Iamily consists oI today`s GSM circuit switched network, GPRS (General Packet
Radio Service), EDGE (Enhanced Data rates Ior GSM Evolution), and there is gradually
being introduced third generation radio networks (3G). Each step in mobile
communication technology development naturally increases quality, capacity, and
bandwidth, which in turn lead to widening range oI oIIered services.
The major breakthrough in the mobile systems evolution was introduction oI CDMA-
based radio interIace in the third generation networks, which oIIers greater capacity
together with higher data rates. The deployment oI UMTS provides a Ilexible platIorm
that enables network operators to oIIer a potentially limitless range oI services meeting
the ever-growing needs oI their customers worldwide.
One oI the major Ieatures oI 3G services is the possibility oI estimating the exact user
location. These applications are based on the position oI the user, which is provided
either by telecommunication operator or by a GPS enables terminal, or by combination oI
both. Location based services include emergency services, location oI emergency calls,
navigation inIormation, location sensitive inIormation screening, lost traveler support,
track and trace oI people or objects, mobile workers support, location sensitive games
and many others. Position sensitive applications are huge market opportunity and
simultaneously a great revenue potentials; it is expected that worldwide number oI
location-based services users increases Irom 70 million in 2002 to more then 220 million
in 2005 (According to The Strategis Group). Thus, the issue is now turning to realistic
technology solutions, which could provide accurate and reliable position estimation.
Currently, three oI the location methods have been included in the Third Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP); these are Cell ID, Observed Time DiIIerence oI Arrival
(OTDOA) with Idle Period Downlink (IPDL) enhancement, and Wireless Assisted GPS
(AGPS). Besides those, there are many other proposed techniques Ior location estimation:
Angle oI Arrivals (AOA), which requires implementation oI adaptive antennas and many
enhancements to OTDOA, which have been mainly developed to increase hearability oI
distant pilots. Moreover, there exist also hybrid methods, which combine several
techniques due to better perIormance. All these methods have naturally diIIerent Ieatures,
the most oIten balance-example is that expensive methods provide high accuracy and
availability, and low cost solutions do not provide so satisIied perIormance. ThereIore,
network operators have to decide between price and accuracy.


2
1.1 Research objectives

The goal oI the research perIormed in the Irame oI this thesis was to study possible
solutions Ior mobile positioning and to propose the most applicable technique providing
satisIying accuracy and availability, which could be deployed in reality. Moreover, the
objective oI this work was to present planning rules oI UMTS networks Irom positioning
and radio network planning point oI view.
Positioning is a very wide topic, and it has been already widely studied, however research
done in this Iield concentrates mostly on complex solutions, which require lots oI
investments in order to be deployed. Low cost methods are seen as they are unable to
provide required accuracy Ior modern location-sensitive applications, and thus there is
almost no research available in this Iiled.
In this thesis, it will be shown that Cell ID¹RTT (Round Trip Time) hybrid method can
provide satisIying accuracy and availability together with almost zero deployment costs.


1.2 Thesis organization

Conventionally, thesis starts with the introductory part. The UMTS System Overview
Chapter 2 tells Iirst about general issues concerning CDMA radio interIace, and then the
topic is widen in part describing WCDMA Ior UMTS. System overview is Iollowed by
introduction to positioning Chapter 3 (Location Technologies). Second part presents
detailed study on Cell ID¹RTT, which is chosen as currently the most available
positioning technique Ior UMTS (Chapter 4). It will be shown that this method can
provide surprising good accuracy however only inside certain areas. Then, in Chapter 5,
simulation results will be presented, based on which general rules Ior UMTS planning
providing the best possible availability oI areas with high degree oI accuracy will be
derived. Thesis ends with conclusions, where all studied network topologies will be
compared in sake oI Cell ID¹RTT perIormance (accuracy and availability) and network
perIormance.














3
2. System Overview

The purpose oI this chapter is to present general overview oI the UMTS
system. First, the general issues concerning mobile communication based on
spread spectrum radio interIace are introduced. This is Iollowed by more
detailed description oI FDD WCDMA radio interIace, which is chosen to be
deployed in the European UMTS system. Subchapters covering timing,
synchronization and chosen tasks oI Radio Resource Management are
extended due to ensure a proper understanding oI the Iurther parts oI this
thesis.


2.1 Evolution oI cellular systems

SpeciIications describing mobile telephony are evolving continuously. In this chapter, an
overall development line will be overviewed. Figures presented here are very general;
they represent only key elements and emphasize major changes in the system
architecture. Since Iunctionality oI the Iramework core network elements is not relevant
to the topic oI this thesis, it will not be described in this scope.


2.1.1 Architecture

a) GSM

Figure 2.1 presents the basic architecture oI second-generation mobile networks GSM.
In the Iirst stage oI digital mobile communication, all traIIic (voice and data service) has
been considered in circuit switched domain. DiIIerent users under coverage oI the same
Base Station (BTS) have been separated in time and Irequency. This multiple access
scheme is called Frequency Division Multiple Access / Time Division Multiple Access
(FDMA/TDMA), meaning that each time slot on each Irequency is assigned to a single
user. The basic GSM oIIers data transIers services with rate up to 9.6 kbps, which is
obviously not enough Ior most oI the current services. Together with limited capacity,
needs Ior higher transmission rates were the most signiIicant reasons Ior improving the
system.

4
Fixed / other
cellular
networks
MSC / VLR
Circuit Switched
HLR
BSC
BSS
A
D
Um
Abis

Figure 2.1. The overall architecture of GSM.


b) HSCSD

Since the throughput oIIered by the basic GSM is not suIIicient Ior most oI the
applications, the Iirst modiIication in the world oI mobile telephony was to change the
channel coding and to use several physical channels (time slots) Ior a high rate
transmission. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) oIIers connections Irom 9,6
kbps to 57,6 kbps in uncompressed mode depending on the utilization oI the time slots.
The stage oI High Speed Circuit Switched Data did not bring any major changes into the
overall architecture oI the GSM system, since it requires only minor HW and SW
changes.


c) GPRS / EDGE

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is oIten treated as a phase between the basic GSM
and the actual 3G system. GPRS is the Iirst technology Ior mobile telecommunication, in
which packet data has been considered in the separate, Packet Switched (PS) domain.
Thus, connection to external IP-based networks is carried out smoothly, simultaneously
with more eIIicient utilization oI radio resources. This stage brings signiIicant changes to
the network architecture. TraIIic is divided into two domains; Circuit Switched (CS) core
network remains the same, whereas PS sub-network is totally new. It introduces new
network elements called Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS
Support Node (GGSN). All interchange within PS core network is based on IP. SGSN
does not interpret user data or address, but perIorms TCP/IP header compression; it sends
all packets to speciIied GGSN. In turn, GGSN decides where and how to deliver the
packet, moreover it perIorms optional Iiltering. Depending on the coding scheme and the
number oI used timeslots, transmission rate varies Irom 9,05 kbps up to 171,2 kbps.
However, practically GPRS oIIers transIer speed around 40 kbps. The overall GPRS
architecture is presented in Figure 2.2.
The next step towards higher data rates was the change oI the modulation used in the
physical layer. Enhanced Data rates in GSM Environment (EDGE) uses 8-PSK
5
modulation scheme (instead oI GMSK in basic GSM), in which each symbol consists oI
3 bits oI data. For the network architecture this stage does not introduce any signiIicant
changes, since it only requires minor HW and SW changes in most oI the basic network
elements.

Fixed / other
cellular
networks
MSC / VLR
External ÌP
networks
ÌP
SGSN GGSN
Packet Switched
Circuit Switched
HLR
GERAN
BSC
Um
Abis
Gn
Gr
D
Gb
A

Figure 2.2. The overall architecture of GPRS.


d) 3
rd
generation (3G)

Mobile data communications is evolving quickly because oI the Iast evolution oI Internet,
laptops, and PDAs, simultaneously with gradually increasing requirements oI the
workIorce mobility. 3G systems are intended to oIIer a global mobility with a wide range
oI services. UMTS, as one oI the 3G systems, provides transmission rates up to 2 Mbps,
and thus opens a great opportunity Ior numerous real time applications.
The most signiIicant change in the 3
rd
generation networks is the introduction oI a totally
new radio interIace. The air interIace is based on CDMA technology, which provides
much greater capacity and higher data rates than previous releases oI mobile
communication systems. Since 3G networks will be built on the already existing 2G-
service area, important Ieature oI UMTS is the possibility oI coexistence with 2G
networks.
In the Iirst stage oI 3
rd
generation, the actual core network is mainly based on the GPRS
architecture, but as it can be noticed, diIIerent terminology is used in the case oI 3G
network elements (Figure 2.3) than in GPRS. Naturally, the Iunctionality oI these
elements is also diIIerent. Aspiration in Iurther evolution oI 3G networks seeks the
architecture that all CS sub domain will be replaced by structure based on IP. First step
into the so-called All-IP structure oI the 3G network was proposed in Release 5 (3GPP)
(Figure 2.4). Release 5 introduces two additional domains: IP Multimedia Subsystem and
Service Subsystem. ThereIore, cellular services will be more compatible with Internet
services and packet switched cellular service cooperation will be easier to implement.
Moreover, charging can be carried out more Ilexible. In Iurther releases oI 3GPP, it is
6
expected that IP multimedia services will totally replace CS domain. The IP-multimedia
subsystem will provide new IP multimedia services, which complement the services
traditionally provided by the circuit switched domain. Overall architecture oI All-IP
cellular system is shown in Figure 2.5 |1| |2|.

MSC / VLR
External ÌP networks
ÌP
3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN
Packet Switched
Circuit Switched
HLR
RNC
UTRAN
BSC
GERAN
Fixed/other CS
cellular networks
Ìur
Ìu-CS
Ìu-PS
Ìu
Uu
Ìub

Figure 2.3. The overall architecture of 3G networks.


Framework
AppSe
OSA
SCP
HSS
RAN
SGSN
GGSN
CSCF
MGCF SGW
MGW
GMSC
MGW
MSC
Server
MSC
IN CN Subsystem
Services Subsystem
PS CN Domain
CS CN Domain


Figure 2.4. The overall architecture of 3G, Release 5 (3GPP) networks.
7
UTRAN
GERAN
GRPS CN
IP MuItimedia
Subsystem
Services PSTN/ÌSDN
External ÌP
networks
MGW
S-CSCF
Ì-CSCF
MGCF
BGCF
HSS P-CSCF
MRF
CAMEL
SÌP
OSA

Figure 2.5. The overall architecture of All-IP cellular svstem.


2.1.2 Standardization

The process oI standardization oI 3G system (International Mobile Telecommunication-
2000 (IMT-2000)) Ior mobile communication has been initiated by International
Telecommunication Union (ITU).
In Europe, ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is responsible Ior
UMTS standardization process. In 1998, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
was launched to continue technical speciIication work. 3GPP is a joint project oI regional
standardization bodies: Association oI Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB), China
Communications Standards Association (CCSA), European Telecommunications
Standard Institute (ETSI), Committee T1, Telecommunications Technology Association
(TTA) and Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC).
The organizational structure oI 3GPP is divided into Iive main groups; each oI them is
working on particular area oI UMTS (Radio Access Network, Core Network, Terminals,
Services and System Aspects, GERAN) Figure 2.6.
In order to develop and standardize cdma2000 technology Ior Iurther deployment in the
US, The Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) was Iormed. All 3G standards
are still under constant development.

8
Tecnical Specification
Group Organization
Project Co-ordination Group
(PCG)
TSG
Core Network
CN WG1
Ìu Ìnterface
CN WG2
CAMEL
CN WG3
Ìnterworking with
external networks
CN WG4
Mobility
Management,
Call processing
CN WG5
OSA
TSG GERAN
GPRS/EDGE Radio
Access Network
GERAN WG1
Radio Aspects
GERAN WG2
Protocol Aspects
GERAN WG3
Terminal Testing
TSG RAN
Radio Access
Network
RAN WG1
Radio Layer1
spec.
RAN WG2
Radio Layer 2
and 3 spec.
RAN WG3
Ìub, Ìur, Ìu
Ìnterfaces
RAN WG4
Radio
perfromance &
protocol aspects
TSG SA
Services System
Aspects
SA WG1
Services
SA WG2
Architecture
SA WG3
Security
SA WG4
Codecs
SA WG5
Telecom
Management
TSG T
Terminals
T WG1
Mobile Terminal
conformance
testing
T WG 2
Mobile Termnal
services &
capabilities
T WG 3
Smart card
application
aspects

Figure 2.6. Standardi:ation of mobile telecommunication.


2.2 CDMA in cellular radio networks

Theoretically, it does not matter whether the spectrum is divided into Irequencies, time
slots or codes. However, in the world oI mobile communication, some multiple access
schemes have colossal advantage to the other ones. Code Division Multiple Access has
been originally developed Ior military use. However, it has been later discovered as an
excellent air interIace technology Ior cellular networks. It is currently used in cdmaOne
system in North America, and it has been standardized as the air interIace oI all third
generation networks. In 1999, it was decided by Operators Harmonization Group (OHG),
that there will be three diIIerent CDMA radio interIaces in use in 3G networks: DS-
WCDMA-FDD, DS-WCDMA-TDD and MC-CDMA.
CDMA systems are based on spread spectrum technology. ThereIore, the capacity oI
radio interIace does not have any strict upper limit. Furthermore, radio signal is much
less sensitive to Irequency selective multipath Iading, thus careIul Irequency planning is
not needed anymore and so on. Moreover, CDMA enables new Iunction such as soIt
9
handover. However, Irom the other hand it introduces strict power control requirements.
|5|


2.2.1 Spread spectrum modulation

In CDMA technology systems, the multiple access scheme is based on assigning
particular code Ior each transaction. DiIIerent transmissions are separated by appropriate
spreading code (see Table 2.1).
The general concept oI spreading modulation is presented in Figure 2.7. Firstly, the
narrowband signal is modulated to occupy certain Irequency band, at the output oI initial
modulator we get signal S
n
. In the next step, S
n
is spread to wideband signal S
w
. The
reverse operation takes place at the receiver; the signal is Iirst despread and then the
narrowband signal is demodulated to the initial Iorm.











Figure 2.7. The principle of spread spectrum svstem.












Figure 2.8. The principle of dispreading in the presence of interference.

One oI the most important properties oI wideband signal is its great immunity to
narrowband interIerence. The narrowband noise signal, which is received together with
wideband signal S
w
is a subject oI spreading whereas S
w
is being despread. Then at the
output, the inIormation is again narrowband, whereas spread wideband noise is hardly
visible. Thus, the detection oI the inIormation signal is very easy, and only small portion
oI interIerence energy passes the Iilter and remains as residual interIerence. |3|
Despreading
P
f
Transmitter Receiver
Ìnitial
modulation
Spreading Despreading
Final
demodulation
noise interference
ChanneI
S
n
S
w

S
w

i
n

i
w
S
n

i
wr

10
The ratio between the transmission bandwidth S
w
and the bandwidth oI narrowband
inIormation signal S
n
is denoted as processing gain G
p
.
n
w
p
S
S
G =

(2.1)
The eIIect oI processing gain can be easily seen Irom Figure 2.8 the more processing
gain the system has, the more the power oI uncorrelated interIering signals is suppressed
in the despreading process. Processing gain can be treated as an improvement Iactor in
the SIR oI the signal aIter dispreading.


2.2.2 Multiple access

One oI the key issues in wireless systems is the eIIective use oI radio resources. In other
words, there should be a possibility to provide service to as many users as possible
utilizing Iixed resources. Multiple access is a technique oI sharing radio resources
between users simultaneously connected to a radio network.
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) was a multiple access method used in
analogue cellular networks (1G), where each user uses its own Irequency or pair oI a
Irequencies (Figure 2.9a). A more eIIective scheme oI sharing bandwidth between users
and then enhancing capacity is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) - Figure
2.9b. In the GSM 900 / 1800, the radio interIace is based on TDMA/FDMA. Each
Irequency is divided into 8 timeslots, which makes possible to have several users
simultaneously using the same Irequency.
In 3G cellular networks the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is implemented
(Figure 2.9c). This technique, in turn, shares the radio resources not by dividing the
Irequency domain, but by assigning diIIerent spreading codes Ior each transmission. A
spreading code is a unique code, which can be imagined as a key used by both the
terminal and the network. Each radio transmission end uses this key to open noise-like
transmitted wideband signal (previous Subchapter 2.2.1). |3|










Figure 2.9. Multiple access methods. a) FDMA, b) TDMA, c) CDMA.





Time
Spreading
codes
Power
Frequency
Time
Frequency
Frequency 1,
Channel 1
Frequency 1,
Channel 5
Frequency 1,
Channel 1
Frequency 5,
Channel 5
Frequency
Time
a) b) c)
11
2.2.3 Universal Irequency reuse

In the radio interIace that uses CDMA as multiple access method, all users in the same
cell share the same Irequency spectrum simultaneously. It is also true Ior users in
diIIerent cells in CDMA-based mobile networks. The interIerence tolerance in spread
spectrum transmission allows universal Irequency reuse.


2.2.4 SoIt handover

Handover is one oI the essential Ieatures oI cellular systems. Handovers reIer to the
procedure, in which mobile changes the serving cell. In 2G, FDMA/TDMA systems, a
mobile in handover immediately releases the old connection aIter establishing a new one.
This is called hard handover. In UMTS, thanks to universal Irequency reuse Ieature,
when UE is in the overlapping area oI n neighboring cells, the communication between
terminal and network is maintained via n radio interIaces. The phenomenon is called soIt
handover, iI a connection is established between two sectors belonging to the diIIerent
Node Bs, and soIter handover, iI the cells belong to the same site. SoIt handover (SHO)
improves the quality oI transmission; the macrodiversity gain is achieved by combining
received signals Irom all NodeBs involved in a SHO in the corresponding RNC. The
drawback oI SHO is the increase oI downlink interIerence and capacity overhead. The
number oI available channels in the downlink decreases as the number oI terminals in
soIt handover increases. More inIormation about handovers can be Iound in Subchapter
2.3.7.1.


2.2.5 Power control

CDMA-based cellular systems are known as interIerence limited due to universal
Irequency reuse. ThereIore, it is important to keep the transmit power at the minimum
required level. Power control algorithm ensures that each user in the network receives
and transmits just enough energy to maintain communication link with adequate signal
quality while causing minimal interIerence to other users. Moreover, power control
contributes to reduction oI battery consumption in the terminals. Without power control a
near-Iar eIIect in the uplink would occur in such a way that mobile near to serving base
station could block Iarther users within the same cell. In the downlink, users at the cell
edge would have higher interIerence level due to the inter-cell interIerence compared to
mobiles near base station iI power control was not implemented. More detailed
inIormation in included in Subchapter 2.3.7.2.







12
2.3 WCDMA Ior UMTS

The concept oI Wideband CDMA as a radio interIace Ior mobile telephony has been
Iormed within Future Radio Wideband Multiple Access System (FRAMES) project oI
Advanced Communication Technologies and Service (ACTS).
There have been many proposals Ior the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) air
interIace; they have been grouped into Iive concept groups in ETSI. The Iollowing
groups have been Iormed: WCDMA, Wideband TDMA, TDMA/CDMA, Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Opportunity Driven Multiple Access
(ODMA). The WCDMA concept group achieved the biggest support. The great technical
advantage oI WCDMA when comparing to other radio access methods was the Ilexibility
oI the physical layer Ior accommodation diIIerent services types simultaneously.
WCDMA radio interIace is based on direct sequence CDMA technique |4|. UMTS
standards provide two diIIerent air interIaces: UTRA TDD (UTRA Time Division
Duplex) and UTRA FDD (UTRA Frequency Division Duplex). Since in the Iirst stage oI
UMTS in Europe, the FDD will be deployed, only this approach will be considered in the
scope oI this thesis.


2.3.1 Basic terminology

The WCDMA system uses Iollowing spectrum: 2110-2170 MHz in DL and 1920-1980
MHz in UL. The WCDMA Irame is divided into 15 slots each oI 2/3 ms durations
(duration oI the whole Irame is thus 10 ms). The eIIective bandwidth oI WCDMA is 3,84
MHz, which with guard bands between neighboring carriers is 5 MHz. The symbol in the
WCDMA consists oI chips, which represents the original baseband inIormation bit. The
transIer rate oI the symbol through WCDMA radio interIace is called symbol rate and it
is the Iunction oI chip rate and spreading Iactor. For instance, iI the spreading Iactor
equals 128, it means that one symbol consists oI 128 chips and iI chip rate is 3.84 Mcps,
then one chip in time 26*10
-8
s. Another name oI spreading Iactor is processing gain (G
p
),
and it can be expressed as Iollowing:

( ) actor SpreadingF
ate BearerBitR
Rate SvstemChip
G
p
log 10 log 10 = 





=


(2.2)

where BearerBitRate stands Ior bandwidth oI the baseband data already consisting oI
excessive inIormation like channel coding and error protection inIormation.








13


















Figure 2.10. The WCDMA timeslot.


There are three main codes used in WCDMA system - channelisation codes, scrambling
codes and spreading code(s). Spreading code Ior dedicated channels is simply product od
scrambling code and channelisation code, whereas Ior common channels, the spreading
code is simply a scrambling code (overview oI UTRA FDD channel structure is
presented in Subchapters 2.3.3 and 2.3.6). The utilization oI codes is presented in Table
2.1.1


Code Type Uplink Downlink
Scrambling codes User separation Cell separation
Channelisation codes Data and Control Channels
Irom the same UE (2.3.6)
Users within one Cell


Spreading codes
Separation diIIerent transmissions (2.2.1)

For Common channels. Spreading Code ÷ Scrambling Code
For Dedicated channels. Spreading Code ÷ Scrambling
Code x Channelisation Code

Table 2.1. Code Tvpes and their use.


2.3.2 Radio interIace protocol

The protocols oI the radio interIace (Uu) and the interIace between Core Network (CN)
and UTRAN (Iu) are divided into two planes: user plane and control plane. User plane
P
t
f
SYMBOL
...
C
h
i
p
C
h
i
p
C
h
i
p
C
h
i
p
1/15 of WCDMA Frame = 1 Time Slot
Spreading
codes
14
protocols implement the actual Radio Access Bearer (RAB) service. In other words, all
user inIormation including voice and data is transported via the user plane. Control plane
protocols control RABs and the UE-CN connection; they are used Ior all UMTS-speciIic
control signaling |8|. The purpose oI radio interIace protocols is to establish, release, and
reconIigure RAB services. Radio interIace protocols can be generally divided into three
layers, the Iirst, physical layer (L1), the second, data link layer (L2), and the last, network
layer (L3).






















Figure 2.11. UTRA FDD radio interface protocol architecture.

As presented in Figure 2.11, L2 consists oI the Iollowing sub-layers: Medium Access
Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC), Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC), and
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP). Each block represents an example oI the
corresponding protocol. The dashed lines show interIaces via which RRC (Radio
Resource Control) protocols control the lower layers. Service Access Points (SAP)
between the RLC and MAC sub-layers deIine logical channels and between MAC and
physical layer transport channels (reIerred to 2.3.6). Logical channels deIine the
transmission oI a speciIic type oI inIormation (data, control). Transport channels describe
the transmission between L2 and physical layer |6|.


2.3.3 MAC protocol and logical channels

The main task oI this sub-layer is mapping oI the logical channels onto the transport
channels. The type oI inIormation deIines each logical channel. MAC layer handles the
15
data Ilows with diIIerent priorities. MAC is responsible Ior measuring traIIic oI data
Ilows on logical channels and reporting to RRC (based on this inIormation RRC can
perIorm switching decision between logical channels) and Ior ciphering (Ior transparent
mode RLC). Another Iunction oI MAC sub-layer is Access Service Class (ASC)
selection Ior Random Access Channel (RACH) transmission. The inIormation
transmitted on Physical RACH (PRACH) (access slot and preamble signature) can be
divided between diIIerent ASC in order to provide diIIerent priorities oI RACH usage
(physical channels will be overviewed in 2.3.6). The last important Iunction oI MAC,
which should be mentioned here, is the identiIication oI UEs on common transport
channel in such a way that iI common transport channel carries data Irom dedicated
logical channel (DCCH, DTCH), the identiIication oI UE or UTRAN is included in the
MAC header.








Figure 2.12. Mapping between logical channels and transport channels, a) DL, b) UL.

The general division oI logical channels is Ior these that transIer user data only
transport channels and these, which carry control plane inIormation control channels.
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is used Ior broadcasting system control inIormation
in DL only. The group oI control channels consists oI: Paging Channel (PCCH) Ior
transIerring network paging messages, Common Control Channel (CCCH) Ior sending
control inIormation in both directions (commonly used when UE does not have RRC
connection with the network (NT) and also when UE accesses new cell aIter cell
reselection), and Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH), which is point to point bi-
directional channel maintaining dedicated signaling traIIic (it is established during RRC
connection procedure).
The traIIic channels group in UTRA FDD includes only Dedicated TraIIic Channel
(DTCH) and Common TraIIic Channel (CTCH). DTCH is a dedicated to one UE point-
to-point channel Ior transmitting user plane inIormation only, CTCH is a point-to-
multipoint channel Ior transIer oI dedicated user inIormation (DL only). Related
inIormation can be Iound Irom |7| - |9|.


2.3.4 RLC protocol and Quality oI Service.

Mainly, the aim oI radio link control protocol is to provide segmentation/retransmission
oI payload units and retransmission services Ior both user data - Radio Access Bearer and
control data Signaling Radio Bearer. RLC is conIigured by RRC to operate in one oI
three modes: Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM) and Acknowledged
Mode (AM). TransIer is controlled by Quality oI Service (QoS) settings deIined by
higher layers. Besides these, the Iunctionality oI RLC entities includes: concatenation,
DTCH
DSCH
BCCH PCCH CCCH/CTCH DCCH
BCH PCH FACH DCH
CCCH DTCH/DCCH
RACH DCH CPCH
16
Ilow control, protocol error detection and recovery, polling, ciphering, and padding. The
RLC transIer mode Ior radio bearer is the same in both directions; it is conIigured by
admission control algorithm in the Serving RNC (SRNC) |6|.
Since UMTS has been designed to support various range oI services, it was necessary to
group traIIic oI common nature into the traIIic class with speciIied QoS. 3GPP has
identiIied Iour main classes: Conversational, streaming, interactive and background.
Conversational and streaming classes include real time traIIic (RT), whereas interactive
and background are applied to lower priority, non real time data (NRT).
In Table 2.2, it is shown how transIer modes corresponds to UMTS QoS classes.

QoS class Domain Source statistics
descriptor
RLC transfer
mode
Speech TM CS
Unknown TM
Speech UM

Conversational
PS
Unknown UM
Speech - CS
Unknown TM
Speech

Streaming
PS
Unknown AM or UM
CS - - Interactive
PS - AM
CS - - Background
PS - AM

Table 2.2. RLC transfer modes and QoS classes [7].

2.3.5 RRC Protocol and UE states

Radio Resource Control (RRC) signaling controls the mobility oI a UE in the connected
mode (measurements, handovers, cell updates, etc.). It carries all parameters required to
establish, reconIigure or release radio bearers. RRC signaling is also needed Ior downlink
power control, paging, controlling ciphering, and initial cell (re) selection. RRC messages
carry all control messages generated by higher layers. RRC messages also carry all
parameters required to set up, modiIy, and release L2 and L1 protocol entities.
There are two basic Iunctional states oI UE idle and connected. AIter switching the
mobile on, it stays in the idle mode until a request to establish an RRC connection is sent
to the network. In the idle mode, the corresponding RNC does not have any inIormation
about any individual UE. The connected mode can be divided into operational states,
which deIine the type oI physical channels used by the UE. The transitions between RRC
states are presented in Figure 2.13.






17


















Figure 2.13. RRC States and transitions [7].

In the Cell¸DCH state, the dedicated physical channels are allocated to the UE, and the
UE is known by the Serving RNC (SRNC) on the cell level or active set level (soIt
handover case).
In the Cell¸FACH state, no dedicated physical channels are allocated to the UE, RACH
and FACH are used to transmit small amount oI data and control plane signaling. UE can
listen BCH channel and move to Cell¸PCH via explicit signaling.
In the Cell¸PCH state, UE is known by the SRNC on a cell level, but it can be reached
only by paging. The battery consumption in this state is less than in Cell¸FACH sub-state
due to the Iact that in Cell¸PCH UE can use Discontinuous Reception (DRX).
The last state, URA¸PCH is very similar to Cell¸PCH, except that the UE can execute the
cell update procedure only iI the URA (UTRAN Registration Area) is changed. Any
activity can be initiated by the network via paging request on PCCH or by terminal on
RACH. UE is not known by the SRNC in the cell level. |8| |10|


2.3.6 Transport and physical channels

All data generated by upper layers is transmitted over the air interIace with transport
channels, which are mapped onto the appropriate physical channels (L1). Each transport
channel has Transport Format Indicator (TFI) assigned. It inIorms at each time event,
which data is expected to arrive Irom upper layers to the speciIic transport channel. All
these TFI indicators are then combined in the physical layer to the Transport Format
Combination Indicator (TFCI). TFCI is transmitted in the physical control channel to
inIorm the receiver, which transport channels are active Ior the transmitted physical
Irame. An exception to this rule is indicating the downlink dedicated channels, which
make use oI so-called Blind Transport Format Detection (BTFD).
18
There are two types oI transport channels: common and dedicated channels. Common
channel is a resource divided between all or a group oI users in a cell whereas a dedicated
channel resource is identiIied by a certain code on a certain Irequency and reserved Ior a
single user |8|.
BCH PCH RACH DCH DSCH CPCH
PCCPCH SCCPCH PRACH DPDCH DPCCH PDSCH PCPCH SCH
CPICH
AICH
PICH
CSICH
CD/CA-ICH
FACH

Figure 2.14. Mapping transport channels onto phvsical channels

DCH, the only one dedicated transport channel in UMTS, carries all inIormation intended
to a certain user, all user data and higher layer control inIormation. The content oI the
inIormation carried by this channel is not visible Irom the physical layer point oI view,
thus all higher layer inIormation (data and control) are treated in the same way. DCH is
mapped onto Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) and Dedicated Physical
Control Channel (DPCCH). DPDCH carries all higher layer inIormation, whereas
DPCCH carries physical layer inIormation, which is used e.g., Ior channel estimation and
power control. The bit rate oI DPCCH is constant, while the bit rate oI DPDCH can vary
Irame to Irame.
The dedicated transport channel is characterized by Iollowing Ieatures: Iast power control
(see 2.3.8.2), Iast data rate change and support oI soIt handover. Common channels do
not have soIt handover support, but some oI them can have Iast power control.
Process oI mapping transport channels onto physical layer channels is presented in Figure
2.14. As it can be seen, the diIIerent transport channels are mapped onto diIIerent
physical channels. Additionally, there are many pure physical channels, because they
carry inIormation relevant to physical layer procedures.
Worth noticing here is CPICH (Common Pilot Control Channel), one oI the pure physical
channels. CPICH is transmitted with Iixed power over the cell area (typically 30-33 dBm,
10° oI total NodeB transmission power). Decisions oI handover and cell (re) selection
are made based on, among the other things, E
c
/N
0
measurements oI the CPICH.
ThereIore the power oI CPICH has a signiIicant impact on the network perIormance.


2.3.7 Timing and synchronization

The issue oI synchronization consists oI two key aspects: inter - base station
synchronization and mobile to - base station synchronization.
19
UMTS standards allow both synchronous and asynchronous network mode.
Determination oI the nature and the level oI synchronization between network
Irameworks depends on an operator. In the naturally synchronized networks (Ior instance:
American cdmaOne and CDMA2000), the synchronization is achieved by implementing
external clock reIerence Global Positioning System (GPS). 3GPP standards Ior
European systems describing WCDMA, deIine asynchronous mode, which means that
each base station has an independent time reIerence, and UE does not have any prior
knowledge oI the relative time diIIerence between base stations. However, UE still has to
be synchronized with one or more NodeBs under any oI the Iollowing situations: 1) at the
time oI network access, 2) in cell (re) selection process, 3) during the call setup and 4) in
handovers.
A synchronous deployment has two main advantages over an asynchronous mode.
Namely, due to the Iact that the UE is inIormed oI the timing oI the neighboring base
station, the search times Ior a handover procedure are reduced and the uncertainty is
much smaller than in an asynchronous system. The second plus is the improvement in
availability and latency Ior mobile positioning. However, costs oI deployment are much
higher (satellite receivers are needed).
In order to synchronize the UE and NodeB(s) in an asynchronous system, the UE
demodulates PCCPCH (BCH in L2) physical channel and reads the cell System Frame
Number (SFN). SFN is used as timing reIerence Ior all physical channels, since the
transmission in the uplink is derived Irom the timing oI the downlink physical channels
|11|. Having acquired the PCCPCH, the UE can start cell search procedure with
minimized correlation-window. In the next step oI a synchronization process, the UE
collects all 15 symbols (one Irom each slot in the 15-slot Irame) corresponding to the
secondary synchronization channel. AIter this, the UE can obtain the group number oI the
cell-speciIic long scrambling codes (32 possibilities) and the Irame timing |12|. Finally,
the UE has to correlate with possible cell-speciIic long scrambling codes and decide,
which one was used. In some procedures, Ior instance in soIt handover, the UE does not
have to go through all oI these steps, because the long code number, and thus the long
code group oI the target cell is known beIorehand through neighbor cells list inIormation
|12|. |13|


2.3.8 Radio Resource Management

The aim oI Radio Resource Management (RRM) is to provide an eIIicient utilization oI
the air interIace. RRM has to guarantee service over the planned coverage area and high
capacity with required Quality oI Service (QoS). Functionality oI RRM, which includes
handovers, power control, congestion control (admission control and load control) will be
brieIly overviewed in the Irame oI this subchapter.


2.3.8.1 Soft Handovers

Handover is one oI the important Ieatures oI cellular mobile systems. GSM systems do
not support soIt handovers, which means that immediately aIter establishing connection
20
with the new cell, the old connection is being released. This phenomenon is called hard
handover. As mentioned beIore, one oI the properties oI WCDMA networks is the soIt
handover (SHO) when UE is in soIt handover, dedicated connection is established
between more than one base station. Moreover, in WCDMA systems there are also hard
handovers, which occur between cells oI diIIerent carrier Irequency (inter-Irequency hard
HO), cells oI diIIerent UMTS modes (FDD/TDD or TDD/FDD hard handover), and cells
belonging to diIIerent systems (2G 3G) handover or vice versa.
SoIt handover has a great impact on the network perIormance. It provides macrodiversity
due to the Iact that more than one base station is involved in the communication, and thus
SIR (signal-to-interIerence ratio) is improved aIter combining these signals in DL.
However, soIt handover requires allocation oI additional radio resources Ior all
transmissions; thereIore radio capacity is decreased, as the number oI mobiles in SHO
increases.
The detailed description oI SHO algorithm can be Iound directly in 3GPP speciIication
|14|. Only brieIly picture oI SHO in UTRA will be presented here. As shown in the
Figure 2.15, soIt handover algorithm is based on dynamic thresholds. The decision
whether the cell is qualiIied oI being moved into or removed Irom SHO is made either in
SRNC or in UE. However, all necessary measurements are made in the UE. UE measures
the E
c
/N
0
oI Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) on hearable cells Irom a monitored set. The
list oI cells, which constitutes the monitored set, is included in the System message
distributed to all served mobiles on Broadcast Channel (BCH).
The new cell is added into the active set (AS) (active set is simply a set oI NodeBs
involved in SHO) iI its CPICH E
c
/N
0
measured by the UE is greater than the sum oI best
measured cell already present in the active set (BestS¸AS) and the Iixed threshold
(T¸ADDH usually negative) Ior the certain period oI time (time to trigger), and the active
set is not Iull. In other words the adding threshold can be stated as: T¸ADD ÷
BestS¸AS¹T¸ADDH. Removing cell procedure Irom the active set is based on similar
rules. Namely, iI measured signal Irom the cell in the active set is below removing
threshold Ior a period oI time, then the cell is removed. Removing threshold is again
summation oI BestS¸AS and Iixed threshold - T¸DROPH. The last Iunction oI the soIt
handover algorithm is replacing the worst cell in the active set with the best cell Irom the
monitored set. II active set is not Iull and best measured cell (not in active set) is greater
then T¸REP ÷ BestS¸AS ¹ T¸REPH Ior a period oI time, then the worst cell in active set
is replaced with the best candidate.
21


Figure 2.15. Soft handover algorithm for UTRA [14].


The cells in the active set need to have knowledge oI the service class used currently by
the UE. Thus, iI a new cell is decided to be added to the active set, it shall be inIormed
about new connection, and it needs to know the Iollowing parameters, which are
Iorwarded Irom the SRNC: correction parameters (such as coding schemes), number oI
parallel code channels, and the UE`s ID and its scrambling code. Moreover, the relative
timing inIormation is delivered to the new cell. Based on this inIormation, the new
NodeB can determine the timing oI the transmission initiated in respect to the timing oI
CPICH oI a new cell |14|, |15|. In the same time, the UE needs to know the Iollowing
inIormation received through the existing connection(s): which channelisation code(s) are
used Ior the transmission (channelisation codes Irom diIIerent cells do not have to have
the same length as they are under diIIerent scrambling codes) and relative timing
inIormation. The relative timing inIormation in asynchronous cellular networks is
derived Irom the SFN SFN (System Frame Number) time oIIset between NodeB1 and
NodeB2 measured by the UE (Subchapter 2.3.7 oI this thesis). The SRNC Iilters these
SFN-SFN reports received Irom several UEs in the Measurement Report message and
estimates the relative time diIIerence between NodeBs. Then each NodeB broadcasts the
relative time diIIerence with its neighbors in the System InIormation message. |10|
Further in this thesis, the term soIter handover will be Irequently used, which simply
means the soIt handover between sectors (cells belonging to the same NodeB). The issues
oI inter-Irequency and inter-system handover are quite complex and they are not relevant
to be presented in the scope oI this thesis.




T¸DROPH
T¸REPH
T¸ADDH
22
2.3.8.2 Power Control (PC)

In all CDMA-based cellular radio networks based on CDMA technology, where all users
share the same Irequency, interIerence control is a key issue. For instance, UE located
close to the serving NodeB and transmitting with excessive power can easily block Iar
away users or even the whole cell. Without power control in the downlink, users located
at the cell edge would suIIer Irom a higher interIerence level than users nearby base
station. ThereIore, a speciIic algorithm is needed in all CDMA-based systems in order to
keep the transmission powers at minimum possible level, but high enough Ior providing
demanded service with required quality. Additional advantage oI power control in UL is
that UE`s battery consumption is minimized. The Iunctionality oI PC algorithm can be
divided into three loops: open-loop PC, inner-loop PC and outer-loop PC.

2.3.8.2.1 Open-Loop PC

Open-loop PC algorithm is implemented in both entities in the RNC and the UE. In
uplink, the UE is responsible Ior tuning the initial powers Ior the Iirst preamble oI
PRACH and DPCCH beIore starting the inner-loop PC. In order to calculate the value oI
power oI the Iirst PRACH preamble, then UE collects inIormation about the required C/I
in UL (denoted in 3GPP as constant value) and UL interIerence (deIined in 3GPP as
receiver total wideband power). All this data is broadcast on BCH. The power oI DPCCH
is calculated in similar way |10|. AIter establishing the Iirst DPCCH connection, UE
starts uplink inner-loop PC.
In the DL, the open-loop PC tunes the initial power oI the downlink dedicated channels.
Powers oI the downlink common channels (CPICH, P-SCH, S-SCH and PCCPCH) are
cell-speciIic parameters. Usually, the power oI CPICH is set to 5-10° oI total NodeB
transmission power |8|. CPICH power constitutes a reIerence value Ior other downlink
common channels, typical values are proposed in |7| and |8|.

2.3.8.2.2 Inner-Loop PC

Inner-loop PC, also called Iast closed-loop PC, is used Ior tuning the power oI the
dedicated channels in both directions and Ior CPCH in uplink. This algorithm is based on
the Ieedback inIormation sent via physical channels Irom the other radio-end. This
inIormation allows the UE or NodeB to set its transmission power according to received
SIR level at the other end (NodeB or UE) Ior compensations the Iading phenomenon in
the radio link. In the uplink and the downlink NodeB/UE makes measurements oI the SIR
(Irom uplink DPCCH once per slot) and compares it to the SIR target value (SIR target
value is received Irom outer-loop PC located in RNC). Depending on the relation
between measured SIR and SIR target, NodeB/UE sends suitable command Transmit
Power Control (TPC) bits over downlink (NodeB) or uplink (UE) DPCCH. AIter
reception oI TPC, UE/NodeB increases or decreases its transmission power. There are
two approaches determining minimum number oI TPC to be received in order to change
the transmission power. In the Iirst algorithm, the decision about increasing/decreasing
power is made aIter reception oI at least 5 TPC commands, the power is then tuned with
0,3 kHz Irequency. Other algorithm allows changing the power aIter every received TPC
bit, thus the power can be tuned much more Irequently 1500 times per second.
23
In the case when UE is in soIter handover, the TPC commands are coming Irom the same
base station, and thus they have to be combined into one TPC command. II additionally
UE is in SHO, the Iinal TPC command is Iormulated according to TPC commands
coming Irom other radio links oI diIIerent radio link sets |7|.

2.3.8.2.3 Outer -Loop PC

Uplink outer-loop PC resides in SRNC and its aim is to tune a SIR target in the NodeB,
which is required Ior inner-loop PC. SIR target is calculated according to the estimated
uplink quality (Block Error Rate BLER detected at RNC). In the DL, the outer-loop PC
algorithm is implemented in the UE, and similarly, its goal is to deIine a SIR target Ior
the downlink inner loop PC.


2.3.8.3 Admission Control

Admission Control (AC) manages new connections at RNC. The AC algorithm estimates
the expected load (interIerence) increase beIore adding or modiIying speciIic RAB and
then decides, whether a new Radio Access Bearer should be admitted or a current RAB
should be modiIied.
The politics oI AC can be generally divided into two cases. For real-time (RT) traIIic
(conversational and streaming classes), the decision has to be made according to the
increase oI interIerence aIter adding particular RAB. For non-real-time (NRT) traIIic
(interactive and background classes), the optimum scheduling oI packets (time and bit
rate) must be strictly deIined aIter RAB has been admitted. RT connections have always-
higher priority than NRT ones. Moreover, in case oI two RT connections, CS (circuit
switched) and PC (packet switched), CS traIIic has always higher priority than PS.


2.3.8.4 Load Control

Because load in all CDMA-based networks varies depending on the location, time, and
the service provided, it is necessary to implement Load Control (LC) mechanism. The LC
algorithm measures the load in uplink and downlink, and based on these measurements
tries to maximize the throughput oI the network without degradation in service coverage
area or QoS. In the situation, where there is no more resources to provide, LC decides
what to do. Typically, the throughput oI connections having a low priority (e.g.,
background traIIic) is reduced or even stopped in order to ensure that higher priority
traIIic have enough resources Ior transmission with required quality. The load control
Iunctionality is distributed between NodeB and RNC.






24
2.4 Radio propagation channel and environment

The propagation oI a radio wave in the mobile channel is characterized by multiple
reIlections, diIIractions, and attenuation. All oI these phenomena are caused by natural
obstacles on a way oI the radio path. This chapter consists oI an overview oI diIIerent
phenomena appeared in the radio channel.


2.4.1 Radio propagation environments

The behavior oI the radio wave propagation surely depends on the propagation
environment. Generally, the propagation environment can be divided into outdoor and
indoor.
Depending on the antenna height, the outdoor environment can be classiIied as
macrocellular or microcellular propagation environment (Figure 2.16). When the
antennas are installed above the average rooItop level, the propagation environment is
macrocellular, and correspondingly, when antennas are located below the average rooItop
level, the propagation environment is microcellular.
















Figure 2.16. Macrocellular and microcellular propagation environment [18].

The consecutive classiIication oI macrocellular propagation environment is the division
into three major classes urban, suburban, and rural.
The amount oI multipath propagation and Iading is strongly environment dependent. The
characteristics oI the radio propagation environment are described by angular spread,
delay spread (coherence bandwidth), Iast and slow Iading properties, and propagation
slope. Angular spread describes the deviation oI the signal incident angle at the receiving
antenna. The value oI angular spread is much greater in indoor and microcellular
environments than in macrocellular environment.
25
Delay spread (S) is the eIIect oI multipath propagation diIIerent signal components
arrive at diIIerent time instants (more in 2.4.2). This time-shiIt is called delay spread. Due
to smaller cell size, the delay spread is smaller in microcellular environment than in a
macrocellular. The coherence bandwidth is deIined as a Iunction oI delay spread. By
coherence bandwidth ∆f
c
, it is understood the approximate maximum bandwidth or
Irequency interval over which, two Irequencies oI a signal are coincident in time. In order
to achieve uncorrelated Iading, the Irequency separation oI two signals has to be greater
then coherence bandwidth.
S
f
c
π 2
1
= ∆
(2.3)

Propagation slope is a parameter that describes the attenuation oI the signal in the radio
channel. The attenuation oI radio wave in Iree space is proportional to the square oI the
distance (20 dB/dec). In an actual radio channel, the signal typically attenuates 25-35
dB/dec (which is the propagation slope).


2.4.2 Multipath propagation and RAKE receiver

Due to reIlections, diIIractions and scatterings caused by natural obstacles (building,
hills, trees), radio signals travel via multiple diIIerent paths. The received signal is thus a
summation oI all diIIerent signal components with random phases and amplitudes. This
phenomenon is named as a multipath propagation, see Figure 2.17. The eIIects resulting
Irom multipath propagation are naturally greater in urban environment.


















Figure 2.17. Multipath environment.

The receiving energy is distributed into a certain multipath delay proIile. The extension
oI the delay proIile is typically Irom 1 µs to 2 µs in urban and suburban areas to even 20
µs or more in hilly areas |8|. A WCDMA receiver can separate those multipath
26
components iI time diIIerence between them is at least 0,26 µs (when chip duration is
3,84 Mcps WCDMA FDD). The 0,26 µs delay can be obtained when the diIIerence in
path lengths is at least 78 m. The process oI combination oI the radio signal components
with diIIerent delays is made in RAKE receiver. The structure oI a RAKE receiver is
shown in Figure 2.18. Each RAKE Iinger is equipped with a correlator and a phase and
amplitude estimator, which are used to equalize the phases oI the Iingers beIore the
summation. Moreover, the amplitude estimator is used to weight the Iingers according to
their amplitude. This method is called Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC). In order to
prevent the increase oI the noise level, the method omits the Iingers with no signal Irom
the summation.

FINGER 1
FINGER 2
FiNGER N
Correlator
Estimator
CodeN (delay1)
CodeN(delay2)
CodeN(delayN)
+
+


Figure 2.18. The principle of RAKE receiver [18].


2.4.3 Fading

Another phenomenon caused by multipath propagation is Iast Iading. For a certain period
oI time, a mobile receives many signal components, which have traveled through paths oI
almost the same length. The arriving signals have diIIerent amplitudes and phase shiIts.
ThereIore, the sum oI the received signals can be constructive or destructive depending
on the phases oI the signal components. In an environment, where line oI sight situation
(LOS) is dominant, the amplitudes oI the signal components are Ricean distributed. In the
case when non line oI sight (NLOS) situation is dominant, the distribution oI signal
27
amplitudes and phases are statistically independent the signal components are then
Rayleigh distributed |18|.
Moreover, there is also a variation oI received signal caused by the obstacles called slow
Iading. Slow Iading reduces the mean level oI the radio signal. The standard deviation oI
slow Iading has to be taken into account in radio network planning process (the value oI
NodeB-UE maximum allowable path loss should include this margin). The value oI the
standard deviation depends on the propagation environment. Slow Iading is lognormal
distributed.


2.4.4 Propagation models

In radio network planning process, propagation models are used to predict the average
path loss oI a radio wave. Generally speaking, it is not possible to compute the wave
propagation due to diIIerent obstacles and complex scattering structures in the radio
channel. However, it can be modeled as ray tracing with assumption that there are many
diIIerent wave paths coming to the receiver. Whereas in microcellular environment the
wave paths can be computed analytically (usually only a Iew strong paths), in
macrocellular, the situation is much more complex and requires the use oI propagation
models. Propagation models are divided into empirical, semi-empirical, and deterministic
models. Empirical models are most suitable Ior urban and suburban environments. They
are derived Irom extensive Iield measurements. Semi-empirical models are derived with
assumption oI some ideal conditions (e.g., constant diIIraction over rooItop and uniIorm
building separation). Deterministic models are based on numerical methods; they are
characterized by great accuracy with a cost oI complexity and calculation time. |16|, |17|
The most common empirical propagation model is the Okumura-Hata model. It has been
derived by M.Hata |19| based on the measurements made by Y.Okumura |20| in Tokyo
area at Irequencies up to 1920 MHz. The basic Okumura-Hata propagation model is
presented as Iollows:
m BTS MS BTS
C d h C h a h f B A L + − + − − + = ) log( )) log( 55 , 6 ( ) ( ) log( 82 , 13 ) log( (2.4)

Where:
L path loss |dB|; A, B constants (Table 2.3); f - system Irequency |MHz|; h
BTS
base
station eIIective antenna height |m|; h
MS
mobile station antenna height |m|; d distance
MS-BTS; C slope Iactor; C
m
area type correction Iactor (environmental constant,
typically equals 3 dB in urban environment, but can be even below 15 dB in rural
environment).

Frequency
Constant

150 1000 MHz

1500 2000 MHz
A 69,55 46,3
B 26,16 33,9

Table 2.3. The default values of the constants A and B in Okumura-Hata propagation model.

28
The presented model has Iew limitations, namely the Irequency range is 150-1000 MHz
and 1500-2000 MHz, the value oI BTS antenna height between 30 and 200 m, calculation
range 1-20 km. Moreover, the Okumura-Hata propagation model does not work well iI
the average building height is close or higher than the base station antenna height.





























29
3. Location Technologies

The aim oI this chapter is to provide a wide overview oI the available
location techniques Ior UMTS. AIter motivation Ior positioning and issues
concerning the evaluation oI the location methods, all existing solutions Ior
the mobile positioning will be presented. Moreover, related simulation
results Irom accessible research in this Iiled will be shown.


3.1 Overview

The evolution oI the 3
rd
generation mobile systems introduces a new age in multimedia
services. Positioning is one oI the key enablers Ior new services. The initial demand Ior
locating mobile callers has been motivated by government authorities. The response oI
this challenge has grown to the huge market game involving a numerous players; Irom
public saIety organizations through standard organizations, to network operators, and
hardware/soItware manuIactures.
Knowledge oI the position oI a person or an object opens a new dimension oI inIormation
services that can be oIIered. Examples oI location sensitive applications are: emergency-
callers positioning, roadside assistance, stolen vehicle tracking, navigation assistance,
real-time traIIic alerts, inIormation services, vehicle diagnostics, personal location
monitoring services, location-based monitoring systems, location-based advertising and
promotions, location inIormation-based real time games, and so on.
As shown in Figure 3.1, by the year 2005 almost 400 million oI location service users are
predicted just in Europe. In the year 2006, it is expected that almost 50° oI mobile
subscribers will be using the LCS applications.

Figure 3.1.European wireless location services users [21].
30
3.1.1 FCC E911 Accuracy Requirements

Considering the Iact that nearly 50° oI all 911 emergency calls are made Irom mobile
phones, it is not allowable that inability oI locating subscribers can cause serious
consequences together with the tragic outcome. The U.S. Federal Communication
Commission (FCC) has made a set oI regulations called Emergency 911 (E911) about
improving the quality and credibility oI emergency services Ior mobile phone users. The
Phase I oI E911 mandated that Public SaIety Answering Point (PSAP) attendants oI
wireless communication network have to be able to know a 911 caller`s phone. Next, in
1996 the FCC determined the higher requirements Ior obtaining inIormation about 911
callers. Namely, it requires the implementation oI location techniques that allow
speciIying the caller location in the deIined accuracy window. The document says that
the location oI 911 callers has to be known with the accuracy within 125 meters Ior 67°
oI the calls within Iive years aIter the eIIective date oI the adopted rules. The deadline Ior
the network operators was Iixed on October 1, 2001. The response oI this challenge has
involved a numerous interested players: Irom public saIety organizations through
standards organizations to network operators and location technology companies.
Through the years, the interested units have been engaged in quite complex negotiations.
Mainly issues in that contest were: solution Ilexibility, perIormance, reliability, and
deployment schedule. The conclusion oI this process has been issued as the Third Report
and Order Concerning Wireless Carrier Location Technology Selection, CC Docket No.
94-102. The article allowed the implementation oI both network and handset based
location solutions with the Iollowing accuracy. For network solutions, the accuracy
requirements are 100 m Ior 67° oI the calls and 300 m Ior 95° oI calls, whereas the
requirements Ior handset solutions are 50 m Ior 67° oI the calls and 150 m Ior 95° oI
calls.
In the Europe, similar activity has been led by European Commission (EC) Ior wireless
emergency calls E112. In 1999, the EC communications review introduced the issue
oI location-based services and proposed that caller location should be available Ior
emergency organizations. EC`s review also placed strong accent on user privacy and
anonymity. Next, EC`s inIormation society (INFSO) established the organization called
the Coordination Group on Access to Location InIormation by Emergency Services
(CGALIES) with mission to deIine speciIic requirements Ior European common location
provisioning mechanism that can be accessed by the European 122 community and
emergency service operators.
European Union transport ministers approved 482,4 million $ in Iunding Ior developing
the GALILEO the European satellite system, which is planned to be Iully operational in
2008. The new system will be competitive to US developed Global Positioning System
(GPS). GPS is Iully operational and it is used in some oI the location technologies
described in Iollowing chapters oI this thesis.
An important issue to be mentioned here is the accuracy oI a subscriber location needed
Ior a certain application. In most oI the cases, it is thought that it is always desirable to
achieve the highest possible accuracy. Whereas, some oI the application may require
higher accuracy than the others and others may be limited by the cost oI providing high
accuracy. For instance, the Iollowing applications: E-911 emergency services, location
sensitive billing, and Iraud detection require high accuracy. However, there are other
31
location-based services such as Ileet management that can utilize location systems with
lower accuracy.


3.1.2 Standardization oI location techniques

Standardization oI location-based systems is still ongoing. Currently, three oI the location
methods Ior UMTS are completely standardized in the Third Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP). These are Cell ID, Observed Time DiIIerence oI Arrival with support oI
Idle Periods (OTDOA-IPDL) and Wireless Assisted GPS (AGPS) |22|. Moreover, there
are many other proposed methods Ior location estimation, among the others: Angle oI
Arrival (AOA), signal strength, and many enhancements to OTDOA location technique.
The relevant inIormation can be Iound in the next chapters oI this thesis.
The deployment oI location techniques requires some changes in the 3G mobile network
architecture. The UTRAN interIaces (Uu, Iub, Iur, Iupc) are used to communicate among
all relevant entities. The additional units in the network structure are LMU (Location
Measurement Unit) and SAS (Standalone serving mobile location center - SMLC), see
Figure 3.2. For Release 99 and Release 4 oI 3GPP speciIications, the SAS entity supports
only Wireless Assisted GPS location method. In Release 5 (Irozen in March 2002) the
SAS supports all standardized location methods Cell ID, OTDOA-IPDL, and AGPS.
As WCDMA network is naturally not synchronized, the implementation oI a hardware,
which synchronizes the timing oI diIIerent entities oI network Iramework, is desired in
some oI the locations techniques (e.g., OTDOA). These units are called LMUs (Location
Measurement Unit). We can distinguish two types oI LMUs - standalone LMU (LMU
type A) and the LMU integrated with the NodeB (LMU type B). Their principle and
implementation cases will be covered in the Iollowing chapters.



Figure 3.2. Svstem architecture for mobile positioning [23].
32
The simpliIied generic signaling load introduced by location estimation process can be
shown on Iollowing graph according to 3GPP speciIication |22|.

CN LCS
Entities
Coordination Measurement Calculation
measure
request
UTRAN
Entities
Location Request
Location Response
calculation request
measurements
calculation results


Figure 3.3. LCS generic signaling [23].


3.1.3 Location-based services in the market place

Location-based services represent a great opportunity in the market oI mobile
communication. Moreover, LBSs are also a good chance Ior technology companies
specialized in geolocation and phone manuIactures to expand their traditional proIile and
achieve new revenues.
As the number oI subscribers grows rapidly, the demand Ior new services increases as
well (Figure 3.4). In Western Europe, there are currently more than 80 mobile operators
with over 270 million subscribers totally oIIering or testing some oI location-based
services. The ARC Group predicts that location-based services will be the most used
service by 2005 |24|. Another company IDC predicts that by 2005, almost 50° oI
European subscribers will use location-based applications |25|. According to the
Strategies Group, the worldwide number oI people using location-based services is
expected to increase Irom about 70 million in 2002 to more then 220 million in 2005
|21|.
Commercial deployment oI LBS can be Iocused on 2 classes oI services:
1) The location-enabled delivery oI content (traIIic reports, driving directions,
tracking, relevant local locations - restaurants, ATMs, and etc.)
2) The localization oI other users (Iriends, colleagues; which opens a door to the
world oI location-based games, and so on)

To get an idea what is the actually demand Ior relevant locations we can have a look to
the compiled table Irom Yellow Pages (Figure 3.5), which presents the number oI
searches in million.
33











Figure 3.4. The ARC Group mobile service used predictions [24].


1. Restaurants 1179,9 -
2. Phvsicians & Surgeons 1082,7 21. Tire Dealers 126,8
3. Automobile Parts 639,8 22. Churches 111,2
4. Auto Repair & Service 533,0 23. Furniture 102,0
5. Pi::a 452,2 24. Pharmacies Drugstores 101,8
6.. Automobile Dealers 317,9 25. Automobile Renting 95,9
7. Attornevs Lawvers 284,9 26. Grocers 95,9
8. Dentists 284,5 -
9. Department Stores 276,8 310. Boat Equipment 5,5
10. Hospitals 266,3 310. Copving Machines 5,5
11. Insurance 246,2 310. Refrigerating Equipment 5,5
12. Beautv Salons 219,1 310- Welding Equipment 5,5
13. Banks 218,9
14. Florists 206,3
15. Plumbing Constructors 201,4

Figure 3.5. Yellow Pages Listing Jolume, vear 2000, US. Number of searches in million [26].


In Figure 3.6, there are presented the results oI marketing research done by SignalSoIt
and Compaq concerning actual demand Ior diIIerent location sensitive inIormation
obtained by nationwide (US) survey.



2005
Location-based services
Personal inIormation
managers
Entertainment
Financial services
Browsing
Shopping commerce
Intranet


2000
Personal inIormation
managers
Entertainment
Financial services
Browsing
Location-based services
Shopping commerce
Intranet



2003
Personal inIormation
managers
Entertainment
Location-based services
Financial services
Browsing
Shopping commerce
Intranet

34


Figure 3.6. Demand for LBS in US [27].

The results oI Discroll-WolIe`s study concerning willingness to pay Ior location-based
services are shown on the Iollowing chart (Figure 3.7) |28|. By the terms oI Cellular 1¹
and Cellular 41¹ are meant groups oI users who use phone at least once a week would
pay 10$ Ior location capability in a cellular phone and the group oI Irequent cellular users
(41¹ calls per week) correspondingly.


Figure 3.7. Discroll-Wolfes marketing studv, How manv users would will to pav 10$ for LBSs [28].

Finally, the expectation oI possible revenue attributable to total cellular market (Figure
3.8).

35


Figure 3.8. Mobile Location-based services revenue forecast (2000-2005) [21].


3.1.4 Evaluation criteria Ior location technologies

In order to be able to evaluate diIIerent location system technologies, we have to get to
known instruments Ior presenting the perIormance oI LCS. In the Irame oI this
subchapter, diIIerent measurements methods will be presented.

a) Accuracv

Accuracy is one oI the most important perIormance measurements. Commonly used
score Iunction in accuracy evaluation is the root mean square oI squared errors (RMSE):
[ ]

=
− ⋅ =
N
k
true measured
x k x
N
RMSE
1
2
) (
1


(3.1)
where N is the number oI measurements.
Another way to represent accuracy is two-dimensional Circular Error Probability (CERP)
and three-dimensional Spherical Error Probability (SERP). For instance, 67° CERP
within 100 m means that 67° oI the measurements are within 100 m Irom the true
location. More exact picture oI accuracy can be presented by plotting probability density
Iunction (pdI) and cumulative distribution Iunction (cdI) oI the measured locations.

b) Reliabilitv

Reliability is quite connected with accuracy. Good explanation oI reliability can be Iound
in Jari Syrjärinne`s Doctoral Thesis |29|. Reliability can be understood as a Iunction oI
several Iactors comprising, Ior example, estimates oI Iailure Irequencies Ior the network
and terminals (hardware and soItware Iailures), how backups are arranged, how and when
36
the system is monitored, maintained and updated, and how users are reported oI Iailures.
ThereIore, it is not reasonable to present reliability as a mathematical Iunction, but to
evaluate it verbally relying to analysis and discussions.

c) Availabilitv

The term availability reIers mostly to coverage area within which positioning is available.
Availability reIers to accuracy and reliability. The explanation becomes clearer with an
example. For instance, in OTDOA location technique (3.2.3.3), positioning with the
accuracy oI a certain degree is available only Ior users receiving 4 CPICHs. Positioning
with a lower degree oI accuracy is available Ior users receiving 3 CPICHs. These
dependences can be expressed, e.g., in percentage oI served mobiles IulIilling certain
(pilot hearability) requirements, which actually deIines the availability oI the location
technique.

d) Latencv

Demand Ior short latency is very important in the case oI emergency used oI positioning.
Besides that, a short latency also saves power. Latency is very oIten denoted, especially
in satellite-based LCS as TTFF (Time to First Fix).

e) Applicabilitv

Applicability is a measure oI the physical limitations and requirements associated with
the implementation and use oI a certain technology in sense oI technical and Iinancial
issues. |29|


3.1.5 Location accuracy degradation sources

Generally, all location accuracy degradation sources can be divided into three categories.
These are: geometric, environmental, and degradation related to the implementation oI
the system.

a) Geometric degradation

For location techniques that require more than one-reIerence point (base stations or
satellites) to calculate the position, the geometry oI the network Iramework can aIIect the
Iinal accuracy oI location estimation.
Geometric arrangements oI the network Iramework and handsets obviously vary, and
they are not created to be equal. The geometric arrangement can increase the level oI
accuracy degradation caused by other sources. This eIIect is called Dilution of Precision.
The Dilution oI Precision can be deIined as Horizontal Dilution oI Precision, iI only the
position oI the UE in horizontal plane is taken into account. Correspondingly, the
Vertical Dilution oI Precision is deIined. Finally, a total three-dimensional calculation,
37
which combines both HDoP and VDoP, is speciIied as PDoP (Position Dilution oI
Precision). For instance the Horizontal Dilution oI Precision is deIined as Iollows:
2 2
v x
HDoP σ σ + =
(3.2)
Where
x
σ and
v
σ stand Ior geometrical deviations on a plane.
The eIIect oI DoP can be easily demonstrated on the example oI Angle oI Arrival (AOA)
approach. It shows the inIluence oI the incorrectness as a Iunction oI the Iramework
geometry.


















Figure 3.9. Geometric impact on location error [30].

ThereIore, among the other terrain cases, radio network planning Ior LCS along
highways (2-sectors antennas) is very challenging task, as the impact oI the DoP is
signiIicant. Moreover, the geometry is not only the issue related to the Iramework oI the
wireless networks. The problem oI DoP is also related to the Satellite Based Positioning
Methods. In Figure 3.10, there are presented the examples oI good and bad geometry
between satellites and UE-GPS receivers.
a) b)










Figure 3.10. The impact of DOP in case of GPS
a) Bad geometrv
b) Good geometrv.
38
b) Wireless environment degradation sources

The speed of wave propagation
For any oI the location techniques, which are based on time measurements, the speed oI
wave propagation is a Iundamental source oI diIIiculty. Radio waves propagate at the
speed oI light, 300 000 km per second, thus in order to calculate position with 50 meters
accuracy window, the supporting TOA measurements must be accurate within 164
nanoseconds. Time measurement accuracy is inversely proportional to the signal
bandwidth.

Noise and interference
The co-channel interIerence is undesired phenomenon, which exists in all cellular
systems. In the case oI 3G systems, when WCDMA is used as a radio interIace, one oI
the primary impediments to high capacity is the near-Iar eIIect, where the signals Irom
the diIIerent UEs are received with diIIerent power levels at the NodeB. It is making hard
to receive signal Irom distant, weaker users. In most oI the cases, errors caused by noise
and interIerence can be modeled as a random, zero mean process. Thus, by averaging
over the signal observation time, the impact oI these errors can be reduced.

Fading
Fading phenomena unbeneIicially aIIects the location measurements directly or
indirectly. Indirectly corruption can be, Ior instance, a decrease oI the ratio between the
desired and undesired signals. Similarly, averaging process can reduce the impact oI
Iading.

Non-Line of Sight propagation
Multipath propagation is the dominant source oI error in most oI the cases. Only LOS
situation provides true inIormation about the distance or the angle oI the receiving signal.
Thus, all oI location technologies, which based on signal strength, time bias, or angle oI
arrival, depend on the existence oI line oI sight.
Multipath propagation is caused by the obstacles in the radio link, which reIlect or
diIIract the transmitted signal..
Degradation in the location measurements occurs via two diIIerent scenarios:

1) Biased Measurements Scenario
In this case, LOS exists, however there are also many additional paths. Basically, it
does not look as a big issue, since the LOS path can be recovered. However, in
practice the extraction oI the true path Irom the Ialse inIormation can be very
diIIicult.

2) False Measurement Scenario
There is no LOS in this scenario, but the signal is still receivable by the reIlective
paths. So, all received inIormation and used Ior location estimation is Ialse.

c) Limitation of the implementation

39
Hardware and Software Limitations
Some reIerred examples oI hardware limitations can be Iilter magnitude and group delay
variation, and I/Q magnitude imbalance. The soItware limitations can, be Ior instance, a
Iixed-point truncation / rounding errors, and data resolution limitations.

Calibrations
All time measurement based LCS depend on very accurate time calibration oI the
Iramework elements. |30|


3.2 Cellular network positioning methods

Positioning systems can use signal strength, time oI arrival measurements, angle oI
arrival or just Cell ID or their combinations Ior location estimation.
Currently, three location methods are included in the Third Generation Partnership
Project |22|. Two oI them: Cell ID including accuracy improvement methods (Round
Trip Time (RTT), Enhanced Cell Global ID (E-CGI)) and Observed Time DiIIerence oI
Arrival Idle Period DL (OTDOA-IPDL) are cellular networks positioning methods. The
third Assisted GPS (AGPS) is satellite-based approach. Proposed study items Ior Iuture
3GPP releases are: Uplink TDOA by TruePosition, Cumulative Virtual Blanking (CVB)
method by Cambridge Positioning Systems |31|, and Satellite-based method supported
by GALILEO |32|. Moreover, there are many other developed techniques Ior location
estimation: Angle oI Arrival (AOA) |33|, |34|, and many enhancements to OTDOA,
which have been mainly developed to increase availability (hearability oI distant pilot
signals) Time Alignment IPDL (TA-IPDL) |35|, Positioning Elements IPDL (PE-
IPDL) |36|, and CVB. There exist also hybrid techniques, which combine several
methods due to better accuracy, reliability, availability and applicability. Some oI them
Iorm a combination oI standardized method with one oI the physical layer measurement,
Ior instance: Cell ID¹RTT, E-CGI and AOA¹RTT |37|. Other hybrid techniques use two
complete location methods, e.g., OTDOA¹AOA |38|.

Basically, all location techniques are classiIied as Iollows:

Standalone (autonomous) - All measurements and calculations that are needed Ior
position estimation take place in the handset (UE). No
network assistance is needed. (GPS, Cell ID).
Network-based - All measurements and calculation take place in the
network and thus UE assistance is not needed. (For
instance: Cell ID, E-CGI, RTT, TOA and AOA are NT-
based methods).
Network-based, MS-assisted - Mobile station is an active part in position estimation,
however the calculation process takes place in the
network. Moreover, the network may provide some
assistance to the UE Ior making measurements. (e.g. NT-
based, MS-assisted Assisted GPS).
40
Network-assisted, MS-based - Position calculation takes place in the handset. Network
provides only assistance and/or some additional
measurements. (NT-assisted, MS-based Assisted GPS).

The second classiIication divides the LCS into three categories: multilateral, unilateral
and bilateral location measurement principles. The multilateral principle means, that UE
position is based on measurements made by multiple base stations simultaneously (TOA,
AOA). In the case oI unilateral system, also the multiple reIerence points are needed, but
here the UE makes measurements (TOA). Bilateral systems require only one base station
or handset Ior positioning. (Cell ID, RTT, AGPS).


3.2.1 Cell ID

The Cell ID is the simplest and the most inexpensive method in mobile location. As
mentioned beIore, Cell ID can be either NT based or MS based method. In most oI the
cases, it is implemented as NT based method, and thus it does not require any changes in
the terminals; Cell ID requires only minor soItware changes in the network. Cell ID can
be also implemented as a deIault location technique in the network, in case that all other
location methods Iail, position oI the terminal can be still evaluated based on the Cell ID.
Nowadays, the Cell ID location method is already utilized in many mobile networks all
over the world.
The position oI the UE is estimated based on the coverage area oI the serving cell. This
inIormation can be recovered by paging, location area update, cell update, UTRAN
registration area update or by routing area update.
The accuracy oI this approach depends on the size oI the serving cell, and more precisely,
on the size oI the corresponding sector. Thus, the accuracy can be improved iI the cell
area is bounded, Ior instance, by a directional antenna. II the identiIied cell is microcell or
picocell, the accuracy can be even a Iew tens oI meters. However, in not dense macrocell
environment, the accuracy can drop to even Iew kilometers.
.







Figure 3.11. Cell ID. The most basic location method.

The accuracy can be improved iI the UE is in soIt/soIter handover state or in hybrid mode
with other LCS, as it will be described later in this thesis. Summarizing, the accuracy oI
standalone Cell ID does not IulIill the FCC E911 requirements.
The Cell ID location procedure has been presented in Figure 3.12. Depending on the
RRC state oI the UE, in order to determine the Cell ID, Serving RNC can perIorm
additional operations. Location request received Irom the CN makes the SRNC to check
41
the state oI the target UE. II the UE is in the state, where the Cell ID is available, the
target Cell ID is chosen. II the UE is in state, where the Cell ID is not available, the UE is
paged; SNRC can then estimate the cell with which the target UE is associated. In a soIt
handover, the UE has several signal branches connected to diIIerent cells reporting
diIIerent Cell IDs. SNRC combines this inIormation about all cells associated with the
UE. It also concerns the situation where the UE is in a soIter handover state, and SNRC
combines the inIormation about all cells associated with the UE. Thus, when UE is
known on the active set level, the accuracy oI Cell ID is usually enhanced.



Figure 3.12. Cell ID signaling flow [22].

In order to improve the accuracy oI the LCS response, the SNRC may also request
additional measurements Irom NodeB or LMU. This and other hybrid methods (Cell
ID¹RTT, AOA¹RTT, E-CGI) will be presented in Chapter 3.4.


3.2.2 Signal strength

The Signal strength technique is unilateral, and can be implemented as mobile-assisted
network-based or as a standalone mobile-based method. Mobile-based approach requires
that coordinates oI the corresponding base stations are transmitted to the UE. The signal
strength around base stations can be modeled as presented in Figure 3.13 assuming that
omnidirectional antennas are used. Because signal levels are known, the location oI the
UE can be Iound in the intersection point oI the three circles. In UMTS, a good reIerence
is a Common Pilot Channel (CPICH), since its power is constant and it is always present
in the air interIace. Moreover, UE continuously measures E
c
/N
0
oI CPICH in order to
make decision about handovers and cell (re) selections.
Signal strength is a low cost method and very easy to implement. However, unIortunately
the phenomena as multipath Iading and shadowing make the CPICH power varying up to
30-40 dB over a distance oI over the Iraction oI the wavelength, which degrades the
accuracy oI this LCS signiIicantly. The eIIects oI Iast Iading can be partly eliminated by
42
averaging the signal strength over time and Irequency band. The negative impact oI the
signal caused by shadowing (propagation conditions changes according to the new
locations oI the UE) on accuracy, can be diminished only by using premeasured signal
strength contours centered at the UEs |39|. However, this approach requires that constant
physical topography and the contours need to be mapped out Ior each UE. The accuracy
oI the signal strength method varies between 100 m and over 10 km depending on the
environment.
Estimated location
-57 dBm
-75dBm
-93 dBm
Received power:
Site A: -57 dBm
Site B: -75 dBm
Site C: -93 dBm
A
B
C


Figure 3.13. Signal strength positioning method.
Summarizing, the standalone signal strength method is not enough Ior location-based
systems, however it can still be used in addition to other LCS as hybrid location systems.
These will be described in Chapter 3.4.


3.2.3 Time-Biased

The main class oI cellular network based systems is Iormed by Time-Biased Systems.
There are many approaches diIIerent in the degree oI complicity and perIormance.

3.2.3.1 Round Trip Time

Round Trip Time (RTT) is the simplest location method in LCSs based on time-biased
measurements. RTT has been standardized as UTRAN physical layer measurement |37|,
and thus the location technique based on RTT measurements does not require any
changes in terminals. RTT constitutes oI the time diIIerence between the beginning oI the
transmission oI a downlink DPCH DPDCH/DPCCH Irame and the beginning oI the
reception oI the corresponding uplink Irame. Based on this inIormation, the NodeB-UE
distance can be estimated by using a suitable propagation model. In a soIt handover
multiple RTT measurements done by NodeBs oI active set can be reported to the SRNC
and position can be calculated with a much higher accuracy. RTT LCS is easy to
43
implement and very inexpensive. However, it does not exist as standalone technique, but
always in hybrid method Cell ID ¹ RTT or AOA¹RTT described in Subchapters, 3.4.1
and 3.4.3, correspondingly.


3.2.3.2 Time of Arrival

Time oI Arrival (TOA) is a network based multilateral approach. This method, similarly
to RTT calculates the time oI propagation oI the signal but in the uplink direction - Irom
the mobile to the base station. Based on these measurements, the distance is estimated.
ThereIore, in order to Iind the location oI the UE on a plane, the TOA needs to be
calculated to at least 3 NodeBs, and Ior 3D locations estimation, at least 4 NodeBs are
needed. Similarly, as in signal strength location system, the terminal is located in the
intersection oI thy circles.
The diIIerence between RTT and TOA is signiIicant. In RTT case, the position is
calculated based on the time oI arrival oI Irames during dedicated connection. Thus, more
than one simultaneous RTT measurements are possible when the UE is in soIt handover
state, in which, the DPCH Irames are exchanged between the UE and diIIerent network
Irameworks. In SHO, the WCDMA network is Iully synchronized. In the case oI TOA,
the network is not synchronized during normal operation mode, and the transmitting
signal requires timestamping in order to recognize the distance the signal has traveled at
the receiver. For example, 1 µs timing error degrades the accuracy oI LCS about 300 m.
ThereIore in the case oI WCDMA networks, TOA technique cannot be deployed without
introducing major changes into the network Iramework. However in naturally
synchronized networks, such as IS-95, cdma2000, TOA location method is quite Ieasible.


3.2.3.3 Observed Time Difference of Arrival

Observed Time DiIIerence oI Arrival (OTDOA) is also included in the category oI time
based location method. However, in this case, the mobile is responsible Ior making
necessary measurements. A UE calculates the time oI arrival oI the signal coming Irom
neighboring base stations. The position can be estimated in the handset (UE-based
method) or in the network (NT-based, UE-assisted) once the three signals have been
simultaneously received. The measured signal is the CPICH (Common Pilot Channel).
The terminal calculates the time oI propagation oI the signals by correlating them with a
locally generated replica. The peak oI correlation indicates the observed time oI
propagation oI the measured signal.
44


Figure 3.14. Observed Time Difference of Arrival.

Time diIIerence oI arrival values between two base stations determines a hyperbola.
ThereIore, to estimate the position oI the terminal, at least three reIerence points are
needed which give the two hyperbolas. The location oI the UE is in the intersection oI
these two hyperbolas. The principle oI OTDOA is shown in Figure 3.14.

) 2 , ( ) 1 , ( ) 2 1 ( BTS MS d BTS MS d TOA TOA c − = − ⋅ (3.3)
Where c is the speed oI radio waves, and d denotes the distance.
Describing the same in a more Iormal way, we deIine each sequence as R.
(Presented calculation can be Iound in |40|).
2 2
) ( ) (
i i
BS BS i
v v x x R − + − =
(3.4)
AIter estimating a couple oI pseudoranges R
i
and R
f
we can write the Iollowing equation:
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
f f i i
BS BS BS BS if f i
v v x x v v x x k R R − + − − − + − = = −
(3.5)

It can be rewritten with simpliIication as:
0
16 15
2
14 13 12
2
11
= + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ C v C v C x C v x C x C
(3.6)

Where a Iunction oI coordinates oI the base station and measured pseudoranges, but
constant in respect to the unknown position (x, v) oI the mobile. By repeating the same
process Ior a diIIerent pair oI base stations, we can write a second equivalent equation
and Iind the position oI the terminal in the interception oI two:



= + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
= + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
0
0
26 25
2
24 23 22
2
21
16 15
2
14 12
2
11
C v C v C x C v x C x C
C v C v C v x C x C


(3.7)
There are many proposed ways to solve this set oI simultaneous hyperbolic equations.
Namely, the solution can be Iound with an iterative (Newton) method, last square
minimization algorithm, Weighted Least Square (WLS) method oI Torrieri |41|, or by
direct solution proposed by Chan |42|.
45
Similarly to all multilateral time based location systems, one oI the problems in
applicability is the synchronization. Here, the synchronization is done by correcting
measured time diIIerence using the RTD (Real Time DiIIerence) measurements (3.8). In
order to provide these measurements, the deployment oI additional units called Local
Measurement Units (LMUs) and Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC) is needed.
LMU perIorms the RTD measurements with respect to a common reIerence time, which
can be either GPS time or with respect to the selected based station. RTD measurements
are perIormed in SMLC and delivered to the UE in the handset-based case or the Iinal
position oI the UE is calculated in SMLC (NT based, MS assisted case).
OTD ÷ RTD · GTD (3.8)
where OTD (Observed Time DiIIerence) is the time diIIerence between bursts Irom two
base stations measured by the mobile. RTD (Real Time DiIIerence) is the synchronization
diIIerence between base stations, i.e., the relative diIIerence in transmission times oI their
bursts. GTD (Geometric Time DiIIerence) is due to diIIerent propagation times (diIIerent
distances).
The accuracy oI this technique is mainly limited by multipath propagation and geometric
Dilution oI Precision (DoP). However, the signiIicant problem in OTDOA is availability,
because CPICHs transmitted by distant NodeBs are usually blocked by the pilots coming
Irom closer NodeBs. The solution Ior this so-called hearability problem is the
development oI idle periods in downlink. More inIormation about OTDOA-IPDL can be
Iound in the next chapter.
The accuracy oI OTDOA is in the range Irom a Iew tens oI meters in a rural environment
to over 300 meters in a dense urban environment, where the eIIect oI multipath
propagation is signiIicant. Because OTDOA will be implemented only with mentioned
idle period support (OTDOA-IPDL), all accuracy studies in that Iield have been made
with consideration oI idle periods in downlink. OTDOA with the idle periods hearability
enhancement is included in the 3GPP speciIication |22|.

3.2.3.3.1 Idle Period Downlink

IPDL, an enhancement to OTDOA, has been introduced in order to improve the
hearability oI CPICH transmitted by Iar away sites. OTDOA-IPDL has been standardized
in 3GPP and it is included in Release 99, Release 4 and 5 without any essential changes.
The OTDOA-IPDL location technique is based on the same measurements as the regular
OTDOA. Time measurements are taken during idle periods, in which NodeB ceases its
transmissions and allows the UE within the coverage oI this cell to hear pilots coming
Irom Iarther NodeBs.
Serving NodeB provides idle periods in continuous or burst mode. In the continuous
mode, one idle period has a place in every downlink physical Irame (10 ms). In the burst
mode, idle periods occur in a pseudo-random way. The length oI idle periods has been
chosen to keep the balance between the negative impact on network capacity and beneIit
in LCS eIIiciency. Frequency oI appearance is 1 IPDL every 10 downlink Irame (1 idle
slot every 150 slots).

46
4
37
7
50
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
avaiIabiIity %
1 2
CPICHpower


Figure 3.15. IPDL hearabilitv improvement. Network heavilv loaded (Black OTDOA, White-OTDOA-
IPDL, 1-CPICH 30 dBm, 2-CPICH 33 dBm). Left figure. E
c
/I
0
÷ -15 dB, right figure E
c
/I
0
÷ -18 dB.

Figures 3.15 and 3.16 show how idle periods can increase the area oI location systems
coverage. As LCS coverage area is meant as area, where at least three pilots coming Irom
diIIerent NodeBs are visible. Presented simulation results made by Johnson, Joshi and
Khalb in |43| have proved the expectation in increase oI OTDOA availability. The less
strict E
c
/I
0
requirements naturally increase the number oI visible pilots. Moreover, it can
be noticed, that higher CPICH power allocation scheme also increases the availability.

22
61
23
66
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
avaiIabiIity %
1 2
CPICH power


Figure 3.16. IPDL hearabilitv improvement. Network less loaded, (Black OTDOA, White OTDOA-IPDL,
1-CPCIH 30 dBm, 2-CPICH 33 dBm), E
c
/I
0
÷ -15 dB.

In Figure 3.16 it is presented a situation, where the network is not Iully loaded, and thus it
is easier to IulIill the E
c
/I
0
requirements (I
o
is smaller). Logically, the impact oI
increasing the CPCIH power is then not that signiIicant as in the previous, high loaded
case. By using signaling over Uu interIace, UEs know the occurrences oI idle periods and
they can arrange the time diIIerence measurements accordingly.
The next step in enhancing the IPDL eIIiciency is Time Aligned IPDL (TA-IPDL), the
idle periods are deliberately time aligned across base stations. Good comparison between
IPDL and TA-IPDL has been presented in |35|. Generally, time alignment creates a
common idle period, during which each base station will either cease its transmission
(typically ~70° oI time) or transmit the common pilot (typically ~30° oI time). Like in
standard IPDL, during idle periods, the UE is scheduled to make necessary
measurements. The improvement oI TA-IPDL is shown in Figure 3.17.
22
60
31
74
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
avaiIabiIity %
1 2
CPICHpower
47







Figure 3.17. Evaluation of TA-IPDL bv comparing the accuracv. Left. IPDL, right TA-IPDL [35].

Also other IPDL enhancements have been proposed. The principle oI Positioning
Elements IPDL (PE-IPDL) is to mitigate the hearability problem, the near-Iar problem,
and the geometry dilution oI precision problem. During the idle periods, synchronized
PEs transmit their own pre-determined pilot signals together with overhead inIormation.
Besides the principle location oI the NodeBs, pre-assigned geometric coordinates are
broadcast to the handset Irom the primary NodeB a priori (|36|).



Figure 3.18. Interactions between BSs and PEs [36].

The simulation results oI the PE-IPDL perIormance can be Iound in |36|.
48
Furthermore, another proposed enhancement to OTDOA-IPDL technique is a special
pilot channel structure Ior location services. The idea has been proposed by Samsung in
the document |44|.
Summarizing, the accuracy oI OTDOA with idle periods support can be enough Ior most
oI the applications. However, implementing OTDOA location method requires changes
in both sites: the network (LMUs, SMLC, and soItware changes) and the terminal
(OTDOA measurements), thus the applicability oI this technique is low.

3.2.3.3.2 Cumulative Virtual Blanking

Another solution Ior hearability problem in OTDOA has been proposed by Cambridge
Positioning Systems Ltd. This new technique does not need any idle period support; it
uses the whole energy transmitted by NodeBs (not just the CPICH) and removes the
interIerence Irom the brightest signal in turn in a soItware process called Cumulative
Virtual Blanking (CVB) |45|. The process resides in the Serving Mobile Location Center
(SMLC). The principle oI CVB is shown in Figure 3.19. The SMLC collects snapshots oI
the signal received by the UE and the time co-incident snapshots oI the transmitted
signals Irom each NodeB. The SMLC pre-processes the co-incident snapshots Irom the
UE and Irom each relevant NodeBs by successively cross-correlation the UE snapshot
with the NodeB snapshots and removing the strongest NodeB signal Irom the UE signal
by estimation and subtraction. The output oI this stage is submitted to thr regular OTD
algorithm.



Figure 3.19. The idea of Cumulative Jirtual Blanking bv Cambridge Positioning Svstems [45].


Time stamping is also important in CVB. It is required to time stamp the snapshot
accurately. There are Iew ways to achieve this, and the most common is as mentioned
49
beIore, the deployment oI LMUs. Figure 3.20 presents the hearability analysis oI
OTDOA-CVB location method. |45|















Figure 3.20. Comparative Hearabilitv, Left. Suburban (2.8 km cell spacing), Right. Urban (0.74 km cell
spacing) [45].

From presented Iigures it can be easily seen, that the perIormance oI CVB is very good in
comparison with idle period systems. More simulations results are included in the paper
|45|. Besides the impact on LCS area coverage, the number oI hearable sites has an
impact on the accuracy |28|. Extensive Iield tests with E-OTD on GSM networks have
shown (the principle oI E-OTD in GSM corresponds to OTDOA in UMTS), that by using
8 measurements rather than 6, the accuracy is improved by more than 20°. Increasing
this to 12 signals improves accuracy by a Iurther 30°. The test trial oI CVB proved the
accuracy in rural environment oI 28.8 m (67°) and 57.6 m (95°) and in suburban 54.2
m and 81.1 m, correspondingly Ior 67° and 95° oI cases |45|. However, OTDOA CVB
location method still requires deployment oI LMUs and SMLC in the network, which
makes the applicability quite low.


3.2.4 Angle oI Arrival

This technique Ior mobile positioning estimates the location oI the user by measuring
angles oI arriving signals. As illustrated in Figure 3.21, the Angle oI Arrival (AOA)
measurements have to be done by at least two NodeBs simultaneously (multilateral
method). The accuracy depends on the distance between UE and antenna array and on
signal propagation path. AOA requires line oI sight condition to obtain correct results.
Moreover, the geometry and weak hearability degrades the accuracy. In a dense multipath
propagation environment, the position was estimated with accuracy oI about 300 m when
2 NodeBs were visible, and around 200 m with 3 NodeBs |33|. In suburban and rural
propagation environments, the accuracy is much better, and it is enough to involve only
two NodeBs in the estimation process.


50


Figure 3.21. The principle of AOA [29].

However, the major barrier in AOA is the implementation. In order to be able to measure
the angle oI arrival, NodeBs have to be equipped in adaptive antennas. As it is known,
such antennas are not included in coming launches oI UMTS networks and deploying
them only Ior the needs oI LCS is not Ieasible.



3.3 Satellite-based positioning methods

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) oIIer word wide, Iree oI charge positioning
service. Currently, there are two existing satellite networks, American Global Positioning
System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS. Because oI economical diIIiculties, the
perIormance oI GLONASS has degraded below the satisIied level. Thus, the GPS has
become the most widely used GNSS. Furthermore, there is expected the launch oI
GALILEO the European GNSS in 2008. In the Irame oI this chapter, positioning
methods, which take an advantage oI GPS, will be overviewed. Positioning methods,
which make use oI GALILEO, are currently under evaluation and being standardized Ior
Release 6 |32| and will not be introduced in this thesis.


3.3.1 Introduction to GPS

Navstar GPS has been originally designed Ior US military, but currently it is widely used
all over the world. GPS network consists oI 24 satellites in 12-hour orbits located 20 200
km above Earth positioned in six orbital planes with, normally, Iour satellites in each.
Satellites are equally spaced at 60° apart and inclined at 55° with respect to the equatorial
plane. In all places in the world, 4 satellites are visible expect the North- and the South
Pole.
The satellite signal modulation is presented on the block diagram, in Figure 3.22.
Generally, the satellite transmits two carrier signals: L1 at Irequency 1575.42 MHz that
carriers the navigation messages (described later in this chapter) and the Standard
Positioning Service (SPC) code signals, and the L2 signals at 1227,60 MHz, which is
51
needed Ior the ionosphere delay measurements. The L1 signal is modulated with so called
Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) code, which is a 1023 bit long pseudorandom-noise (PRN)
signal. The rate oI this modulation is 1023 MHz. The pseudorandom-noise signal is
unique Ior each satellite. The Precise (P) code modulates both signals L1 and L2 at 10.23
MHz and repeat time oI one week. P-code is encrypted, so it is available only Ior
authorized users. Finally, the navigation message oI 50 Hz is added to the signal (Figure
3.22). All satellites transmit on the same carriers, the signals are separated Irom each
other by diIIerent PRN codes.
The navigation message consists oI Iollowing inIormation: time inIormation, satellite
clock correction data, ephemeris (precise orbital parameters), almanac (coarse orbital
parameters), health data Ior all satellites, coeIIicients Ior the ionospheric delay model,
and coeIIicients to calculate Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) Irom GPS system time.
The navigation message consists oI 25 Irames oI data. To obtain the satellite data Ior a
position calculation, it is enough to receive one Irame, which takes 30 s. Thus, the
minimum time to Iirst Iix (TTFF) is 30 s. It takes 12,5 minute to receive all, 25 Irames
completely. |29|
The position oI the GPS receiver is calculated based on time oI arrival measurements.



Figure 3.22. GPS signal modulation [29].


3.3.2 Standalone GPS

This location method assumes that each UE is equipped with a GPS receiver. The mobile
terminal can calculate the position based on time oI propagation measurements. The GPS
receiver searches a range oI delays, and at each delay it has to correlate a locally
52
generated replica with the 1023 bit code transmitted by the satellite vehicle (SV). The
replica oI C/A code, generated in the terminal, is shiIted until it correlates with received
C/A Irom SV. Determining the time oI propagation requires knowledge oI the exact GPS
time. ThereIore, the navigation message has to be received completely beIore making the
estimation. As mentioned in Chapter 3.3.1, GPS provides global coverage Ior unlimited
number oI users and it is Iree oI charge. The accuracy oI GPS is very good, 13 meters in
95° oI measurements, which satisIies FCC E911 requirements even with a big margin.
At least 3 SV are required to be visible in order to estimate position precisely. However,
this is not issue in this case. To operate properly, the GPS receiver needs a clear view on
the sky. The most common problem in Standalone GPS location technique is the indoor
coverage. The satellite signal is very weak and attenuation introduced by building
(around 30 dB) can prevent reception oI the navigation message. In case oI indoor use,
some oI the inIormation transmitted by the SV can be lost, which completely paralyze
GPS-based positioning. UnIortunately, this is very oIten situation in urban environment,
where needs Ior location applications are the greatest.
The solution oI the indoor coverage problem is the wireless Assisted GPS (AGPS)
location method, where inIormation transmitted by the SV is passed through the network.
AGPS will be discussed in the next chapter oI this thesis.

GPS is one oI the most expensive location techniques, since it requires a GPS chip in the
each UE to be implemented. On the other hand, it does not require any changes in the
network, which is a good advantage.


3.3.3 Wireless Assisted GPS

Wireless Assisted GPS (AGPS) is an old idea that improves the perIormance
(availability) oI standalone GPS. AGPS has been completely standardized in 3GPP. In
typical GPS, as mentioned in the previous chapter, when line oI sight conditions are lost,
the positioning becomes unavailable. Moreover, the time to Iirst Iix (min. 30 s) might be
too long in the case oI emergency applications. The sensitivity oI the GPS receiver is
easily enhanced by providing inIormation that cannot be heard directly Irom the SV
(navigation message). Reduction oI time to Iirst Iix (TTFF) is made by acquisition
assistance. Besides these, by making use oI reIerence GPS receiver, the accuracy
improvement can be achieved (DGPS DiIIerential GPS corrections).
Basically, the goals oI AGPS are:
1) to reduce the time to Iirst Iix time
2) to increase the sensitivity oI the receiver
3) to consume less handset power than standalone GPS
4) to improve the accuracy by providing DGPS corrections (optionally).

53


Figure 3.23. Wireless Assisted GPS [29].

AGPS approach requires deployment oI GPS receivers in the network inIrastructure in
order to provide clear view oI sky and continuous operation. At the request Irom the UE,
network retransmits the acquisition and the navigation message.
Typical GPS receiver has only two correlators per channel with which they can search
only one oI 1023 possible code delay chips in each Irequency bins. Due to the satellite
motion, the carrier Irequency oI the transmitted signal can vary in the range 1575,42
MHz ± 4.2 kHz (Doppler eIIect).
The acquisition message sent by network to the UE, gives a hint oI which Irequency/code
bins to search. With this assistance, the code/Irequency search window becomes smaller,
since the GPS receiver has Iewer Irequencies to search, and thus TTFF is improved
signiIicantly (Iew seconds instead oI more then 30 in the standalone case) |47|.
In order to improve the sensitivity, the network retransmits the content oI the satellite
inIormation message (navigation data, exact time, ephemeris, almanac and etc.) as shown
in Figure 3.23. The GPS receiver implemented in the UE receives only pseudorandom
signals Irom SVs. Typically, non-light oI sight conditions do not attenuate pseudoranges
below reception level, thereIore by providing the navigation data by the network
assistance, the LCS can be used also indoors.
Assisted GPS provides better accuracy iI diIIerential GPS (DGPS) corrections are
available. In outdoor environment, the 67° accuracy is within 10 m. However, due to
multipath propagation the indoor accuracy is expected to be within 30 m Ior 67° oI
measurements |29|.
The reliability oI satellite based positioning systems including AGPS is very good. As
already mentioned, the availability oI AGPS is signiIicantly greater in comparison to
standalone mode. The nowadays-integrated chip techniques allow minimizing the size oI
GPS receiver to Iew tens oI square mm. Thanks to small number oI components and a
high-level oI integration, the GPS receiver power consumption is very small.
Summarizing, the applicability oI an integrated GPS is very good. |29|
54
The Iinal position can be estimated as well in the UE (MS-based NT-assisted AGPS) or
in the network (NT-based MS-assisted case).


3.3.3.1 Handset-based network-assisted AGPS

The UE works as a standalone GPS receiver, but iI the required satellite inIormation is
lost, due to, e.g., non line oI sight conditions, it process the assistance message received
Irom the network. The Iinal position is calculated in the terminal. The principle oI this
LCS is shown in Figure 3.24.
The assistance inIormation to the UE can be sent in two, standardized ways: point-to-
point or broadcast. Point-to-point messaging mode uses Standalone Dedicated Control
Channel (SDCCH) in idle mode, or Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) and Slow
Associated Control Channel (SACCH) in dedicated mode. This approach requires a
dedicated two-way traIIic channel, which introduces an upper limit Ior the number oI
UEs that can be simultaneously served with point-to-point connections at the same base
station.
In order to decrease signaling transmission in the radio interIace, assistance data can also
be broadcast on BCCH. Theoretically, the unlimited number oI users can be
simultaneously served in this mode. The only limitation Ior the maximum number oI user
within broadcast service is Iollowed Irom ciphering.


















Figure 3.24. The Principle of MS-based Wireless Assisted GPS, [29].

The inIormation transIerred Irom location server to the mobile user includes satellites in
view and their Doppler Irequency corrections (acquisition assistance), and the satellites
navigation message data, which includes: ephemeris, almanac, etc. (sensitivity
improvement), and GPS diIIerential corrections (accuracy improvement). The
inIormation transmitted Irom the UE to the location server include: location request,
rough position oI the user, and calculated position oI the terminal. The total list oI
55
inIormation exchanged between UE and location server is described in 3GPP
speciIication |22|. The Ilow oI inIormation is presented on the diagram (Figure 3.25).



Figure 3.25. MS-based Wireless Assisted GPS, [22].

3.3.3.2 Network-based handset-assisted AGPS

In this mode, the role oI the terminal is just to measure the pseudoranges and transmit
them back to a network server, which estimates the position based on the satellite
inIormation data received Irom the SV. BeIore capturing pseudoranges Irom the SV, the
network sends acquisition assistance message to the terminal to speed up the TTFF.
AIter estimation process, the calculated position can be send to the terminal iI location
request came Irom the UE. Tracking is not possible in this approach due to signaling
delays, since the position is calculated every time in the network server using
measurements sent over the air interIace. On the other hand, MS assisted AGPS seems to
be more suitable Ior emergency applications oI LCS, since the position is already
calculated in the network - it is directly available. The example oI an MS-assisted GPS is
SnapTrack`s Snapshot¹ receiver |48|.

56


Figure 3.26. The principle of MS-assisted AGPS [29].



Figure 3.27. MS-assisted AGPS, [22].


3.4 Hybrid Systems

Hybrid location techniques combine several methods described in the previous chapters.
The main idea standing behind this is the perIormance improvement oI position
57
estimation in the sense oI better accuracy, availability, and reliability. The drawback oI
these methods is higher complexity, which naturally introduces higher costs and higher
processing requirements.


3.4.1 Cell ID ¹ RTT

As discussed in Chapter 3.2.1, the Cell ID location technique allows estimating the
position oI the user with the accuracy oI the particular sector coverage area. Thus, the
attainable accuracy depends mainly on sectoring scheme, antenna beamwidth, and the
cell separation. Moreover, when UE is known on soIter or soIt handover level and its
position can be estimated with better accuracy. In order to improve this unsatisIying
accuracy, the SRNC may request RTT measurements Irom NodeB or the LMU (iI
implemented). RTT constitutes the diIIerence between transmission oI the beginning oI a
downlink DPCH (DPDCH/DPCCH) Irame and the reception oI the beginning oI a
corresponding uplink physical Irame. RTT is measured by UTRAN aIter receiving the
request Irom SRNC. Based on the inIormation how long the signal propagates Irom a
NodeB to the UE, by using a certain propagation model, the distance Irom the NodeB can
be estimated (Figure 3.28).













Figure 3.28. The hvbrid location method. Cell ID · RTT.

In GSM, the corresponding location method is based on TA (Timing Advance)
measurements. TA is quantizied into 64 levels, each level corresponds to 1,84615 µs
(~550 m). Fortunately in UMTS, RTT measurements are done even with resolution oI 1
chip, which gives about 80 m resolution. Nowadays, oversampling methods allow RTT to
be reported with 1/16 chip resolution, which gives about 5 m precision. The Iactors,
which degrade the accuracy, are mainly the propagation eIIects.
Possibility oI soIt handover in UMTS opens an opportunity oI making simultaneous RTT
measurements Irom diIIerent NodeBs oI active set (Figure 3.29). Then, the position oI the
mobile is estimated in the intersection oI reported RTT measurements with much better
accuracy.

Round Trip Time
58


Figure 3.29. The hvbrid location method. Cell ID · RTT. In Soft Handover, multiple RTT measurement
can be combined. Position of the UE is estimated in the intersection of all reports.


3.4.2 E-CGI

Enhanced Cell Global Identity (E-CGI) is another enhancement to Cell ID, which
improves the accuracy by perIorming measurement reports oI the Iield strength data.
In UMTS, NodeB sends the common pilot channel (CPICH) with constant power
usually 30-33 dBm (5-10° oI total DL power). CPICH is unique Ior each cell and always
present in the air interIace. Each UE is naturally able to measure the strength oI pilot
channels transmitting by neighboring NodeBs. Thanks to that, no extra hardware is
needed Ior this LCS, which makes E-CGI very inexpensive to implement. In order to
estimate the location oI the UE, measurements oI signal strength have to be done Irom at
least three NodeBs. This may cause problem in the nature oI hearability in rural areas,
where the network is not dense enough, otherwise the availability is very high. The
latency is similar to those oI Cell ID (i.e., less than 5 s). UnIortunately the accuracy is
quite poor due to variations oI power to 30-40 dB caused by multipath Iading and
shadowing.












Figure 3.30. The hvbrid location method. Cell ID · E-CGI.




59
3.4.3 AOA ¹ RTT

AOA¹RTT is Ieasible location method dedicated Ior rural and suburban environments
where probability oI having LOS connection is quite big. The hearability is not
problematic here, since usage oI AOA¹RTT method requires only one visible NodeB Ior
necessary measurements (bilateral network-based technique). However, the
implementation is quite expensive due to requirement oI deploying smart antennas in the
NodeBs. The location error increases with the distance Irom the NodeB.


3.4.4 OTDOA ¹ AOA

The accuracy oI hybrid OTDOA¹AOA is better than OTDOA or AOA in standalone
mode. Also, the availability oI LCS is signiIicantly enhanced, since two NodeBs are
enough Ior position calculation. Furthermore, in many cases, this hybrid method
improves the geometry oI the network, Ior instance, in a typical highway scenario, the
accuracy oI pure AOA would be degraded due to dilution oI precision. The simulation
results show, that location error perIormance in OTDOA with TA-IPDL is improved by
20-60° when using available AOA data in rural, suburban, and urban scenarios |49|.
However, the presented hybrid method still requires smart antennas to be implemented on
NodeBs since angle oI arrival data is needed, which makes OTDOA-AOA expensive Ior
widely use.


3.5 Location techniques and repeaters

In this subchapter, the eIIect oI implementing repeaters in UMTS networks on the
perIormance oI location technologies will be studied. Three location methods are Iully
speciIied in |22|: Cell ID, OTDOA-IPDL and Wireless Assisted GPS (AGPS) are
considered here. Moreover, the hybrid method, Cell ID ¹ RTT will be evaluated in this
concept.

a) Cell ID

The only impact is that cells become larger using repeaters, and that this method has less
accuracy compared to a smaller cell.

b) OTDOA IPDL

In the case oI OTDOA-IPDL, the measurements are based on the time oI propagation oI
pilot signals coming Irom three or more base stations. When repeaters are implemented in
the network, it can happen, that one oI the measured pilots is transmitted through the
repeater, which introduces extra delays. Figure 3.31 presents the eIIect oI using repeaters
in OTODOA-IPDL location technique.
60

Figure 3.31. The effect of repeaters in a network using OTDOA based LCS [49].

The signal path Irom BS 4 to the UE can be either a direct path (time delav ÷ :4) or it can
be transmitted through a repeater (time delav ÷ :RB·:d·:R). The extra time introduces
ambiguity in location estimation.

There are two diIIerent mechanisms, which can be implemented in order to avoid this
ambiguity |49|:
1) For small cells (smaller then 1500 m, which corresponds to 5 µs signal
propagation) UE can exclude one oI the signals iI it has too long path delay.
ThereIore, only in small cell environment it is detectable, whether or not the
signal has been transmitted through repeater.
2) II the UE detects more than three sites, the measurement oI the one time delay can
be excluded based on a too large relative diIIerence to the time delays oI signals
transmitted by other base stations.

c) Network assisted GPS (AGPS)

The time delay introduced by repeater (about 5 µs) is not oI the size that it will aIIect the
perIormance oI this approach |49|.

d) Cell ID · Round Trip Time (Cell ID·RTT)

When UE is served by repeater, the same Cell ID is known in SRNC, as in the situation
when NodeB provides service directly. It can be said, that it is not possible to use RTT
position estimation, because we do not know which delays are included in the calculation
(t1,td). In other words, whether the UE is served through the repeater or not. However,
the delay introduced by the repeater is quite signiIicant 5 µs, which corresponds to 1,5
km signal path. ThereIore, the additional delay oI RTT, when UE is served by the
repeater corresponds to 10 µs (3 km) · 2 * t1. Such a report with huge value oI RTT can
be easily recognized. Thus, the value (2*t1 · 2*td) can be subtracted and the distance
between the UE and the repeater can be estimated (Figure 3.32):
61



















Figure 3.32. Cell ID·RTT when repeaters are used.

When the UE receives two signal branches Irom serving NodeB and its repeater - two
RTT measurements are reported to the corresponding SRNC; the situation is shown in
Figure 3.33.

Figure 3.33. Cell ID·RTT when the UE receives two signal branches directlv from NodeB and its
repeater. (One Cell ID and two RTT are reported).

In this conIiguration, one Cell ID and two RTT measurements are reported:
1) Directly NodeB UE -~ 2*t(NB),
2) Through the repeater -~ 2*t1 · 2*td · 2*t(R).
62
Based on the Iact, that the radius oI repeater coverage is usually smaller than donor cell
coverage, the accuracy can be improved as the position oI the UE is estimated in the
intersection oI the RTT rings as presented in Figure 3.33.
When more than one repeater oI single NodeB is utilized in the network, the repeater
processing delays (td) should be deIined in a manner that makes easy to recognize
through which repeater the signal oI the RTT report has been traveled. For instance, lets
assume that NodeB has two repeaters. II the delays introduced by them diIIer by 2 µs (R1
has 5 µs system delay, R2 has 7 µs), the decision in reIerence to which network
Iramework the radius oI RTT ring has to be estimated is easy to deIine. It can be
presented in example oI a time window (Figure 3.34).


Figure 3.34. Cell ID · RTT decision time window, when more than one repeater is used in the cell.


II the RTT report is smaller than 10 µs, the measured signal path is recognized as direct
one (NodeB UE NodeB) and the position oI the user is estimated in the corresponding
distance Irom serving Node B. When the reported RTT is longer than 10 µs, it is obvious,
that the corresponding signal has been transmitted through the repeater. As the delays
introduced by the repeaters diIIer in our assumption on 2 µs (which corresponds to 600
m), it is easy to decide through which repeater the signal has traveled, and where the
position oI the user needs to be estimated. Even iI we consider the maximum cell range,
Ior instance in rural environment 1,5 km, and the range oI the repeater 1 km, the margins
between time windows are very wide (Figure 3.34).
Furthermore, by implementing repeaters in the network, we can achieve an improvement
oI geometry, when the UE is as well in single sector coverage as in soIter/soIt HO state.
Deeper analysis oI this topic will be presented in the Chapter 4.2.1 oI this thesis.




63
a)
b)
c)
4. Detailed study on Cell ID ¹ Round Trip Time

Since Cell ID¹RTT hybrid method is currently identiIied as one oI the most
available and applicable cellular location technique Ior UMTS, the research
done in the Irame oI this thesis is mostly concentrated on this approach. The
perIormance oI Cell ID¹RTT will be evaluated Ior chosen network
topologies Ior rural and urban environment. First, theoretical attainable
accuracy oI diIIerent network scenarios will be estimated, and then
deployment oI repeaters will be considered Irom the positioning point oI
view.


4.1 Attainable accuracy

In order to evaluate the perIormance oI the studied location technique, the coverage area
oI Cell ID ¹ RTT has been divided into three areas with diIIerent degree oI accuracy.
a) The least complex situation is when the UE is neither in soIt nor soIter
handover state. In this case, the single Cell ID (sector ID) is known and
single RTT measurement is made and transIerred to the SRNC. The
accuracy in this area strictly depends on the single sector coverage.
b) The UE is in soIter handover state. Two Cell IDs and single RTT
measurement are reported to the SRNC. The accuracy is better than in the
a` case, since the area oI soIter HO is typically smaller than the size oI the
single sector.
c) The UE is in soIt handover (SHO) state. Two or more Cell IDs are known
and multiple RTTs are made and reported to the SRNC. The accuracy is
the greatest and limited only by inaccuracy oI RTT measurements in the
ideal case (perIect geometry and Iree environment).















Figure 4.1. Areas with different degree of accuracv of Cell ID · RTT.
a)UE in the coverage of one sector, b) UE in softer handover, and c) UE in soft handover.
64
Moreover, other areas can be deIined, Ior instance when the UE is in soIter handover and
in soIt handover at the same time, however the accuracy will not be changed much
comparing to case c`. The limitation comes Irom the inaccuracy oI RTT measurements
rather than Irom the Cell IDs inaccuracy.


4.1.1 Accuracy oI the deIined areas in the diIIerent topology cases

The degree oI accuracy, in three areas presented above, depends mainly on the Iollowing
parameters: sectoring, cell range, and antenna beamwidth. In the Irame oI this thesis, the
perIormance oI Cell ID¹RTT Ior chosen scenarios (typical Ior rural and urban
environment) will be evaluated.

1 rural environment, 3 km cell separation
1a) 3 sectors with 65° antenna beamwidth
2 urban environment, 1km cell separation
2a) 3 sectors with 65° antenna beamwidth
2b) 6 sectors with 65° antenna beamwidth
2c) 6 sectors with 33° antenna beamwidth

In this subchapter, the attainable accuracy oI the deIined areas (4.1) will be calculated Ior
chosen network topologies.


4.1.1.1 Single Cell ID + RTT

The accuracy in the scenario, where UE is under coverage oI a single cell (Figure 4.2),
strictly depends on the sectoring scheme, antenna beamwidth and cell overlapping. In
other words, the network topology has a great impact on the accuracy. It could be thought
that single sector service area, and thus the accuracy, can be simply derived Irom the
sectoring scheme and soIter handover overlapping. However, a deeper look on the
problem shows that in some scenarios, single Cell ID area is limited not only by soIter
handover, but also by soIt handover that can occur between sectors.
Thus, the angle (α), under which the single sector coverage area is outspread, can be
deIined as:
) , max(
sec ¸ ¸
360
γ β α −
°
=
tors of number

(4.1)
where β is a soIter handover zone angle and γ is a zone angle oI soIt handover, which
might occur between sectors in some scenarios (Figure 4.2).
The phenomenon oI having soIt handover connections between neighboring sectors
actually happens in the case oI dense scenarios (e.g., 1,0 km cell spacing), when narrow
beamwidth antennas are used.
65


Figure 4.2. Single Cell ID and single RTT situation.

As it can be observed Irom the example-Iigures below (Figure 4.3), in scenario b` (6-
sector with 33° antenna beamwidth and 1km cell spacing) the single sector area (red
color) is much smaller than in c` (6-sector with 33° antenna beamwidth and 2 km cell
spacing). It is aIIected by soIt handover connections (blue color), which in more dense
scenarios, occur between neighboring sectors. Simultaneously, soIter handover (green
color) overlapping in these scenarios is outspread under the same angle, regardless oI the
cell spacing.









a) b) c)
Figure 4.3. Soft (green) and Softer handover (blue) areas between sectors, a) 3-sector/65° with 1 km cell
spacing, b) 6-sector/33° with 1 km cell spacing, c) 6-sector/33° with 2 km cell spacing. Probabilitv of
having both soft and softer connection has been denoted bv light blue color.

In less dense scenarios or when wider antennas are implemented, soIt handover
connections normally do not appear in inter-sector regions. As an example, two
scenarios: 6-sector/45° with 1 km cell separation (Figure 4.4, a`) and 2 km cell
separation b` are shown in Figure 4.4. Moreover, the case c` in Figure 4.4, presents a 6-
sector/65° topology with 1 km cell spacing.
66









a) b) c)
Figure 4.4. Soft (green) and softer handover (blue) areas between sectors, a) 6-sector/45° with 1 km cell
spacing, b) 6-sector/45° with 2 km cell spacing, c) 6-sector/65° with 1 km cell spacing. Probabilitv of
having both soft and softer connection has been denoted bv light blue color.

In order to derive an equation Ior the accuracy oI Cell ID¹RTT within the area where
single Cell ID is known, typical 6-sectorized network topologies (33°, 45°, and 65°
antenna beamwidth with 1 km, 1,5 km, 2 km, and 2,5 km cell separation) have been
evaluated. Compilation oI the results is presented in Table 4.1 below. All values express
certain angle in degrees. The sector service area deIines the actual accuracy. As it can be
easily seen, the eIIect oI occurrence SHO connections between sectors exists only in
three cases (33° with 1 km, 1,5 km, and 45° with 1 km cell spacing), which conIirms the
rule that this phenomenon appears only in dense networks with narrow beamwidth
antennas.

BW Cell
spacing
Softer HO
overlapping

( β )
Total sector
overlapping

( max(β,γ ))
Actual soft HO
overlapping
between sectors
( γ )
Single sector area


(α)
33° 1,0 4° 23,5° 19,5° 36,5°
1,5 4° 6° 2° 54°
2,0 4° 4° 0° 56°
2,5 4° 4° 0° 56°

45° 1,0 9° 23° 14° 37°
1,5 9° 9° 0° 51°
2,0 9° 9° 0° 51°
2,5 9° 9° 0° 51°

65° 1,0 22° 22° 0° 38°
1,5 22° 22° 0° 38°
2,0 22° 22° 0° 38°
2,5 22° 22° 0° 38°

Table 4.1. Compilations of calculations of sector overlapping due to softer and soft handover in tvpical 6-
sector scenarios (antenna beamwidth has been denoted as BW).
67
For 3-sector/65° scenarios (rural with 3 km and urban with 1 km cell separation), the
Iollowing results have been obtained (Table 4.2).

BW Cell
separation
Softer HO
overlapping

( β )
Total sector
overlapping

(max(β,γ ) )
Actual soft HO
overlapping
between sectors
( γ )
Single sector area


(α)
65° 1,0 10° 19° 9° 101°
3,0 10° 10° 0° 110°

Table 4.2. Compilations of calculations of sector overlapping due to softer and soft handover 3-sector
scenario for rural (3 km cell separation) and urban (1 km cell separation) environment.


According to the Table 4.1 (6-sector scenarios), it can be concluded that:
) ¸ , ( ¸
) ( ¸
separation cell BW f g overlappin SHO
BW f g overlappin SfHO
=
=


(4.2)
It can be Iound, that Ior 6-sector scenarios, SfHO¸overlapping and SHO¸overlapping
Iunctions are linear with only small error (1°-1,5°). AIter derivation they have the
Iollowing Iorm:




>
= ° + ⋅ −
= =
° − ⋅ = =
km cp
km cp BW
cp BW f g overlappin SHO
BW BW f g overlappin SfHO
0 . 1 ; 0
0 . 1 ; 6 , 39 6 , 0
) , ( ¸
5 , 14 56 , 0 ) ( ¸


(4.3)
where BW is antenna beamwidth and cp - cell spacing.
Finally, the width oI the single sector area in 6-sector scenarios, and thus the accuracy
can be calculated Irom the Iollowing equation:


(4.4)
where d is a distance Irom the serving NodeB and o Ior 6-sector scenarios is expressed by
Iollowing equation:



(4.5)

Whereas Ior 3-sector scenarios, the outspread angle oI the single sector area (o) can be
simply taken Irom the calculations:




= °
= °
=
km cp
km cp
0 . 3 ; 110
0 . 1 ; 101
α

(4.6)
°
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
360
2 ¸ sec ¸ ¸
α
π d ID tor of acc

|

'

¹
´
¦
>
= ° + ⋅ −
+ ° − ⋅ − =
km cp
km cp BW
BW
0 . 1 ; 0
0 . 1 ; 6 , 39 6 , 0
5 , 14 56 , 0 60
0
α
68
Based on this knowledge, the accuracy within single sector coverage area Ior chosen
topologies (4.1.1) can be simply calculated (see Table 4.3).


Scenario


Accuracv
1a - 3/65° with 3 km cell separation 1400 m
2a - 3/65° with 1 km cell separation 440 m
2b - 6/65° with 1 km cell separation 163 m
2c - 6/33° with 1 km cell separation 158 m

Table 4.3. Accuracv within single sector coverage for chosen scenarios. Free propagation environment
and UE is located in the middle of the cell range have been assumed.

Accuracy within singIe sector coverage area
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
UE - NodeB distance [m]
A
c
c
u
r
a
c
y

[
m
]
3/65 1km
6/65 1km
6/33 1km

Figure 4.5. Accuracv for urban scenarios within single sector coverage area of the sector as a function of
distance from NodeB.


4.1.1.2 Softer Handover

When a UE is in soIter handover, two Cell IDs and a single RTT measurement are
reported to the corresponding SRNC. In this case, the accuracy is much higher, since
soIter handover areas are outspread over very narrow angle. However, probability oI
soIter handover appearance is repeatedly smaller than, Ior instance, single sector
coverage.
The accuracy can be simply calculated Irom Iollowing equation:
0
360
2 ¸ ¸
SfHOover
d SfHO of acc ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π

(4.7)

69
where SfHOover is deIined by Equation 4.3 (Ior 6-sector scenarios) and speciIied in
Table 4.2 (Ior 3-sector scenarios), and d is a distance Irom the serving NodeB.

Within the soIter handover, the position oI the UE can be estimated with the Iollowing
accuracy:


Scenario


Accuracv
1a - 3/65° with 3 km cell separation 130 m
2a - 3/65° with 1 km cell separation 43 m
2b - 6/65° with 1 km cell separation 95 m
2c - 6/65° with 1 km cell separation 17,3 m

Table 4.4. Accuracv within softer handover for chosen scenarios. Free propagation environment and UE is
located in the middle of the cell range have been assumed.
Accuracy within Softer HO
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
UE - NodeB distance [m]
A
c
c
u
r
a
c
y


[
m
]
3/65 1km
6/65 1km
6/33 1km

Figure 4.6. Accuracv for urban scenarios within softer handover as a function of distance from NodeB.


4.1.1.3 Soft Handover

In a soIt handover, two or more Cell IDs and RTTs are reported. RTT is simultaneously
measured and reported by all Node Bs included in the active set. WCDMA network is
then synchronized, and dedicated connection on DPCH is established between the UE
and NodeBs oI the active set (3.4.1). The position oI terminal is estimated in the
intersection oI RTT rings measured by diIIerent NodeBs. Thus, in this case, the accuracy
is the highest possible to be achieved by Cell ID ¹ RTT location technique, which is
namely the area oI almost 5 m by 5 m dimensions in Iree propagation environment and
perIect geometry oI the network (Figure 4.7).
70

Figure 4.7. The best geometrv of the network (angle between UE and NodeBs of active set equal 90
0
). The
accuracv is the highest possible to be achieved bv Cell ID · RTT location technique.

The accuracy within area oI SHO is the best, when lines between UE and NodeBs oI
active set cross each other at the right angles (Figure 4.7, α÷90° in the Figure 4.8). The
most pessimistic case is when the angle α÷180°, (Figures 4.9 and 4.10).

Figure 4.8. Cell ID·RTT in SHO. Accuracv as a function of angle between foined lines NodeB1-UE and
UE-NodeB2.

The general expression Ior accuracy as a Iunction oI angle α can be derived Irom
geometrical dependences (Figure 4.8). Finally, the accuracy equals:

β cos )
2 2
3
( 2
4
5
3 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
l
l d d l l d d a + + − + + =

(4.8)
NodeB 1
NodeB 2
UE
β``
α
β`
β
γ
NodeB 1
NodeB 2
71

Where β is expressed as:












+
+ + + −
+








+
+ + + −
+ − =
)
2
( 2
) ) )(( (
arccos
) ( 2
) 2 ) )(( (
arccos 180
2
2
1 2 1 2
1
2
2 1 2 1 0
l
d c
c l d d d d
l d c
c l d d d d
α β



(4.9)
Permitted values oI angle α and cell spacing c:












+ +
− + + +
=
)
2
)(
2
( 2
)
2
( )
2
(
arccos
2 1
2 2
2
2
1
l
d
l
d
c
l
d
l
d
α


(4.10)

Arccos exists only iI the Iollowing condition is IulIilled:
1
)
2
)(
2
( 2
)
2
( )
2
(
2 1
2 2
2
2
1

+ +
− + + +
l
d
l
d
c
l
d
l
d


(4.11)
Which Iinally gives two conditions:
c l d d ≥ + +
2 1
and c d d ≤ −
2 1
(4.12)
The eIIect oI changing the distance d
1
and d
2
has been already discussed earlier in this
chapter, now it can be noticed Irom the Equation (4.9) that when α varies Irom 180° to
90°, the accuracy changes Irom the worst to the best. From the derived equation it can be
also observed that when angle α is getting closer to 90°,

the accuracy is getting better
with larger values oI cell spacing c, as it is shown with examples below. For the
simulated network topologies, the best possible accuracy (α÷90°)

equals:
1a) 13,98 m (d
1
÷ 2 km, d
2
÷ 2,2 km)
2abc) 16 m (d
1
÷ 0,7 km, d
2
÷ 0,714 km)
Practically, when active set size equals two, the values oI α close to 90° should not be
expected, but rather in the range oI 180°-110°, since with such a geometry probability oI
active set size equals three signiIicantly increases. The equation Ior angle β (4.13) can
also be derived in the Iorm without direct dependence on α.













+
+ + − +













+
+ + + −
=
)
2
( 2
)
2
( )
2
(
arccos
)
2
( 2
) 2 ) )( (
arccos
1
2 2
2
2
1
1
2
2 1 2 1
l
d c
c
l
d
l
d
l
d c
c l d d d d
β


(4.13)
With the same permitted values oI d
1
, d
2
and c (as in Equation 4.9).
The most pessimistic network conIiguration within SHO is in the case, when the UE and
the Node Bs are located in the same line during RTT measurements (Figure 4.9).

72


Figure 4.9. SHO, The example of bad geometrv.

Figure 4.9 shows the length oI the intersection oI RTT rings (a) as a Iunction oI the
distance Irom the Node Bs (d
1
, d
2
) and the width oI the ring (l). The length oI a and thus
the accuracy equals:
η − + + ⋅ =
2 2
1
2
1
2 2 l l d d a
(4.14)

where
) ( 2
2 4 2
2 1
2
2 1 1
2
1
l d d
l d d l d d
+ +
+ + +
= η

(4.15)
The speciIic case oI the described network conIiguration is when the UE is located in the
middle oI two NodeBs oI the active set, as it is shown in Figure 4.10.


Figure 4.10. SHO, the worst network geometrv. UE located in the same line as NBs and in the middle of
two NodeBs of the active set.

In this case, d d d = =
2 1
and thus the equation Ior accuracy (Equations (4.8) and (4.14))
simpliIies to the Iollowing Iorm:
NodeB 1 NodeB 2
NodeB 2 NodeB 1
73
4
3
2
2
l
l d a + ⋅ ⋅ =

(4.16)

The accuracies Ior deIined topologies (4.1) in this, worst-case equal: (assumed that l ÷ 5
m)
1a) 172,84 m
2 a, b, c) 99,37 m
Figure 4.11 shows the other, possible geometrical case:


Figure 4.11. Cell ID·RTT in SHO. Example of geometrv when active set÷2 is not enough to estimate the
location of the user.

Sometimes it is possible, that knowledge oI a certain Cell IDs is not suIIicient Ior
determination oI the exact position, when, e.g., only two base stations are involved in soIt
handover (Figure 4.11). However this situation is unlikely to occur, since when the UE is
getting closer to sector`s side-edges the probability oI soIter HO increases rapidly. Then
additional Cell ID report (neighboring sector) determines the concrete location.
Naturally, iI the active set (AS) size increases, the accuracy oI the diIIerent geometry
scenarios improves signiIicantly. Moreover, the probability oI larger AS size increases,
when α approaches 90°.


4.1.2 Accuracy oI the deIined areas with repeaters

General eIIect oI using repeaters in the network on the perIormance oI Cell ID ¹ RTT
location method has been outlined in Section 3.4. In the Irame oI this subchapter, the
impact oI repeaters on the accuracy oI the deIined areas will be evaluated.
Basically, we can deIine two extra areas with diIIerent degree oI accuracy when repeaters
are used in the network.



NodeB 1
NodeB 1
74
4.1.2.1 Single Cell ID

In the basic conIiguration, a UE is in the coverage oI repeater and its corresponding Node
B. When repeaters are deployed in the network, the UE can receive two signal branches
directly Irom NodeB (donor cell) and Irom its repeater in some cases over the coverage
area oI the repeater. II UE is under repeater service, the Cell ID oI the donor cell is
reported to the SRNC, because the repeater simply extends a coverage area oI a donor
cell by ampliIying the received signal. However, since radio signal travel through two
diIIerent paths, two RTTs can be measured, Figure 4.12.


Figure 4.12. UE receives two signal branches directlv from Node B and through repeater. One Cell
ID and two simultaneous RTT measurements are reported. The worst geometrical case. (cell¸R and
Rep¸R stand for cell range and repeater range, respectivelv).

Because oI two RTTs, which are here measured and reported, the accuracy improves.
Similarly, like in simultaneous RTT measurements in soIt handover, the geometry oI the
network has an impact on the precision oI location estimation.
Again, the worst geometric conIiguration, as presented in Figure 4.12, is when the
NodeB, its repeater, and the UE are located in the same line. However, even in this case,
the accuracy is enough Ior most oI the location-based applications. The accuracy
improvement is based on the Iact, that the radius oI repeater coverage area is usually
much smaller than its corresponding NodeB.
From geometric dependences it can be obtained that the size oI the angle α is:







− − −
=
) ¸ Re ¸ ( ¸ 2
) ¸ Re 2 ( ) ¸ Re ¸ ( ¸ 2
arccos
R p R cell R cell
l R p l R p R cell R cell
α
(4.17)
And the length oI a equals:
α
a

NodeB
75







− − −
⋅ = ⋅ =
) ¸ Re ¸ ( ¸ 2
) ¸ Re 2 ( ) ¸ Re ¸ ( ¸ 2
arccos
360
¸ 4
360
¸ 4
0 0
R p R cell R cell
l R p l R p R cell R cell R cell R cell
a
π
α
π


(4.18)
From presented equations, it can be easily seen that α converges to 0
0
and thus the
accuracy a converges to 0, iI the repeater range (Rep¸R) converges to 0 and cell range
(cell¸R) approaching inIinity.
To conclude, implementing repeaters improves accuracy oI Cell ID¹RTT within single
cell coverage area. When single Cell ID and RTT are reported to the network (without
repeaters), the position oI the user can be estimated within 283 m x 5 m area (6-
sector/65
0
, urban environment 1 km cell spacing). In the case, when repeaters are
implemented in the network, the accuracy improves signiIicantly. Namely, Ior the set oI
parameters: cell¸R ÷ 600 m, Rep¸R÷150 m and l÷5 m, the position estimation area
equals 93 m x 5 m (in the worst geometrical case).
In all other geometrical cases, the accuracy behaves the same, as described in Subchapter
4.1.1.2 (when UE is in SHO). The best situation is again when the joined line NodeB-UE
(cell¸R) is at the right angle to the line UE-Rep (Rep¸R).


4.1.2.2 Softer handover

There is no impact oI implementing repeaters in the case when a UE is in soIter handover
in most oI the cases. According to the results obtained in section 4.1.1.2, the accuracy is
already very good: Ior rural 130 m and Ior urban 43,6 m when 65° antenna beamwidth
are implemented and 22,5 m Ior 33° antennas. Thus, implementing repeaters does not
reduce the accuracy.


4.1.2.3 Soft handover

When a UE is in SHO state, it receives two signal branches (directly Irom NodeB and
through the repeater) Irom each oI the cells in the active set. In this case, at least two Cell
IDs and at least three RTTs measurements are reported. Here, the utilization oI repeaters
can also improve the geometry oI the network.
In the most pessimistic geometric case, when Node Bs oI active set, their repeaters, and
the UE are in the same line, the improvement in accuracy made by simultaneous RTT
measurements is the smallest (Chapter 4.2).
In the optimistic geometric case, when neighboring Node Bs are at right angles, the
accuracy in ideal case is only limited by non-ideal oversampling methods, then presence
oI repeaters does not have any impact on the accuracy in SHO areas.
76

Figure 4.13. The worst geometric case in SHO, when repeaters are implemented in the network.




















NodeB 1
NodeB 2
77
5. System Simulations

Monte Carlo simulations were utilized in order to evaluate size oI the areas
with diIIerent degree oI accuracy Ior chosen topology scenarios.
Furthermore, the impact oI UTRAN parameters (SHO window, E
c
/I
0

requirements, CPICH power) on the dimensions oI these areas was studied.
Discovery oI the dependence between network topology and Cell ID¹RTT
perIormance is undoubtedly necessary Ior UMTS network designers wanted
to implement location services in their networks eIIiciently.
Firstly, the planning tool and simulation environment are brieIly introduced
and then the obtained results are presented and described.


5.1 Simulation environment

5.1.1 Nokia NetAct WCDMA planning tool

Nokia NetAct WCDMA Planner 4.0 was used in the part oI this thesis concerning
availability oI Cell ID¹RTT. The tool uses Monte Carlo simulations, which can give us
view on the probability oI appearance areas with diIIerent degree oI accuracy oI chosen
location method. NetAct is a static simulator, which means that network perIormance is
analyzed over various time instances (snapshots), during which the UEs are in
statistically deIined locations. During each iterative process, the ability oI an UE to make
a connection is calculated. Based on this, the simulator derives expected, overall network
perIormance. The overview oI Monte Carlo simulation process is depicted in Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1. Monte Carlo simulation process [50].
Naturally, the accuracy oI static simulations is not as high as dynamic ones. However,
dynamic processing requires much more time and computing power. In the Irame oI the
78
Cell ID¹RTT availability analysis, static simulator completely IulIills research
requirements.


5.1.2 Simulation parameters

Digital map oI Tampere area, Finland (typical suburban and light urban environment)
with resolution 5 m x 5 m was used in the simulations. Simulation area consisted oI 19
3-sectored sites (65° antennas) and 6-sectored sites (65° or 33° antennas). The sites were
located in a regular hexagonal grid having equal distances oI 3 km (1a rural scenario) and
1 km (all urban scenarios). All considered scenarios assume equal height oI sites, which
was set up to 25 m. TraIIic raster, which contains the number and distribution oI the
users, was selected to be homogenous over the simulation area. The user proIile consisted
only oI outdoor, speech users (12.2 kbps). The amount oI users was selected in such a
manner that the average uplink load was kept at the same level around 60° in all high
loaded and around 25° in all low loaded scenarios. Okumura-Hata propagation model
was chosen Ior the simulations, propagation slope was constant (35 dB/dec), and an
average area correction Iactor was set to 6,7 dB, which corresponds to light urban or
suburban areas. Three global parameters were chosen to be variable over the simulations.
These are SHO window, E
c
/I
0
requirements, and CPICH power allocation scheme.
Moreover, all simulations have been made Ior two loaded cases high and low loaded.
The summary oI all general parameters is included in the Table 5.1. The radiation
patterns oI antennas used in simulations are presented in Figure 5.2.
Parameter Jalue
NodeB maximum power |dBm| 43
CPICH |dBm| 30 / 33
CCCH |dBm| 30 / 33
SCH |dBm| 27 / 30
Maximum power per connection |dBm| 33
NodeB noise Iigure |dB| 5
UL required E
b
/N
0
|dB| 5

UE maximum power |dBm| 21
UE dynamic range |dB| 70
Power control step size |dB| 0,5
Required E
c
/I
0
|dB| -15 / -17 / -18
UE noise Iigure |dB| 9
DL required E
b
/N
0
|dB| 8

Standard deviation oI slow Iading |dB| 10
UL noise rise |dB| 6
DL orthogonality 0,6
SHO window |dB| 3 / 4 / 5
Active set size 3
Table 5.1. General simulation parameters.
79


Figure 5.2. Hori:ontal radiation patterns of antennas 33° and 65° used in simulations.


5.2 Simulation results

In this subchapter, the results oI all considered scenarios will be presented. Analysis
begins with the evaluation oI a rural scenario oI 3-sector/65° scenario with 3 km cell
spacing. It is Iollowed by analysis oI the Iollowing network topologies Ior urban
environment: 3-secetor/65°, 6-sector/65°, and 6-sector/33° all with 1 km cell spacing. In
parallel to evaluation oI the network perIormance Irom location technique point oI view,
simulations outcomes Irom radio network planning perspective will be shown. Naturally,
Iigures oI service probability or mean oI Iailures are expressive only Ior highly loaded
networks, and thus only these will be included. Service probability Ior low loaded
scenarios equals 100° Ior all considered cases.
The Iigures oI area distribution are organized in such a manner that Ior each value oI
E
c
/I
0
there is a set oI bars calculated Ior diIIerent SHO window sizes oI 3 dB, 4 dB and 5
dB, respectively.


5.2.1 3-sector/65° with 3 km cell spacing

The Iirst considered scenario was 3-sector/65° topology Ior rural environment (3 km cell
spacing). The results presented in Figure 5.3 clearly show the overall behavior oI areas
with diIIerent degree oI accuracy, however their variation is not signiIicant. Visible
change can be observed Ior diIIerent SHO window sizes, whereas cases with diIIerent
E
c
/I
0
requirements remain almost constant. In the same time diIIerent values oI E
c
/I
0
have
quite signiIicant impact on the service probability. Single Cell ID¹RTT is reported Irom
approximately 80° oI served users, which creates a very low perIormance oI the system
Irom location point oI view. The same scenario with a smaller number oI users gives
80
comparable outcomes to the high loaded network; on average 1° less SHO and 1° more
single Cell ID areas.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.3. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33
dBm,and high loaded network with 3 km cell spacing.

The perIormance oI the system Irom the network planning point oI view has been
presented by the mean oI Iailures indicator. The mean oI Iailures represents a percentage
oI mobiles, which are not served in considered scenario due to diIIerent causes. The mean
oI Iailures behaves unexpectedly, i.e., there is no clear decrease oI service probability Ior
higher SHO window and less strict E
c
/I
0
requirements. However, the level oI mean Iailed
is low and its variations are very small. ThereIore, this inaccuracy can Iollow Irom non-
ideality oI the Monte Carlo simulator.

0
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
Ec/Ìo=-15dB Ec/Ìo=-17dB Ec/Ìo=-18dB
SHO=3dB
SHO=4dB
SHO=5dB

Figure 5.4. Mean of failures for 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm, and high loaded network with 3
km cell spacing.

The same scenario with less number oI users shows similar perIormance Irom location
point oI view as the high loaded network; on average 1° less SHO and 1° more single
Cell ID areas.

81
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.5. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and low loaded network with 3 km cell spacing.

Changing the power allocation, namely decreasing CPICH and CCCH powers to 30 dBm
and SCH to 27 dBm, and thus dedicating more power to transmission channels, does not
bring any major eIIect Irom location point oI view. However the network perIormance is
slightly improved.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.6. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm,
and high loaded network with 3 km cell spacing

The mean oI Iailures is kept in the range oI 1,4° to 2,2° (Figure 5.7), which is
approximately 1° less than in higher pilot power scenario (Figure 5.4). As it will be seen
in Iurther simulation results, the general behavior oI mean oI Iailures in all lower pilot
scenarios is similar higher the SHO window and more loose E
c
/I
0
requirement - lower
the mean oI Iailures. Network with a lower pilot power acts like a low loaded network.
Typically, in high loaded network with higher CPICH, the network is downlink limited,
i.e., the main contribution to Iailure is the not enough power Ior traIIic channels. By
decreasing the pilot power, automatically more power is allocated Ior actual traIIic
channels to serve users, and thus the network is becoming noise rise limited.

82
0.0 %
0.5 %
1.0 %
1.5 %
2.0 %
2.5 %
Ec/Ìo=-15dB Ec/Ìo=-17dB Ec/Ìo=-18dB
SHO=3dB
SHO=4dB
SHO=5dB

Figure 5.7. Mean of failures for 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm, and high loaded network with 3
km cell spacing.


The impact oI loading the network is even less visible than in higher pilot scenario.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.8. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm,
and low loaded network with 3 km cell spacing

Summarizing, the analyzed scenario does not provide satisIying outcomes Irom
positioning point oI view. Namely, the distribution oI areas with higher degree oI
accuracy (soIt and soIter handovers) indicates that approximately only 10-20° and 2-5°
oI users are in soIt and soIter handover, respectively. Simultaneously, on average 80° oI
served mobiles are under single sector coverage, and thus its position cannot be estimated
accurately.


5.2.2 3-sector/65° with 1 km cell spacing

The Iirst considered scenario Ior urban environment was 3-sector/65° topology. The
results in Figure 5.9 show again that by increasing SHO window, the change in diIIerent
accuracy areas is more signiIicant than in diIIerent scenarios. However, having a lower
E
c
/I
0
requirement, the service probability is also lower.
83
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.9. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and high loaded with 1 km cell spacing.

The mean oI Iailures is greater Ior SHO window 4 dB and E
c
/I
0
18 dB than Ior SHO
window 5 dB and E
c
/I
0
15 dB (Figure 5.10). Altogether, there are more areas with better
accuracy in SHO window 5 dB and E
c
/I
0
15 dB scenario. Overall perIormance oI Cell
ID¹RTT in this case is not satisIactory enough: a single Cell ID is reported in 60° to
70° oI total network coverage area, thus most oI the users can be located with the worst
possible accuracy.





12°
15°
Ec/Io÷-15dB Ec/Io÷-17dB Ec/Io ÷ -18dB
SHO÷3dB
SHO÷4dB
SHO÷5dB

Figure 5.10. Mean of failures for 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm, and high loaded network with 1
km cell spacing.

Naturally, the outcomes obtained Irom the simulations made with less number oI
terminals show less areas oI soIt and soIter handover connections, and thus perIormance
Irom location point oI view is little worse (2-3° more areas with the least accuracy
single Cell ID), Figure 5.11.
84
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.11. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and low loaded with 1 km cell separation.

The same simulations were made with a lower value oI pilot power (CPICH 30 dBm).
The overall results (Figure 5.12) show worse perIormance Irom location point oI view;
on average, 1° less soIter HO, 2-4° less SHO, and 2-3° more single Cell ID areas.
However, the mean oI Iailures is decreased to lower level (2-4°), see Figure 5.13.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.12. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm,
and high loaded network with 1 km cell spacing.

The mean oI Iailures behaves diIIerently than in scenarios with the higher pilot power,
since the network is more noise limited than downlink transmission power limited as it is
in higher CPICH power network. Moreover, the situation when the network with the
lower CPICH power has much higher service probability exists only in dense topologies.
In the rural environments, as we have seen in previous subchapter, the improvement in
service probability is not as signiIicant as in this case. With larger cell spacing and the
lower pilot power, additional contribution to Iailure may appear, these are: low pilot E
c
/I
0

and uplink E
b
/N
0
.
85






Ec/Io ÷ -15dB Ec/Io ÷ -17dB Ec/Io ÷ -18dB
SHO ÷ 3dB
SHO ÷ 4dB
SHO ÷ 5dB

Figure 5.13. Mean of failures for 3-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm, and high loaded network with 1
km cell spacing.

As it was expected, again the eIIect oI loading the network is almost not visible in lower
pilot power allocation scenarios also in this case.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.14. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 3-sector/65° topologv, 1 km cell
spacing, CPICH÷30 dBm, low loaded network.

Generally, the distribution oI areas with higher degree oI accuracy in 3-sector/65°
scenario with 1 km cell spacing presents more optimistic results than in the case oI larger
cell spacing (3 km). However, still the position oI 60-75° oI served users can be
estimated with not satisIying accuracy. Moreover, the eIIect oI SHO window size is more
signiIicant than in the previous case (3-sector/65° with 3 km cell spacing). Changing
power allocation, i.e., decreasing power Ior signaling channels and thus allocating more
to transmission channels gives noticeable increase oI service probability with
simultaneous small decrease oI areas with higher accuracy.





86
5.2.3 6-sector/65° with 1 km cell spacing

Naturally, due to implementation oI wide beamwidth antennas (65°) Ior 6-sectored sites,
the increase in soIter handover areas is signiIicant. Due to sectoring scheme the degree oI
accuracy oI single Cell ID areas is considerably higher. Due to remarkable sector
overlapping, the attainable accuracy in soIter handover areas decreases, since the
overlapping areas oI wide sectors are overspread at wider angle. In the higher pilot power
scenario, on average 60-75° oI served users (depending mainly on the SHO window
size) can be estimated with satisIying accuracy, see Figure 5.15.
Moreover, the level oI mean oI Iailures is considerably higher as seen Irom Figure 5.16.
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.15. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 6-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and high loaded network with 1 km cell spacing.


10°
15°
20°
25°
Ec/Io ÷ -15dB Ec/Io ÷ -17dB Ec/Io ÷ -18dB
SHO ÷ 3dB
SHO ÷ 4dB
SHO ÷ 5dB

Figure 5.16. Mean of failures for 6-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm, high loaded network with 1 km
cell spacing.

Lower loaded scenario consists oI approximately up to 5° more areas with the least
accuracy (single Cell ID¹RTT) and simultaneously 2-4 ° less soIt handovers, and 3-5°
less soIter handovers. Naturally, all mobiles are served (mean oI Iailures ÷ 0°).
87
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.17. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 6-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and low loaded network with 1 km cell spacing.

With a lower pilot power (30 dBm) in the 6-sector/65° topology, the areas with better
accuracy, i.e., soIt and soIter HO areas are still kept on a very high level. Only 2-6° less
SHO and soIter HO areas are obtained (Figure 5.18) compared to higher pilot power
scenario. Fortunately, the increase oI single Cell ID areas is not signiIicant; on average,
there are only 6-8° more single Cell ID areas. The best case (SHO÷5 dB, E
c
/I
0
÷-18 dB)
provides approximately 20° areas where only single Cell ID is known.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.18. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 6-sector/65° topologv. 1 km cell
spacing, CPICH÷30 dBm, high loaded network.

Similarly, changing the value oI CPICH to 30 dBm, the considered topology becomes
noise limited with signiIicantly lower value oI mean oI Iailures (Figure 5.19).

88






Ec/Io÷-15dB Ec/Io÷-17dB Ec/Io÷-18dB
SHO÷3dB
SHO÷4dB
SHO÷5dB

Figure 5.19. Mean of failures for 6-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm, and high loaded network with 1
km cell spacing.
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.20. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 6-sector/65° topologv, CPICH 30 dBm,
and low loaded network with 1 km cell spacing.

Considered topology in the Irame oI this subchapter gives very promising simulations
outcomes Irom positioning point oI view, i.e., less than 20° oI served users were under
single cell coverage area in the higher pilot power scenario. However, at the same time
the level oI mean oI Iailures was on very high level 15° (CPICH 33 dBm). Changing
the power allocation scheme, decreasing pilot power to 30 dBm, the perIormance Irom
positioning point oI view was maintained on a high level (only 6-8° more single Cell ID
areas) while service probability improved signiIicantly (mean oI Iailures - 3°).


5.2.4 6-sector/33° with 1 km cell spacing

In 6-sectored sites with 33° antennas, the probability oI SHO is still maintained at high
level. Simultaneously, the service probability is almost 100° in all SHO window and
E
c
/I
0
scenarios. The 6-sector/33° topology in the high loaded network behaves similar to
the low loaded scenario. There is practically no diIIerence in the size oI deIined areas
between diIIerent E
c
/I
0
values (Figure 5.21). Areas with higher accuracy are kept on level
89
oI 20° to 35° oI all served users, whereas single Cell ID is reported Irom over 60° oI
the total service coverage area due to the low probability oI soIter handover.


20°
40°
60°
80°
100°
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.21. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 6-sector/33° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and high loaded network with 1 km cell spacing.


The simulation results oI the low loaded scenario practically do not diIIer Irom the high
loaded case.
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-15 -17 -18
Ec/Ìo [dB]

Figure 5.22. Distribution of areas with defined degree of accuracv, 6-sector/33° topologv, CPICH 33 dBm,
and low loaded network with 1 km cell spacing.

Since the conIiguration with the higher CPICH power (33 dBm) already has almost 100°
service probability, the scenario with a lower pilot power scheme was not simulated.
Analysis oI 6-sector/33° scenario with 1 km cell spacing gave satisIactory results Irom
mobile positioning point oI view with simultaneous almost 100° service probability.
Due to less sector overlapping, there is a small percentage oI soIter handover areas,
however soIt handovers are maintained on high level (40° in the best conIiguration),
which provides satisIying results Irom positioning perspective.
90
6. Conclusions and discussions

The Cell ID¹RTT hybrid location method Ior UMTS has been chosen due to its
availability, applicability, and satisIying accuracy.
Theoretical analysis oI geometry has showed that coverage area oI Cell ID¹RTT can be
generally divided into three areas with diIIerent degree oI attainable accuracy (single Cell
ID, soIter HO, and SHO). Naturally in SHO, since multiple RTT measurements are
reported, the position oI the UE can be estimated with the highest possible accuracy 15-
20 m (in the best geometrical scenario). The accuracy in soIter handover and single sector
coverage area depends mainly on distance Irom the NodeB, antenna beamwidth, and
sector overlapping.
Typical network topologies Ior rural and urban environment have been simulated with
special attention to impact oI SHO window size, E
c
/I
0
requirements and common pilot
channel power (CPICH). It has been observed that practically the E
c
/I
0
threshold does
not have a visible impact on the positioning availability. However, less strict E
c
/I
0

requirements degrade the service probability signiIicantly. In turn, a wider SHO window
does not decrease the service probability that much, but simultaneously it provides
noteworthy growth oI soIter and soIt handover areas together with decrease oI areas,
where only single Cell ID is known. Changing the value oI CPICH to 30 dBm makes the
high loaded and dense networks noise limited with a low level oI mean oI Iailures.
Moreover, the behavior oI the service probability as a Iunction oI E
c
/I
0
and SHO window
width is reverse the mean oI Iailures is lower Ior a wider SHO window size and Ior a
lower E
c
/I
0
requirements. Simultaneously, there is only small decrease in areas with
higher degree oI accuracy; on average 2-5° less SHO and 1° less soIter HO areas.
The simulation results have showed a slight disagreement between optimum base station
site deployment strategy Ior location services and radio network planning, since
maintenance oI high percentage oI areas with higher degree oI accuracy costs the
increase oI mean oI Iailures. However, by changing power allocation scheme
decreasing CPICH power to 30 dBm - acceptable outcomes oI the network perIormance
have been observed Irom both points oI view.
Figures 6.1-6.3 present comparison oI Cell ID¹RTT perIormance in considered scenarios
Ior urban environment (1 km cell separation). For each topology SHO window ÷ 5 dB,
and E
c
/I
0
÷ -15 dB have been selected as the best set oI parameters, since detailed
analysis showed that these values provide the best balance between positioning
perIormance and the service probability.
The simulation results have showed that 6-sectorized scenario with 65° antennas oIIers
the widest availability oI soIt and soIter handover areas, and thus it provides the best
overall perIormance oI Cell ID¹RTT positioning method. In the conIiguration oI CPICH
33 dBm, the level oI mean oI Iailures is at an unacceptable level. However, by decreasing
the power dedicated Ior pilot and other signaling channels, mean oI Iailures in this
scenario decreases to little more than 2°.
91
The outcomes obtained Irom simulating 6-sector/33° topology present satisIactory
availability oI SHO areas (almost 40°) with simultaneous high level oI service
probability (~99°), even in conIiguration with higher pilot power (33 dBm).
3-sectored scenarios are without doubt not the best choices when Cell ID¹RTT is
planning to be deployed since the availability and accuracy are not on acceptable level.

Availability
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
3
-
s
e
c
t
o
r
/
6
5
6
-
s
e
c
t
o
r
/
6
5
6
-
s
e
c
t
o
r
/
3
3

Figure 6.1. Availabilitv of Cell ID · RTT conclusions. For 3-sector/65° and 6-sector/65° bars present
results for CPICH÷33 dBm case (left bar) and CPICH÷3 0dBm case (right bar).
Accuracy
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
3-sector/65 6-sector/65 6-sector/33

[
m
]

Figure 6.2. Accuracv of Cell ID · RTT conclusions.
92
Mean of failures
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
3-sector/65 6-sector/65 6-sector/33
CPÌCH=33dBm
CPÌCH=30dBm
Figure 6.3. Mean of failures conclusions.


The overall result included in this thesis presents that even in the best scenario Irom
positioning and radio network planning point oI view the availability oI soIt handover is
approximately 35° (6-sector/65° scenario). Simultaneously, on average, 40° oI
terminals are in soIter handover state, where position can be estimated also with good
precision in most oI the cases. However, still 25° oI served users are under the coverage
oI a single sector and thus its location cannot be estimated with satisIied accuracy. By
Iorcing the UE to enter the SHO state Ior the time instant needed Ior necessary RTT
measurements, the great position estimation accuracy would become available Ior most
oI the users. Then perIormance oI Cell ID¹RTT would correspond to, e.g., OTDOA; still
with very inexpensive deployment costs. The idea oI Iorced handovers supporting the
Cell ID¹TA (Timing Advance) location method Ior GSM has been already studied in
|51| and |52|. The accuracy improvement was clearly showed, however according to the
poor resolution oI TA in GSM (550 m), the overall perIormance oI Cell ID¹TA, even
with Iorced handover algorithm was not good enough. Moreover, the important
drawback oI this method was that no communication could take place when mobile is
being located, since soIt handovers are not supported in GSM. In turn, in UMTS, Iirstly
the resolution oI single RTT measurement is much higher and additionally, soIt
handovers allow a continuous transmission during location evaluation. ThereIore,
deployment oI Iorced soIt handover algorithm would enhance perIormance oI Cell
ID¹RTT signiIicantly.






93
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