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Review

Blast loaded plates
R. Rajendran
a,
*
, J.M. Lee
b,1
a
BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu, India
b
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan
609-735, Republic of Korea
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 21 August 2006
Received in revised form 1 April 2008
Accepted 22 April 2008
Keywords:
Detonation
Shock wave propagation
Air blast
Underwater explosion
Plate damage
a b s t r a c t
Plates form one of the basic elements of structures. Land-based
structures may be subjected to air blast loads during combat
environment or terrorist attack, while marine structures may be
subjected to either air blast by the attack of a missile above the wa-
ter surface or an underwater explosion by the attack of a torpedo
or a mine or a depth charge and an aircraft structure may be sub-
jected to an in-flight attack by on-board explosive devices. Further-
more, gas explosion occurs in offshore installations and industries.
This review focuses on the phenomenological evolution of blast
damage of plates.
Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Plated structures are important in a variety of aero, marine and land-based applications including
aircrafts, ships, offshore platforms, box girder bridges, power/chemical plants, bins, bunkers and box
girder cranes. Internal explosion on-board commercial aircraft using explosive devices results in com-
plete loss of aircraft. Land-based structures experience air blast loading during war or terrorist attack or
accidental gas explosion. Marine structures undergo air blast loading due to accidental gas explosions
and or the attack of rockets and missiles above the waterline and underwater explosion loading due to
the explosion of torpedoes, mines and depth charges below the waterline.
For an aircraft, frames (circumferential reinforcing members) and stringers (rows of longitudinal re-
inforcements) are riveted or adhesively bonded to the thin aluminium fuselage skin. The curvature of
the fuselage is small compared to the individual shell size. Therefore, the individual panels are
* Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ91 44 27480282.
E-mail addresses: rajurajendr@yahoo.co.in (R. Rajendran), jaemlee@pusan.ac.kr (J.M. Lee).
1
Tel.: þ82 51 510 2342; fax: þ82 51 512 8836.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Marine Structures
j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/
marst ruc
0951-8339/$ – see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.marstruc.2008.04.001
Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127
Nomenclature
A area of the plate (m
2
)/explosive constant
B, R
1
, R
2
, U explosive constants
a
c
crack length (m)
C structural damping matrix
c
a
ambient speed of sound in air (m/s)
c
p
peak wind velocity behind the shock front (m/s)/plastic wave speed of the plate material
(m/s)
c
sa
velocity of shock wave in air (m/s)
c
w
velocity of sound in water (m/s)
D material constant
E Young’s modulus of the plate material
E
p
shock energy transferred to the plate per unit area (J/m
2
)
Eq
TNT
TNT equivalent of the explosive
E
s
energy of the shock wave per unit area (J/m
2
)
E
TNT
energy of TNT explosive (J)
F peak load on the plate (N)
F(t) time-dependent load on the plate (N)
G matrix relating structural degrees of freedom to the fluid
I impulse per unit area (Ns/m
2
)
I
t
total impulse (Ns)
JWL Jones–Wilkins–Lee
K structural stiffness matrix
k stiffness of the plate (N/m)
M structural mass matrix
m mass per unit area of the plate (kg/m
2
)
n material parameter
P
m
peak pressure/peak overpressure (MPa)
P
o
atmospheric pressure (MPa)
p exponent of power-type strain law/pressure (MPa)
p
i
incident pressure (MPa)
q dynamic pressure (MPa)/material constant
r
e
radius of the explosive (m)
S stand off (m)
S
0
scaled distance (m/m)
T kinetic energy of the plate (J)
t time (s)/thickness (m)
t
c
cavitation time (m/s)
t
d
positive duration of the blast wave (s)
t
f
thickness of the fluid element (m)
U internal energy of the explosive per unit volume (J/m
3
)
V volume (m
3
)/impact velocity (m/s)
V
m
maximum velocity attained by the plate (m/s)
v velocity of the water particle behind the shock front (m/s)
v
i
incident water particle velocity (m/s)
v
s
scattered fluid particle velocity (m/s)
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 100
approximated as flat plates [1]. The curvature of the ship plating is small and it is supported by welded
longitudinal and transverse stiffeners at its edges. The plate between the stiffeners is therefore consid-
ered as a flat plate [2].
The motivation for this review arises from the primary concern for the design of plated structures
against blast load. As elucidated in the preceding paragraph, plates form one of the basic elements of
the structures. Therefore, studying the blast response of plates helps understanding and improving
their blast resistance. The topic can be broadly categorized into (1) the detonation process or the rapid
chemical reaction of the explosive, (2) the shock wave propagation in the mediumin which detonation
takes place, (3) the interaction of the shock wave with the plate and (4) the response of the plate to the
input shock loading. These four aspects are brought out in this review with an attempt to gain greater
insight into the blast damage phenomenon.
W TNT equivalent of the explosive charge quantity (kg)/work imparted to the plate
structure (J)
x lateral displacement of the plate (m)
a waveform parameter
a
j
Johnson’s damage number
b aspect ratio
d central plastic deflection of the plate (m)
3
f
uniaxial fracture strain (m/m)
F dimensionless number
h coupling factor
h
m
moment amplification factor
n Poisson’s ratio
q time constant of the underwater shock wave (s)/half angle of the petal (

)
r density of air behind the shock front (kg/m
3
)
r
o
ambient density of air (kg/m
3
)
r
p
density of the plate material (kg/m
3
)
r
w
density of water (kg/m
3
)
s
o
flow stress of the material (MPa)
s
u
ultimate stress (MPa)
s
y
static yield stress (MPa)
s
yd
dynamic yield stress (MPa)
s burn time (s)
x shock factor (kg
0.5
/m)
x
e
effective shock factor (kg
0.515
/m
1.03
)
j inverse mass number (kg/kg)
z knock-down factor
Subscripts
a air-backed plate
c circular plate
cr critical
m maximum
p plate
r rectangular plate
t total
w water-backed plate
y yield
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 101
2. The explosion process
The explosion is a rapid chemical reaction in a substance, which converts the original material into
a gas at very high temperature and pressure evolving large amount of heat (4389 kJ/kg of trinitrotol-
uene (TNT) explosive) [3]. The explosion process is divided into two parts: (1) the detonation process
and (2) the interaction process between the product gases and the surrounding medium (air in atmo-
sphere and water in underwater). During the detonation process, a detonation wave generates and
propagates in the explosive. The parameters that are used to assess the detonation performance of
an explosive are the Chapman–Jouguet (C–J) detonation pressure [4], the temperature of detonation
[5] and the detonation velocity [6]. Typically for an explosive (TNT) with a density of 1650 kg/m
3
,
the Chapman–Jouguet (C–J) detonation pressure [4] is 21,000 MPa, the detonation temperature [5] is
3720 K and the detonation velocity [6] is 6950 m/s. Once the process of detonation is completed, the
interaction of the product gases with the surrounding medium takes place. The product gases with
high pressure and temperature expand outward by generating a pressure wave. The gaseous products
are assumed to be inviscid at this high temperature and thus the viscous forces are not considered for
the explosive modeling. In the water medium, an instantaneous compression of the water surround-
ing the gas emits a pressure pulse that propagates into water with a velocity that is three times higher
than the velocity of sound in water [7]. This higher velocity levels off rapidly and attains a velocity that
is only 20% higher than the sound velocity at a distance that is five times the charge radius after which
the pressure wave falls to the sound velocity at around 20 times the charge radius and propagates at
that constant velocity. The gas bubble expands at a velocity that is much slower than the pressure
pulse. In air explosion, the shock wave moves with the gas–air interface [8]. An equation of state
(EOS) of the explosive relating energy, pressure and volume is essential for the numerical modeling
of the detonation process. The most commonly used EOS to describe the state of detonation products
is Jones–Wilkins–Lee (JWL), which is given as [8]
p
JWL
ðV; U
in
Þ ¼ A
_
1 À
U
R
1
V
_
e
ðÀR
1

þB
_
1 À
U
R
2
V
_
e
ðÀR
2

þ
U
V
E
in
(1)
where A, B, R
1
, R
2
and U are constants [8], p
JWL
is the pressure, V is relative the volume compared to the
initial volume of the explosive and U
in
is the internal energy per unit volume. The first term in JWL
equation known as the high-pressure term dominates first for V close to one, the second term is influ-
ential for V close to 2 and last term corresponds to the expanded state.
3. The shock wave propagation
Significant contrast exists in the wave propagation phenomena between the air and the water me-
dia due to (1) their different physical properties and (2) the interface phenomena between the explo-
sive product gases and the surrounding medium [9]. The physical properties that matter for the
propagating medium are the velocity of sound, the density, the compressibility, the temperature and
the ambient pressure. While air is compressible water is considered as incompressible. Both air and
water are treated as inviscid. The velocity of sound in air at sea level is 340 m/s. The velocity of sound
in water is 1483 m/s (approximately 4.36 times the velocity of sound in air at sea level). The sound ve-
locity increases with temperature. The density of air at sea level is 1.25 kg/m
3
and the density of water
is 1000 kg/m
3
(approximately 800 times the density of air). The relations between the shock wave pa-
rameters and the charge quantity and stand off for both air blast and underwater blast are empirically
formulated and verified with a number of experiments.
3.1. Air blast
A schematic of the blast wave is shown in Fig. 1. The shock wave has an instantaneous rise and an
exponential fall [10]. The parameters of interest for the damage process are the peak overpressure (that
is the pressure above the atmospheric pressure), the positive duration and impulse with respect to the
scaled distance. The negative phase of the blast wave is generally ignored. An explosion of higher yield
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 102
will arrive at a point sooner than an explosion of lower yield. The higher the overpressure at the shock
front the greater is the velocity of the shock wave. As the blast wave progresses outward, the pressure
at the shock front decreases and the velocity falls of accordingly. At long ranges, when the overpressure
decreases to 7 kPa, the velocity of the blast wave approaches the ambient speed of sound. The duration
of the overpressure phase increases with the energy of the explosive yield and the distance from the
explosion. The instantaneous pressure p(t) of the positive phase of an ideal air blast wave is given by
the Friedlander equation as [10]
pðtÞ ¼ P
o
þP
m
_
1 À
_
t
t
d
_
e
Àat=t
d
_
(2)
where P
o
is the ambient pressure, t is the instantaneous time, t
d
is the positive duration of the pressure
pulse and a is called waveform parameter that depends upon the peak overpressure P
m
of the shock
wave. The waveform parameter a is regarded as an adjustable parameter which is selected so that
the overpressure–time relationships provide suitable values of the blast impulse. For chemical explo-
sions, the peak overpressure is expressed as [10]
P
m
=P
o
¼
808
_
1 þ
_
S
0
4:5
_
2
_
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
0:048
_
2
_ ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
0:32
_
2
_ ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
1:35
_
2
_ (3a)
and for nuclear explosions [10]
P
m
=P
o
¼ 3:2 Â10
6
S
0À3
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
87
_
¸
_
1 þ
S
0
800
_
(3b)
The scaled distance S
0
is given as [11–13]
S
0
¼
S
W
1=3
(4)
where S is the stand off from the explosion in m and W is the TNT equivalent of the explosive charge
weight in kg. The time of arrival of the shock wave t
a
for a radial distance r from an explosive radius of
radius r
e
is given as [10]
p(t)
Positive phase
duration
Negative phase
duration
Ambient
pressure
Peak
overpressure
Fig. 1. A schematic of the blast wave.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 103
t
a
¼
1
c
a
_
r
r
e
_
1
1 þ
6P
m
7P
o
_
1=2
dr (5)
The duration of the shock pulse t
d
for the chemical explosion in ms is [10]
t
d
W
1=3
¼
980
_
1 þ
_
S
0
0:54
_
10
_
_
1 þ
_
S
0
0:02
_
3
__
1 þ
_
S
0
0:74
_
6
_
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
6:9
_
2
_ (6a)
For a nuclear explosion [10]
t
d
W
1=3
¼
180
_
1 þ
_
S
0
100
_
3
_
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
40
_
_
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
285
_
5
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
50;000
_
6
_
6
¸ (6b)
The shock wave velocity c
sa
is expressed as [12]
c
sa
¼ c
a
_
1 þ
6P
m
P
o
_
1=2
(7)
where c
a
is the ambient speed of sound. The particle velocity, c
p
(or peak wind velocity behind the
shock front) is given as [12]
c
p
¼
5P
m
7P
o
c
a
ð1 þ6P
m
=7P
o
Þ
1=2
(8)
The density, r, of the air behind the shock front is related to the ambient density r
o
as [12]
r=r
o
¼
7 þ6P
m
=P
o
7 þP
m
=P
o
(9)
The dynamic pressure q, which is the kinetic energy per unit volume of air immediately behind the
shock front, is given as [12]
q ¼
5
2
P
2
m
7P
o
þP
m
(10)
The peak overpressure P
m
in MPa is given as [14]
P
m
¼ 1:13S
0ðÀ2:1Þ
for 1 S
0
10 (11a)
P
m
¼ 0:183S
0ðÀ1:16Þ
for 10 S
0
200 (11b)
where S is in m.
The impulse of the shock wave I in Ns/m
2
is given as [14]
I ¼ 203S
0ðÀ0:91Þ
for 1 S
0
10 (12a)
I ¼ 335S
0ðÀ1:06Þ
for 10 S
0
200 (12b)
and also as [10]
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 104
I ¼
0:067
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
0:23
_
4
2
_
S
0
2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ
_
S
0
1:55
_
3
3
_ (12c)
3.2. Gas explosion
A gas explosion is a process where combustion of a premixed gas cloud, that is, fuel–air or fuel/
oxidizers causing rapid increase of pressure [15]. The pressure generated by the combustion wave
will depend on how fast the flame propagates and how the pressure expands away from the gas cloud
(governed by confinement). The consequence of gas explosion ranges from no damage to total
destruction.
3.3. Underwater explosion
The schematic of the blast wave in Fig. 1 is applicable for the underwater explosion too. The ambient
pressure is the hydrostatic pressure. In air blast, the peak overpressure is typically of the order of kPa,
which is comparable to the atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa, whereas in underwater explosion the
peak overpressure is of several orders of magnitude greater than the hydrostatic pressure. Therefore,
the hydrostatic pressure is ignored and the peak overpressure is simply called as peak pressure. The
parameters that are of interest for an underwater explosion wave from the point of view of the plate
damage are the peak pressure, P
m
, the time constant, q, the free field impulse, I and the energy carried
by the shock wave E
s
. The pressure p(t) at a given point decays from its peak value P
m
exponentially
with time t as [3,16]
pðtÞ ¼ P
m
e
Àt=q
(13)
where q is the time taken by the shock wave to decay to 1/e of peak value. The peak pressure, P
m
, in MPa
is [3,16]
P
m
¼ 52:16
_
W
1=3
S
_
1:13
¼ 52:16S
0À1:13
(14)
The velocity of the water particle behind the shock front is given as [3]
vðtÞ ¼ pðtÞ=r
w
c
w
(15)
The time constant q in s is given as [3,16]
q ¼ 96:5 Â10
À6
_
W
1=3
_
_
W
1=3
S
_
À0:22
¼ 96:5 Â10
À6
_
W
1=3
_
S
0ð0:22Þ
(16)
The free field impulse per unit area, I, in Ns/m
2
is given as [3,16]
I ¼ 5760
_
W
1=3
_
_
W
1=3
S
_
0:89
¼ 5760
_
W
1=3
_
S
0ðÀ0:89Þ
(17)
The energy carried by the shock wave per unit area in J/m
2
is given as [3,16]
E
s
¼ 98; 000
_
W
1=3
_
_
W
1=3
S
_
2:1
¼ 98; 000
_
W
1=3
_
S
0ðÀ2:1Þ
(18)
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 105
These formulae are applicable for a stand off that is greater than 10 times the explosive charge radius.
Avariation of the ratio of the underwater explosion impulse, I
w
, to the air blast impulse, I
a
, as a function
of reduced stand off is shown in Fig. 2. The underwater explosion load carries an impulse that is at least
22 times that of air blast for the same reduced stand off configuration. The dip in the curve is due to the
change in the formula for the air blast impulse predictionwhen the reduced stand off changes from9 to
10 m/kg
(1/3)
.
4. Fluid–plate interaction
4.1. Air blast
When an air blast wave encounters a plate on which it impinges at zero angle of incidence, it gets
normally reflected. The peak plate overpressure (commonly known as reflected pressure), P
pm
, is
obtained from the Rankine Hugoniot relationship for an ideal gas as [17]
P
pm
¼ 2P
m
ð7P
o
þ4P
m
Þ=ð7P
o
þP
m
Þ (19)
The ratio of the plate impulse per unit area (commonly known as reflected impulse), I
p
, to the inci-
dent impulse per unit area, I, is approximated as [17]
I
p
=I ¼ P
pm
=P
m
(20)
For a weak shock wave, P
m
(P
o
. This leads from Eqs. (19) and (20) that the plate peak overpressure is
double that of the incident peak pressure and hence the impulse imparted to the plate is double that of
the incident impulse.
The requirement for simulating the maximum uniform lateral impulse on the plate area to study
the blast response of plates, taking into account the minimum use of the quantity of the explosive
for the reasons of safety and economy leads to a genre of experiments [18–34]. For numerical modeling
0 20 40 60 80 100
S' (m/kg
1/3
)
10
20
30
40
I
w
/
I
a
Fig. 2. The variation of the ratio of free field impulse for underwater explosion to air blast as a function of reduced standoff.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 106
of the deformation phenomena, the impulse that is measured experimentally during the zero stand off
firing (that is, the explosive is separated fromthe test pate by a thin polystyrene sheet) is divided by the
burn time of the explosive to arrive at the assumed uniform rectangular lateral pressure [35]. A blast
peak pressure that is 10 times or bigger than the corresponding static collapse pressure is assumed as
a rectangular pressure pulse without loss of accuracy [36,37]. The step pressure, P
m
, is estimated as
a function of the measured total plate impulse, I
tp
, the exposed area of the plate, A, and the burn
time s as [38]
P
m
¼
I
tp
As
(21)
Shock tubes are built to simulate the blast waves with required plate peak pressure and plate im-
pulse [39–44]. Spherical shock wave fronts generated by the direct detonation process lead to a com-
plex space–time evolution of the pressure distribution on a plane plate, which results in poor
prediction of the plate deformation [40]. On the contrary, the plane shock wave fronts generated by
the shock tube allow precise modeling.
4.2. Underwater explosion
For the coupled fluid–structure interaction, the motion of the plate is given as [45–49]
M

x þC
_
x þkx ¼ FðtÞ (22)
where M is the structural mass matrix, C is the structural damping matrix, K is the structural stiffness
matrix, x is the structural displacement and F(t) is the time-varying load applied to the structure. By
superimposing the imaginary fluid mesh on the fluid–plate boundary, the surface compatibility of
the submerged plate is written as [46]
FðtÞ ¼ ÀGA
f
ðp
i
þp
s
Þ (23)
where G is the matrix relating the structural degrees of freedomto the fluid, A
f
is the matrix containing
the areas of the elements in the fluid mesh, p
i
is the incident pressure of the underwater explosion and
p
s
is the scatted pressure of the plate. Compatibility requirements dictate that the surface normal ve-
locity of the plate and the fluid is equal, that is [46],
G
T
_
x ¼ v
i
þv
s
(24)
where v
i
is the incident water particle velocity from the underwater explosion, and v
s
is the scattered
water particle velocity from the plate.
The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The scatted pressure and the scattered fluid
particle velocity are related by [46]
p
s
¼ r
w
c
w
v
s
(25)
From Eqs. (24) and (25),
p
s
¼ rc
_
G
T
_
x Àv
i
_
(26)
Eq. (26) is substituted into Eq. (23) to obtain the load–time history as [46]
FðtÞ ¼ ÀGA
f
_
p
i
þrc
_
G
T
_
x Àv
i
__
(27)
The force–time history is finally substituted into Eq. (22) to obtain the differential equation for the
response of the plate as [46]
M

x þ
_
C þGA
f
G
T
r
w
c
w
_
_
x þKx ¼ ÀGA
f
ðp
i
þr
w
c
w
v
i
Þ (28)
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 107
The term r
w
c
w
represents the additional damping term to the plate due to the energy radiated away
from the plate into the fluid. The only unknown term in Eq. (28) is the plate displacement x which
is solved by finite element method. The response equation of the plate is valid until the fluid pressure
goes belowthe local atmospheric pressure or in other words, until cavitation occurs. Ignoring damping
and the nodal displacement for the duration the pressure pulse acts, for a one dimensional plate Eq.
(28) reduces to [3,7,50–52]
m

x þr
w
c
w
_
x ¼ 2P
m
e
Àt=q
(29)
where m is the mass per unit area of the plate. Applying initial conditions and introducing the dimen-
sionless inverse mass number j
a
¼r
w
c
w
q/m, the plate pressure, P
p
(t), is [53]
P
p
ðtÞ ¼ 2p
m
e
Àt=q
À
2P
m
j
a
ðj
a
À1Þ
_
e
Àt=q
Àe
Àj
a
t=q
_
(30)
from which the plate peak pressure is given as
P
p
¼ 2P
m
j
1
1Àj
a
a
(31)
and the plate maximum velocity is
V
ma
¼
2P
m
q
m
j
j
a
1Àj
a
a
(32)
The shock energy transferred to the air-backed plate E
p
is
E
pa
¼
1
2
mV
2
ma
¼
2P
2
mm
q
2
m
j
2j
a
1Àj
a
a
(33)
The energy carried by the free field shock wave is
E
s
¼
1
rc
_
N
0
p
2
ðtÞ dt ¼
1
rc
_
N
0
_
P
m
e
Àt=q
_
2
dt ¼
P
2
m
q
2
2mj
a
(34)
Theratioof theplate energytothefreefieldshockenergy, h
a
, whichis alsoknownas couplingfactor is
h
a
¼
E
pa
E
s
¼
_
2P
2
m
q
2
m
_
j
2j
a
1Àj
a
a
_
P
2
m
q
2
2mj
a
_ ¼ 4j
1þj
a
1Àj
a
a
(35)
The time to reach the maximum velocity or the cavitation time, t
ca
, is given as
t
ca
¼
q ln j
a
j
a
À1
(36)
The impulse acting on the air-backed plate per unit area is given as
I
p
¼ 2P
m
qj
j
a
1Àj
a
a
(37a)
The maximum achievable impulse per unit area for an infinitely rigid plate from Eq. (37a) is [54]
I
pm
¼ 2P
m
q (37b)
or
I
pa
¼ zI
pm
¼ 2z
a
I
f
(37c)
where z
a
is the knock-down factor for air-backed plate which is given as
z
a
¼ j
j
a
1Àj
a
a
(37d)
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 108
For j
a
¼1/2, the impulse imparted to the plate, I
p
, is equal to the free field impulse. Or in other words,
I
p
¼I when 2r
w
c
w
q ¼m. As the plate becomes more and more rigid, the impulse ratio approaches unity,
meaning thereby, the underwater explosion impulse becomes double that of the free field impulse as in
the case of the impulse imparted by a weak air blast wave on a plate. The ratio of the variation of the
plate impulse for air-backed underwater exploded plates, I
pw
, to air blasted plates, I
pa
, as a function of
reduced stand off is shown in Fig. 3.
For a water-backed plate, the equation of motion of the plate is modified as [7,50]
m

x þ2r
w
c
w
_
x ¼ 2P
m
e
Àt=q
(38)
The maximum velocity of the water-backed plate is [7]
V
mw
¼
P
m
q
m
j
j
w
1Àj
w
w
(39)
where j
w
¼2r
w
c
w
q/m. The maximum velocity for the water-backed plate is reached when the plate
pressure equals the hydrostatic pressure of the water behind the plate. The energy imparted to the wa-
ter-backed plate, E
pw
, is
E
pw
¼
1
2
mV
2
mw
¼
P
2
m
q
2
2m
j
2j
w
1Àj
w
w
(40)
The ratio of the energy of the water-backed plate to the shock wave energy, h
w
, is given as
h
w
¼
E
pw
E
s
¼
_
P
2
m
q
rc
_
j
1þj
w
1Àj
w
w
_
P
2
m
q
2rc
_ ¼ 2j
1þj
w
1Àj
w
w
(41)
0 20 40 60 80 100
S'(m/kg
1/3
)
0
10
20
30
I
p
w
/
I
p
a
Plate impulse ratio
m=15.6kg/sq m
m=31.2kg/sq m
m=62.4kg/sq m
m=289.5 kg/sq m
Fig. 3. The variation of the ratio of impulse for underwater explosion to air blast on a plate as a function of reduced standoff.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 109
The ratio of h
a
to h
w
gives the ratio of the strain energy of the air-backed plate to the water-backed plate
during the elastic regime of deformation. This ratio from Eqs. (35) and (41) is given as
h
a
h
w
¼
_
E
p
=E
s
E
pw
=E
s
_
¼ 2
À4j
a
ð1À2j
a
Þ
j
À2j
a
ð1Àj
a
Þð1À2j
a
Þ
a
(42)
The time to reach the maximum velocity, t
cw
, is given as [7]
t
cw
¼
q ln j
w
j
w
À1
(43)
The impulse acting on the water-backed plate per unit area is given as
I
pw
¼ 2P
m
qj
j
w
1Àj
w
w
¼ 2I
f
z
w
(44a)
where z
w
is the knock-down factor for water-backed plate which is given as
z
w
¼ j
j
w
1Àj
w
w
(44b)
The ratio of the primary pulse plate impulse for an air-backed plate to a water-backed plate gives the
plastic damage ratio of these plates for the primary shock. From Eqs. (37) and (44),
I
pa
I
pw
¼ 2
À2j
a
1À2j
a
j
Àj
a
ð1Àj
a
Þð1À2j
a
Þ
a
(45)
For j
w
¼1/2, the impulse imparted to the plate, I
pw
, is equal to half of the free field impulse. Or in
other words, I
pw
¼I
f
/2 when 4r
w
c
w
q ¼m. As the plate becomes infinitely rigid, the maximum plate im-
pulse equals the free field impulse. This is in contrast to the air-backed plate that undergoes twice the
free field impulse for identical conditions. The variation of plate impulse, I
p
, and energy, E
p
, as a fraction
of the respective free field parameters for air- and water-backed plates as a function of inverse mass
number is shown in Fig. 4.
0 4 8 12 16
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
I
p
/
I
f
Air-backed plate impulse
Water-backed plate impulse
air-backed plate shock energy transfer
water-backed plate energy transfer
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
E
p
/
E
s
Fig. 4. The variation of impulse and energy of air- and water-backed plates with the inverse mass number for underwater explosion.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 110
The damage caused by the reloading component of the underwater shock wave on an air-backed
plate is larger than the damage caused by the primary pulse itself. While reloading due to cavitation
is absent for water-backed plates, reloading due to the gas bubble is present for both air- and water-
backed plates. Reloading occurs when the depth of explosion is at least half the stand off and reaches
it maximum when the depth of explosion becomes double the stand off [55].
5. Blast damage
5.1. Air blast
5.1.1. Uniform blast loading
Simple methods of structural dynamics were applied by Biggs [56] and Clough and Penzien [57] by
applying single degree of freedomsystem(SDOF) and idealizing the plate as the beamfor obtaining the
blast damage. The damage of plates that are subjected to non-contact air blast is conventionally
assessed by the simulated experimental methods or by taking the measured pressure–time history
on the plate for the simulated environment as the prescribed load and performing numerical analysis
[1,13,58,59].
5.1.1.1. P–I diagrams. Elastic and plastic response of single degree of freedom(SDOF) systems subjected
to blast loading can be presented in the formof pressure–impulse (P–I) diagrams [60]. According to the
P–I diagram of a specific structure or structural element, a certain load with the peak pressure and im-
pulse above the critical value will result in the damage of the structures, vice versa, the structure is safe
if the peak pressure and impulse combination is located below the curve.
In quasi-static loading realm, the deformation depends only on the peak load F and the structural
stiffness k. The response is independent of the duration of loading and the mass of the structure.
The work done on the structure is equated to the strain energy for the quasi-static loading regime
(loading period to the natural period of the structure is greater than 6.36). For a linear elastic system,
the strain energy, U
E
, is given as [61]
U
E
¼
1
2
kx
2
max
(46)
The maximum permissible work imparted, W, to the structure by a constant force whose amplitude
decreases insignificantly is [61]
W ¼ Fx
max
(47)
where F is the force that is acting which is given by multiplying the area, A, with the pressure P
m
. From
Eqs. (46) and (47) [61],
x
max
ðF=kÞ
¼ 2:0 (48)
Eq. (48) is called quasi-static asymptote.
In the impulsive realm(loading period to the natural period of the structure is less than 0.0636), the
deformation is directly proportional to the impulse. The kinetic energy imparted to the structure, T, is
equated to the strain energy U
E
[61].
T ¼
_
mA
2
_
I
2
ðmAÞ
2
¼
I
2
2mA
(49)
Equating the kinetic energy, T, to the strain energy U
E
,
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
kmA
p
x
max
I
¼ 1:0 (50)
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 111
Eq. (50) is called impulsive asymptote. A combination of peak loads and durations with the same im-
pulse will result in the same maximum deformation. The deflection is influenced by both structural
stiffness and structural mass. A dynamic load factor of 2 is conservative in this regime.
Between quasi-static realm and impulsive realm a transition realm exists which is known as dy-
namic loading realm. The deformation here depends on the entire loading history. Here, the motion
of the structure depends on pressure and impulse as well as structural stiffness and mass. Computa-
tion of the quasi-static and impulsive asymptotes yields an approximation to the entire shock
response.
For a rigid-plastic system loaded in the pressure realm, the strain energy, U
P
, is given as [61]
U
P
¼ Rx
max
(51)
where R is the resistance. Equating the work done, W, to the strain energy [61]
F=R ¼ 1:0 (52)
Eq. (52) is the quasi-static asymptote for the rigid-plastic structure. For the impulsive loading realm,
equating the kinetic energy to the strain energy U
P
,
I
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x
max
mAR
p ¼
ffiffiffi
2
p
(53)
Eq. (53) is called impulsive asymptote for the rigid-plastic structure.
The loading on a plate cause by gas or dust explosions is characterized finite rise time and a non-
exponential fall. The quasi-static loading asymptote for a finite rise time is equivalent to a static
loading. In the range 1:15 < I=x
max
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
kmA
p
< 5:5, the loading with finite rise time is more severe than
a loading with zero rise time. This behaviour is produced by resonance between the loading rate
and the structural frequency. A typical P–I diagram for a blast loaded SDOF system is shown in Fig. 5.
5.1.1.2. Plastic deformation. The central deflection of plastically deformed plates is taken as the indica-
tion of the measure of blast damage. Assumed modes method in which a shape function is used to rep-
resent the global displacement function [62] was used in conjunction with rigid-plastic material
behaviour and energy methods were applied by Schleyer et al. [63] and Langdon and Schleyer [64].
For the contact air blast, where a rectangular pressure pulse can be assumed [18,65] analytical [36]
and empirical [28] predictions are available based on the impulse imparted to the plate.
Johnson [66] proposed a guideline for assessing the behaviour of metals subjected to impact loading
using a dimensionless number that is defined as
a
j
¼
r
p
V
2
s
d
(54a)
where V is the impact velocity, r
p
is the plate material density and s
d
is the damage stress which is
taken as equal to the plate material yield stress s
y
. Johnson’s damage number is applicable only
when plates have similar dimensions. The damage number can be written in terms of impulse as [67]
a
j
¼
I
2
tp
A
2
t
2
r
p
s
y
(54b)
where t is the thickness of the plate.
A modified damage parameter F was introduced by Nurick and Martin [28] that incorporated plate
dimensions and loading. For circular plates [29]
F
c
¼
I
pt
pRt
2
_
r
p
s
y
_
1=2
(55)
where R is the radius of the loaded portion of the circular plate. For rectangular plates [67]
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 112
F
r
¼
I
pt
2t
2
_
4abr
p
s
y
_
1=2
(56)
where 2a and 2b are the length and breadth of the plate.
For large plastic deformation (mode I failure) of clamped circular plates [28] the deflection-thick-
ness ratio is empirically given as
_
d
t
_
c
¼ 0:425F
c
þ0:227 (57)
and for clamped rectangular plates [28] the empirical relationship is
_
d
t
_
r
¼ 0:471F
r
þ0:001 (58)
where d is the central deflection of the plate.
Jones [36] predicted analytically the deflection-thickness ratio for fully clamped circular plates
without strain rate effects as
Fig. 5. P–I diagram for SDOF systems undergoing blast load [61]. (a) Elastic response due to air blast, (b) plastic response due to air
blast, (c) elastic response due to gas explosion and (d) plastic response due to gas explosion [61].
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 113
_
d
t
_
c
¼ 0:817F
c
(59a)
Taking strain rate effect into account Eq. (59a) is modified as [36]
_
d
t
_
c
¼
0:817F
c
ffiffiffi
n
p (59b)
n ¼ 1 þ
_
I
2
p
3r
2
P
t
2
DR
_
r
p
3s
y
_
1=2
_
1=q
(59c)
For fully clamped rectangular plates without strain rate effects, the deflection-thickness ratio as
given by the analytical method of Jones is [36]
_
d
t
_
r
¼
ð3 À2
0
Þ
_
ð1 þGÞ
1=2
À1
_
2f1 þð2
0
À1Þð2
0
À2Þg
(60a)
G ¼
2r
p
V
2
a
2
b
2
3s
y
t
2
ð3 À22
0
Þ
_
1 À2
0
þ
1
2 À2
0
_
(60b)
2
0
¼ b
_
_
3 þb
2
_
1=2
Àb
_
(60c)
b ¼
b
a
(60d)
Taking strain rate effect into account Eq. (60a) is modified as
_
d
t
_
r
¼
ð3 À2
0
Þ
_
ð1 þG=nÞ
1=2
À1
_
2f1 þð2
0
À1Þð2
0
À2Þg
(60e)
n ¼ 1 þ
_
Vtð3 À2
0
ÞG
1=2
6
ffiffiffi
2
p
Db
2
f1 þð2
0
À1Þð2
0
À2Þg
_
1=q
(60f)
5.1.2. Localized blast loading
Localized impact is the explosion or impact process that occurs over a localized region of the plate
(in contrast to the uniform loading that occurs over the whole area of the unsupported plate). When
a localized explosion takes place on a plate petalling occurs [68]. For small amplitudes of impulse
the plate undergoes dishing. Dishing occurs until tensile necking and fracture takes over the critical
velocity, V
cr
, of the plate which is given by
V
cr
¼ 2:83c
p
ffiffiffiffi
3
f
p
(61a)
where c
p
is the plastic wave speed which is given as
c
p
¼
ffiffiffiffiffi
s
o
r
p
¸
(61b)
where s
o
is the flow stress which is given as
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 114
s
o
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s
y
s
u
1 þp
_
(61c)
where s
u
is the ultimate stress and p is the exponent in the power-type stress–strain law. The detona-
tion blows out a central cap of the radius r
p
(where r
p
is the radius of the explosive). This occurs at a cen-
tral deflection d, which is given as
d ¼ 2:47r
p
ffiffiffiffi
3
f
p
(62)
When the impulse is above this value, the reminder of the initial kinetic energy goes into the petalling
process. For n
1
radial cracks that develop from a point in an infinite plate dividing it into n
1
symmetric
petals, the central 2q angle of the petal equals 2p/n
1
. Taking the instantaneous crack length as a
c
, the
perpendicular distance l, which can be considered as process parameter is given by a
c
cos q. By energy
balance [68],
_
V
cr
c
_
2
_
_
V
V
cr
_
2
À1
_
¼ 5:2h
0:6
m
_
t
r
e
__
l
r
e
À1
_
1:4
(63a)
where V is the impact velocity and h
m
is the moment amplification factor which takes into account the
larger bending resistance of the curved plate is given as [68]
h
m
¼ 1 þ2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
23
f
_
q
2
r
e
t
(63b)
Normally 3–5 petals form in the plate [68]. The amount of impulse imparted to the plate is propor-
tional to the weight of the explosive W.
_
V
V
cr
_
¼
_
I
p
I
pc
_
¼
_
W
W
cr
_
(63c)
where W
cr
is the critical weight of the explosive to generate the critical impulse, I
pc
, that is required to
blow out the central plot. Lee and Wierzbicki [69,70] reported analytical and numerical modeling on
the dishing, discing and petalling of plates subjected to localized impulse. Analytical and experimental
work was reported by Wierzbicki and Nurick [71] to determine the location of tearing failure and the
critical impulse to failure. Experimental work on clamped circular plates subjected to localized impulse
was reported by Nurick and Radford [72] to study the formation of petalling failure. Jacob et al. [73]
described the effect of varying both the loading conditions and the plate geometries on the deforma-
tion of the plate and predicted numerically the plate response.
5.2. Underwater explosion
5.2.1. Uniform explosion loading
5.2.1.1. Elastic response. A near miss underwater explosion in a war scenario may result in the plate re-
sponse varying from elastic to plastic and in an extreme case fracture. The designer is therefore inter-
ested in predicting the range of responses of the ship plates. Both warships and merchant ships have
liquid filled side shells. Therefore it is of interest to know what happens to these side shells during an
underwater explosion environment. Although there is no permanent damage to the plate that un-
dergoes elastic deformation, it is the interest to the designer to know in advance the transient state
of stress it develops. For a small intensity of explosion, the stresses developed in the plate are in its elas-
tic range. During elastic deformation the air-backed plate undergoes tens of thousands of ‘g’s (acceler-
ation due to gravity) [74]. Water-backed plates, however, suffer relatively less damage. This is because
a considerable proportion of the shock wave transmits through the water at the rear of the plate. In
other words, water-backed plates simply transmit the maximum part of the shock wave energy.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 115
5.2.1.1.1. Circular geometry. For air-backed plates [75–77] for the primary shock wave, the semi-an-
alytical von Mises stress, s
a
, at the apex (center) of the plate is given as
s
a
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
6Er
p
P
2
m
x
2=ð1Àx
a
Þ
a
r
2
w
c
2
w
ð1 ÀnÞ
¸
¸
¸
_
(64a)
where E is the Young’s modulus of the plate material. In terms of effective shock factor [77,78]
s
a
¼ 1179x
ea
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
E
ð1 ÀnÞt
¸
(64b)
where E is Young’s modulus of the material, n is the Poisson’s ratio, x
ea
is the effective shock factor for
the air-backed plates.
x
ea
¼ x
1:03
ffiffiffi
h
p
a
(64c)
where x is the normal shock factor which is given as [7]
x ¼ 0:445
ffiffiffiffiffiffi
W
p
S
(64d)
Traditionally, the shock factor is used to classify the severity of the attack. For x less than 0.15, the shock
damage is considered to be negligible; for x greater than 0.7, the shock damage is considered to be the
severest [7].
For water-backed plates, assuming a strain distribution pattern of the target plate similar to that of
air-backed plate [76–78] the semi-analytical von Mises stress is given as
s
a
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
3Er
p
P
2
m
x
2=ð1Àx
w
Þ
w
2r
2
w
c
2
w
ð1 ÀnÞ
¸
¸
¸
_
(65a)
or in terms of effective shock factor [77,78]
s
a
¼ 1179x
ew
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
E
ð1 ÀnÞt
¸
(65b)
where x
ew
is the effective shock factor for a water-backed plate
x
ew
¼ x
1:03
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
h
w
p
(65c)
A comparison of the apex (plate center) von Mises stress developed by the circular plate for various
shock factors is shown in Fig. 6. As expected, water-backed plates undergo less stress. Furthermore, the
shock wave parameters based and the shock factor based stresses are in good agreement.
5.2.1.1.2. Rectangular geometry. For air-backed plates [76] and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.3 the semi-
analytical von Mises stress is given as
s
a
¼ 0:867
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
14Er
p
P
2
m
x
2=ð1Àx
a
Þ
a
r
2
w
c
2
w
¸
¸
¸
_
(66a)
In terms of effective shock factor [77,78]
s
a
¼ 1584x
1:03
ffiffiffiffiffi
h
a
p
ffiffiffi
E
t
_
(66b)
Numerical and experimental underwater explosion simulations carried out [65] on aluminium plate
of 1 mÂ1 mÂ0.01 m are compared well with Eq. (66).
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 116
For water-backed plates, assuming a strain distribution pattern of the target plate similar to that of
air-backed plates [76,77]
s
a
¼ 0:867
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
7Er
p
P
2
m
x
2=ð1Àx
w
Þ
w
2r
2
w
c
2
w
¸
¸
¸
_
(67a)
or in terms of effective shock factor [77,78]
s
a
¼ 1584x
1:03
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
h
w
p
ffiffiffi
E
t
_
(67b)
A comparison of the apex (plate center) von Mises stress developed by the rectangular plate for var-
ious shock factors is shown in Fig. 7. A similar trend as for the circular plates is observed.
5.2.1.2. Limiting elastic range. As the intensity of explosion gradually increases, the plate reaches the
limit of the elastic range beyond which it undergoes permanent deformation. For all practical discus-
sions here, elastic range limit is assumed to merge with the yield point without appreciable error. Mer-
chant cargo vessels and warships are normally made up of mild steels whereas mine sweepers are
made up of austenitic steel (non-magnetic) and aluminium alloys. For strain rate sensitive materials,
there are static and dynamic yield points, the dynamic yield stress, s
yd
, is higher than the static yield
stress s
y
, and is typically related by the Cowper–Symonds relation:
s
yd
¼ s
y
_
1 þ
_
_ 3
D
_
1=q
_
(68)
where _ 3 is the average strain rate, and D and q are material constants which are given by Jones [36].
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Shock factor (kg
1/2
/m)
0
200
400
600
A
p
e
x

V
o
n

M
i
s
e
s

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
ABPSWPB
ABPSFB
WBPSWPB
WBPSFB
ABPE
Fig. 6. A comparison of the elastic response of air- and water-backed circular plates as a function of shock factor. ABPSWPB: air-
backed plate shock wave parameters based; WBPSWPB: water-backed plate shock wave parameters based; ABPSFB: air-backed plate
shock factor based; WBPSFB: water-backed plate shock factor based; and ABPE: air-backed plate experiment [76].
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 117
The effective shock factor x
e
remains the same for air- and water-backed plates for generating a spec-
ified stress level. The effective shock factor, x
eyc
, required for generating the static yield stress for cir-
cular plates is given as [77,78]
x
eyc
¼ 848 Â10
À6
s
ys
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ð1 ÀnÞt
E
_
(69)
and for rectangular plates as [77,78]
x
eyr
¼ 631 Â10
À6
s
ys
ffiffiffi
E
t
_
(70)
It was established fromexperiments [79] that the dynamic yielding of mild steel during an underwater
explosion occurs for a stress that is 1.4 times the static yield stress. The average strain rate for defor-
mation during the elastic range was 0.5 s
À1
[70]. Therefore, the effective shock factor for circular
and rectangular plates for dynamic yielding of various hull materials is given by multiplying the right
side of Eqs. (69) and (70) by scaling factors (s
d
/s
y
). The Cowper–Symonds equations should be obtained
from dynamic tensile tests on the specific material being considered. Guideline values are derived by
applying the nominal material constants [36] and the average strain rate for the elastic range limit. The
scaling factors thus obtained are as follows: for mild steel 1.42, for high tensile steel 1.17, for aluminium
alloy 1.09, for a-titanium (Ti 50A) 1.54 and for AISI 304 stainless steel 1.59.
A look at Eq. (64d) shows that a range of charge quantity and stand off combination is possible for
generating the desired shock factor. The charge quantity in kg and stand off in m required to generate
the shock factor for the given time constant are obtained from Eqs. (16) and (64d) as [80]
W ¼
_
x
0:445
_
0:5946
_
q
96:5 Â10
À6
_
2:7026
(71)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
Shock factor (kg
1/2
/m)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
A
p
e
x

V
o
n

M
i
s
e
s

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
ABPSWPB
ABPSFB
WBPSWPB
WBPSFB
ABPE
Fig. 7. A comparison of the elastic response of air- and water-backed rectangular plates as a function of shock factor. ABPSWPB: air-
backed plate shock wave parameters based; WBPSWPB: water-backed plate shock wave parameters based; ABPSFB: air-backed plate
shock factor based; WBPSFB: water-backed plate shock factor based; and ABPE: air-backed plate experiment [76].
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 118
S ¼
_
0:445
x
_
0:7027
_
q
96:5 Â10
À6
_
1:3513
(72)
5.2.1.3. Plastic deformation. When the effective shock factor exceeds the dynamic yield value, the plate
undergoes permanent deformation. The extent of permanent deformation is indicated by the central
deflection of the exploded plates and is proportional to the impulse imparted to the plate [3]. For
the underwater explosion of the air-backed plates based on the free field impulse [81,82] the empirical
relationship is given as [81,82]
_
d
t
_
c
¼ 0:541F
c
À0:433 (73)
The variation of the deflection-thickness ratio as a function of the dimensionless parameter F
c
for cir-
cular plates is shown in Fig. 8. A comparison of Eqs. (57), (59a), (59b) and (73) with experimental data
showed good agreement [80]. Eq. (59a) over predicts because strain rate effects are not accounted for.
For air-backed rectangular plates the empirical prediction is given as [80]
_
d
t
_
r
¼ 0:553F
r
þ0:741 (74)
The variation of the deflection-thickness ratio as a function of the dimensionless parameter, F
r
, for rect-
angular plates is shown in Fig. 9. Acomparison of Eqs. (58), (60a), (60e) and (74) with experimental data
showed good agreement [80]. Eq. (60a) over predicts because strain rate effects are not accounted for.
Eqs. (73) and (74) assume that the total deflection caused by the impulse due to primary and the
reloading shock waves on the plate is equal to the deflection caused by the free field impulse.
0 10 20 30 40
0
10
20
30
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
-
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

r
a
t
i
o
Circular plates
Nurick & Martin Equation (57)
Jones Equation (59a)
Jones Equation (59b)
Rajendran & Narsimhan Equation (73)
Experimental (Ref [81])
Fig. 8. Variation of deflection-thickness ratio of circular plates with the dimensionless parameter F.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 119
For water-backed plates cavitation does not occur [7]. However, there will be shock loading on the
water-backed plate due to the gas bubble pulse. The total impulse for water-backed plates for the in-
teraction of the primary shock pulse is given as
I
pt
¼ V
mw
Atr
p
(75)
fromwhich dimensionless parameters are obtained for water-backed plates to calculate the central de-
flection. A photographic view of a rectangular steel plate that underwent mode I (inelastic deforma-
tion) is shown in Fig. 10.
0 10 20 30 40
0
5
10
15
20
25
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
-
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

r
a
t
i
o
Rectangular plates
Nurick & Martin Equation (58)
Jones Equation (60a)
Jones Equation (60e)
Rajendran & Narasimhan
Equation (74)
Experimental (Ref [81])
Fig. 9. Variation of deflection-thickness ratio of rectangular plates (b ¼5/6) with the dimensionless parameter F.
Fig. 10. Photographic view of an underwater exploded plate that underwent mode I failure.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 120
5.2.2. Contact underwater explosion
In underwater explosion scenario, contact underwater explosion where the explosive comes in di-
rect contact with the plate during the detonation process is equivalent to localized blast loading. The
physics of the contact underwater explosion phenomena is not yet well understood. However, it is of
great relevance to the naval warfare because underwater weapons for attacking the subsurface vessels
are so designed that they detonate on impact with the target. Keil [50] reported that the early work on
contact explosion damage of ships was carried out by the Japanese imperial navy on the discarded ship.
Experiments carried out by Keil [7] ruled out the depth of submergence on the damage of plates. Keil
[7] described that there is a definite relation between the radius, R, of the hole that is being bored by an
explosive quantity, W, during contact with a plate of thickness t.
R ¼ 0:0704
ffiffiffiffiffiffi
W
t
_
(76)
where R and t are in m and W is in kg. The boundary conditions were, however, not specified for this
empirical relationship. This relation is valid only above a certain charge quantity since a minimum
quantity of explosive is required for making a hole in the plate of specified thickness. The critical charge
weight, W
cri
, above which Eq. (76) is valid is given by [7]
W
cri
¼ 2:72t (77)
An analytical prediction for the radius of the hole that is bored on a clamped circular plate is given by
Rajendran and Narasimhan [83]
R ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2hWEq
TNT
E
TNT
J
pts
y
3
f
¸
(78)
A comparison of the radius of the crack by Wierzibicki [68], Keil [7] and Rajendran et al. [82] is pre-
sented in Fig. 11. The model proposed by Wierzbicki [68] for localized air blast impact under predicts
for smaller charges and over predicts as the charge quantity increases beyond 20 g for localized under-
water explosion in comparison with the prediction methodologies by Keil [7] and Rajendran and Nar-
asimhan [83]. A photographic view of a circular plate that underwent contact underwater explosion is
shown in Fig. 12.
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
TNT explosive quantity (g)
C
r
a
c
k

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
Equation (63)
Equation (76)
Equation (78)
Fig. 11. The variation of the plate crack length that is subjected to localized blast as a function of explosive charge quantity. Plate
thickness ¼1.6 mm; strain to rupture ¼0.3; flow stress ¼330 MPa.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 121
6. Fracture
Mode I deformation of the plates under explosive loading continues with the increasing intensity of
the explosion. The moment the total strain at any point at the edge of the plate attains its rupture
strain, tensile tearing or fracture (mode II failure) occurs. A photographic viewof a steel plate that failed
in tensile tearing is shown in Fig. 13.
Lee and Wierzbicki [69] proposed that facture initiates at the critical point of a structure when the
accumulated equivalent plastic strain with suitable weighting function reaches a critical value. Rajen-
dran and Narasimhan [83] equated equivalent plastic strain of thin plates to their uniaxial fracture
strain as fracture criterion. Balden and Nurick [84] proposed that fracture occurs when the summation
of the ratio of the incremental effective plastic strain to the failure strain becomes equal to one. The
failure strain is a function of mean stress, strain rate and temperature. Langdon and Schleyer [64]
equated the total strain to cause tearing at the outer fibres of a rectangular cross-section beam to
the sumof the membrane strain and the strain due to the curvature. The interaction of mode II fracture
and mode III (shear) fracture is brought out by Rudhrapatna et al. [58,59].
Fig. 12. Photographic view of petalling of a steel plate during contact underwater explosion.
Fig. 13. Photographic view of an underwater exploded plate that underwent mode II failure (tensile tearing).
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 122
The ability of the hull structure to withstand large plastic deformation before fracture is a major cri-
terion in naval structural design [85]. Explosion Bulge Test (EBT) has been used as the final qualification
test to verify the dynamic plasticity of defence structural materials [86]. Explosive loading promotes
brittle fracture due to high strain rate influence of material flow properties. EBT has been developed
by Hartbower and Pellini [87,88] to investigate the response of steel weldments to air blast. MIL-
STD-2149A [89] formulated by the U.S. Navy recommends air blast as the source of energy to evaluate
the resistance of base materials and weldments to fracture under shock loading. It also recommends
repetitive loading on the test plate with a reduction in thickness in each shot until final strain to frac-
ture. Underwater EBT was developed by Sumpter [90] and Porter et al. [91] to minimize the charge
quantity and environmental noise nuisance. Sumpter [92] formulated pass/fail criterion for cracked
plates subjected to shock load. Fracture resistance of metal plates loaded into plastic regime by non-
contact underwater explosion was reported by Gifford et al. [93,94].
7. Numerical methods
Elastic response of blast loaded plates was carried out by Veldman et al. [1] using ANSYS. The non-
linear finite element analysis accounted for large deformation effects but neglected strain rate effects.
Pressure–time history was modeled as decaying exponential function based on experimental data. The
slight negative phase of the shock wave and round reflection peak that were present during the exper-
iment were ignored. Numerical simulation and experiments showed good correlation to within 5.5%
for the plate central displacement. Jacinto et al. [13] performed numerical elastic analysis using ABA-
QUS/standard 5.7. The plate was modeled using shell element. The boundary conditions were consid-
ered as perfectly clamped. Dynamic analysis was performed using modal superposition and direct
integration method. Pressure–time history was input from the experiment. It was brought out that
the number of vibration modes was important because blast load excites high frequencies. The element
size of the model should agree with the quantity of modes. More refined mesh captured high frequency
with less error.
Circular plate clamped at its edge and subjected to uniform blast load was simulated by Balden and
Nurick [84] using ABAQUS. A frictional contact was prescribed between upper and lower plate surfaces
and corresponding plate surfaces. The friction co-efficient was assumed to be 0.3. The bolt array was
simulated with single elastic spring having spring stiffness based on the axial elastic response of the
bolt array, acting between upper and lower flanges. The bolt array preload was calculated using the as-
sumed bolt tightening torque and applied as load during the analysis. Uniform blast pressure was dis-
tributed over the entire exposed surface of the plate. The blast pressure was obtained by dividing the
impulse with the burn time of the explosive. von Mises plasticity with isotropic hardening/softening
behaviour together with strain rate sensitivity using Cowper–Symonds relationship was applied.
The hardening curve was linearly changed in magnitude based on the change in yield stress at various
temperatures. The variation of elastic response with reference to temperature was accounted for by
providing the variation of Young’s modulus of the material with temperature. Element failure criterion
was fixed as 200% failure strain and on nodal temperature. Comparison of experimental and numerical
predictions of input energy for uniform blast loading was good. Veldman et al. [1] used ANSYS/
LS_DYNA–Release 7.1 for modeling the inelastic deformation of rectangular plates. The plate was mod-
eled as four-node quadrilateral explicit thin shell elements ignoring strain rate effects. Bi-linear isotro-
pic plasticity was assumed. Pressure–time history was modeled as decaying exponential function
based on experimental data. The negative phase of the pressure pulse and the small ground reflection
were neglected. An agreement to within 5.3% was seen between numerical and experimental results.
Explicit finite element code DYNA3D was adopted by Pan and Louca [95] to model the response of
a plate to gas explosion. Reaction-time history of the support assembly was compared with experimen-
tally obtained and ABAQUS/Explicit results to simulate the exact boundary conditions. Four noded thin
shell elements were used to model the frame–plate assembly. Pinned boundary condition was applied
to the outside part of the lower side of the specimen frame. To simulate the slip in bolt connections and
possible in-plane movement of the test rig, beam elements were used. Good comparison was seen be-
tween predicted and measured peak displacement.
R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 123
A detailed coupled fluid–structure interaction that is applied for underwater shock loading is pre-
sented in Section 4.2. LS-DYNA and Underwater Shock Analysis (USA) codes were used by Shin [45] for
non-linear structural analysis of a ship model that is subjected to an underwater explosion. Doubly as-
ymptotic approximation (DAA) that is used for the fluid–structure interaction eliminates the need for
modeling the surrounding fluid volume by covering the wet surface of the structure with DAA boundary
elements. The fluid element thickness, t
f
, in the direction normal to the wetted surface is defined as [45]
2r
w
t
f
r
p
t
5 (79)
Velocity and acceleration response prediction by Shin [45] of a ship model using LS-DYNA and USA
gave good comparison with shock test data
8. Conclusions
This paper brought out a detailed review of the phenomena of air and underwater explosions and
their effects on plane plates. The process of detonation of the explosive is marked by the generation of
large amount of heat with the associated pressure at a short interval. The shock wave parameters that
are significant for an air blast are the peak overpressure and the impulse. For an underwater explosion,
the peak overpressure, time constant, free field impulse and energy are the four vital parameters that
are considered for the damage process.
By and large, interest is shown on the plastic damage of plates that are subjected to an air blast. For
a generated pressure–time history on a plate, a simple single degree of freedom (SDOF) system, or as-
sumed modes method or numerical method is applied to derive the plate response.
When rectangular air blast pressure–time history is imparted, with the magnitude of the pressure
more than 10 times that of static collapse pressure of the plate, analytical and empirical methods are
employed to obtain the central plastic deflection with the measured impulse on the plate as input. For
performing numerical analysis, the impulse is divided by the burn time of the explosive to get the pres-
sure magnitude.
For underwater explosion, from the threat perception and survivability point of view, both elastic
and plastic responses are of interest. Methods of evaluating the elastic stresses and the limiting elastic
range are presented for a mild intensity explosion. Empirical methods are presented for predicting the
plastic central deflection for a severe explosion.
Localized blast leads to petalling of the plate. Analytical methods are available to compute the crack
length. Methods developed by Keil [7] and Rajendran and Narasimhan [83] for underwater explosion
are compared against the methodology developed by Wierzbicki [68] for air blast.
Various methods of numerical simulation of a plate that undergoes air blast, gas explosion and un-
derwater explosion are brought out comparing their predictive accuracy with experimental results.
Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the Advanced Ship Engineering Research Centre (ASERC) of Pusan
National University, Republic of Korea, as part of its research program.
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R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 127

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R. Rajendran, J.M. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127

Nomenclature A B, R1, R2, ac C ca cp csa cw D E Ep EqTNT Es ETNT F F(t) G I It JWL K k M m n Pm Po p pi q re S S0 T t tc td tf U V Vm v vi vs area of the plate (m2)/explosive constant U explosive constants crack length (m) structural damping matrix ambient speed of sound in air (m/s) peak wind velocity behind the shock front (m/s)/plastic wave speed of the plate material (m/s) velocity of shock wave in air (m/s) velocity of sound in water (m/s) material constant Young’s modulus of the plate material shock energy transferred to the plate per unit area (J/m2) TNT equivalent of the explosive energy of the shock wave per unit area (J/m2) energy of TNT explosive (J) peak load on the plate (N) time-dependent load on the plate (N) matrix relating structural degrees of freedom to the fluid impulse per unit area (N s/m2) total impulse (N s) Jones–Wilkins–Lee structural stiffness matrix stiffness of the plate (N/m) structural mass matrix mass per unit area of the plate (kg/m2) material parameter peak pressure/peak overpressure (MPa) atmospheric pressure (MPa) exponent of power-type strain law/pressure (MPa) incident pressure (MPa) dynamic pressure (MPa)/material constant radius of the explosive (m) stand off (m) scaled distance (m/m) kinetic energy of the plate (J) time (s)/thickness (m) cavitation time (m/s) positive duration of the blast wave (s) thickness of the fluid element (m) internal energy of the explosive per unit volume (J/m3) volume (m3)/impact velocity (m/s) maximum velocity attained by the plate (m/s) velocity of the water particle behind the shock front (m/s) incident water particle velocity (m/s) scattered fluid particle velocity (m/s)

Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 101 W x a aj b d 3f F h hm n q r ro rp rw so su sy syd s x xe j z TNT equivalent of the explosive charge quantity (kg)/work imparted to the plate structure (J) lateral displacement of the plate (m) waveform parameter Johnson’s damage number aspect ratio central plastic deflection of the plate (m) uniaxial fracture strain (m/m) dimensionless number coupling factor moment amplification factor Poisson’s ratio time constant of the underwater shock wave (s)/half angle of the petal ( ) density of air behind the shock front (kg/m3) ambient density of air (kg/m3) density of the plate material (kg/m3) density of water (kg/m3) flow stress of the material (MPa) ultimate stress (MPa) static yield stress (MPa) dynamic yield stress (MPa) burn time (s) shock factor (kg0. (3) the interaction of the shock wave with the plate and (4) the response of the plate to the input shock loading. J. Therefore.R. As elucidated in the preceding paragraph. . plates form one of the basic elements of the structures. The plate between the stiffeners is therefore considered as a flat plate [2].515/m1. studying the blast response of plates helps understanding and improving their blast resistance. The topic can be broadly categorized into (1) the detonation process or the rapid chemical reaction of the explosive. These four aspects are brought out in this review with an attempt to gain greater insight into the blast damage phenomenon. (2) the shock wave propagation in the medium in which detonation takes place. The motivation for this review arises from the primary concern for the design of plated structures against blast load. Rajendran. The curvature of the ship plating is small and it is supported by welded longitudinal and transverse stiffeners at its edges.5/m) effective shock factor (kg0.03) inverse mass number (kg/kg) knock-down factor Subscripts a air-backed plate c circular plate cr critical m maximum p plate r rectangular plate t total w water-backed plate y yield approximated as flat plates [1].M.

Once the process of detonation is completed.1. The relations between the shock wave parameters and the charge quantity and stand off for both air blast and underwater blast are empirically formulated and verified with a number of experiments. the temperature and the ambient pressure. J.000 MPa. R1. the positive duration and impulse with respect to the scaled distance. Air blast A schematic of the blast wave is shown in Fig. The explosion process is divided into two parts: (1) the detonation process and (2) the interaction process between the product gases and the surrounding medium (air in atmosphere and water in underwater). While air is compressible water is considered as incompressible. 3. the detonation temperature [5] is 3720 K and the detonation velocity [6] is 6950 m/s. The explosion process The explosion is a rapid chemical reaction in a substance.102 R. The shock wave propagation Significant contrast exists in the wave propagation phenomena between the air and the water media due to (1) their different physical properties and (2) the interface phenomena between the explosive product gases and the surrounding medium [9]. B. the Chapman–Jouguet (C–J) detonation pressure [4] is 21. the interaction of the product gases with the surrounding medium takes place. 3. pJWL is the pressure. During the detonation process. R2and U are constants [8]. This higher velocity levels off rapidly and attains a velocity that is only 20% higher than the sound velocity at a distance that is five times the charge radius after which the pressure wave falls to the sound velocity at around 20 times the charge radius and propagates at that constant velocity. the density. An explosion of higher yield . the temperature of detonation [5] and the detonation velocity [6]. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 2. the shock wave moves with the gas–air interface [8]. Uin Þ ¼ A 1 À R1 V R2 V V (1) where A. the second term is influential for V close to 2 and last term corresponds to the expanded state. Both air and water are treated as inviscid. The most commonly used EOS to describe the state of detonation products is Jones–Wilkins–Lee (JWL). The product gases with high pressure and temperature expand outward by generating a pressure wave. Typically for an explosive (TNT) with a density of 1650 kg/m3. The sound velocity increases with temperature.25 kg/m3 and the density of water is 1000 kg/m3 (approximately 800 times the density of air). The negative phase of the blast wave is generally ignored. The gaseous products are assumed to be inviscid at this high temperature and thus the viscous forces are not considered for the explosive modeling. 1. The first term in JWL equation known as the high-pressure term dominates first for V close to one. The parameters of interest for the damage process are the peak overpressure (that is the pressure above the atmospheric pressure). which is given as [8]     U U U eðÀR1 VÞ þ B 1 À eðÀR2 VÞ þ Ein pJWL ðV. The velocity of sound in water is 1483 m/s (approximately 4.36 times the velocity of sound in air at sea level). pressure and volume is essential for the numerical modeling of the detonation process. An equation of state (EOS) of the explosive relating energy. V is relative the volume compared to the initial volume of the explosive and Uin is the internal energy per unit volume. a detonation wave generates and propagates in the explosive. In the water medium. In air explosion. The density of air at sea level is 1. The shock wave has an instantaneous rise and an exponential fall [10]. which converts the original material into a gas at very high temperature and pressure evolving large amount of heat (4389 kJ/kg of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive) [3]. The gas bubble expands at a velocity that is much slower than the pressure pulse. The parameters that are used to assess the detonation performance of an explosive are the Chapman–Jouguet (C–J) detonation pressure [4].M. an instantaneous compression of the water surrounding the gas emits a pressure pulse that propagates into water with a velocity that is three times higher than the velocity of sound in water [7]. The velocity of sound in air at sea level is 340 m/s. Rajendran. the compressibility. The physical properties that matter for the propagating medium are the velocity of sound.

The duration of the overpressure phase increases with the energy of the explosive yield and the distance from the explosion. the velocity of the blast wave approaches the ambient speed of sound. t is the instantaneous time. the peak overpressure is expressed as [10] h À S0  2 i 808 1 þ 4:5 Pm =Po ¼ rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffirffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffirffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  0 2  0 2  0 2 S S S 1 þ 0:32 1 þ 1:35 1 þ 0:048 and for nuclear explosions [10] 6 0À3 (3a) Pm =Po ¼ 3:2 Â 10 S sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  0 0 ! S S 1þ 1þ 87 800 (3b) The scaled distance S0 is given as [11–13] S0 ¼ S W 1=3 (4) where S is the stand off from the explosion in m and W is the TNT equivalent of the explosive charge weight in kg. A schematic of the blast wave. The higher the overpressure at the shock front the greater is the velocity of the shock wave. 1. will arrive at a point sooner than an explosion of lower yield. td is the positive duration of the pressure pulse and a is called waveform parameter that depends upon the peak overpressure Pm of the shock wave. The instantaneous pressure p(t) of the positive phase of an ideal air blast wave is given by the Friedlander equation as [10] pðtÞ ¼ Po þ Pm 1 À   ! t eÀat=td td (2) where Po is the ambient pressure. the pressure at the shock front decreases and the velocity falls of accordingly. For chemical explosions. The time of arrival of the shock wave ta for a radial distance r from an explosive radius of radius re is given as [10] . Rajendran. As the blast wave progresses outward.R. At long ranges.M. when the overpressure decreases to 7 kPa. J. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 103 Peak overpressure p(t) Ambient pressure Positive phase duration Negative phase duration Fig. The waveform parameter a is regarded as an adjustable parameter which is selected so that the overpressure–time relationships provide suitable values of the blast impulse.

r.104 R. of the air behind the shock front is related to the ambient density ro as [12] r=ro ¼ 7 þ 6Pm =Po 7 þ Pm =Po (9) The dynamic pressure q. Rajendran.000 (6b) The shock wave velocity csa is expressed as [12]   6Pm 1=2 csa ¼ ca 1 þ Po (7) where ca is the ambient speed of sound. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 1 ta ¼ ca Z r" re 1 1 þ 6Pm 7Po #1=2 dr (5) The duration of the shock pulse td for the chemical explosion in ms is [10] td ¼ h W 1=3 h  0 10 i S 980 1 þ 0:54  0 6 irffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  0 3 ih  0 2 S S S 1 þ 0:74 1 þ 0:02 1 þ 6:9 (6a) For a nuclear explosion [10] h  0 3 i S 180 1 þ 100 td ¼ rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffisffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  0 5 rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  06  0  W 1=3 6 S S S 1 þ 285 1 þ 40 1 þ 50. which is the kinetic energy per unit volume of air immediately behind the shock front. is given as [12] q ¼ 2 5 Pm 2 7Po þ Pm (10) The peak overpressure Pm in MPa is given as [14] Pm ¼ 1:13S0ðÀ2:1Þ for 1 S0 10 S0 200 (11a) (11b) Pm ¼ 0:183S0ðÀ1:16Þ for 10 where S is in m.M. cp (or peak wind velocity behind the shock front) is given as [12] cp ¼ 5Pm ca 7Po ð1 þ 6Pm =7Po Þ1=2 (8) The density. The impulse of the shock wave I in N s/m2 is given as [14] I ¼ 203S0ðÀ0:91Þ I ¼ 335S0ðÀ1:06Þ and also as [10] for 1 for 10 S0 S0 10 200 (12a) (12b) . The particle velocity. J.

Gas explosion A gas explosion is a process where combustion of a premixed gas cloud. which is comparable to the atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa. 1 is applicable for the underwater explosion too. fuel–air or fuel/ oxidizers causing rapid increase of pressure [15].R. that is. 000 W 1=3 S !2:1   ¼ 98.16]  W 1=3  Es ¼ 98. The peak pressure. The parameters that are of interest for an underwater explosion wave from the point of view of the plate damage are the peak pressure.16] Pm ¼ 52:16 W 1=3 S !1:13 ¼ 52:16S0À1:13 (14) The velocity of the water particle behind the shock front is given as [3] vðtÞ ¼ pðtÞ=rw cw The time constant q in s is given as [3. in N s/m2 is given as [3. Pm. I and the energy carried by the shock wave Es. The ambient pressure is the hydrostatic pressure.2. whereas in underwater explosion the peak overpressure is of several orders of magnitude greater than the hydrostatic pressure.16] pðtÞ ¼ Pm eÀt=q (13) where q is the time taken by the shock wave to decay to 1/e of peak value. q. the peak overpressure is typically of the order of kPa. Therefore. the time constant. The consequence of gas explosion ranges from no damage to total destruction.3. The pressure generated by the combustion wave will depend on how fast the flame propagates and how the pressure expands away from the gas cloud (governed by confinement).M. Pm. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 105 rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi À S0  4 2 0:067 1 þ 0:23 rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi I ¼   S 02 3 1þ S0 1:55 3 (12c) 3. the hydrostatic pressure is ignored and the peak overpressure is simply called as peak pressure. In air blast. I. 000 W 1=3 S0ðÀ2:1Þ (18) . The pressure p(t) at a given point decays from its peak value Pm exponentially with time t as [3. 3.16]  W 1=3  I ¼ 5760 W 1=3 S !0:89   ¼ 5760 W 1=3 S0ðÀ0:89Þ (17) The energy carried by the shock wave per unit area in J/m2 is given as [3. in MPa is [3. J. Rajendran. the free field impulse. Underwater explosion The schematic of the blast wave in Fig.16] À6 (15) q ¼ 96:5  10  W 1=3  W 1=3 S !À0:22   ¼ 96:5  10À6 W 1=3 S0ð0:22Þ (16) The free field impulse per unit area.

to the air blast impulse.1. 2. Iw. The requirement for simulating the maximum uniform lateral impulse on the plate area to study the blast response of plates. Fluid–plate interaction 4. it gets normally reflected. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 These formulae are applicable for a stand off that is greater than 10 times the explosive charge radius. (19) and (20) that the plate peak overpressure is double that of the incident peak pressure and hence the impulse imparted to the plate is double that of the incident impulse. Air blast When an air blast wave encounters a plate on which it impinges at zero angle of incidence. A variation of the ratio of the underwater explosion impulse. . This leads from Eqs. J. 4. The underwater explosion load carries an impulse that is at least 22 times that of air blast for the same reduced stand off configuration. to the incident impulse per unit area. The dip in the curve is due to the change in the formula for the air blast impulse prediction when the reduced stand off changes from 9 to 10 m/kg(1/3). For numerical modeling 40 30 Iw/Ia 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 S' (m/kg1/3) Fig. taking into account the minimum use of the quantity of the explosive for the reasons of safety and economy leads to a genre of experiments [18–34]. I. The peak plate overpressure (commonly known as reflected pressure). is approximated as [17] Ip =I ¼ Ppm =Pm (20) For a weak shock wave.M.106 R. is obtained from the Rankine Hugoniot relationship for an ideal gas as [17] Ppm ¼ 2Pm ð7Po þ 4Pm Þ=ð7Po þ Pm Þ (19) The ratio of the plate impulse per unit area (commonly known as reflected impulse). Ppm. The variation of the ratio of free field impulse for underwater explosion to air blast as a function of reduced standoff. 2. as a function of reduced stand off is shown in Fig. Ia. Ip. Rajendran. Pm ( Po.

_ GT x ¼ vi þ vs (24) where vi is the incident water particle velocity from the underwater explosion. (23) to obtain the load–time history as [46] (26) h i  _ FðtÞ ¼ ÀGAf pi þ rc GT x À vi (27) The force–time history is finally substituted into Eq. (25)   _ ps ¼ rc GT x À vi Eq.37]. A. that is [46]. J.R. the surface compatibility of the submerged plate is written as [46] FðtÞ ¼ ÀGAf ðpi þ ps Þ (23) where G is the matrix relating the structural degrees of freedom to the fluid. The step pressure. x is the structural displacement and F(t) is the time-varying load applied to the structure.2. Af is the matrix containing the areas of the elements in the fluid mesh. the plane shock wave fronts generated by the shock tube allow precise modeling. C is the structural damping matrix. Underwater explosion For the coupled fluid–structure interaction.M. the impulse that is measured experimentally during the zero stand off firing (that is. On the contrary. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. the motion of the plate is given as [45–49] _ M€ þ C x þ kx ¼ FðtÞ x (22) where M is the structural mass matrix. 4. A blast peak pressure that is 10 times or bigger than the corresponding static collapse pressure is assumed as a rectangular pressure pulse without loss of accuracy [36. which results in poor prediction of the plate deformation [40]. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 107 of the deformation phenomena. Spherical shock wave fronts generated by the direct detonation process lead to a complex space–time evolution of the pressure distribution on a plane plate. K is the structural stiffness matrix. Rajendran. Pm. pi is the incident pressure of the underwater explosion and ps is the scatted pressure of the plate. the explosive is separated from the test pate by a thin polystyrene sheet) is divided by the burn time of the explosive to arrive at the assumed uniform rectangular lateral pressure [35]. (26) is substituted into Eq. Itp. Compatibility requirements dictate that the surface normal velocity of the plate and the fluid is equal. The scatted pressure and the scattered fluid particle velocity are related by [46] ps ¼ rw cw vs From Eqs. and the burn time s as [38] Pm ¼ Itp As (21) Shock tubes are built to simulate the blast waves with required plate peak pressure and plate impulse [39–44]. is estimated as a function of the measured total plate impulse. (22) to obtain the differential equation for the response of the plate as [46]   _ M€ þ C þ GAf GT rw cw x þ Kx ¼ ÀGAf ðpi þ rw cw vi Þ x (28) . (24) and (25). and vs is the scattered water particle velocity from the plate. By superimposing the imaginary fluid mesh on the fluid–plate boundary. the exposed area of the plate.

is [53] Pp ðtÞ ¼ 2pm eÀt=q À i 2Pm ja h Àt=q e À eÀja t=q ðja À 1Þ (30) from which the plate peak pressure is given as 1 Pp ¼ 2Pm j1Àja a and the plate maximum velocity is (31) Vma ¼ j 2Pm q 1Àa a j j m a (32) The shock energy transferred to the air-backed plate Ep is Epa ¼ 2 2 1 2Pmm q 1Àjjaa 2 ja mVma ¼ m 2 2 (33) The energy carried by the free field shock wave is Es ¼ 1 rc Z 0 N p2 ðtÞ dt ¼ 1 rc Z 0 N Pm eÀt=q 2 dt ¼ 2 Pm q 2mja 2 (34) The ratio of the plate energy to the free field shock energy. Pp(t). which is also known as coupling factor is  E ha ¼ pa ¼ Es 2 2Pm q m 2  j1Àja a  2ja  q 2mja 2 2 Pm ¼ 4j1Àja a 1þja (35) The time to reach the maximum velocity or the cavitation time. until cavitation occurs.M.108 R. Applying initial conditions and introducing the dimensionless inverse mass number ja ¼ rwcwq/m. Ignoring damping and the nodal displacement for the duration the pressure pulse acts. J. for a one dimensional plate Eq. (28) reduces to [3. tca. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 The term rwcw represents the additional damping term to the plate due to the energy radiated away from the plate into the fluid. The response equation of the plate is valid until the fluid pressure goes below the local atmospheric pressure or in other words. Rajendran. (37a) is [54] Ipm ¼ 2Pm q or (37b) Ipa ¼ zIpm ¼ 2za If where za is the knock-down factor for air-backed plate which is given as (37c) za ¼ j1Àja a ja (37d) . The only unknown term in Eq. (28) is the plate displacement x which is solved by finite element method. ha . the plate pressure.50–52] _ m€ þ rw cw x ¼ 2Pm eÀt=q x (29) where m is the mass per unit area of the plate. is given as tca ¼ q ln ja ja À 1 (36) The impulse acting on the air-backed plate per unit area is given as 1À Ip ¼ 2Pm qja ja ja (37a) The maximum achievable impulse per unit area for an infinitely rigid plate from Eq.7.

Epw. Ipw. The ratio of the variation of the plate impulse for air-backed underwater exploded plates. For a water-backed plate. Ip ¼ I when 2rwcwq ¼ m. Rajendran. to air blasted plates. Ipa. the impulse imparted to the plate. J. Or in other words. Ip. The variation of the ratio of impulse for underwater explosion to air blast on a plate as a function of reduced standoff.M. The energy imparted to the water-backed plate.R. as a function of reduced stand off is shown in Fig. is given as  hw Epw ¼ ¼ Es 2 Pm q rc   j1Àjw w q 1þjw 1À ¼ 2jw jw 1þjw 2 Pm  (41) 2r c 30 20 Plate impulse ratio m=15.5 kg/sq m 10 Ipw/Ipa 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 S'(m/kg1/3) Fig. hw. meaning thereby. 3.2kg/sq m m=62. the impulse ratio approaches unity. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 109 For ja ¼ 1/2. is equal to the free field impulse.4kg/sq m m=289. the equation of motion of the plate is modified as [7.6kg/sq m m=31. the underwater explosion impulse becomes double that of the free field impulse as in the case of the impulse imparted by a weak air blast wave on a plate. is Epw ¼ 1 P 2 q 2jw 2 mVmw ¼ m j1Àjw 2m w 2 2 (40) The ratio of the energy of the water-backed plate to the shock wave energy.50] _ m€ þ 2rw cw x ¼ 2Pm eÀt=q x The maximum velocity of the water-backed plate is [7] (38) Vmw ¼ j Pm q 1Àww jwj m (39) where jw ¼ 2rwcwq/m. As the plate becomes more and more rigid. . 3. The maximum velocity for the water-backed plate is reached when the plate pressure equals the hydrostatic pressure of the water behind the plate.

and energy. As the plate becomes infinitely rigid.8 1 1.8 0.2 0.and water-backed plates as a function of inverse mass number is shown in Fig.6 Ep/Es Ip/If 0. . Ip.and water-backed plates with the inverse mass number for underwater explosion. The variation of impulse and energy of air. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 The ratio of ha to hw gives the ratio of the strain energy of the air-backed plate to the water-backed plate during the elastic regime of deformation. Ipw. tcw. Rajendran.6 air-backed plate shock energy transfer water-backed plate energy transfer 0. the impulse imparted to the plate. This is in contrast to the air-backed plate that undergoes twice the free field impulse for identical conditions. 4. is given as [7] tcw ¼ q ln jw jw À 1 jw (43) The impulse acting on the water-backed plate per unit area is given as Ipw ¼ 2Pm qj1Àjw ¼ 2If zw w where zw is the knock-down factor for water-backed plate which is given as 1À zw ¼ jwjw (44a) jw (44b) The ratio of the primary pulse plate impulse for an air-backed plate to a water-backed plate gives the plastic damage ratio of these plates for the primary shock. Àja À2ja Ipa ¼ 21À2ja jð1Àja Þð1À2ja Þ a Ipw (45) For jw ¼ 1/2. J. as a fraction of the respective free field parameters for air. 2 Air-backed plate impulse Water-backed plate impulse 1. 4. is equal to half of the free field impulse. the maximum plate impulse equals the free field impulse.110 R. Ep. This ratio from Eqs. From Eqs. Or in other words.M. (37) and (44). (35) and (41) is given as ha ¼ hw  Ep =Es Epw =Es  ¼ 2ð1À2ja Þ jð1Àja Þð1À2ja Þ a À4ja À2ja (42) The time to reach the maximum velocity. Ipw ¼ If/2 when 4rwcwq ¼ m. The variation of plate impulse.2 0 0 4 8 12 16 0 Fig.4 0.4 0.

R. J. Blast damage 5. In quasi-static loading realm. In the impulsive realm (loading period to the natural period of the structure is less than 0. According to the P–I diagram of a specific structure or structural element. 5. The kinetic energy imparted to the structure.1. T ¼   2 mA I I2 ¼ 2 ðmAÞ2 2mA (49) Equating the kinetic energy.13. 5. The response is independent of the duration of loading and the mass of the structure. is given as [61] UE ¼ 1 2 kx 2 max (46) The maximum permissible work imparted. a certain load with the peak pressure and impulse above the critical value will result in the damage of the structures. is equated to the strain energy UE [61]. (46) and (47) [61]. pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi kmAxmax ¼ 1:0 I (50) .0636). The work done on the structure is equated to the strain energy for the quasi-static loading regime (loading period to the natural period of the structure is greater than 6.1. For a linear elastic system. reloading due to the gas bubble is present for both air. Rajendran.36). T. xmax ¼ 2:0 ðF=kÞ (48) Eq.59]. Reloading occurs when the depth of explosion is at least half the stand off and reaches it maximum when the depth of explosion becomes double the stand off [55]. T. The damage of plates that are subjected to non-contact air blast is conventionally assessed by the simulated experimental methods or by taking the measured pressure–time history on the plate for the simulated environment as the prescribed load and performing numerical analysis [1. the deformation is directly proportional to the impulse. Uniform blast loading Simple methods of structural dynamics were applied by Biggs [56] and Clough and Penzien [57] by applying single degree of freedom system (SDOF) and idealizing the plate as the beam for obtaining the blast damage. with the pressure Pm. A.1.M. vice versa. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 111 The damage caused by the reloading component of the underwater shock wave on an air-backed plate is larger than the damage caused by the primary pulse itself.1. W. UE.58. Air blast 5. the deformation depends only on the peak load F and the structural stiffness k.and waterbacked plates. the structure is safe if the peak pressure and impulse combination is located below the curve. P–I diagrams.1. While reloading due to cavitation is absent for water-backed plates. (48) is called quasi-static asymptote.1. to the strain energy UE. Elastic and plastic response of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems subjected to blast loading can be presented in the form of pressure–impulse (P–I) diagrams [60]. the strain energy. to the structure by a constant force whose amplitude decreases insignificantly is [61] W ¼ Fxmax (47) where F is the force that is acting which is given by multiplying the area. From Eqs.

The central deflection of plastically deformed plates is taken as the indication of the measure of blast damage. Rajendran. Here. [63] and Langdon and Schleyer [64]. For rectangular plates [67] . A dynamic load factor of 2 is conservative in this regime. (50) is called impulsive asymptote. In the range 1:15 < I=xmax kmA < 5:5.1. The quasi-static loading asymptote for a finite rise time is equivalent to a static pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi loading. the strain energy. 5. For a rigid-plastic system loaded in the pressure realm.1. equating the kinetic energy to the strain energy UP. Johnson [66] proposed a guideline for assessing the behaviour of metals subjected to impact loading using a dimensionless number that is defined as aj ¼ rp V 2 sd (54a) where V is the impact velocity. This behaviour is produced by resonance between the loading rate and the structural frequency. For the impulsive loading realm. The deflection is influenced by both structural stiffness and structural mass. The loading on a plate cause by gas or dust explosions is characterized finite rise time and a nonexponential fall. 5. where a rectangular pressure pulse can be assumed [18. A combination of peak loads and durations with the same impulse will result in the same maximum deformation. Plastic deformation. (53) is called impulsive asymptote for the rigid-plastic structure. the loading with finite rise time is more severe than a loading with zero rise time. The deformation here depends on the entire loading history. A typical P–I diagram for a blast loaded SDOF system is shown in Fig. Johnson’s damage number is applicable only when plates have similar dimensions. W. rp is the plate material density and sd is the damage stress which is taken as equal to the plate material yield stress sy. Assumed modes method in which a shape function is used to represent the global displacement function [62] was used in conjunction with rigid-plastic material behaviour and energy methods were applied by Schleyer et al. A modified damage parameter F was introduced by Nurick and Martin [28] that incorporated plate dimensions and loading. UP. pffiffiffi I pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ¼ 2 xmax mAR (53) Eq.65] analytical [36] and empirical [28] predictions are available based on the impulse imparted to the plate. J. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 Eq.112 R. is given as [61] UP ¼ Rxmax where R is the resistance.2. For circular plates [29] Fc ¼ pRt 2 rp sy  Ipt 1=2 (55) where R is the radius of the loaded portion of the circular plate. Computation of the quasi-static and impulsive asymptotes yields an approximation to the entire shock response. Equating the work done. to the strain energy [61] (51) F=R ¼ 1:0 (52) Eq. The damage number can be written in terms of impulse as [67] aj ¼ 2 Itp 2t2 r s A p y (54b) where t is the thickness of the plate. For the contact air blast. (52) is the quasi-static asymptote for the rigid-plastic structure. Between quasi-static realm and impulsive realm a transition realm exists which is known as dynamic loading realm. the motion of the structure depends on pressure and impulse as well as structural stiffness and mass.M.

Rajendran.M. (a) Elastic response due to air blast. Fr ¼ Ipt  1=2 2t 2 4abrp sy (56) where 2a and 2b are the length and breadth of the plate. (c) elastic response due to gas explosion and (d) plastic response due to gas explosion [61]. P–I diagram for SDOF systems undergoing blast load [61]. Jones [36] predicted analytically the deflection-thickness ratio for fully clamped circular plates without strain rate effects as . 5. J. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 113 Fig. For large plastic deformation (mode I failure) of clamped circular plates [28] the deflection-thickness ratio is empirically given as   d t ¼ 0:425Fc þ 0:227 (57) c and for clamped rectangular plates [28] the empirical relationship is   d t ¼ 0:471Fr þ 0:001 (58) r where d is the central deflection of the plate. (b) plastic response due to air blast.R.

of the plate which is given by pffiffiffiffi Vcr ¼ 2:83cp 3f where cp is the plastic wave speed which is given as (61a) sffiffiffiffiffi cp ¼ so rp (61b) where so is the flow stress which is given as . Dishing occurs until tensile necking and fracture takes over the critical velocity. Localized blast loading Localized impact is the explosion or impact process that occurs over a localized region of the plate (in contrast to the uniform loading that occurs over the whole area of the unsupported plate). Rajendran. the deflection-thickness ratio as given by the analytical method of Jones is [36]   d t ¼ r n o ð3 À 20 Þ ð1 þ GÞ1=2 À1 2f1 þ ð20 À 1Þð20 À 2Þg 2 (60a)  G ¼ 2rp V 2 a2 b 3sy t 2 &  ð3 À 220 Þ 1 À 20 þ ' Àb 1 2 À 20 (60b) 20 ¼ b b a 3þb  2 1=2 (60c) b¼ (60d) Taking strain rate effect into account Eq. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127   d t ¼ 0:817Fc c (59a) Taking strain rate effect into account Eq.1.114 R. Vcr. When a localized explosion takes place on a plate petalling occurs [68]. For small amplitudes of impulse the plate undergoes dishing. (60a) is modified as   d t ¼ r n o ð3 À 20 Þ ð1 þ G=nÞ1=2 À1 2f1 þ ð20 À 1Þð20 À 2Þg " Vtð3 À 20 ÞG1=2 #1=q (60e) n ¼ 1þ pffiffiffi 6 2Db2 f1 þ ð20 À 1Þð20 À 2Þg (60f) 5.M.2. (59a) is modified as [36]   d t ¼ c 0:817Fc pffiffiffi n (59b)  1=2 !1=q n ¼ 1þ rp 3r2 t 2 DR 3sy P 2 Ip (59c) For fully clamped rectangular plates without strain rate effects. J.

suffer relatively less damage. The detonation blows out a central cap of the radius rp (where rp is the radius of the explosive).70] reported analytical and numerical modeling on the dishing. Analytical and experimental work was reported by Wierzbicki and Nurick [71] to determine the location of tearing failure and the critical impulse to failure. Lee and Wierzbicki [69. Uniform explosion loading 5. [73] described the effect of varying both the loading conditions and the plate geometries on the deformation of the plate and predicted numerically the plate response.  V Vcr  ¼  Ip Ipc  ¼  W Wcr  (63c) where Wcr is the critical weight of the explosive to generate the critical impulse. This occurs at a central deflection d. Although there is no permanent damage to the plate that undergoes elastic deformation. This is because a considerable proportion of the shock wave transmits through the water at the rear of the plate. Experimental work on clamped circular plates subjected to localized impulse was reported by Nurick and Radford [72] to study the formation of petalling failure.1. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 115 so ¼ rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sy su 1þp (61c) where su is the ultimate stress and p is the exponent in the power-type stress–strain law.2. For n1 radial cracks that develop from a point in an infinite plate dividing it into n1 symmetric petals. For a small intensity of explosion. J. Water-backed plates. however. the stresses developed in the plate are in its elastic range. The designer is therefore interested in predicting the range of responses of the ship plates. discing and petalling of plates subjected to localized impulse. Rajendran. Therefore it is of interest to know what happens to these side shells during an underwater explosion environment.M. it is the interest to the designer to know in advance the transient state of stress it develops. water-backed plates simply transmit the maximum part of the shock wave energy.2. During elastic deformation the air-backed plate undergoes tens of thousands of ‘g’s (acceleration due to gravity) [74]. Underwater explosion 5. which can be considered as process parameter is given by ac cos q. the perpendicular distance l. that is required to blow out the central plot.R. By energy balance [68]. In other words. the reminder of the initial kinetic energy goes into the petalling process. the central 2q angle of the petal equals 2p/n1. which is given as d ¼ 2:47rp 3f pffiffiffiffi (62) When the impulse is above this value. 5. Elastic response.1. Both warships and merchant ships have liquid filled side shells. .  Vcr c 2 " V Vcr 2 # À1 ¼ 5:2h0:6 m   1:4 t l À1 re re (63a) where V is the impact velocity and hm is the moment amplification factor which takes into account the larger bending resistance of the curved plate is given as [68] hm ¼ 1 þ 2 23f q2 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi re t (63b) Normally 3–5 petals form in the plate [68]. Taking the instantaneous crack length as ac. Ipc. The amount of impulse imparted to the plate is proportional to the weight of the explosive W. A near miss underwater explosion in a war scenario may result in the plate response varying from elastic to plastic and in an extreme case fracture. Jacob et al.1.2.

For air-backed plates [75–77] for the primary shock wave. Circular geometry. sa. In terms of effective shock factor [77. xea is the effective shock factor for the air-backed plates.2. Furthermore.1. Rectangular geometry.78] (64a) sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi E sa ¼ 1179xea ð1 À nÞt (64b) where E is Young’s modulus of the material. As expected. the shock damage is considered to be the severest [7]. For air-backed plates [76] and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. Rajendran. assuming a strain distribution pattern of the target plate similar to that of air-backed plate [76–78] the semi-analytical von Mises stress is given as vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi u u3Er P 2 x2=ð1Àxw Þ sa ¼ t p m w 2r2 c2 ð1 À nÞ w w or in terms of effective shock factor [77. For x less than 0. water-backed plates undergo less stress.01 m are compared well with Eq. the shock factor is used to classify the severity of the attack. at the apex (center) of the plate is given as vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi u u6Er P 2 x2=ð1Àxa Þ m sa ¼ t 2p 2 a rw cw ð1 À nÞ where E is the Young’s modulus of the plate material.2.1. 5.1.78] sa ¼ 1:03 pffiffiffiffiffi ha 1584x rffiffiffi E t (66b) Numerical and experimental underwater explosion simulations carried out [65] on aluminium plate of 1 m  1 m  0. the shock wave parameters based and the shock factor based stresses are in good agreement. For water-backed plates. for x greater than 0. J. (66).M. xea ¼ x1:03 ha where x is the normal shock factor which is given as [7] pffiffiffi (64c) pffiffiffiffiffiffi W x ¼ 0:445 S (64d) Traditionally.78] (65a) sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi E sa ¼ 1179xew ð1 À nÞt where xew is the effective shock factor for a water-backed plate (65b) xew ¼ x1:03 hw pffiffiffiffiffiffi ffi (65c) A comparison of the apex (plate center) von Mises stress developed by the circular plate for various shock factors is shown in Fig. 6.2.1.1. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 5.15. n is the Poisson’s ratio. .7.3 the semianalytical von Mises stress is given as sa ¼ 0:867 vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi u u14Er P 2 x2=ð1Àxa Þ p m a t r2 c2 w w (66a) In terms of effective shock factor [77. the shock damage is considered to be negligible. the semi-analytical von Mises stress.116 R.

2. Rajendran.06 0. is higher than the static yield stress sy. elastic range limit is assumed to merge with the yield point without appreciable error.1. For strain rate sensitive materials. Merchant cargo vessels and warships are normally made up of mild steels whereas mine sweepers are made up of austenitic steel (non-magnetic) and aluminium alloys. ABPSFB: air-backed plate shock factor based. WBPSWPB: water-backed plate shock wave parameters based. ABPSWPB: airbacked plate shock wave parameters based. A similar trend as for the circular plates is observed. For all practical discussions here.2. A comparison of the elastic response of air. For water-backed plates. 7. assuming a strain distribution pattern of the target plate similar to that of air-backed plates [76. . J. 5.and water-backed circular plates as a function of shock factor. syd.M. and is typically related by the Cowper–Symonds relation: " syd ¼ sy 1 þ  1=q # _ 3 D (68) _ where 3 is the average strain rate. the plate reaches the limit of the elastic range beyond which it undergoes permanent deformation. there are static and dynamic yield points. 6.R. WBPSFB: water-backed plate shock factor based. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 117 600 ABPSWPB ABPSFB WBPSWPB WBPSFB Apex Von Mises stress (MPa) ABPE 400 200 0 0 0. As the intensity of explosion gradually increases.1 Shock factor (kg1/2/m) Fig.78] (67a) sa ¼ ffi 1:03 pffiffiffiffiffiffi hw 1584x rffiffiffi E t (67b) A comparison of the apex (plate center) von Mises stress developed by the rectangular plate for various shock factors is shown in Fig. and ABPE: air-backed plate experiment [76].08 0.04 0. and D and q are material constants which are given by Jones [36]. Limiting elastic range. the dynamic yield stress.02 0.77] vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi u u7Er P 2 x2=ð1Àxw Þ sa ¼ 0:867t p m2 w2 2rw cw or in terms of effective shock factor [77.

7.and water-backed plates for generating a specified stress level. The charge quantity in kg and stand off in m required to generate the shock factor for the given time constant are obtained from Eqs. Therefore. (16) and (64d) as [80] W ¼  x 0:445 0:5946  q 96:5 Â 10À6 2:7026 (71) . (69) and (70) by scaling factors (sd/sy). Rajendran.5 sÀ1 [70]. xeyc.04 0. The Cowper–Symonds equations should be obtained from dynamic tensile tests on the specific material being considered.4 times the static yield stress.59. for aluminium alloy 1. A comparison of the elastic response of air. J. WBPSWPB: water-backed plate shock wave parameters based. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 600 ABPSWPB ABPSFB 500 WBPSWPB WBPSFB ABPE 400 Apex Von Mises stress (MPa) 300 200 100 0 0 0.06 0. A look at Eq.42. The scaling factors thus obtained are as follows: for mild steel 1.78] xeyr ¼ 631 Â 10À6 sys (70) It was established from experiments [79] that the dynamic yielding of mild steel during an underwater explosion occurs for a stress that is 1. for a-titanium (Ti 50A) 1.78] xeyc ¼ 848 Â 10 À6 rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ð1 À nÞt sys E rffiffiffi E t (69) and for rectangular plates as [77. The average strain rate for deformation during the elastic range was 0. The effective shock factor xe remains the same for air.17.M.08 Shock factor (kg1/2/m) Fig. (64d) shows that a range of charge quantity and stand off combination is possible for generating the desired shock factor.09. for high tensile steel 1. and ABPE: air-backed plate experiment [76]. The effective shock factor. required for generating the static yield stress for circular plates is given as [77.and water-backed rectangular plates as a function of shock factor. the effective shock factor for circular and rectangular plates for dynamic yielding of various hull materials is given by multiplying the right side of Eqs. ABPSWPB: airbacked plate shock wave parameters based. ABPSFB: air-backed plate shock factor based.54 and for AISI 304 stainless steel 1. WBPSFB: water-backed plate shock factor based.02 0. Guideline values are derived by applying the nominal material constants [36] and the average strain rate for the elastic range limit.118 R.

For air-backed rectangular plates the empirical prediction is given as [80]   d t ¼ 0:553Fr þ 0:741 (74) r The variation of the deflection-thickness ratio as a function of the dimensionless parameter. (60e) and (74) with experimental data showed good agreement [80]. for rectangular plates is shown in Fig. Plastic deformation. (59a) over predicts because strain rate effects are not accounted for. Rajendran.1. (57). Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 119 S ¼   1:3513  q 0:445 0:7027 x 96:5 Â 10À6 (72) 5.2. Fr.82]   d t ¼ 0:541Fc À 0:433 (73) c The variation of the deflection-thickness ratio as a function of the dimensionless parameter Fc for circular plates is shown in Fig. J. (60a).M. A comparison of Eqs. 30 Circular plates Nurick & Martin Equation (57) Jones Equation (59a) Jones Equation (59b) Rajendran & Narsimhan Equation (73) Experimental (Ref [81]) Deflection-thickness ratio 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 Fig. the plate undergoes permanent deformation. 8. 9. (60a) over predicts because strain rate effects are not accounted for. Eq. (58).3. (73) and (74) assume that the total deflection caused by the impulse due to primary and the reloading shock waves on the plate is equal to the deflection caused by the free field impulse. (59b) and (73) with experimental data showed good agreement [80]. When the effective shock factor exceeds the dynamic yield value. Eq. For the underwater explosion of the air-backed plates based on the free field impulse [81. Variation of deflection-thickness ratio of circular plates with the dimensionless parameter F. (59a). Eqs. The extent of permanent deformation is indicated by the central deflection of the exploded plates and is proportional to the impulse imparted to the plate [3]. .82] the empirical relationship is given as [81. A comparison of Eqs. 8.R.

A photographic view of a rectangular steel plate that underwent mode I (inelastic deformation) is shown in Fig. J.120 R. 9. The total impulse for water-backed plates for the interaction of the primary shock pulse is given as Ipt ¼ Vmw At rp (75) from which dimensionless parameters are obtained for water-backed plates to calculate the central deflection. Photographic view of an underwater exploded plate that underwent mode I failure. However. For water-backed plates cavitation does not occur [7]. Rajendran. there will be shock loading on the water-backed plate due to the gas bubble pulse. . Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 25 20 Rectangular plates Nurick & Martin Equation (58) Jones Equation (60a) Jones Equation (60e) Rajendran & Narasimhan Equation (74) Experimental (Ref [81]) Deflection-thickness ratio 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 Fig. 10. Fig.M. Variation of deflection-thickness ratio of rectangular plates (b ¼ 5/6) with the dimensionless parameter F. 10.

M.20 0. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 121 5.60 0. strain to rupture ¼ 0. J. . it is of great relevance to the naval warfare because underwater weapons for attacking the subsurface vessels are so designed that they detonate on impact with the target. Wcri.2. Contact underwater explosion In underwater explosion scenario.R. This relation is valid only above a certain charge quantity since a minimum quantity of explosive is required for making a hole in the plate of specified thickness. Keil [7] described that there is a definite relation between the radius.20 Equation (63) 1. Rajendran. however. 11. Keil [50] reported that the early work on contact explosion damage of ships was carried out by the Japanese imperial navy on the discarded ship. The critical charge weight. Plate thickness ¼ 1. rffiffiffiffiffiffi W R ¼ 0:0704 t (76) where R and t are in m and W is in kg. W. However. Keil [7] and Rajendran et al.6 mm. Experiments carried out by Keil [7] ruled out the depth of submergence on the damage of plates. 12. The model proposed by Wierzbicki [68] for localized air blast impact under predicts for smaller charges and over predicts as the charge quantity increases beyond 20 g for localized underwater explosion in comparison with the prediction methodologies by Keil [7] and Rajendran and Narasimhan [83]. not specified for this empirical relationship. above which Eq. (76) is valid is given by [7] Wcri ¼ 2:72t (77) An analytical prediction for the radius of the hole that is bored on a clamped circular plate is given by Rajendran and Narasimhan [83] sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2hWEqTNT ETNT J R ¼ pt sy 3f (78) A comparison of the radius of the crack by Wierzibicki [68]. flow stress ¼ 330 MPa. R.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 TNT explosive quantity (g) Fig. A photographic view of a circular plate that underwent contact underwater explosion is shown in Fig. of the hole that is being bored by an explosive quantity.80 Crack length (m) 0.00 Equation (76) Equation (78) 0. [82] is presented in Fig.40 0. 1. The boundary conditions were. 11. contact underwater explosion where the explosive comes in direct contact with the plate during the detonation process is equivalent to localized blast loading. during contact with a plate of thickness t. The variation of the plate crack length that is subjected to localized blast as a function of explosive charge quantity.2. The physics of the contact underwater explosion phenomena is not yet well understood.3.

Fracture Mode I deformation of the plates under explosive loading continues with the increasing intensity of the explosion. Fig. Rajendran. The moment the total strain at any point at the edge of the plate attains its rupture strain. 13. Langdon and Schleyer [64] equated the total strain to cause tearing at the outer fibres of a rectangular cross-section beam to the sum of the membrane strain and the strain due to the curvature. 12. strain rate and temperature.122 R. 6. Photographic view of petalling of a steel plate during contact underwater explosion. Lee and Wierzbicki [69] proposed that facture initiates at the critical point of a structure when the accumulated equivalent plastic strain with suitable weighting function reaches a critical value. J. 13. Balden and Nurick [84] proposed that fracture occurs when the summation of the ratio of the incremental effective plastic strain to the failure strain becomes equal to one. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 Fig. tensile tearing or fracture (mode II failure) occurs. A photographic view of a steel plate that failed in tensile tearing is shown in Fig. . The interaction of mode II fracture and mode III (shear) fracture is brought out by Rudhrapatna et al. The failure strain is a function of mean stress. Rajendran and Narasimhan [83] equated equivalent plastic strain of thin plates to their uniaxial fracture strain as fracture criterion. [58. Photographic view of an underwater exploded plate that underwent mode II failure (tensile tearing).59].M.

Explosion Bulge Test (EBT) has been used as the final qualification test to verify the dynamic plasticity of defence structural materials [86]. von Mises plasticity with isotropic hardening/softening behaviour together with strain rate sensitivity using Cowper–Symonds relationship was applied. To simulate the slip in bolt connections and possible in-plane movement of the test rig. Numerical simulation and experiments showed good correlation to within 5. Circular plate clamped at its edge and subjected to uniform blast load was simulated by Balden and Nurick [84] using ABAQUS. Element failure criterion was fixed as 200% failure strain and on nodal temperature. [1] used ANSYS/ LS_DYNA–Release 7. Reaction-time history of the support assembly was compared with experimentally obtained and ABAQUS/Explicit results to simulate the exact boundary conditions. The bolt array was simulated with single elastic spring having spring stiffness based on the axial elastic response of the bolt array. The negative phase of the pressure pulse and the small ground reflection were neglected. The friction co-efficient was assumed to be 0. The hardening curve was linearly changed in magnitude based on the change in yield stress at various temperatures. Numerical methods Elastic response of blast loaded plates was carried out by Veldman et al.1 for modeling the inelastic deformation of rectangular plates. The nonlinear finite element analysis accounted for large deformation effects but neglected strain rate effects.5% for the plate central displacement. J. The plate was modeled using shell element.7. Sumpter [92] formulated pass/fail criterion for cracked plates subjected to shock load. The bolt array preload was calculated using the assumed bolt tightening torque and applied as load during the analysis. Explicit finite element code DYNA3D was adopted by Pan and Louca [95] to model the response of a plate to gas explosion. MILSTD-2149A [89] formulated by the U. Rajendran. Jacinto et al. Uniform blast pressure was distributed over the entire exposed surface of the plate. Pinned boundary condition was applied to the outside part of the lower side of the specimen frame. beam elements were used.3.S. Veldman et al. It also recommends repetitive loading on the test plate with a reduction in thickness in each shot until final strain to fracture. The variation of elastic response with reference to temperature was accounted for by providing the variation of Young’s modulus of the material with temperature.3% was seen between numerical and experimental results. Dynamic analysis was performed using modal superposition and direct integration method.94]. Underwater EBT was developed by Sumpter [90] and Porter et al. Comparison of experimental and numerical predictions of input energy for uniform blast loading was good. Four noded thin shell elements were used to model the frame–plate assembly. Fracture resistance of metal plates loaded into plastic regime by noncontact underwater explosion was reported by Gifford et al.88] to investigate the response of steel weldments to air blast.M. The boundary conditions were considered as perfectly clamped. [93. More refined mesh captured high frequency with less error. EBT has been developed by Hartbower and Pellini [87. [13] performed numerical elastic analysis using ABAQUS/standard 5. Explosive loading promotes brittle fracture due to high strain rate influence of material flow properties. The slight negative phase of the shock wave and round reflection peak that were present during the experiment were ignored. [91] to minimize the charge quantity and environmental noise nuisance.R. [1] using ANSYS. Bi-linear isotropic plasticity was assumed. acting between upper and lower flanges. Pressure–time history was input from the experiment. An agreement to within 5. Pressure–time history was modeled as decaying exponential function based on experimental data. Good comparison was seen between predicted and measured peak displacement. It was brought out that the number of vibration modes was important because blast load excites high frequencies. . Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 123 The ability of the hull structure to withstand large plastic deformation before fracture is a major criterion in naval structural design [85]. The blast pressure was obtained by dividing the impulse with the burn time of the explosive. 7. A frictional contact was prescribed between upper and lower plate surfaces and corresponding plate surfaces. The plate was modeled as four-node quadrilateral explicit thin shell elements ignoring strain rate effects. The element size of the model should agree with the quantity of modes. Pressure–time history was modeled as decaying exponential function based on experimental data. Navy recommends air blast as the source of energy to evaluate the resistance of base materials and weldments to fracture under shock loading.

or assumed modes method or numerical method is applied to derive the plate response. New York: Dover Publications Inc. Conclusions This paper brought out a detailed review of the phenomena of air and underwater explosions and their effects on plane plates. Ari-Gur J.124 R. from the threat perception and survivability point of view. [4] Keshawarz MH. Nazari HR. A review of underwater explosion phenomena. free field impulse and energy are the four vital parameters that are considered for the damage process.M. both elastic and plastic responses are of interest. Empirical methods are presented for predicting the plastic central deflection for a severe explosion. LS-DYNA and Underwater Shock Analysis (USA) codes were used by Shin [45] for non-linear structural analysis of a ship model that is subjected to an underwater explosion. International Journal of Impact Engineering 2006. the peak overpressure. Methods of evaluating the elastic stresses and the limiting elastic range are presented for a mild intensity explosion. Detonation velocity of pure and mixed CHNO explosives at maximum nominal density. A simple method to assess detonation temperature without using any experimental data and computer code. analytical and empirical methods are employed to obtain the central plastic deflection with the measured impulse on the plate as input. Pouretedal HR. [5] Keshawarz MH. Effect of pre-pressurization on blast response of clamped aluminium plates. When rectangular air blast pressure–time history is imparted. The process of detonation of the explosive is marked by the generation of large amount of heat with the associated pressure at a short interval. a simple single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. References [1] Veldman RL. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2006. The shock wave parameters that are significant for an air blast are the peak overpressure and the impulse. . Clum C. For an underwater explosion. tf. For underwater explosion. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Advanced Ship Engineering Research Centre (ASERC) of Pusan National University.414:203–8.32(10):1678–95. For performing numerical analysis. For a generated pressure–time history on a plate. ONR 1947. with the magnitude of the pressure more than 10 times that of static collapse pressure of the plate. Folkert J. The fluid element thickness.141(3):536–9.2. as part of its research program. Compendium of Underwater Explosion Research. Thermochimica Acta 2004.. [2] Fox EN.133(1–3):129–34. Localized blast leads to petalling of the plate. Republic of Korea. Lee / Marine Structures 22 (2009) 99–127 A detailed coupled fluid–structure interaction that is applied for underwater shock loading is presented in Section 4. gas explosion and underwater explosion are brought out comparing their predictive accuracy with experimental results. in the direction normal to the wetted surface is defined as [45] 2rw tf rp t 5 (79) Velocity and acceleration response prediction by Shin [45] of a ship model using LS-DYNA and USA gave good comparison with shock test data 8. DeYong A. Doubly asymptotic approximation (DAA) that is used for the fluid–structure interaction eliminates the need for modeling the surrounding fluid volume by covering the wet surface of the structure with DAA boundary elements. Analytical methods are available to compute the crack length. Methods developed by Keil [7] and Rajendran and Narasimhan [83] for underwater explosion are compared against the methodology developed by Wierzbicki [68] for air blast.1: 1–83. 1948. [3] Cole RH. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2007. interest is shown on the plastic damage of plates that are subjected to an air blast. By and large. J. time constant. the impulse is divided by the burn time of the explosive to get the pressure magnitude. [6] Keshawarz MH. Various methods of numerical simulation of a plate that undergoes air blast. Underwater explosions. An empirical method for predicting detonation pressure of CHNOFCl explosives. Rajendran.

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