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Theory

Aluminium Code Check
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Introduction................................................................................................................................. 1
Version info............................................................................................................................................................. 1
Disclaimer.................................................................................................................................... 2
EN1999 Code Check.................................................................................................................. 3
Material Properties ................................................................................................................................................. 3
Consulted Articles.................................................................................................................................................. 3
Initial Shape........................................................................................................................................................ 5
Classification of Cross-Section........................................................................................................................ 13
Step 1: Calculation of stresses........................................................................................................................... 14
Step 2: Determination of stress gradient ¢....................................................................................................... 14
Step 3: Calculation of slenderness.................................................................................................................... 15
Step 4: Classification of the part ........................................................................................................................ 16
Reduced Cross-Section properties ................................................................................................................. 16
Step 1: Calculation of spring stiffness .............................................................................................................. 18
Step 2: Calculation of Area and Second moment of area............................................................................... 20
Step 3: Calculation of stiffener buckling load .................................................................................................. 21
Step 4: Calculation of reduction factor for distortional buckling.................................................................. 22
Section properties ............................................................................................................................................ 23
Tension............................................................................................................................................................. 24
Compression .................................................................................................................................................... 24
Bending moment .............................................................................................................................................. 24
Shear ................................................................................................................................................................ 24
Torsion with warping........................................................................................................................................ 27
The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[4])......................... 28
I sections ............................................................................................................................................................... 29
U sections.............................................................................................................................................................. 29
sections.................................................................................................................................................................. 30
The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[4]) ......................... 31
I sections ............................................................................................................................................................... 31
U sections, E sections ........................................................................................................................................ 32
Starting from the w
M
diagram, the following integral is calculated for the critical
points: ........................................................................................................................................ 32
The following 6 standard situations for St.Venant torsion, warping torque and
bimoment are given in the literature (Ref.[3], Ref.[4]). ...................................................... 33
The value ì is defined as follows:......................................................................................... 33
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt ............................................................... 34
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt ............................................................. 35
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading mt .................................................... 36
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading mt .................................................. 37
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt .......................................... 38
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt ............................... 38
Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3................................................................................................. 40
Decomposition for situation 2 ............................................................................................................................ 40
Combined shear and torsion ........................................................................................................................... 40
Bending, shear and axial force........................................................................................................................ 41
Flexural buckling.............................................................................................................................................. 42
For a non-sway structure: ................................................................................................................................... 43
ii
For a sway structure: ........................................................................................................................................... 43
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal ....................................... 44
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension diagonal .............................................. 45
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal ............................................... 45
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal ............................. 46
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned compression diagonal..................................... 46
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal ..................................... 47
Torsional (-Flexural) buckling .......................................................................................................................... 48
Lateral Torsional buckling................................................................................................................................ 50
Diaphragms........................................................................................................................................................... 50
The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.1. and F.1.2. from Ref.[14] - Annex F. ......... 53
Moment distribution generated by q load......................................................................................................... 53
Moment distribution generated by F load......................................................................................................... 53
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam............................................................... 54
Combined bending and axial compression..................................................................................................... 55
Members containing localized welds................................................................................................................. 55
Unequal end moments and/or transverse loads.............................................................................................. 55
Calculation of xs.................................................................................................................................................... 56
Shear buckling.................................................................................................................................................. 57
Contribution of the web....................................................................................................................................... 60
Contribution of the flanges ................................................................................................................................. 61
LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis...................................................... 64
Introduction to LTBII......................................................................................................................................... 64
Eigenvalue solution Mcr .................................................................................................................................... 64
2
nd
Order analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 66
Supported Sections.......................................................................................................................................... 67
Loadings........................................................................................................................................................... 68
Imperfections.................................................................................................................................................... 68
Initial bow imperfection v0 according to code................................................................................................. 69
Manual input of Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0...................................................................................... 69
LTB Restraints.................................................................................................................................................. 70
Diaphragms...................................................................................................................................................... 71
Linked Beams................................................................................................................................................... 72
Limitations and Warnings ................................................................................................................................ 73
Eigenvalue solution Mcr ...................................................................................................................................... 73
2
nd
Order Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 73
Profile conditions for code check......................................................................................... 74
Introduction to profile characteristics............................................................................................................... 74
Data for general section stability check........................................................................................................... 74
Data depending on the profile shape .............................................................................................................. 75
References ................................................................................................................................ 95
1
Introduction
Welcome to the Aluminium Code Check – Theoretical Background.
This document provides background information on the code check according to the regulations given in:
Eurocode 9
Design of aluminium structures
Part 1-1: General structural rules
EN 1999-1-1:2007
Version info
Documentation Title Aluminium Code Check – Theoretical Background
Release 2008.0
Revision 01/2008
2
Disclaimer
This document is being furnished by SCIA for information purposes only to licensed users of SCIA software and is
furnished on an "AS IS" basis, which is, without any warranties, whatsoever, expressed or implied. SCIA is not
responsible for direct or indirect damage as a result of imperfections in the documentation and/or software.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part
of SCIA. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. The software may be
used only in accordance with the terms of that license agreement. It is against the law to copy or use the software
except as specifically allowed in the license.
© Copyright 2008 SCIA Group NV. All rights reserved.
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EN1999 Code Check
In the following chapters, the material properties and consulted articles are discussed.
Material Properties
The characteristic values of the material properties are based on Table 3.2a for wrought aluminium alloys of type
sheet, strip and plate and on Table 3.2b for wrought aluminium alloys of type extruded profile, extruded tube,
extruded rod/bar and drawn tube.
The following alloys are provided by default:
EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) O/H111 (0-50)
EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) O/H111 (50-80)
EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H12
EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H22/H32
EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H14
EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H24/H34
EN-AW 5083 (ET,EP,ER/B) O/111,F,H112
EN-AW 5083 (DT) H12/22/32
EN-AW 5083 (DT) H14/24/34
EN-AW 6005A (EP/O,ER/B) T6 (0-5)
EN-AW 6005A (EP/O,ER/B) T6 (5-10)
EN-AW 6005A (EP/O,ER/B) T6 (10-25)
EN-AW 6005A (EP/H,ET) T6 (0-5)
EN-AW 6005A (EP/H,ET) T6 (5-10)
EN-AW 6060 (EP,ET,ER/B) T5 (0-5)
EN-AW 6060 (EP) T5 (5-25)
EN-AW 6060 (ET,EP,ER/B) T6 (0-15)
EN-AW 6060 (DT) T6 (0-20)
EN-AW 6060 (EP,ET,ER/B) T64 (0-15)
EN-AW 6060 (EP,ET,ER/B) T66 (0-3)
EN-AW 6060 (EP) T66 (3-25)
EN-AW 6063 (EP,ET,ER/B) T5
EN-AW 6063 (EP) T5
EN-AW 6063 (EP,ET,ER/B) T6
EN-AW 6063 (DT) T6
EN-AW 6063 (EP,ET,ER/B) T66
EN-AW 6063 (EP) T66
EN-AW 6063 (DT) T66
EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T4/T451
EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T61/T6151 (0-12.5)
EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T6151 (12.5-100)
EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T6/T651 (0-6)
EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T6/T651 (6-12.5)
EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T651 (12.5-100)
EN-AW 6082 (EP,ET,ER/B) T4
EN-AW 6082 (EP/O,EP/H) T5
EN-AW 6082 (EP/O,EP/H,ET) T6 (0-5)
EN-AW 6082 (EP/O,EP/H,ET) T6 (5-15)
EN-AW 6082 (ER/B) T6 (0-20)
EN-AW 6082 (ER/B) T6 (20-150)
EN-AW 6082 (DT) T6 (0-5)
EN-AW 6082 (DT) T6 (5-20)
EN-AW 7020 (Sheet) T6 (0-12.5)
EN-AW 7020 (Sheet) T651 (0-40)
EN-AW 7020 (EP,ET,ER/B) T6 (0-15)
EN-AW 7020 (EP,ET,ER/B) T6 (15-40)
EN-AW 7020 (DT) T6 (0-20)
EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H14 (0-12.5)
EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H24 (0-12.5)
EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H16 (0-4)
EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H26 (0-4)
Note:
The default HAZ values are applied. As such, footnote 2) of Table 3.2a and footnote 4) of Table 3.2b are not
accounted for. The user can modify the HAZ values according to these footnotes if required.
Consulted Articles
The member elements are checked according to the regulations given in: “Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium
structures - Part 1-1: General structural rules - EN 1999-1-1:2007”.
The cross-sections are classified according to art.6.1.4. All classes of cross-sections are included. For class 4
sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each intermediary point, according to Ref. [2].
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The stress check is taken from art.6.2: the section is checked for tension (art. 6.2.3), compression (art. 6.2.4),
bending (art. 6.2.5), shear (art. 6.2.6), torsion (art.6.2.7) and combined bending, shear and axial force (art. 6.2.8,
6.2.9 and 6.2.10).
The stability check is taken from art. 6.3: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. 6.3.1), lateral torsional
buckling (art. 6.3.2), and combined bending and axial compression (art. 6.3.3).
The shear buckling is checked according to art. 6.7.4 and 6.7.6.
For I sections, U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.
A check for critical slenderness is also included.
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The articles marked with "X" are
consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following chapters.
5.3 Imperfections
5.3.1 Basis X
5.3.2 Imperfections for global analysis of frames X
5.3.4 Member imperfections X
6 Ultimate limit states for members
6.1 Basis
6.1.3 Partial safety factors X
6.1.4 Classification of cross-sections X
(*)
6.1.5 Local buckling resistance X
(*)
6.1.6 HAZ softening adjacent to welds X
(*)
6.2 Resistance of cross-sections
6.2.1 General X
(*)
6.2.2 Section properties X
(*)
6.2.3. Tension X
(*)
6.2.4. Compression X
(*)
6.2.5. Bending Moment X
(*)
6.2.6. Shear X
(*)
6.2.7. Torsion X
(*)
6.2.8. Bending and shear X
6.2.9. Bending and axial force X
(*)
6.2.10. Bending , shear and axial force X
(*)
6.3 Buckling resistance of members
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6.3.1 Members in compression X
(*)
6.3.2 Members in bending X
(*)
6.3.3 Members in bending and axial compression X
(*)
6.5 Un-stiffened plates under in-plane loading
6.5.5 Resistance under shear X
(*)
6.7 Plate girders
6.7.4 Resistance to shear X
(*)
6.7.6 Interaction X
(*)
Note:
Haunches and arbitrary members are not supported for the Aluminium Code Check.
Initial Shape
For a cross-section with material Aluminium, the Initial Shape can be defined.
For a General cross-section the ‘Thinwalled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the Initial Shape.
The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types:
F Fixed Part – No reduction is needed
I Internal cross-section part
SO Symmetrical Outstand
UO Unsymmetrical Outstand
Parts can also be specified as reinforcement:
None Not considered as reinforcement
RI Reinforced Internal (intermediate stiffener)
RUO Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener)
In case a part is specified as reinforcement, a reinforcement ID can be inputted. Parts having the same
reinforcement ID are considered as one reinforcement.
The following conditions apply for the use of reinforcements:
- RI: There must be a plate type I on both sides of the RI reinforcement,
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RI
RI
I I
I
I
- RUO : The reinforcement is connected to only one plate with type I
RUO
I
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For standard Cross-sections, the default plate type and reinforcement type are defined in the following table.
Formcode Shape Initial Geometrical shape
1 I section
(SO, none)
(SO, none)
(SO, none) (SO, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
(I, none)
2 RHS
(I, none)
(I, none)
(I, none)
(I, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
3 CHS (fixed value for | )
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4 Angle section
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(F, none)
5 Channel section
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(I, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
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6 T section
(UO, none)
(SO, none) (SO, none)
(F, none)
7 Full rectangular section No reduction possible
11 Full circular section No reduction possible
101 Asymmetric I section
(SO, none) (SO, none)
(SO, none) (SO, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
(I, none)
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102 Rolled Z section
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(I, none)
(F, none)
(F, none)
110 General cold formed
section (UO, none)
(I, none)
(I,none)
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
11
111 Cold formed angle
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
112 Cold formed channel
(UO, none)
(I, none)
(UO, none)
12
113 Cold formed Z
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(I, none)
114 Cold formed C section
(I, none)
(I,none)
(I,none)
(UO, RUO)
(UO, RUO)
115 Cold formed Omega
(I, none)
(I, none) (I, none)
(UO, RUO)
(UO, RUO)
13
For other predefined cross-sections, the initial geometric shape is based on the centreline of the cross-section. For
example Sheet Welded - IXw
(UO, none) (UO, none)
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(UO, none)
(I,none)
(I,none) (I,none)
(I,none)
Classification of Cross-Section
The classification is based on art. 6.1.4.
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper checks are performed. The
classification can change for each intermediary point.
Classification for members with combined bending and axial forces is made for the loading components
separately. No classification is made for the combined state of stress (see art. 6.3.3 Note 1 & 2).
Classification is thus done for N, My and Mz separately. Since the classification is independent on the magnitude
of the actual forces in the cross-section, the classification is always done for each component.
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Taking into account the sign of the force components and the HAZ reduction factors, this leads to the following
force components for which classification is done:
Classification for Component
Compression force N-
Tension force N+ with µ0,HAZ
Tension force N+ with µu,HAZ
y-y axis bending My-
y-y axis bending My+
z-z axis bending Mz-
z-z axis bending Mz+
For each of these components the reduced shape is determined and the effective section properties are
calculated. This is outlined in the following paragraphs.
The following procedure is applied for determining the classification of a part.
Step 1: Calculation of stresses
For the given force component (N, My, Mz) the normal stress is calculated over the rectangular plate part for the
initial geometrical shape.
obeg: normal stress at start point of rectangular shape
oend: normal stress at end point of rectangular shape
Note:
Compression stress is indicated as negative.
Note:
When the rectangular shape is completely under tension, i.e. o beg and o end are both tensile stresses, no
classification is required.
Step 2: Determination of stress gradient ¢
if o end is the maximum compression stress
end
beg
o
o
¢ =
if o beg is the maximum compression stress
beg
end
o
o
¢ =
15
Step 3: Calculation of slenderness
Depending on the stresses and the plate type the slenderness parameter | is calculated.
a) Internal part: type I
With: b Width of the cross-section part
t Thickness of the cross-section part
q Stress gradient factor
Remark:
For a thin walled round tube
t
D
3 = | with D the diameter to mid-thickness of the tube material.
b) Outstand part: type SO, UO
When ¢ = 1.0 or peak compression at the toe of the plate:
peak compression at toe
When peak compression is at the root of the plate:
) 1 (
1
80 . 0
) 1 1 ( 30 . 0 70 . 0
÷ <
÷
=
÷ > > + =
=
¢
¢
q
¢ ¢ q
q |
t
b
t
b
= |
) 1 (
1
80 . 0
) 1 1 ( 30 . 0 70 . 0
÷ <
÷
=
÷ > > + =
=
¢
¢
q
¢ ¢ q
q |
t
b
16
peak compression at root
Step 4: Classification of the part
The slenderness parameters |1, |2, |3 are determined according to Table 6.2.
Using these limits, the part is classified as follows:
if | s |1 : class 1
if |1<| s |2 : class 2
if |2<| s |3 : class 3
if |3<| : class 4
Note:
For Table 6.2 the remark ‘with welds’ is valid for fabrication type ‘welded’. ‘Without welds’ is valid for the other
fabrication types.
Note:
The modified expression given in art.6.1.4.4 (4) is not supported.
The cross-section is then classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression parts.
Reduced Cross-Section properties
Using the initial shape the cross-section parts are classified as specified in the previous chapter.
For calculating the reduced shape the following reduction factors are calculated:
o Local Buckling: Reduction factor µc
o Distortional Buckling: Reduction factor _
o HAZ effects: Reduction factor µHAZ
Calculation of Reduction factor µ
c
for Local Buckling
In case a cross-section part is classified as Class 4 (slender), the reduction factor µc for local buckling is calculated
according to art. 6.1.5
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For a cross-section part under tension or with classification different from Class 4 the reduction factor µc is taken
as 1,00.
In case a cross-section part is subject to compression and tension stresses, the reduction factor µc is applied only
to the compression part as illustrated in the following figure.
compression stress
tensile stress
t
t eff
b
Calculation of Reduction factor _ for Distortional Buckling
To take into account distortional buckling, a simplified direct method is given in art. 6.1.4 which is only applicable
for a single sided rib or lip.
In SCIA•ESA PT a more general procedure is used according to Ref. [2] pp.66
The design of stiffened elements is based on the assumption that the stiffener itself acts as a beam on elastic
foundation, where the elastic foundation is represented by a spring stiffness depending on the transverse bending
stiffness of adjacent parts of plane elements and on the boundary conditions of these elements.
The following procedure is applied for calculating the reduction factor for an intermediate stiffener (RI) or edge
stiffener (RUO).
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Step 1: Calculation of spring stiffness
Spring stiffness c = cr for RI:
Spring stiffness c = cs for RUO:

19
¿
÷
=
+
÷
=
= =
ad p
ad
s
s
s
b
Et
c
c
b
Et
b
y
y
c c
,
3
3
3
2
1
3
3
1
²) 1 ( 12
²) 1 ( 4
1
v
o
v
With: tad Thickness of the adjacent element
bp,ad Flat width of the adjacent element
c3 The sum of the stiffnesses from the adjacent elements
α equal to 3 in the case of bending moment load or when the cross section is made of more
than 3 elements (counted as plates in initial geometry, without the reinforcement parts)
equal to 2 in the case of uniform compression in cross sections made of 3 elements
(counted as plates in initial geometry, without the reinforcement parts, e.g. channel or Z
sections)
These parameters are illustrated on the following picture:
edge stiffener
considered plate
adjacent element
t ad
bp,ad
20
Step 2: Calculation of Area and Second moment of area
After calculating the spring stiffness the area Ar and Second moment of area Ir are calculated.
With: Ar the area of the effective cross section (based on teff = pc t ) composed of the stiffener area
and half the adjacent plane elements
Ir the second moment of area of an effective cross section composed of the (unreduced)
stiffener and part of the adjacent plate elements, with thickness t and effective width beff,
referred to the neutral axis a-a
beff For RI reinforcement taken as 15 t
For ROU reinforcement taken as 12 t
These parameters are illustrated on the following figures.
Ar and Ir for RI:
21
Ar and Ir for RUO:
Step 3: Calculation of stiffener buckling load
The buckling load Nr,cr of the stiffener can now be calculated as follows:
With: c Spring stiffness of Step 1
E Module of Young
Ir Second moment of area of Step 2
r cr r
cEI N 2
,
=
22
Step 4: Calculation of reduction factor for distortional buckling
Using the buckling load Nr,cr and area Ar the relative slenderness ìc can be determined for calculating the
reduction factor _:
00 . 1
1
00 . 1
) ) ( 0 . 1 ( 50 . 0
60 . 0
20 . 0
2 2
0
0
2
0
0
,
s
÷ +
= => >
= => <
+ ÷ + =
=
=
=
c
c
c
c c
cr r
r o
c
if
if
N
A f
ì | |
_ ì ì
_ ì ì
ì ì ì o |
ì
o
ì
With: f0 0,2% proof strength
ìc
Relative slenderness
ì0
Limit slenderness taken as 0,60
α Imperfection factor taken as 0,20
_ Reduction factor for distortional buckling
The reduction factor is then applied to the thickness of the reinforcement(s) and on half the width of the adjacent
part(s).
Calculation of Reduction factor µ
HAZ
for HAZ effects
The extend of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) is determined by the distance bhaz according to art. 6.1.6.
23
The value for bhaz is multiplied by the factors o2 and 3/n
for 5xxx & 6xxx alloys :
120
) 60 1 (
1
2
÷
+ =
T
o
for 7xxx alloys :
120
) 60 1 (
5 . 1 1
2
÷
+ =
T
o
With: T1 Interpass temperature
n Number of heat paths
Note:
The variations in numbers of heath paths 3/n is specifically intended for fillet welds. In case of a butt weld the
parameter n should be set to 3 (instead of 2) to negate this effect.
The reduction factor for the HAZ is given by:
u
haz , u
haz , u
f
f
= µ
o
haz , o
haz , o
f
f
= µ
Calculation of Effective properties
For each part the final thickness reduction µ is determined as the minimum of _.µc and µhaz.
The section properties are then recalculated based on the reduced thicknesses.
This procedure is then repeated for each of the force components specified in the previous chapter.
Section properties
Deduction of holes, art. 6.2.2.2 is not taken into account.
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Shear lag effects, art. 6.2.2.3 are not taken into account.
Tension
The Tension check is verified using art. 6.2.3.
The value of Ag is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N+(µ0,HAZ)
The value of Anet is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N+(µu,HAZ)
Since deduction of holes is not taken into account Aeff will be equal to Anet.
Compression
The Compression check is verified using art. 6.2.4.
Deduction of holes is not taken into account.
The value of Aeff is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N-
Bending moment
The Bending check is verified using art. 6.2.5.
Deduction of holes is not taken into account.
The section moduli Weff; Wel,haz; Weff,haz are taken as Wel calculated from the reduced shape for M+ / M-
The section modulus Wpl,haz is taken as Wpl calculated from the reduced shape for M+ / M-
Note:
The assumed thickness specified in art. 6.2.5.2 (2) e) is not supported.
Shear
The Shear check is verified using art. 6.2.6 & 6.5.5.
Deduction of holes is not taken into account.
Slender and non-slender sections
The formulas to be used in the shear check are dependent on the slenderness of the cross-section parts.
For each part i the slenderness | is calculated as follows:
25
i
beg end
i
w
w
i
t
x x
t
h
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
With: xend End position of plate i .
xbeg Begin position of plate i.
t Thickness of plate i.
For each part i the slenderness | is then compared to the limit 39c
With
0
250
f
= c and f0 in N/mm²
c | 39 s
i
=> Non-slender plate
c | 39 >
i
=> Slender plate
I) All parts are classified as non-slender c | 39 s
i
The Shear check shall be verified using art. 6.2.6.
II) One or more parts are classified as slender c | 39 >
i
The Shear check shall be verified using art. 6.5.5.
For each part i the shear resistance VRd,i is calculated.
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Non-slender part: Formula (6.88) is used with properties calculated from the reduced shape for N+(µu,HAZ)
For Vy: Anet,y,i =
i i HAZ u i beg end
t x x o µ
2
,
cos ) ( · · · ÷
For Vz: Anet,z,i =
i i HAZ u i beg end
t x x o µ
2
,
sin ) ( · · · ÷
With: i The number (ID) of the plate
xend End position of plate i
xbeg Begin position of plate i
t Thickness of plate i
µu,HAZ Haz reduction factor of plate i
o Angle of plate i to the Principal y-y axis
Slender part: Formula (6.88) is used with properties calculated from the reduced shape for N+(µu,HAZ) in
the same way as for a non-slender part.
=> VRd,i,yield
Formula (6.89) is used with a the member length or the distance between stiffeners (for I or
U-sections)
=> VRd,i,buckling
=> For this slender part, the eventual VRd,i is taken as the minimum of VRd,i,yield and
VRd,i,buckling
For each part VRd,i is then determined.
=> The VRd of the cross-section is then taken as the sum of the resistances VRd,i of all parts.
¿
=
i
Rd Rd
i
V V
Note:
For a solid bar, round tube and hollow tube, all parts are taken as non-slender by default and formula (6.31) is
applied.
27
Calculation of Shear Area
The calculation of the shear area is dependent on the cross-section type.
The calculation is done using the reduced shape for N+(µ0,HAZ)
a) Solid bar and round tube
The shear area is calculated using art. 6.2.6 and formula (6.31):
e v v
A A · =q
With: qv 0,8 for solid section
0,6 for circular section (hollow and solid)
Ae Taken as area A calculated using the reduced shape for N+(µ0,HAZ)
b) All other Supported sections
For all other sections, the shear area is calculated using art. 6.2.6 and formula (6.30).
The following adaptation is used to make this formula usable for any initial cross-section shape:
¿
=
· · · ÷ =
n
i
HAZ beg end vy
t x x A
1
2
, 0
cos ) ( o µ
¿
=
· · · ÷ =
n
i
HAZ beg end vz
t x x A
1
2
, 0
sin ) ( o µ
With: i The number (ID) of the plate
xend End position of plate i
xbeg Begin position of plate i
t Thickness of plate i
µ0,HAZ HAZ reduction factor of plate i
o Angle of plate i to the Principal y-y axis
Should a cross-section be defined in such a way that the shear area Av (Avy or Avz) is zero, then Av is taken as A
calculated using the reduced shape for N+(µ0,HAZ).
Note:
For sections without initial shape or numerical sections, none of the above mentioned methods can be applied. In
this case, formula (6.29) is used with Av taken as Ay or Az of the gross-section properties.
Torsion with warping
In case warping is taken into account, the combined section check is replaced by an elastic stress check including
warping stresses.
28
Ed w Ed t Ed Vz Ed Vy Ed tot
Ed w Ed Mz Ed My Ed N Ed tot
M
Ed tot Ed tot
M
Ed tot
M
Ed tot
f
C
f
f
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
1
0 2
,
2
,
1
0
,
1
0
,
3
3
t t t t t
o o o o o
¸
t o
¸
t
¸
o
+ + + =
+ + + =
s +
s
s
With f0 0,2% proof strength
otot,Ed
Total direct stress
ttot,Ed
Total shear stress
¸M1
Partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections
C Constant (by default 1,2)
oN,Ed
Direct stress due to the axial force on the relevant effective cross-section
oMy,Ed
Direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis on the relevant
effective cross-section
oMz,Ed
Direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis on the relevant
effective cross-section
ow,Ed
Direct stress due to warping on the gross cross-section
tVy,Ed
Shear stress due to shear force in y direction on the gross cross-section
tVz,Ed
Shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross cross-section
tt,Ed
Shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion on the gross cross-section
tw,Ed
Shear stress due to warping on the gross cross-section
The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections, and for E (= “cold formed sections”)
sections. The definition of I sections, U sections and E sections are described in “Profile conditions for code
check”.
The other standard sections (RHS, CHS, Angle section, T section and rectangular sections) are considered as
warping free. See also Ref.[3], Bild 7.4.40.
Calculation of the direct stress due to warping
The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[4])
m
M w
Ed , w
C
w M
= o
With Mw Bimoment
wM Unit warping
Cm Warping constant
29
I sections
For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref. [3], Tafel 7.87, 7.88). This value is added to the profile
library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure:
The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref.[5] pp.135):
m M
h b
4
1
w · · =
With b Section width
hm Section height (see figure)
U sections
For U sections, the value of wM is given in the tables as wM1 and wM2 (Ref. [3], Tafel 7.89). These values are added
to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure:
30
The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
E sections
The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general approach given in Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3
and Ref.[6] Part 27.
The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure.
31
Calculation of the shear stress due to warping
The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[4])
}
= t
s
0
M
m
xs
Ed , w
tds w
t C
M
With Mxs Warping torque (see "Standard diagrams")
wM Unit warping
Cm Warping constant
t Element thickness
I sections
The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure)
For I sections, the integral can be calculated as follows:
A
4
w t b
tds w
M
2 / b
0
M
=
· ·
=
}
32
U sections, E sections
Starting from the wM diagram, the following integral is calculated for the critical points:
}
s
0
M
tds w
The shear stress due to warping is calculated in these critical points (see circles in figures)
33
Standard diagrams
The following 6 standard situations for St.Venant torsion, warping torque and bimoment are given in the literature
(Ref.[3], Ref.[4]).
The value ì is defined as follows:
m
t
C E
I G
·
·
= ì
With: Mx Total torque
= Mxp + Mxs
Mxp Torque due to St. Venant
Mxs Warping torque
Mw Bimoment
IT Torsional constant
CM Warping constant
E Modulus of elasticity
G Shear modulus
34
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt
Mx
L
a M
M
L
b M
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=
Mxp for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
÷ · = ) x cosh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh(
L
b
M M
t xp
Mxp for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
+ ÷ · = ) ' x cosh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh(
L
a
M M
t xp
Mxs for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
· = ) x cosh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh(
M M
t xs
Mxs for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
÷ · = ) ' x cosh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh(
M M
t xs
Mw for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
·
ì
= ) x sinh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh( M
M
t
w
Mw for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
·
ì
= ) ' x sinh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh( M
M
t
w
35
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt
Mx
L
a M
M
L
b M
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=
Mxp for a side
|
.
|

\
|
÷
ì
÷ + ì
· = 3 D
L
1 k 2 k b
M M
t xp
Mxp for b side
|
.
|

\
|
÷
ì
÷ ì ÷
· = 4 D
L
1 k a 2 k
M M
t xp
Mxs for a side
3 D M M
t xs
· =
Mxs for b side
4 D M M
t xs
· =
Mw for a side
1 D
M
M
t
w
·
ì
=
Mw for b side
2 D
M
M
t
w
·
ì
=
36
)
2
tanh(
2
)
2
tanh(
2 ) sinh(
) sinh( ) sinh(
2
)
2
tanh( 2
1
) sinh(
) sinh( ) sinh(
2
)
2
tanh(
2
)
2
tanh(
2 ) sinh(
) sinh( ) sinh(
2
)
2
tanh( 2
1
) sinh(
) sinh( ) sinh(
1
) sinh(
) ' cosh( ) 1 ) (sinh( ) cosh( 2
4
) sinh(
) ' cosh( 1 ) cosh( ) 2 ) (sinh(
3
) sinh(
) ' sinh( ) 1 ) (sinh( ) sinh( 2
2
) sinh(
) ' sinh( 1 ) sinh( ) 2 ) (sinh(
1
L
L
L L
L
b a b a
L
L
b a
k
L
L
L L
L
b a b a
L
L
b a
k
L
x k a x k
D
L
x k x k b
D
L
x k a x k
D
L
x k x k b
D
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì ì
ì
ì
ì ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì ì
ì
ì
ì ì
ì
ì ì ì
ì
ì ì ì
ì
ì ì ì
ì
ì ì ì
÷
· ·
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
+ =
÷
· ·
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
+
+ =
+ ÷ ·
=
· ÷ +
=
+ + ·
=
· + +
=
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading mt
Mx
2
L m
M
2
L m
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=
Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
+ ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) x
2
L
(
m
M
t
xp
Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh( m
M
t
xs
37
Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì + ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x sinh( ) x sinh(
1
m
M
2
t
w
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading mt
Mx
2
L m
M
2
L m
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=
Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ + ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) k 1 ( ) x
2
L
(
m
M
t
xp
Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ ÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) k 1 (
m
M
t
xs
Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì + ì
÷ ÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x sinh( ) x sinh(
) k 1 ( 1
m
M
2
t
w
)
2
L
tanh(
2
L
1 k
ì
ì
÷ =
38
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt
Mx
t xa
M M =
Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
÷ · =
) L cosh(
) ' x cosh(
1 M M
t xp
Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
· =
) L cosh(
) ' x cosh(
M M
t xs
Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) ' x sinh( M
M
t
w
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt
Mx
39
L m M
t xa
· =
Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
+ ì ì ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x sinh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x cosh( L ' x
m
M
t
xp
Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
÷ ì ì ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x sinh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x cosh( L
m
M
t
xs
Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
÷ ì ì + ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x cosh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x sinh( L 1
²
m
M
t
w
Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line
Since the SCIA•ESA PT solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping, the determination of the
warping torque and the related bimoment, is based on some standard situations.
The following end conditions are considered:
- warping free
- warping fixed
This results in the following 3 beam situations:
- situation 1 : warping free / warping free
- situation 2 : warping free / warping fixed
- situation 3 : warping fixed / warping fixed
40
Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3
The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:
- n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mtn
- one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt
- one torsion line with constant torque Mt0
The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loadings Mtn and the
distributed loading mt. The value Mt0 is added to the Mxp value.
Decomposition for situation 2
The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:
- one torsion line generated by a local torsional loading Mtn
- one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt
The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loading Mt and the
distributed loading mt.
Combined shear and torsion
The Combined shear force and torsional moment check is verified using art. 6.2.7.3.
For I and H sections formula (6.35) is applied.
For U-sections formula (6.36) is applied without accounting for warping. In case warping is activated, the combined
section check is replaced by an elastic stress check including warping stresses which takes into account all shear
stress effects. For more information please refer to “Torsion with warping”.
For all other supported sections formula (6.37) is applied.
Note:
In case of extreme torsion (unity check for torsion > 1,00) the shear resistance will be reduced to zero which will
lead to extreme unity check values.
41
Bending, shear and axial force
The combined section check is verified according to art. 6.2.8, 6.2.9 & 6.2.10
For I sections formulas (6.40) and (6.41) are applied.
For hollow and solid sections formula (6.43) is applied.
For all other supported sections an elastic stress check is performed according to art. 6.2.1 and formula (6.15).
The stresses are based on the effective cross-sectional properties and calculated in the fibres of the gross cross-
section.
Note:
The interaction for mono-symmetrical sections specified in art. 6.2.9.1 (2) is not supported. For mono-symmetrical
sections the elastic stress check of art. 6.2.1 is applied.
Localised welds
In case transverse welds are inputted, the extend of the HAZ is calculated as specified in paragraph “Calculation of
Reduction factor µHAZ for HAZ effects” and compared to the least width of the cross-section.
The reduction factor e0 is then calculated according to art. 6.2.9.3
When the width of a member cannot be determined (Numerical section, tube …) formula (6.44) is applied.
Note:
Since the extend of the HAZ is defined along the member axis, it is important to specify enough sections on
average member in the Solver Setup when transverse welds are used.
Note:
Formula (6.44) is limited to a maximum of 1,00 in the same way as formula (6.64).
Shear reduction
Where VEd exceeds 50% of VRd the design resistances for bending and axial force are reduced using a reduced
yield strength as specified in art. 6.2.8 & 6.2.10.
For Vy the reduction factor µy is calculated
For Vz the reduction factor µz is calculated
The bending resistance My,Rd is reduced using µz
The bending resistance Mz,Rd is reduced using µy
The axial force resistance NRd is reduced by using the maximum of µy and µz
Stress check for numerical sections
For numerical sections an elastic stress check is performed according to art. 6.2.1 and formula (6.15). The
stresses are calculated in the following way:
42
Vz Vy tot
Mz My N tot
M
tot tot
M
tot
M
tot
f
C
f
f
t t t
o o o o
¸
t o
¸
t
¸
o
+ =
+ + =
s +
s
s
1
0 2 2
1
0
1
0
3
3
With: f0 0,2% proof strength
otot
Total direct stress
ttot
Total shear stress
¸M1
Partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections
C Constant (by default 1,2)
oN
Direct stress due to the axial force
oMy
Direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis
oMz
Direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis
tVy
Shear stress due to shear force in y direction
tVz
Shear stress due to shear force in z direction
Ax Sectional area
Ay Shear area in y direction
Az Shear area in z direction
Wy Elastic section modulus around y axis
Wz Elastic section modulus around z axis
Flexural buckling
The flexural buckling check is verified using art. 6.3.1.1.
The value of Aeff is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N- however HAZ effects are not
accounted for (i.e. µHAZ is taken as 1,00).
43
The value of AHAZ is illustrated on the following figure:
For the calculation of the buckling ratio several methods are available:
o General formula (standard method)
o Crossing Diagonals
o From Stability Analysis
o Manual input
These methods are detailed in the following paragraphs.
Calculation of Buckling ratio – General Formula
For the calculation of the buckling ratios, some approximate formulas are used. These formulas are treated in
reference [7], [8] and [9].
The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[7],pp.21):
For a non-sway structure:
24) + 11 + 5 + 24)(2 + 5 + 11 + (2
12)2 + 4 + 4 + 24)( + 5 + 5 + (
= l/L
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ
For a sway structure:
4 +
x
x = l/L
1
2
µ
t
With: L System length
E Modulus of Young
I Moment of inertia
Ci Stiffness in node i
Mi Moment in node i
¢i
Rotation in node i
44
µ µ µ µ t
µ t µ µ
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
2 1
8 + ) + (
+ 4
= x
EI
L
C
=
i
i
µ
|
i
i
i
M
=
C
The values for Mi and |i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the deformations, calculated by
load cases which generate deformation forms, having an affinity with the buckling shape. (See also Ref.[11],
pp.113 and Ref.[12],pp.112).
The following load cases are considered:
load case 1: on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used, on the columns the
global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy =10000 N/m are used.
load case 2: on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=-1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used, on the columns the
global distributed loads Qx = -10000 N/m and Qy= -10000 N/m are used.
The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or semi-rigid beam
connections. For other cases, the user has to evaluate the presented bucking ratios. In such cases a more refined
approach (from stability analysis) can be applied.
Calculation of Buckling ratio – Crossing Diagonals
For crossing diagonal elements, the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane, is calculated according to
Ref.[10], DIN18800 Teil 2, table 15. This means that the buckling length sK is dependent on the load distribution in
the element, and it is not a purely geometrical data anymore.
In the following paragraphs, the buckling length sK is defined,
Wit
h:
s
K
Buckling length
L Member length
L
1
Length of supporting diagonal
I Moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the member
I
1
Moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the supporting diagonal
N Compression force in member
N
1
Compression force in supporting diagonal
Z Tension force in supporting diagonal
E Modulus of Young
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal
45
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2
l 5 . 0 s
l I
l 1 I
1
l N 4
l Z 3
1
l s
K
3
1
3
1
K
· >
·
·
+
· ·
· ·
÷
=
See Ref.[10], Tab. 15, case 1.
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2
l 5 . 0 s
l N
l Z
75 . 0 1 l s
K
1
K
· >
·
·
÷ =
See Ref.[10], Tab. 15, case 4.
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal
46
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2
) 1
l Z
l N
(
4
l Z 3
) I E (
1
l Z
l N
l 5 . 0 s
1
2
2
1
d 1
1
K
÷
·
·
t
· ·
> ·
s
·
·
· =
See Ref.[10], Tab. 15, case 5.
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2
l 5 . 0 s
l I
l 1 I
1
l N
l N
1
l s
K
3
1
3
1
1
K
· >
·
·
+
·
·
+
=
See Ref.[10], Tab. 15, case 2.
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned compression diagonal
47
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2
1
1
2
K
l N
l N
12
1 l s
·
·
·
t
+ =
See Ref.[10], Tab. 15, case 3 (2).
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2
)
N
l N
12
(
l
l N
) I E (
l 5 . 0 s
1
1
2
1
2
3
d
K
·
+
t
· t
·
> ·
· =
See Ref.[10], Tab. 15, case 3 (3).
48
Calculation of Buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis
When member buckling data from stability are defined, the critical buckling load Ncr for a prismatic member is
calculated as follows:
Ed cr
N N · = ì
Using Euler’s formula, the buckling ratio k can then be determined:
With: ì Critical load factor for the selected stability combination
NEd Design loading in the member
E Modulus of Young
I Moment of inertia
s Member length
Note:
In case of a non-prismatic member, the moment of inertia is taken in the middle of the element.
Torsional (-Flexural) buckling
The Torsional and Torsional-Flexural buckling check is verified using art. 6.3.1.1.
If the section contains only Plate Types F, SO, UO it is regarded as ‘Composed entirely of radiating outstands’.
In this case Aeff is taken as A calculated from the reduced shape for N+(µ0,HAZ).
In all other cases, the section is regarded as ‘General’.
In this case Aeff is taken as A calculated from the reduced shape for N-
Note:
The Torsional (-Flexural) buckling check is ignored for sections complying with the rules given in art. 6.3.1.4 (1).
The value of the elastic critical load Ncr is taken as the smallest of Ncr,T (Torsional buckling) and Ncr,TF (Torsional-
Flexural buckling).
49
Calculation of N
cr,T
The elastic critical load Ncr,T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.[13].
With: E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
It Torsion constant
Iw Warping constant
lT Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode
y0 and z0 Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid
iy radius of gyration about the strong axis
iz radius of gyration about the weak axis
50
Calculation of N
cr,TF
The elastic critical load Ncr,TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref.[13].
Ncr,TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N:
0
With: Ncr,y Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis
Ncr,z Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the z-z axis
Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling
Lateral Torsional buckling
The Lateral Torsional buckling check is verified using art. 6.3.2.1.
For the calculation of the elastic critical moment Mcr the following methods are available:
o General formula (standard method)
o LTBII Eigenvalue solution
o Manual input
Note:
The Lateral Torsional buckling check is ignored for circular hollow sections according to art. 6.3.3 (1).
Calculation of M
cr
– General Formula
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric) and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections the elastic critical
moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |14|. For the calculation of the moment
factors C1, C2 and C3 reference is made to the paragraph "Calculation of Moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by:
z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=
With: E Modulus of elasticity
G Shear modulus
L Length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw Warping constant
It Torsional constant
Iz Moment of inertia about the minor axis
See also Ref. |15|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7 for channel sections.
Composed rail sections are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Diaphragms
51
When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used, the torsional constant It is adapted for symmetric/asymmetric I
sections, channel sections, Z sections, cold formed U, C , Z sections.
See Ref.[16], Chapter 10.1.5., Ref.|17|,3.5 and Ref.|18|,3.3.4.
The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms:
12
³ s
I
) t h (
I E 3
C
200 b 125 if
100
b
C 25 . 1 C
125 b if
100
b
C C
s
EI
k C
C
1
C
1
C
1
vorhC
1
G
l
vorhC I I
s
s
k , P
a
a
100 k , A
a
2
a
100 k , A
eff
k , M
k , P k , A k , M
2
2
t id , t
=
÷
· ·
~
< <
(
¸
(

¸

· =
s
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
+ + =
t
+ =
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0
With: l LTB length
G Shear modulus
vorh
Cu
Actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm
CuM,k
Rotational stiffness of the diaphragm
CuA,k
Rotational stiffness of the connection between the diaphragm and the beam
CuP,k
Rotational stiffness due to the distortion of the beam
k Numerical coefficient
= 2 for single or two spans of the diaphragm
= 4 for 3 or more spans of the diaphragm
EIeff Bending stiffness per unit width of the diaphragm
s Spacing of the beam
ba Width of the beam flange (in mm)
C100 Rotation coefficient - see table
h Height of the beam
t Thickness of the beam flange
s Thickness of the beam web
52
53
Calculation of Moment factors for LTB
For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling, standard tables are used which are
defined in Ref.[19] Art.12.25.3 table 9.1.,10 and 11.
The current moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. These standard moment
distributions are:
o Moment line generated by a distributed q load
o Moment line generated by a concentrated F load
o Moment line which has a maximum at the start or at the end of the beam
The standard moment distribution which is closest to the current moment distribution is taken for the calculation of the
factors C1 and C2. These values are based on Ref.[14].
The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.1. and F.1.2. from Ref.[14] - Annex F.
Moment distribution generated by q load
if M2 < 0
C1 = A
*
(1.45 B
*
+ 1) 1.13 + B
*
(-0.71 A
*
+ 1) E
*
C2 = 0.45 A* [1 + C* e
D*
(½ | + ½)]
if M2 > 0
C1 = 1.13 A
*
+ B
*
E
*
C2 = 0.45A
*
With:
l
+q | M2 | 8
l
q
= A
2
2
*
l
+q | M2 | 8
| M2 | 8
= B
2
*
)
ql
| M2 |
-72( = D
2
2
*
ql
| M2 | 94
= C
2
*
2.70 < E*
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = E*
2
| |
Moment distribution generated by F load
54
F
M2 M1 = Beta M2
l
M2 < 0
C1 = A
**
(2.75 B
**
+ 1) 1.35 + B
**
(-1.62 A
**
+ 1) E
**
C2 = 0.55 A
**
[1 + C
**
e
D**
(½ | + ½)]
M2 > 0
C1 = 1.35 A
**
+ B
**
E
**
C2 = 0.55 A
**
With:
+Fl | M2 | 4
Fl
= A
* *

+Fl | M2 | 4
| M2 | 4
= * * B
Fl
| M2 | 38
= C
* *
)
Fl
| M2 |
-32( = D
2 * *
The values for E
**
can be taken as E
*
from the previous paragraph.
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam
M2 M1 = Beta M2
l
C2 = 0.0
2.70 < 1 C and
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = 1 C
2
| |
LTBII Eigenvalue solution
For calculation of Mcr using LTBII reference is made to chapter “LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order
Analysis”.
55
Combined bending and axial compression
The Combined bending and axial compression check is verified using art. 6.3.3.1 & 6.3.3.2.
Flexural buckling
For I sections formulas (6.59) and (6.60) are applied.
For solid sections formula (6.60) is applied for bending about either axis.
For hollow sections formula (6.62) is applied.
For all other supported sections formula (6.59) is applied for bending about either axis.
Lateral Torsional buckling
For all sections except circular hollow sections formula (6.63) is applied.
For circular hollow sections the check is ignored according to art. 6.3.3(1).
In case a cross-section is subject to torsional (-flexural) buckling, the reduction factor _z is taken as the minimum
value of _z for flexural buckling and _TF for torsional (-flexural) buckling.
Localised welds and factors for design section
The HAZ-softening factors are calculated according to art. 6.3.3.3. For sections without localized welds the
reduction factors are calculated according to art. 6.3.3.5.
Members containing localized welds
In case transverse welds are inputted, the extend of the HAZ is calculated as specified in chapter “Calculation of
Reduction factor µHAZ for HAZ effects” and compared to the least width of the cross-section.
The reduction factors e0, ex, exLT are then calculated according to art. 6.3.3.3
When the width of a member cannot be determined (Numerical section, tube …) formula (6.64) is applied.
The calculation of the distance xs is discussed further in this chapter.
Note:
Since the extend of the HAZ is defined along the member axis, it is important to specify enough sections on
average member in the Solver Setup when transverse welds are used.
Note:
In the calculation of exLT the buckling length lc and distance xs are taken for buckling around the z-z axis.
Unequal end moments and/or transverse loads
If the section under consideration is not located in a HAZ zone, the reduction factors ex and exLT are then
calculated according to art. 6.3.3.5.
56
In this case e0 is taken equal to 1,00.
For the calculation of the distance xs reference is made to the following paragraph.
Note:
In the calculation of exLT the buckling length lc and distance xs are taken for buckling around the z-z axis.
Calculation of xs
The distance xs is defined as the distance from the studied section to a simple support or point of contra flexure of
the deflection curve for elastic buckling of axial force only.
By default xs is taken as half of the buckling length for each section. This leads to a denominator of 1,00 in the
formulas of the reduction factors following Ref.[20] and [21].
Depending on how the buckling shape is defined, a more refined approach can be used for the calculation of xs.
Known buckling shape
The buckling shape is assumed to be known in case the buckling ratio is calculated according to the General
Formula specified in chapter “Calculation of Buckling ratio – General Formula”. The basic assumption is that the
deformations for the buckling load case have an affinity with the buckling shape.
Since the buckling shape (deformed structure) is known, the distance from each section to a simple support or
point of contra flexure can be calculated. As such xs will be different in each section. A simple support or point of
contra flexure are in this case taken as the positions where the bending moment diagram for the buckling load
case reaches zero.
Note:
Since for a known buckling shape xs can be different in each section, accurate results can be obtained by
increasing the numbers of sections on average member in the Solver Setup.
Unknown buckling shape
In case the buckling ratio is not calculated according to the General Formula specified in chapter “Calculation of
Buckling ratio – General Formula” the buckling shape is taken as unknown. This is thus the case for manual input
or if the buckling ratio is calculated from stability.
57
When the buckling shape is unknown, xs can be calculated according to formula (6.71):
but xs ≥ 0
With: lc Buckling length
MEd,1 and MEd,2 Design values of the end moments at the system length of the member
NEd Design value of the axial compression force
MRd Bending moment capacity
NRd Axial compression force capacity
_ Reduction factor for flexural buckling
Since the formula returns only one value for xs, this value will be used in each section of the member.
The application of the formula is however limited:
o The formula is only valid in case the member has a linear moment diagram.
o Since the left side of the equation concerns a cosine, the right side has to return a value between -1,00
and +1,00
If one of the two above stated limitations occur, the formula is not applied and instead xs is taken as half of the buckling
length for each section.
Note:
The above specified formula contains the factor t in the denominator of the right side of the equation. This factor
was erroneously omitted in formula (6.71) of EN 1999-1-1:2007.
Shear buckling
The shear buckling check is verified using art. 6.7.4 & 6.7.6.
Distinction is made between two separate cases:
o No stiffeners are inputted on the member or stiffeners are inputted only at the member ends.
o Any other input of stiffeners (at intermediate positions, at the ends and intermediate positions …).
The first case is verified according to art. 6.7.4.1. The second case is verified according to art. 6.7.4.2.
Note:
For shear buckling only transverse stiffeners are supported. Longitudinal stiffeners are not supported.
In all cases rigid end posts are assumed.
Plate girders with stiffeners at supports
No stiffeners are inputted on the member or stiffeners are inputted only at the member ends. The verification is
done according to art. 6.7.4.1.
The check is executed when the following condition is met:
58
0
37 , 2
f
E
t
h
w
w
q
>
With: hw Web height
tw Web thickness
q Factor for shear buckling resistance in the plastic range
E Modulus of Young
f0 0,2% proof strength
The design shear resistance VRd for shear buckling consists of one part: the contribution of the web Vw,Rd.
The slenderness ìw is calculated as follows:
E
f
t
h
w
w
w
0
35 , 0 = ì
Using the slenderness ìw the factor for shear buckling µv is obtained from the following table:
In this table, the value of q is taken as follows:
With: fuw Ultimate strength of the web material
f0w Yield strength of the web material
The contribution of the web Vw,Rd can then be calculated as follows:
59
For interaction see paragraph “Interaction”.
60
Plate girders with intermediate web stiffeners
Any other input of stiffeners (at intermediate positions, at the ends and intermediate positions …). The verification
is done according to art. 6.7.4.2.
The check is executed when the following condition is met:
With: hw Web height
tw Web thickness
q Factor for shear buckling resistance in the plastic range
kt
Shear buckling coefficient for the web panel
E Modulus of Young
f0 0,2% proof strength
The design shear resistance VRd for shear buckling consists of two parts: the contribution of the web Vw,Rd and the
contribution of the flanges Vf,Rd.
Contribution of the web
Using the distance a between the stiffeners and the height of the web hw the shear buckling coefficient kt can be
calculated:
The value kt can now be used to calculate the slenderness ìw.
61
Using the slenderness ìw the factor for shear buckling µv is obtained from the following table:
In this table, the value of q is taken as follows:
With: fuw Ultimate strength of the web material
f0w Yield strength of the web material
The contribution of the web Vw,Rd can then be calculated as follows:
Contribution of the flanges
First the design moment resistance of the cross-section considering only the flanges Mf,Rd is calculated.
When then Vf,Rd = 0
When then Vf,Rd is calculated as follows:
With: bf and tf the width and thickness of the flange leading to the lowest resistance.
62
On each side of the web.
With: f0f Yield strength of the flange material
f0w Yield strength of the web material
If an axial force NEd is present, the value of Mf,Rd is be reduced by the following factor:
With: Af1 and Af2 the areas of the top and bottom flanges.
The design shear resistance VRd is then calculated as follows:
For interaction see paragraph “Interaction”.
63
Interaction
If required, for both above cases the interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial force is checked
according to art. 6.7.6.1.
If the following two expressions are checked:
With:
Mf,Rd design moment resistance of the cross-section considering only
the flanges
Mpl,Rd Plastic design bending moment resistance
If an axial force NEd is also applied, then Mpl,Rd is replaced by the reduced plastic moment resistance MN,Rd given
by:
With: Af1 and Af2 the areas of the top and bottom flanges.
64
LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order
Analysis
Introduction to LTBII
For a detailed Lateral Torsional Buckling analysis, a link was made to the Friedrich + Lochner LTBII application
Ref.[22].
The Frilo LTBII solver can be used in 2 separate ways:
o Calculation of Mcr through eigenvalue solution
o 2
nd
Order calculation including torsional and warping effects
For both methods, the member under consideration is sent to the Frilo LTBII solver and the respective results are
sent back to SCIA•ESA PT.
A detailed overview of both methods is given in the following paragraphs.
Eigenvalue solution M
cr
The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam, with:
o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping
o End and begin forces
o Loadings
o Intermediate restraints (diaphragms, LTB restraints)
The end conditions for warping and torsion are defined as follows:
Cw_i Warping condition at end i (beginning of the member)
Cw_j Warping condition at end j (end of the member)
Ct_i Torsion condition at end i (beginning of the member)
Ct_j Torsion condition at end j (end of the member)
To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams, see paragraph “Linked Beams”.
65
For this system, the elastic critical moment Mcr for lateral torsional buckling can be analyzed as the solution of an
eigenvalue problem:
0 K K
g e
= · q +
Wit
h:
q Critical load factor
Ke Elastic linear stiffness matrix
Kg Geometrical stiffness matrix
For members with arbitrary sections, the critical moment can be obtained in each section, with: (See
Ref.[24],pp.176)
( ) ) x ( M x M
M max M
yy cr
yy cr
· q =
q =
Wit
h:
q Critical load factor
Myy Bending moment around the strong axis
Myy(x) Bending moment around the strong axis at position x
Mcr(x) Critical moment at position x
The calculated Mcr is then used in the Lateral Torsional Buckling check of SCIA•ESA PT.
For more background information, reference is made to Ref.[23].
66
2
nd
Order analysis
The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam, with:
o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping
o End and begin forces
o Loadings
o Intermediate restraints (diaphragms, LTB restraints)
o Imperfections
To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams, see paragraph “Linked Beams”.
For this system, the internal forces are calculated using a 2
nd
Order 7 degrees of freedom calculation.
The calculated torsional and warping moments (St Venant torque Mxp, Warping torque Mxs and Bimoment Mw)
are then used in the Stress check of SCIA•ESA PT (See chapter “Torsion with warping”).
Specifically for this stress check, the following internal forces are used:
o Normal force from SCIA•ESA PT
o Maximal shear forces from SCIA•ESA PT / Frilo LTBII
o Maximal bending moments from SCIA•ESA PT / Frilo LTBII
Since Lateral Torsional Buckling has been taken into account in this 2
nd
Order stress check, it is no more required
to execute a Lateral Torsional Buckling Check.
For more background information, reference is made to Ref.[23].
67
Supported Sections
The following table shows which cross-section types are supported for which type of analysis:
FRILO LTBII CSS SCIA•ESA PT CSS Eigenvalue
analysis
2
nd
Order
analysis
Double T I section from library x x
Thin walled geometric I x x
Sheet welded Iw x x
Double T unequal IPY from library x x
Thin walled geometric
asymmetric I
x x
Haunched sections x x
Welded I+Tl x x
Sheet welded Iwn x x
HAT Section IFBA, IFBB x x
U cross section U section from library x x
Thin walled geometric U x x
Thin walled Cold formed from library x x
Cold formed from graphical input x x
Double T with top
flange angle
Welded I+2L x
Sheet welded Iw+2L x
Rectangle Full rectangular from library x
Full rectangular from thin walled
geometric
x
Static values double
symmetric
all other double symmetric CSS x
Static values single
symmetric
all other single symmetric CSS x
The following picture illustrates the relation between the local coordinate system of SCIA•ESA PT and Frilo LTBII.
Special attention is required for U sections due to the inversion of the y and z-axis.
68
For more information, reference is made to Ref.[23]
Loadings
The following load impulses are supported:
o Point force in node (if the node is part of the exported beam)
o Point force on beam
o Line force in beam
o Moment in node (if the node is part of the exported beam)
o Moment on beam
o Line moment in beam (only for Mx in LCS)
The supported load impulses and their eccentricities are transformed into the local LCS of the exported member.
The dead load is replaced by an equivalent line force on the beam.
Load eccentricities are replaced by torsional moments.
The forces in local x-direction are ignored, except for the torsional moments.
Note:
In Frilo LTBII a distinction is made between the centroid and the shear center of a cross-section. Load impulses
which do not pass through the shear center will cause additional torsional moments.
Imperfections
In the 2
nd
Order LTB analysis the bow imperfections v0 (in local y direction) and w0 (in local z direction) can be
taken into account.
69
v0
y, v0
z
y
Initial bow imperfection v0 according to code
For EC-EN the imperfections can be calculated according to the code. The code indicates that for a 2
nd
Order
calculation which takes into account LTB, only the imperfection v0 needs to be considered.
The sign of the imperfection according to code depends on the sign of Mz in SCIA•ESA PT.
The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.[1] art. 5.3.4(3)
0 0
e k v · =
Wit
h
k Factor by default taken as 0,5
e0 Bow imperfection of the weak axis
Manual input of Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0
In case the user specifies manual input, both the imperfections v0 and w0 can be inputted.
70
LTB Restraints
LTB restraints are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.[23] p22), with horizontal elastic restraint Cy:
Cy = 1e15 kN/m
The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the LTB restraint (top/bottom).
The use of an elastic restraint allows the positioning of the restraint since this is not possible for a fixed restraint.
(Ref.[23] p23)
Specifically for U-sections, an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-sections in the
Frilo LTBII solver (see paragraph “Supported Sections”).
71
Diaphragms
Diaphragms are transformed into 'Elastic Foundations' of type ‘elastic restraint’ (Ref.[23] p25). Both a horizontal
restraint Cy and a rotational restraint Cu are used.
The elastic restraint Cy [kN/m^2] is calculated as follows (Ref.[23] p52 and Ref.|26| p40):
2
|
.
|

\
|
· =
L
S Cy
t
Wit
h:
S Shear stiffness of the diaphragm
L Diaphragm length along the member
The above formula for Cy is valid in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm is set as ‘br’. For a bolt pitch of ‘2br’ the
shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S (Ref.|26| p22).
The shear stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows (Ref.|28|,3.5 and Ref.|29|,3.3.4.):
L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4
With: a Frame distance
Ls Length of the diaphragm
K1 Factor K1 of the diaphragm
K2 Factor K2 of the diaphragm
The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the diaphragm.
Specifically for U-sections, an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-sections in the
Frilo LTBII solver (see paragraph “Supported Sections”).
72
The rotational restraint Cu [kNm/m] is taken as vorhCu (see paragraph “Calculation of Mcr – General Formula”).
Linked Beams
Linked beams are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.[23] p22), with elastic restraint.
The direction of the restraint is dependent on the direction of the linked beam:
If the linked beam has an angle less than 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration, the restraint is
set as Cy. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cz.
The position of the restraint z(Cy) or y(Cz) is depending on the application point of the linked beam (top/bottom).
The position is only taken into account in case of a flexible restraint (Ref.[23] p23).
The end forces of the linked beam are transformed to point loads on the considered 1D member,
o in z -direction for linked beams considered as y-restraint
o in y- direction for linked beams considered as z-restraint
Specifically for U-sections, if the linked beam has an angle less than 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under
consideration, the restraint is set as Cz. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cy. This is due to the rotation of U-
sections in the Frilo LTBII solver (see paragraph “Supported Sections”).
73
Limitations and Warnings
The FRILO LTBII solver is used with following limitations:
o Only straight members are supported
o LTBII analysis is done for the whole 1D member, not for a part of the member, not for more members
together
o When a LTB system length is inputted which differs from the member length, a warning will be given.
o Intermediate lateral restraints should be defined through LTB restraints, diaphragms and linked beams.
During the analysis, the Frilo LTBII solver may return a warning message. The most important causes of the
warning message are listed here.
Eigenvalue solution Mcr
- Lateral Torsional Buckling is not governing – relative slenderness < 0,4
Due to the low relative slenderness, no LTB check needs to be performed. In this case it is not required to use the
Frilo LTBII solver.
- Design Torsion! Simplified analysis of lateral torsional buckling is not possible.
Due to the torsion in the member it is advised to execute a 2
nd
order analysis instead of an eigenvalue calculation.
- Bending of U-section about y-axis!
The program calculates the minimum bifurcation load only.
2
nd
Order Analysis
- Load is greater then minimum bifurcation load (Error at elastic calculation – system is instable in II.Order )
The loading on the member is too big, a 2
nd
order calculation cannot be executed.
- You want to calculate the structural safety with Elastic-Plastic method. This analytical procedure cannot be used
for this cross-section. It is recommended to use the Elastic-Elastic method.
Plastic calculation is not possible, use imperfection according to code elastic instead of plastic.
For more information, reference is made to Ref.[22] and [23].
74
Profile conditions for code check
Introduction to profile characteristics
The standard profile sections have fixed sections properties and dimensions, which have to be present in the
profile library.
The section properties are described in chapter “Data for general section stability check".
The required dimension properties are described in chapter "Data depending on the profile shape”.
Data for general section stability check
The following properties have to be present in the profile library for the execution of the section and the stability check:
Description Property number
Iy moment of inertie yy 8
W
y
elastic section modulus yy 10
Sy statical moment of area yy 6
Iz moment of inertia zz 9
W
z
elastic section modulus zz 11
Sz statical moment of area zz 7
It* torsional constant 14
Wt
*
torsional resistance 13
A0 sectional area 1
Iyz centrifugal moment 12
iy radius of gyration yy 2
iz radius of gyration zz 3
M
py
plastic moment yy 30
M
pz
plastic moment zz 31
fa
b
fabrication code
0=rolled section (default value)
1=welded section
2=cold formed section
105
The fabrication code is not obligatory.
When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the calculation routine
in the profile library. When this is not the case, these properties have to be input by the user in the profile library.
The plastic moments are calculated with a yield strength of 240 N/mm².
75
Data depending on the profile shape
I section
Formcode 1
PSS Type .
I
.

Propert
y
Descriptio
n
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
74 W
140 wm1
61 R1
146 o
109 1
B
s
w
t
R
R1
a
H
76
RHS
Formcode 2
PSS Type .
M
.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
67 s
66 R
109 2
B
s
H
R
77
CHS

Formcode 3
PSS Type .R
O.

Property Description
64 D
65 s
109 3
D
w
78
Angle section
Formcode 4
PSS Type .
L
.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
61 R1
66 R
74 W1
75 W2
76 W3
109 4
B
R
R1
w1
w2
t
w3
w1
w2
79
Channel section

Formcode 5
PSS Type .
U
.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
68
41
61 R1
146 o
109 5
B
s
H
t
R
R1
a
80
T section

Formcode 6
PSS Type .
T
.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
61 R1
62 R2
146 o1
147 o2
109 6
B
s
t
R
a1
H
a2
R1
R2
81
Full rectangular section

Formcode 7
PSS Type .
B
.

Property Description
48 B
67 H
109 7
B
H
82
Full circular section

Formcode 11
PSS Type .R
U.

Property Description
64 D
109 11
D
83
Asymmetric I section

Formcode 1
0
1
PSS Type

Property Description
49 H
48
44
47 s
42 Bt
43 Bb
45 tt
46 tb
66 R
109 101
R
H
Bt
Bb
tt
tb
84
Z section

Formcode 1
0
2
PSS Type .
Z
.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
67 R
61 R1
109 102
B
s
t
H
R
R1
85
General cold formed section

Each section is considered as a composition of rectangular parts. Each part represents a plate unit which is
considered as element for defining the effective width. The start and end parts are considered as un-stiffened
elements, the intermediate parts are considered as stiffened parts.
This way of definition of the section assumes that the area is concentrated at its centre line. The rounding in the
corners is ignored.
Description Property number Valu
e
form code 109 110
Dy* 22
Dz* 23
CM* 26
buckling curve around yy axis 106 (1)
buckling curve around zz axis 107 (1)
buckling curve for LTB 108 (1)
(1) The values for the buckling curves are defined as follows :
1 = buckling curve a
2 = buckling curve b
3 = buckling curve c
4 = buckling curve d
The conditions are that the section is an open profile. Only the geometry commands O, L, N, A may be used in the
geometry description.
When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the calculation routine
in the profile library. The properties from the reduced section can be calculated by the code check.
86
When the section is made out of more than 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can NOT be calculated by the
calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from the reduced section can be calculated, except for the
marked properties. These properties have to be input by the user in the profile library.
Formcode 1
1
0
PSS Type

Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
142 sp
143 e2
68 H
109 110
Remark:
r is rounding, special for KLS section (Voest Alpine)
sp is number of shear planes
B
H
e2
s
Cold formed angle section
Formcode 1
1
1
PSS Type
87

Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
68 H
109 111
B
s
H
r
Cold formed channel section

Formcode 1
1
2
PSS Type

88
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
49 H
109 112
B
s
H
r
Cold formed Z section

Formcode 1
1
3
PSS Type

89
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
49 H
109 113
B
s
H
R
Cold formed C section
Formcode 1
1
4
PSS Type


Property Description
90
44 s
61 r
48 B
49 H
68 c
109 114
B
s
H
r
c
Cold formed Omega section
Formcode 1
1
5
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
91
61 r
48 B
49 H
42 c
109 115
B
s
H
c
R
Rail type KA
Formcode 15
0
PSS Type .K
A.

Property Description
148 h1
149 h2
150 h3
92
151 b1
152 b2
153 b3
154 k
155 f1
156 f2
157 f3
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3
158 r4
159 r5
160 a
109 150
r1
r2
r4
r3
r5
b3
k
b2
b1
f3
f2
f1
h1
h3
h2
Rail type KF
Formcode 15
1
PSS Type .K
F.

Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
93
155 f1
157 f3
148 h1
149 h2
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3
109 151
r1
r2
r2
r2
r2
r3
k
b
b3
f3
f1
h
h1
h2
Rail type KQ

Formcode 15
2
PSS Type .K
Q.

Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
94
149 h2
150 h3
61 r1
109 152
b
k
b3
r1
h3
h2
f1
95
References
|
1
|
Eurocode 9
Design of aluminum structures
Part 1 - 1 : General structural rules
EN 1999-1-1:2007

[
2
]
TALAT Lecture 2301
Design of members
European Aluminium Association
T. Höglund, 1999.
[
3
]
Stahl im Hochbau
14. Auglage Band I/ Teil 2
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf 1986
[
4
]
Kaltprofile
3. Auflage
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf 1982
[
5
]
Dietrich von Berg
Krane und Kranbahnen – Berechnung Konstruktion Ausführung
B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart 1988
[
6
]
C. Petersen
Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von Stahlbauten
Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1988
[
7
]
Handleiding moduul STACO VGI
Staalbouwkundig Genootschap
Staalcentrum Nederland
5684/82
[
8
]
Newmark N.M. A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of columns
J.Aero.Sc. Vol.16 Feb.1949 pp.116
[
9
]
Stabiliteit voor de staalconstructeur
uitgave Staalbouwkundig Genootschap
[
1
0
]
DIN18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten : Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
November 1990
[
1
1
]
Rapportnr. BI-87-20/63.4.3360
Controleregels voor lijnvormige constructie-elementen
IBBC Maart 1987
96
[
1
2
]
Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991
[
1
3
]
SN001a-EN-EU
NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes
Access Steel, 2006
www.access-steel.com
[
1
4
]
Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992
[
1
5
]
R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988
[
1
6
]
ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996
[
1
7
]
E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf
[
1
8
]
Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993
[
1
9
]
Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771 - 1991
[
2
0
]
A Gerhsi, R. Landolfo, F.M. Mazzolani (2002)
Design of Metallic cold formed thin-walled members
Spon Press, London, UK
[
2
1
]
G. Valtinat (2003)
Aluminium im Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau
Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, Germany
[
2
2
]
Frilo LTBII software
Friedrich + Lochner Lateral Torsional Buckling 2
nd
Order Analysis
Biegetorsionstheorie II.Ordnung (BTII)
http://www.frilo.de
[ Friedrich + Lochner LTBII Manual
97
2
3
]
BTII Handbuch
Revision 1/2006
[
2
4
]
J. Meister
Nachweispraxis Biegeknicken und Biegedrillknicken
Ernst & Sohn, 2002
[
2
5
]
Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005
[
2
6
]
J. Schikowski
Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Scheibenwirkung
von Trapez- und Sandwichelementdeckungen, 1999
http://www.jschik.de/
[
2
7
]
DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
November 1990
[
2
8
]
E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf
[
2
9
]
Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

Introduction................................................................................................................................. 1
Version info .............................................................................................................................................................1

Disclaimer.................................................................................................................................... 2 EN1999 Code Check .................................................................................................................. 3
Material Properties .................................................................................................................................................3 Consulted Articles ..................................................................................................................................................3 Initial Shape........................................................................................................................................................5 Classification of Cross-Section........................................................................................................................13 Step 1: Calculation of stresses...........................................................................................................................14 Step 2: Determination of stress gradient .......................................................................................................14 Step 3: Calculation of slenderness ....................................................................................................................15 Step 4: Classification of the part ........................................................................................................................16 Reduced Cross-Section properties .................................................................................................................16 Step 1: Calculation of spring stiffness ..............................................................................................................18 Step 2: Calculation of Area and Second moment of area...............................................................................20 Step 3: Calculation of stiffener buckling load ..................................................................................................21 Step 4: Calculation of reduction factor for distortional buckling ..................................................................22 Section properties ............................................................................................................................................23 Tension .............................................................................................................................................................24 Compression ....................................................................................................................................................24 Bending moment ..............................................................................................................................................24 Shear ................................................................................................................................................................24 Torsion with warping ........................................................................................................................................27

The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[4])......................... 28
I sections ...............................................................................................................................................................29 U sections..............................................................................................................................................................29 sections..................................................................................................................................................................30

The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[4]) ......................... 31
I sections ...............................................................................................................................................................31 U sections,  sections ........................................................................................................................................32

Starting from the wM diagram, the following integral is calculated for the critical points: ........................................................................................................................................ 32 The following 6 standard situations for St.Venant torsion, warping torque and bimoment are given in the literature (Ref.[3], Ref.[4]). ...................................................... 33 The value  is defined as follows:......................................................................................... 33
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt ...............................................................34 Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt .............................................................35 Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading mt ....................................................36 Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading mt ..................................................37 One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt ..........................................38 One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt ...............................38 Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3 .................................................................................................40 Decomposition for situation 2 ............................................................................................................................40 Combined shear and torsion ...........................................................................................................................40 Bending, shear and axial force........................................................................................................................41 Flexural buckling ..............................................................................................................................................42 For a non-sway structure: ...................................................................................................................................43

i

..................................................... supported by pinned compression diagonal................ .......................................................73 2nd Order Analysis ...........................................................................................46 Pinned compression diagonal...................................................................................................60 Contribution of the flanges ...........................................................................................................................................1.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... supported by continuous compression diagonal.....................................................................................1.........................................................................68 Imperfections...................................................................................................................................................................47 Torsional (-Flexural) buckling ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Eigenvalue solution Mcr ....................53 Moment distribution generated by F load ...............................................................68 Initial bow imperfection v0 according to code ........................................................54 Combined bending and axial compression ..........................70 Diaphragms ..............................................................................55 Calculation of xs .......................................................................53 Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam ........46 Continuous compression diagonal....................................................................... and F........................................ supported by continuous tension diagonal..................................................48 Lateral Torsional buckling......................................55 Members containing localized welds.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. from Ref....................................74 Data for general section stability check.....66 Supported Sections.................................................................................. 95 ii ..............................................................55 Unequal end moments and/or transverse loads .............................................................1...............72 Limitations and Warnings ............................................................................[14] .............................................................................................................. supported by continuous tension diagonal ..........................................................................................................................50 The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F... 53 Moment distribution generated by q load .................69 LTB Restraints.............................................................................................2...............................73 nd Profile conditions for code check ..........................................................................................................................................For a sway structure: ....................................... 64 Introduction to LTBII.............................61 LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis............................................................................... supported by pinned tension diagonal ......................................57 Contribution of the web ..........................................................................................................69 Manual input of Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 ...................................................................43 Continuous compression diagonal.................................75 References ...56 Shear buckling........................................................50 Diaphragms ..........74 Data depending on the profile shape .................45 Continuous compression diagonal............................................................................71 Linked Beams.............................................................................................................................64 2 Order analysis ......................... supported by continuous compression diagonal ....64 Eigenvalue solution Mcr ...........................................................Annex F................................................. 74 Introduction to profile characteristics..........................................................................................................45 Pinned compression diagonal..........................44 Continuous compression diagonal...................................................................................................................................67 Loadings .................................

This document provides background information on the code check according to the regulations given in: Eurocode 9 Design of aluminium structures Part 1-1: General structural rules EN 1999-1-1:2007 Version info Documentation Title Release Revision Aluminium Code Check – Theoretical Background 2008.Introduction Welcome to the Aluminium Code Check – Theoretical Background.0 01/2008 1 .

expressed or implied. It is against the law to copy or use the software except as specifically allowed in the license. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. © Copyright 2008 SCIA Group NV. whatsoever. The software may be used only in accordance with the terms of that license agreement. without any warranties. which is. All rights reserved.Disclaimer This document is being furnished by SCIA for information purposes only to licensed users of SCIA software and is furnished on an "AS IS" basis. 2 . Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of SCIA. SCIA is not responsible for direct or indirect damage as a result of imperfections in the documentation and/or software.

EP.ET.ET.ET) T6 (0-5) EN-AW 6082 (EP/O.ER/B) O/111. The user can modify the HAZ values according to these footnotes if required. 3 .ET) T6 (5-10) EN-AW 6060 (EP.EN 1999-1-1:2007”. All classes of cross-sections are included.ER/B) T64 (0-15) EN-AW 6060 (EP. The following alloys are provided by default: EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) O/H111 (0-50) EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) O/H111 (50-80) EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H12 EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H22/H32 EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H14 EN-AW 5083 (Sheet) H24/H34 EN-AW 5083 (ET.5) EN-AW 7020 (Sheet) T651 (0-40) EN-AW 7020 (EP.ER/B) T6 (5-10) EN-AW 6005A (EP/O. extruded tube.5) EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H24 (0-12. the material properties and consulted articles are discussed.ER/B) T66 EN-AW 6063 (EP) T66 EN-AW 6063 (DT) T66 EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T4/T451 EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T61/T6151 (0-12. according to Ref.5) EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H16 (0-4) EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H26 (0-4) Note: The default HAZ values are applied.ER/B) T4 EN-AW 6082 (EP/O.ET.2b are not accounted for.EP/H) T5 EN-AW 6082 (EP/O. strip and plate and on Table 3.ET.ER/B) T6 (15-40) EN-AW 7020 (DT) T6 (0-20) EN-AW 8011A (Sheet) H14 (0-12.ER/B) T5 (0-5) EN-AW 6060 (EP) T5 (5-25) EN-AW 6060 (ET.4. extruded rod/bar and drawn tube.EP.ET) T6 (5-15) EN-AW 6082 (ER/B) T6 (0-20) EN-AW 6082 (ER/B) T6 (20-150) EN-AW 6082 (DT) T6 (0-5) EN-AW 6082 (DT) T6 (5-20) EN-AW 7020 (Sheet) T6 (0-12.ET.ET. footnote 2) of Table 3.6.ET. Consulted Articles The member elements are checked according to the regulations given in: “Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures .ER/B) T6 (0-15) EN-AW 6060 (DT) T6 (0-20) EN-AW 6060 (EP.EP/H.EN1999 Code Check In the following chapters.5-100) EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T6/T651 (0-6) EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T6/T651 (6-12.ET.ET) T6 (0-5) EN-AW 6005A (EP/H.ER/B) T6 (0-15) EN-AW 7020 (EP.2b for wrought aluminium alloys of type extruded profile.ER/B) T6 (0-5) EN-AW 6005A (EP/O. [2].F.EP/H.5-100) EN-AW 6082 (EP. The cross-sections are classified according to art.ET.5) EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T651 (12.1. As such.ER/B) T6 EN-AW 6063 (DT) T6 EN-AW 6063 (EP.2a and footnote 4) of Table 3.Part 1-1: General structural rules . For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each intermediary point.2a for wrought aluminium alloys of type sheet.5) EN-AW 6082 (Sheet) T6151 (12.H112 EN-AW 5083 (DT) H12/22/32 EN-AW 5083 (DT) H14/24/34 EN-AW 6005A (EP/O.ER/B) T6 (10-25) EN-AW 6005A (EP/H.ER/B) T5 EN-AW 6063 (EP) T5 EN-AW 6063 (EP. Material Properties The characteristic values of the material properties are based on Table 3.ER/B) T66 (0-3) EN-AW 6060 (EP) T66 (3-25) EN-AW 6063 (EP.

7.3. Torsion 6.7.3.6). lateral torsional buckling (art.2.2. bending (art.4.2.3 Partial safety factors 6.6.1 Basis 6.The stress check is taken from art.6.2.9 and 6.3.2. 6.2.2. 6. Shear 6.6 HAZ softening adjacent to welds X X (*) X (*) X (*) X X X 6.2.2. 6.8.2. 6. The shear buckling is checked according to art. 6.10. Compression 6.3 Imperfections 5.2.5 Local buckling resistance 6.3. Bending and axial force 6.2 Resistance of cross-sections 6.2.5).2 Section properties 6.2: the section is checked for tension (art.9.6. A check for critical slenderness is also included.10).6. compression (art. 6. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following chapters.2.4 Member imperfections 6 Ultimate limit states for members 6. 6. 5.2.8.5.4 and 6. and combined bending and axial compression (art.4).1. Tension 6.3. The stability check is taken from art. 6.1). 6.1 General 6.3).1. A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. 6. U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.2.3 Buckling resistance of members 4 .3.1 Basis 5.2.1.7. shear (art.2 Imperfections for global analysis of frames 5. For I sections.3: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. torsion (art.3).1. Bending Moment 6.2.2).3. The articles marked with "X" are consulted. shear and axial force (art.2. 6. Bending and shear 6.4 Classification of cross-sections 6. Bending .7) and combined bending. shear and axial force X (*) X (*) X (*) X (*) X (*) X (*) X (*) X X (*) X (*) 6.

3.6 Interaction X (*) X (*) Note: Haunches and arbitrary members are not supported for the Aluminium Code Check. the Initial Shape can be defined.4 Resistance to shear 6.7.2 Members in bending 6. Initial Shape For a cross-section with material Aluminium.5. The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types: F I SO UO Fixed Part – No reduction is needed Internal cross-section part Symmetrical Outstand Unsymmetrical Outstand Parts can also be specified as reinforcement: None RI RUO Not considered as reinforcement Reinforced Internal (intermediate stiffener) Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener) In case a part is specified as reinforcement.7.3. a reinforcement ID can be inputted.1 Members in compression 6.7 Plate girders 6. For a General cross-section the ‘Thinwalled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the Initial Shape. Parts having the same reinforcement ID are considered as one reinforcement.3. The following conditions apply for the use of reinforcements: RI: There must be a plate type I on both sides of the RI reinforcement.6.5 Un-stiffened plates under in-plane loading 6.5 Resistance under shear X (*) 6. 5 .3 Members in bending and axial compression X (*) X (*) X (*) 6.

I RI - I I RI I RUO : The reinforcement is connected to only one plate with type I I RUO 6 .

none) (I. none) (I. the default plate type and reinforcement type are defined in the following table. none) (I. none) (SO. none) 3 CHS (fixed value for  ) (F. none) (SO. none) 2 RHS (F.For standard Cross-sections. none) 7 . Formcode 1 Shape I section Initial Geometrical shape (F. none) (SO. none) (I. none) (F. none) (F. none) (I. none) (F. none) (SO.

4 Angle section (UO. none) (I. none) (F. none) (UO. none) 5 Channel section (F. none) (F. none) (UO. none) (UO. none) 8 .

none) (F. none) 9 . none) (SO. none) (SO. none) (SO. none) (F. none) (F. none) (I. none) 7 11 101 Full rectangular section Full circular section Asymmetric I section No reduction possible No reduction possible (SO.6 T section (UO. none) (SO. none) (SO.

none) 10 .102 Rolled Z section (UO.none) (UO. none) (UO. none) (F. none) (UO. none) (I. none) 110 General cold formed section (UO. none) (F. none) (I. none) (I.

111

Cold formed angle

(UO, none)

(UO, none)

112

Cold formed channel

(UO, none)

(I, none)

(UO, none)

11

113

Cold formed Z

(UO, none)

(I, none)

(UO, none)

114

Cold formed C section

(I, none)

(UO, RUO)

(I,none)

(I,none) (UO, RUO)

115

Cold formed Omega

(I, none)

(I, none)

(I, none)

(UO, RUO)

(UO, RUO)

12

For other predefined cross-sections, the initial geometric shape is based on the centreline of the cross-section. For example Sheet Welded - IXw

(UO, none)

(UO, none)

(I,none) (UO, none) (I,none) (I,none) (UO, none)

(UO, none)

(UO, none) (I,none)

(UO, none)

(UO, none)

Classification of Cross-Section
The classification is based on art. 6.1.4. For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper checks are performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. Classification for members with combined bending and axial forces is made for the loading components separately. No classification is made for the combined state of stress (see art. 6.3.3 Note 1 & 2). Classification is thus done for N, My and Mz separately. Since the classification is independent on the magnitude of the actual forces in the cross-section, the classification is always done for each component.

13

 beg and  classification is required.HAZ MyMy+ MzMz+ For each of these components the reduced shape is determined and the effective section properties are calculated. Step 1: Calculation of stresses For the given force component (N.e. My.HAZ N+ with u. The following procedure is applied for determining the classification of a part. i. beg: normal stress at start point of rectangular shape end: normal stress at end point of rectangular shape Note: Compression stress is indicated as negative. this leads to the following force components for which classification is done: Classification for Component Compression force Tension force Tension force y-y axis bending y-y axis bending z-z axis bending z-z axis bending NN+ with 0. no Step 2: Determination of stress gradient  if  end is the maximum compression stress      beg  end  end  beg if  beg is the maximum compression stress 14 .Taking into account the sign of the force components and the HAZ reduction factors. This is outlined in the following paragraphs. Mz) the normal stress is calculated over the rectangular plate part for the initial geometrical shape. Note: When the rectangular shape is completely under tension. end are both tensile stresses.

70  0. UO When  = 1.0 or peak compression at the toe of the plate:  b t peak compression at toe When peak compression is at the root of the plate: b t   0.30   (1    1) (  1) 15  0.Step 3: Calculation of slenderness Depending on the stresses and the plate type the slenderness parameter  is calculated. a) Internal part: type I b t   0.80 1  .70  0.80  1    (1    1) (  1) With: b t  Width of the cross-section part Thickness of the cross-section part Stress gradient factor Remark: For a thin walled round tube 3 D t with D the diameter to mid-thickness of the tube material.30 0. b) Outstand part: type SO.

1. the part is classified as follows: if    1 if 1<  2 if 2<  3 if 3< : class 1 : class 2 : class 3 : class 4 Note: For Table 6. For calculating the reduced shape the following reduction factors are calculated: o o o Local Buckling: Reduction factor c Distortional Buckling: Reduction factor  HAZ effects: Reduction factor HAZ Calculation of Reduction factor c for Local Buckling In case a cross-section part is classified as Class 4 (slender). 6.5 16 . Note: The modified expression given in art.4.1.peak compression at root Step 4: Classification of the part The slenderness parameters 1.6.2 the remark ‘with welds’ is valid for fabrication type ‘welded’. the reduction factor  c for local buckling is calculated according to art. The cross-section is then classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression parts. Using these limits. Reduced Cross-Section properties Using the initial shape the cross-section parts are classified as specified in the previous chapter. ‘Without welds’ is valid for the other fabrication types.4 (4) is not supported.  2.2. 3 are determined according to Table 6.

4 which is only applicable for a single sided rib or lip. 6. [2] pp. In SCIA•ESA PT a more general procedure is used according to Ref.66 The design of stiffened elements is based on the assumption that the stiffener itself acts as a beam on elastic foundation. In case a cross-section part is subject to compression and tension stresses.1.For a cross-section part under tension or with classification different from Class 4 the reduction factor  c is taken as 1. the reduction factor  c is applied only to the compression part as illustrated in the following figure. compression stress t eff t tensile stress b Calculation of Reduction factor  for Distortional Buckling To take into account distortional buckling. where the elastic foundation is represented by a spring stiffness depending on the transverse bending stiffness of adjacent parts of plane elements and on the boundary conditions of these elements. a simplified direct method is given in art. 17 .00. The following procedure is applied for calculating the reduction factor for an intermediate stiffener (RI) or edge stiffener (RUO).

Step 1: Calculation of spring stiffness Spring stiffness c = cr for RI: Spring stiffness c = c s for RUO: 18 .

ad c3 α Thickness of the adjacent element Flat width of the adjacent element The sum of the stiffnesses from the adjacent elements equal to 3 in the case of bending moment load or when the cross section is made of more than 3 elements (counted as plates in initial geometry. channel or Z sections) These parameters are illustrated on the following picture: considered plate edge stiffener t ad bp.ad With: tad bp. e.g.ad adjacent element 19 .c  cs  1 ys 4(1   ²)b13 b12 ys   c3 Et 3 3 Et ad c3   12(1   ²)b p . without the reinforcement parts. without the reinforcement parts) equal to 2 in the case of uniform compression in cross sections made of 3 elements (counted as plates in initial geometry.

with thickness t and effective width beff. With: Ar Ir the area of the effective cross section (based on t eff = pc t ) composed of the stiffener area and half the adjacent plane elements the second moment of area of an effective cross section composed of the (unreduced) stiffener and part of the adjacent plate elements. Ar and Ir for RI: beff 20 . referred to the neutral axis a-a For RI reinforcement taken as 15 t For ROU reinforcement taken as 12 t These parameters are illustrated on the following figures.Step 2: Calculation of Area and Second moment of area After calculating the spring stiffness the area Ar and Second moment of area Ir are calculated.

Ar and Ir for RUO: Step 3: Calculation of stiffener buckling load The buckling load Nr.cr  2 cEI r With: c E Ir Spring stiffness of Step 1 Module of Young Second moment of area of Step 2 21 .cr of the stiffener can now be calculated as follows: N r .

cr and area Ar the relative slenderness  c can be determined for calculating the reduction factor : c  f o Ar N r .0   (c  0 )  2 ) c if c  0    1. 22 .20 Reduction factor for distortional buckling The reduction factor is then applied to the thickness of the reinforcement(s) and on half the width of the adjacent part(s).00    2  2 c With: f0 c 0 α  0. 6.60 Imperfection factor taken as 0.Step 4: Calculation of reduction factor for distortional buckling Using the buckling load Nr.cr   0.00 if c  0    1  1.20 0  0.60   0.50(1.6. Calculation of Reduction factor HAZ for HAZ effects The extend of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) is determined by the distance bhaz according to art.2% proof strength Relative slenderness Limit slenderness taken as 0.1.

23 .c and haz. This procedure is then repeated for each of the force components specified in the previous chapter. The reduction factor for the HAZ is given by:  u . Section properties Deduction of holes.2. art.haz fu f o .The value for bhaz is multiplied by the factors 2 and 3/n for 5xxx & 6xxx alloys : 2  1 (T 1  60) 120 for 7xxx alloys :  2  1  1.2 is not taken into account. In case of a butt weld the parameter n should be set to 3 (instead of 2) to negate this effect. 6.haz  Calculation of Effective properties For each part the final thickness reduction  is determined as the minimum of .5 T1 n (T 1  60) 120 With: Interpass temperature Number of heat paths Note: The variations in numbers of heath paths 3/n is specifically intended for fillet welds.2.haz fo  o .haz  f u . The section properties are then recalculated based on the reduced thicknesses.

Shear The Shear check is verified using art.2.haz. art. The section moduli Weff. For each part i the slenderness  is calculated as follows: 24 .HAZ) The value of Anet is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N+(u. 6. The value of Ag is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N+(0. Deduction of holes is not taken into account.2. The value of Aeff is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N- Bending moment The Bending check is verified using art.3 are not taken into account.4. Weff.5. 6.2. 6.2 (2) e) is not supported. 6.HAZ) Since deduction of holes is not taken into account A eff will be equal to Anet.6 & 6. Deduction of holes is not taken into account.5. 6. Wel. 6.haz is taken as Wpl calculated from the reduced shape for M+ / M- Note: The assumed thickness specified in art.2.5.5.2. Compression The Compression check is verified using art.haz are taken as Wel calculated from the reduced shape for M+ / MThe section modulus Wpl. Tension The Tension check is verified using art.2. Deduction of holes is not taken into account.3.2. Slender and non-slender sections The formulas to be used in the shear check are dependent on the slenderness of the cross-section parts.Shear lag effects.

For each part i the slenderness  is then compared to the limit 39 With   250 f0 and f 0 in N/mm²  i  39  i  39 => Non-slender plate => Slender plate I) All parts are classified as non-slender  i  39 The Shear check shall be verified using art.2.5.6. II) One or more parts are classified as slender  i  39 The Shear check shall be verified using art. 6.i is calculated.h  x x  i   w    end beg t   t  w i  With: xend xbeg t    i End position of plate i . 6.5. Thickness of plate i. 25 . Begin position of plate i. For each part i the shear resistance VRd.

i. round tube and hollow tube.i.z.i.31) is applied.89) is used with a the member length or the distance between stiffeners (for I or U-sections) => VRd. HAZ  t i  sin 2  i The number (ID) of the plate End position of plate i Begin position of plate i Thickness of plate i Haz reduction factor of plate i Angle of plate i to the Principal y-y axis For Vz: Anet.88) is used with properties calculated from the reduced shape for N+(u.i is then determined.i is taken as the minimum of VRd. 26 .yield Formula (6.i. => VRd.i = ( xend  xbeg ) i   u . HAZ  t i  cos 2  i ( x end  xbeg ) i   u .HAZ  Slender part: Formula (6.buckling => For this slender part.HAZ) in the same way as for a non-slender part. => The V Rd of the cross-section is then taken as the sum of the resistances VRd.88) is used with properties calculated from the reduced shape for N+(u.y.buckling For each part VRd.HAZ) For Vy: Anet.yield and VRd.Non-slender part: Formula (6.i of all parts. VRd   VRdi i Note: For a solid bar.i = With: i xend xbeg t u. the eventual V Rd. all parts are taken as non-slender by default and formula (6.

HAZ  t  sin 2  With: i xend xbeg t 0.6 and formula (6.8 for solid section 0. 27 . HAZ  t  cos 2  Avz  i 1 ( xend  xbeg )   0 .HAZ) a) Solid bar and round tube The shear area is calculated using art. then Av is taken as A calculated using the reduced shape for N+(0. Note: For sections without initial shape or numerical sections. The calculation is done using the reduced shape for N+(0. formula (6. 6.31): Av  v  Ae With: v 0. Torsion with warping In case warping is taken into account.6 for circular section (hollow and solid) Ae b) All other Supported sections For all other sections.Calculation of Shear Area The calculation of the shear area is dependent on the cross-section type.29) is used with Av taken as Ay or Az of the gross-section properties. none of the above mentioned methods can be applied.30). In this case.HAZ  The number (ID) of the plate End position of plate i Begin position of plate i Thickness of plate i HAZ reduction factor of plate i Angle of plate i to the Principal y-y axis n n Should a cross-section be defined in such a way that the shear area Av (Avy or A vz) is zero. the shear area is calculated using art.2. the combined section check is replaced by an elastic stress check including warping stresses. The following adaptation is used to make this formula usable for any initial cross-section shape: Taken as area A calculated using the reduced shape for N+(0.HAZ). 6.HAZ) Avy  i 1 ( xend  xbeg )   0.6 and formula (6.2.

Ed w.[3].3.Ed Mz. Venant) torsion on the gross cross-section Shear stress due to warping on the gross cross-section The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections.4. Ed   N . tot . Ed   My .Ed  MwwM Cm Mw wM Cm Bimoment Unit warping Warping constant With 28 . and for  (= “cold formed sections”) sections. Ed   Vy . Ed   w. See also Ref. Ed  C  tot . Ed  tot . Bild 7.2.4. The other standard sections (RHS.Ed Vz. Ed   tot . T section and rectangular sections) are considered as warping free. Calculation of the direct stress due to warping The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.Ed tot. Ed   t .3. CHS. U sections and  sections are described in “Profile conditions for code check”. Ed  M1   Mz .[4])  w. Angle section.Ed M1 C N. The definition of I sections.[3] 7.Ed My. Ref.2% proof strength Total direct stress Total shear stress Partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections Constant (by default 1. Ed With f0 tot. Ed  f0  M1 f0 3 M 1 f0 2 2  tot .Ed 0. Ed  3 tot .Ed Vy.Ed w. Ed   w.2) Direct stress due to the axial force on the relevant effective cross-section Direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis on the relevant effective cross-section Direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis on the relevant effective cross-section Direct stress due to warping on the gross cross-section Shear stress due to shear force in y direction on the gross cross-section Shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross cross-section Shear stress due to uniform (St. Ed   Vz .40.Ed t.

Tafel 7. This value is added to the profile library. [3].[5] pp. 7. Tafel 7.135): wM  1  b  hm 4 With b hm Section width Section height (see figure) U sections For U sections.87.89). The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure: The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure). These values are added to the profile library. [3].88).I sections For I sections. the value of wM is given in the tables as w M1 and wM2 (Ref. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure: 29 . the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref.

4.[3] 7.3. The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure.[6] Part 27.  sections The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general approach given in Ref.The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).2.3 and Ref. 30 .

3.3.2.Calculation of the shear stress due to warping The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3] 7. Ref.4. the integral can be calculated as follows: b/2 w 0 M tds  b  t  wM A 4 31 .[4]) s  w .Ed M  xs w M tds Cm t 0  With Mxs wM Cm t Warping torque (see "Standard diagrams") Unit warping Warping constant Element thickness I sections The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure) For I sections.

the following integral is calculated for the critical points: s w 0 M tds The shear stress due to warping is calculated in these critical points (see circles in figures) 32 .U sections.  sections Starting from the wM diagram.

Venant torsion. warping torque and bimoment are given in the literature (Ref. The value  is defined as follows:  G  It E  Cm Mx Mxp Mxs Mw IT CM E G Total torque = Mxp + M xs Torque due to St.[3]. Venant Warping torque Bimoment Torsional constant Warping constant Modulus of elasticity Shear modulus With: 33 . Ref.Standard diagrams The following 6 standard situations for St.[4]).

warping free ends.Torsion fixed ends. local torsional loading Mt Mx M xa  M xb Mxp for a side Mt  b L M a  t L  b sinh( b)  M xp  M t     L sinh( L) cosh( x )     Mxp for b side  a sinh(a )  M xp  M t      L sinh(L) cosh(x ' )      sinh( b )  M xs  M t    sinh( L) cosh( x )      sinh(  a )  M xs  M t     sinh( L) cosh( x ' )     Mw  Mt   sinh( b)    sinh( L) sinh( x )     Mxs for a side Mxs for b side Mw for a side Mw for b side Mw  Mt   sinh(a )    sinh( L) sinh( x ' )     34 .

warping fixed ends. local torsional loading Mt Mx M xa  M xb Mxp for a side Mt  b L M a  t L  b  k 2  k1  M xp  M t    D3 L    k 2  a  k1  M xp  M t    D4  L   M xs  M t  D3 Mxp for b side Mxs for a side Mxs for b side Mw for a side M xs  M t  D 4 Mw  Mw  Mt  D1  Mt  D2  Mw for b side 35 .Torsion fixed ends.

(sinh(  b )  k 2 ) sinh(  x )  k 1  sinh(  x ' ) sinh(  L ) k 2  sinh(  x )  (sinh(  a )  k 1) sinh(  x ' ) D2  sinh(  L ) (sinh(  b )  k 2 ) cosh(  x )  k 1  cosh(  x ' ) D3  sinh(  L ) k 2  cosh(  x )  (sinh(  a )  k 1) cosh(  x ' ) D4  sinh(  L ) sinh(  a )  sinh(  b ) a  b sinh(  a )  sinh(  b ) L L 1    tanh(  ) sinh(  L ) 2 sinh(  L ) 2 2 k1    L 2 L 2 tanh(  ) L  tanh(  ) 2  2 sinh(  a )  sinh(  b ) a  b sinh(  a )  sinh(  b ) L L 1    tanh(  ) sinh(  L ) 2 sinh(  L ) 2 2 k2    L 2 L 2 tanh(  ) L  tanh(  ) 2  2 D1  Torsion fixed ends. warping free ends. distributed torsional loading mt Mx M xa  M xb Mxp mt  L 2 m L  t 2 mt  mt  M xp  Mxs  L cosh(x )  cosh(x ' )    (  x )    2  sinh(L)    cosh( x )  cosh( x ' )      sinh( L)   M xs  36 .

Mw Mw  mt 2  sinh( x )  sinh( x ' )   1     sinh( L)   Torsion fixed ends. distributed torsional loading mt Mx M xa  M xb Mxp mt  L 2 mt  L  2 mt   L cosh( x )  cosh( x ' )     (  x )  (1  k )   2  sinh( L)   M xp  Mxs M xs  Mw mt  mt 2  cosh(x )  cosh(x ' )     (1  k )    sinh(L)    sinh( x )  sinh( x ' )   1  (1  k )    sinh( L)   Mw  L 2 k  1 L tanh( ) 2 37 . warping fixed ends.

One end free. local torsional loading Mt Mx M xa  M t Mxp  cosh( x ' )  M xp  M t  1    cosh(  L)    Mxs  cosh(x ' )  M xs  M t    cosh(L)     Mw  M t  sinh( x ' )      cosh( L)    Mw One end free. other end torsion and warping fixed. other end torsion and warping fixed. distributed torsional loading mt Mx 38 .

the determination of the warping torque and the related bimoment. is based on some standard situations. The following end conditions are considered:  warping free  warping fixed This results in the following 3 beam situations:  situation 1 : warping free / warping free  situation 2 : warping free / warping fixed  situation 3 : warping fixed / warping fixed 39 .M xa  m t  L Mxp M xp  Mxs mt  mt  mt ²  (1  L sinh( L)) sinh(x )     x 'L cosh( x )     cosh(L )    (1  L sinh( L)) sinh( x )    L cosh( x )     cosh( L)    (1  L sinh(  L)) cosh( x )   1  L sinh( x )     cosh( L)   M xs  Mw Mw  Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line Since the SCIA•ESA PT solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping.

2.00) the shear resistance will be reduced to zero which will lead to extreme unity check values.7. For U-sections formula (6. 6. Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loadings Mtn and the distributed loading mt. the combined section check is replaced by an elastic stress check including warping stresses which takes into account all shear stress effects.37) is applied. Combined shear and torsion The Combined shear force and torsional moment check is verified using art. In case warping is activated. Note: In case of extreme torsion (unity check for torsion > 1. 40 . Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loading Mt and the distributed loading mt. The value Mt 0 is added to the M xp value. Decomposition for situation 2 The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:   one torsion line generated by a local torsional loading Mt n one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt The values for M xp. For more information please refer to “Torsion with warping”.35) is applied.36) is applied without accounting for warping.Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3 The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:    n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mt n one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt one torsion line with constant torque Mt0 The values for M xp. For all other supported sections formula (6.3. For I and H sections formula (6.

6. Shear reduction Where V Ed exceeds 50% of V Rd the design resistances for bending and axial force are reduced using a reduced yield strength as specified in art. Note: Formula (6.2.2. 6. For Vy the reduction factor y is calculated For Vz the reduction factor z is calculated The bending resistance My.2.3 When the width of a member cannot be determined (Numerical section. 6.2.2.Bending.2. the extend of the HAZ is calculated as specified in paragraph “Calculation of Reduction factor HAZ for HAZ effects” and compared to the least width of the cross-section.41) are applied.8 & 6.15).44) is applied.10 For I sections formulas (6.2. 6.9 & 6. 6.9.8. Note: The interaction for mono-symmetrical sections specified in art. The reduction factor 0 is then calculated according to art.2.2. 6.2.1 and formula (6. The stresses are based on the effective cross-sectional properties and calculated in the fibres of the gross crosssection.1 and formula (6. Localised welds In case transverse welds are inputted. For hollow and solid sections formula (6. 6. Note: Since the extend of the HAZ is defined along the member axis. shear and axial force The combined section check is verified according to art. The stresses are calculated in the following way: 41 .Rd is reduced using y The axial force resistance NRd is reduced by using the maximum of y and z Stress check for numerical sections For numerical sections an elastic stress check is performed according to art. 6.40) and (6. For mono-symmetrical sections the elastic stress check of art.44) is limited to a maximum of 1.15).43) is applied. For all other supported sections an elastic stress check is performed according to art.9.1 is applied.64).Rd is reduced using z The bending resistance M z. it is important to specify enough sections on average member in the Solver Setup when transverse welds are used.00 in the same way as formula (6. tube …) formula (6.1 (2) is not supported.10.

 tot   tot  f0  M1 f0 3 M 1 f0 2 2  tot  3 tot  C  tot   N   My  tot   Vy   Vz  M1   Mz With: f0 tot tot M1 C N My Mz Vy Vz Ax Ay Az Wy Wz 0.e. HAZ is taken as 1. The value of Aeff is taken as the area A calculated from the reduced shape for N. 6.2) Direct stress due to the axial force Direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis Direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis Shear stress due to shear force in y direction Shear stress due to shear force in z direction Sectional area Shear area in y direction Shear area in z direction Elastic section modulus around y axis Elastic section modulus around z axis Flexural buckling The flexural buckling check is verified using art.3.1.2% proof strength Total direct stress Total shear stress Partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections Constant (by default 1.1.00).however HAZ effects are not accounted for (i. 42 .

21): For a non-sway structure: l/L = (1 2 + 5 1 + 5 2 + 24)(1 2 + 4 1 + 4 2 + 12)2 (2 1 2 + 11 1 + 5 2 + 24)(2 1 2 + 5 1 + 11 2 + 24) For a sway structure: l/L = x 2 +4 1 x L E I Ci Mi i System length Modulus of Young Moment of inertia Stiffness in node i Moment in node i Rotation in node i With: 43 .pp. [8] and [9]. Calculation of Buckling ratio – General Formula For the calculation of the buckling ratios. The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[7].The value of AHAZ is illustrated on the following figure: For the calculation of the buckling ratio several methods are available: o o o o General formula (standard method) Crossing Diagonals From Stability Analysis Manual input These methods are detailed in the following paragraphs. These formulas are treated in reference [7]. some approximate formulas are used.

table 15.x= 4 1 2 + 2 1 2 (1 + 2) + 8 1 2 i = Ci L EI Ci = Mi i The values for M i and i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the deformations. In such cases a more refined approach (from stability analysis) can be applied. supported by continuous tension diagonal 44 .[12]. The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or semi-rigid beam connections. calculated by load cases which generate deformation forms.[11]. For other cases. on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = -10000 N/m and Qy= -10000 N/m are used. the local distributed loads qy=-1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used. and it is not a purely geometrical data anymore. This means that the buckling length sK is dependent on the load distribution in the element. load case 2: on the beams. The following load cases are considered: load case 1: on the beams.[10]. the user has to evaluate the presented bucking ratios. on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy =10000 N/m are used. the buckling length sK is defined. the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used.112).113 and Ref.pp. In the following paragraphs. having an affinity with the buckling shape. Wit h: s K Buckling length Member length Length of supporting diagonal Moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the member Moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the supporting diagonal Compression force in member Compression force in supporting diagonal Tension force in supporting diagonal Modulus of Young L L 1 I I 1 N N 1 Z E Continuous compression diagonal. DIN18800 Teil 2. pp. the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane. (See also Ref. Calculation of Buckling ratio – Crossing Diagonals For crossing diagonal elements. is calculated according to Ref.

supported by continuous tension diagonal 45 .[10]. Continuous compression diagonal. Tab. 15.[10]. case 1.5  l See Ref.Z l/2 N N l1/2 Z 1  sK  l 3 Z l 4  N  l1 I1  l3 1  3 I  l1 sK  0.5  l See Ref. case 4. 15. Zl N  l1 Pinned compression diagonal.75 sK  0. Tab. supported by pinned tension diagonal Z l/2 N N l1/2 Z sK  l 1  0.

[10]. Continuous compression diagonal. case 5.5  l N  l1  1 Z l 3  Z  l2 N  l1 1 (E  I1)  (  1 ) d 2 4 Z l See Ref.5  l See Ref. 15. 15. Tab. supported by continuous compression diagonal N1 l/2 N N l1/2 N1 N1  l N  l1 sK  l I1  l3 1  I  l3 1 1  sK  0.Z l/2 N N l1/2 Z sK  0. case 2. supported by pinned compression diagonal 46 .[10]. Continuous compression diagonal. Tab.

Tab. Tab. 47 . 15.N1 l/2 N N l1/2 N1 2 N1  l sK  l 1   12 N  l1 See Ref. 15.5  l (E  I)  d N  l1 N  l3 2 (  ) 2   l1 12 N1 See Ref. Pinned compression diagonal.[10]. case 3 (2). case 3 (3). supported by continuous compression diagonal N1 l/2 N N l1/2 N1 sK  0.[10].

TF (TorsionalFlexural buckling).T (Torsional buckling) and Ncr.Calculation of Buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis When member buckling data from stability are defined.1. the buckling ratio k can then be determined: With:  NEd E I s Critical load factor for the selected stability combination Design loading in the member Modulus of Young Moment of inertia Member length Note: In case of a non-prismatic member.1. The value of the elastic critical load Ncr is taken as the smallest of Ncr. In all other cases. If the section contains only Plate Types F.HAZ). In this case Aeff is taken as A calculated from the reduced shape for N- Note: The Torsional (-Flexural) buckling check is ignored for sections complying with the rules given in art. the section is regarded as ‘General’. the critical buckling load Ncr for a prismatic member is calculated as follows: N cr    N Ed Using Euler’s formula.3. 48 . 6.1.4 (1). Torsional (-Flexural) buckling The Torsional and Torsional-Flexural buckling check is verified using art.3. 6. the moment of inertia is taken in the middle of the element. In this case Aeff is taken as A calculated from the reduced shape for N+(0. UO it is regarded as ‘Composed entirely of radiating outstands’. SO.

T The elastic critical load Ncr.T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref. With: E G It Iw lT y0 and z0 iy iz Modulus of Young Shear modulus Torsion constant Warping constant Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid radius of gyration about the strong axis radius of gyration about the weak axis 49 .Calculation of Ncr.[13].

Composed rail sections are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.7 for channel sections.T Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the z-z axis Critical axial load for torsional buckling Lateral Torsional buckling The Lateral Torsional buckling check is verified using art.Calculation of Ncr. C2 and C3 reference is made to the paragraph "Calculation of Moment factors for LTB".2. Diaphragms 50 . Ncr.2. 6.1.3. Calculation of Mcr – General Formula For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric) and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections the elastic critical moment for LTB M cr is given by the general formula F.TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N: 0 With: Ncr. 15.[13]. 6.3 (1). Annex F Ref.TF The elastic critical load Ncr. 14.TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref. For the calculation of the moment factors C1.z Ncr. the elastic critical moment for LTB M cr is given by: Mcr   2 EI L2 E G L Iw It Iz z Iw  L²GI t  2 EI z Iz Modulus of elasticity Shear modulus Length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB) Warping constant Torsional constant Moment of inertia about the minor axis With: See also Ref.3. For the other supported sections. For the calculation of the elastic critical moment M cr the following methods are available: o o o General formula (standard method) LTBII Eigenvalue solution Manual input Note: The Lateral Torsional buckling check is ignored for circular hollow sections according to art. part 7 and in particular part 7.y Ncr.

17.k k LTB length Shear modulus Actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm Rotational stiffness of the diaphragm Rotational stiffness of the connection between the diaphragm and the beam Rotational stiffness due to the distortion of the beam Numerical coefficient = 2 for single or two spans of the diaphragm = 4 for 3 or more spans of the diaphragm EIeff s ba C100 h t s Bending stiffness per unit width of the diaphragm Spacing of the beam Width of the beam flange (in mm) Rotation coefficient .k  1.[16]. Ref. cold formed U.k C P.1.id  I t  vorhC 1 1  vorhC C M .k C M .3. Chapter 10. k  k C A . Z sections.see table Height of the beam Thickness of the beam flange Thickness of the beam web 51 . the torsional constant It is adapted for symmetric/asymmetric I sections. k EI eff s l2  2G 1 1   C A .When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used.k CP.5 and Ref.3.25  C100  a  100  3  E  Is C P .k CA.. k  (h  t) s³ Is  12 With: l G vorh C CM. The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms: I t . Z sections. channel sections.5.3.4.k b   C100  a  100  2 if b a  125 if 125  b a  200 b  C A .18. C . See Ref.

52 .

88 . from Ref. Moment distribution generated by q load if M2 < 0 C1 = A* (1.3 table 9. These values are based on Ref.12.45A * * * * D* With: A* = q l2 8 | M2 | +q l 2 B* = 8 | M2 | 8 | M2 | +q l 2 94 | M2 | ql 2 D * = -72( | M2 | ql2 )2 C* = E* = 1.45 A* [1 + C* e (½  + ½)] if M2 > 0 C1 = 1.1.Calculation of Moment factors for LTB For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling.1.1.71 A* + 1) E* C2 = 0.[14] .10 and 11. standard tables are used which are defined in Ref.45 B* + 1) 1.1..40 + 0. The current moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.25.13 + B* (-0. These standard moment distributions are: o o o Moment line generated by a distributed q load Moment line generated by a concentrated F load Moment line which has a maximum at the start or at the end of the beam The standard moment distribution which is closest to the current moment distribution is taken for the calculation of the factors C1 and C2. and F.70 Moment distribution generated by F load 53 .[19] Art.13 A + B E C2 = 0.Annex F.2.[14].52 2 E* < 2.

62 A** + 1) E** C2 = 0.52 2 and C1 < 2.35 + B** (-1. 54 .75 B** + 1) 1.35 A + B E C2 = 0.0 C1 = 1.55 A [1 + C e M2 > 0 C1 = 1.F M2 M1 = Beta M2 l M2 < 0 C1 = A** (2.88 . Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam M2 M1 = Beta M2 l C2 = 0.40 + 0.70 LTBII Eigenvalue solution For calculation of Mcr using LTBII reference is made to chapter “LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis”.1.55 A ** ** ** ** ** ** D** (½  + ½)] With: A ** = Fl 4 | M2 | +Fl B** = 4 | M2 | 4 | M2 | +Fl C ** = 38 | M2 | Fl | M2 | 2 ) Fl ** * D ** = -32( The values for E can be taken as E from the previous paragraph.

59) and (6. In case a cross-section is subject to torsional (-flexural) buckling. the extend of the HAZ is calculated as specified in chapter “Calculation of Reduction factor HAZ for HAZ effects” and compared to the least width of the cross-section.  x. 6. 6. xLT are then calculated according to art. The calculation of the distance xs is discussed further in this chapter. For hollow sections formula (6. For solid sections formula (6. Members containing localized welds In case transverse welds are inputted. 55 .3.3.59) is applied for bending about either axis.3. Flexural buckling For I sections formulas (6. Localised welds and factors for design section The HAZ-softening factors are calculated according to art.64) is applied.5.3. 6.63) is applied.3. For circular hollow sections the check is ignored according to art. 6.1 & 6.60) are applied. Unequal end moments and/or transverse loads If the section under consideration is not located in a HAZ zone.Combined bending and axial compression The Combined bending and axial compression check is verified using art. the reduction factor z is taken as the minimum value of z for flexural buckling and TF for torsional (-flexural) buckling.3(1).3.3.62) is applied.3. The reduction factors 0.3. Note: Since the extend of the HAZ is defined along the member axis. Lateral Torsional buckling For all sections except circular hollow sections formula (6.3.5. Note: In the calculation of  xLT the buckling length l c and distance xs are taken for buckling around the z-z axis. it is important to specify enough sections on average member in the Solver Setup when transverse welds are used. the reduction factors x and xLT are then calculated according to art. 6.3. 6.3.3.3. For sections without localized welds the reduction factors are calculated according to art. tube …) formula (6. For all other supported sections formula (6.3 When the width of a member cannot be determined (Numerical section.60) is applied for bending about either axis.2.

For the calculation of the distance xs reference is made to the following paragraph. This leads to a denominator of 1. accurate results can be obtained by increasing the numbers of sections on average member in the Solver Setup. The basic assumption is that the deformations for the buckling load case have an affinity with the buckling shape. Unknown buckling shape In case the buckling ratio is not calculated according to the General Formula specified in chapter “Calculation of Buckling ratio – General Formula” the buckling shape is taken as unknown.00.[20] and [21]. Note: Since for a known buckling shape xs can be different in each section. This is thus the case for manual input or if the buckling ratio is calculated from stability. By default x s is taken as half of the buckling length for each section.00 in the formulas of the reduction factors following Ref. A simple support or point of contra flexure are in this case taken as the positions where the bending moment diagram for the buckling load case reaches zero. Depending on how the buckling shape is defined. Known buckling shape The buckling shape is assumed to be known in case the buckling ratio is calculated according to the General Formula specified in chapter “Calculation of Buckling ratio – General Formula”. Calculation of xs The distance xs is defined as the distance from the studied section to a simple support or point of contra flexure of the deflection curve for elastic buckling of axial force only. As such xs will be different in each section. the distance from each section to a simple support or point of contra flexure can be calculated. Since the buckling shape (deformed structure) is known. 56 . a more refined approach can be used for the calculation of xs. Note: In the calculation of  xLT the buckling length l c and distance xs are taken for buckling around the z-z axis.In this case  0 is taken equal to 1.

4.2.7. This factor was erroneously omitted in formula (6. Note: For shear buckling only transverse stiffeners are supported. Longitudinal stiffeners are not supported.71) of EN 1999-1-1:2007.4. the formula is not applied and instead xs is taken as half of the buckling length for each section. Plate girders with stiffeners at supports No stiffeners are inputted on the member or stiffeners are inputted only at the member ends.2 NEd M Rd NRd  Buckling length Design values of the end moments at the system length of the member Design value of the axial compression force Bending moment capacity Axial compression force capacity Reduction factor for flexural buckling Since the formula returns only one value for xs. Note: The above specified formula contains the factor  in the denominator of the right side of the equation.4. at the ends and intermediate positions …).1.7. the right side has to return a value between -1.00 If one of the two above stated limitations occur. Since the left side of the equation concerns a cosine. 6. 6. 6.6. The second case is verified according to art.7.7. x s can be calculated according to formula (6.4 & 6.When the buckling shape is unknown. The application of the formula is however limited: o o The formula is only valid in case the member has a linear moment diagram. The check is executed when the following condition is met: 57 . Any other input of stiffeners (at intermediate positions. The verification is done according to art. Shear buckling The shear buckling check is verified using art. The first case is verified according to art. In all cases rigid end posts are assumed.1. this value will be used in each section of the member. 6.7.71): but xs ≥ 0 With: lc M Ed.00 and +1.1 and MEd. Distinction is made between two separate cases: o o No stiffeners are inputted on the member or stiffeners are inputted only at the member ends.

hw 2.Rd can then be calculated as follows: 58 .37  tw  With: hw tw  E f0 E f0 Web height Web thickness Factor for shear buckling resistance in the plastic range Modulus of Young 0. the value of  is taken as follows: With: fuw Ultimate strength of the web material f0w Yield strength of the web material The contribution of the web V w.Rd.35 hw tw f0 E Using the slenderness  w the factor for shear buckling v is obtained from the following table: In this table.2% proof strength The design shear resistance VRd for shear buckling consists of one part: the contribution of the web Vw. The slenderness  w is calculated as follows: w  0.

59 .For interaction see paragraph “Interaction”.

at the ends and intermediate positions …). 6. The verification is done according to art.Rd and the contribution of the flanges Vf.7. The check is executed when the following condition is met: With: hw tw  k E f0 Web height Web thickness Factor for shear buckling resistance in the plastic range Shear buckling coefficient for the web panel Modulus of Young 0. Contribution of the web Using the distance a between the stiffeners and the height of the web hw the shear buckling coefficient k can be calculated: The value k can now be used to calculate the slenderness  w.2. 60 .Rd.2% proof strength The design shear resistance VRd for shear buckling consists of two parts: the contribution of the web Vw.4.Plate girders with intermediate web stiffeners Any other input of stiffeners (at intermediate positions.

Rd is calculated. the value of  is taken as follows: With: f uw Ultimate strength of the web material f 0w Yield strength of the web material The contribution of the web V w.Using the slenderness  w the factor for shear buckling v is obtained from the following table: In this table.Rd = 0 When then Vf. When then Vf.Rd can then be calculated as follows: Contribution of the flanges First the design moment resistance of the cross-section considering only the flanges Mf. 61 .Rd is calculated as follows: With: bf and tf the width and thickness of the flange leading to the lowest resistance.

Rd is be reduced by the following factor: With: Af1 and Af2 the areas of the top and bottom flanges.On each side of the web. With: f 0f Yield strength of the flange material f 0w Yield strength of the web material If an axial force NEd is present. 62 . The design shear resistance VRd is then calculated as follows: For interaction see paragraph “Interaction”. the value of Mf.

If the following two expressions are checked: With: Mf.6.Rd is replaced by the reduced plastic moment resistance M N. 63 .Rd design moment resistance of the cross-section considering only the flanges Mpl. bending moment and axial force is checked according to art.Rd Plastic design bending moment resistance If an axial force NEd is also applied. for both above cases the interaction between shear force. then M pl.Interaction If required. 6.Rd given by: With: Af1 and Af2 the areas of the top and bottom flanges.1.7.

a link was made to the Friedrich + Lochner LTBII application Ref. A detailed overview of both methods is given in the following paragraphs. 64 . see paragraph “Linked Beams”. LTB restraints) The end conditions for warping and torsion are defined as follows: Cw_i Cw_j Ct_i Ct_j Warping condition at end i (beginning of the member) Warping condition at end j (end of the member) Torsion condition at end i (beginning of the member) Torsion condition at end j (end of the member) To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams. Eigenvalue solution Mcr The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam. with: o o o o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping End and begin forces Loadings Intermediate restraints (diaphragms. the member under consideration is sent to the Frilo LTBII solver and the respective results are sent back to SCIA•ESA PT.LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis Introduction to LTBII For a detailed Lateral Torsional Buckling analysis.[22]. The Frilo LTBII solver can be used in 2 separate ways: o o Calculation of M cr through eigenvalue solution 2 Order calculation including torsional and warping effects nd For both methods.

For more background information.[24].pp. the critical moment can be obtained in each section. reference is made to Ref.[23]. with: (See Ref. the elastic critical moment Mcr for lateral torsional buckling can be analyzed as the solution of an eigenvalue problem: Ke   Kg  0 Wit h:  Ke Kg Critical load factor Elastic linear stiffness matrix Geometrical stiffness matrix For members with arbitrary sections.176) M cr   max M yy M cr x     M yy ( x ) Wit h:  Myy Myy(x) Mcr(x) Critical load factor Bending moment around the strong axis Bending moment around the strong axis at position x Critical moment at position x The calculated Mcr is then used in the Lateral Torsional Buckling check of SCIA•ESA PT.For this system. 65 .

66 . For this system.2nd Order analysis The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam. Warping torque Mxs and Bimoment Mw) are then used in the Stress check of SCIA•ESA PT (See chapter “Torsion with warping”). For more background information. see paragraph “Linked Beams”. reference is made to Ref. LTB restraints) Imperfections To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams. the following internal forces are used: o o o Normal force from SCIA•ESA PT Maximal shear forces from SCIA•ESA PT / Frilo LTBII Maximal bending moments from SCIA•ESA PT / Frilo LTBII Since Lateral Torsional Buckling has been taken into account in this 2 nd Order stress check. it is no more required to execute a Lateral Torsional Buckling Check. the internal forces are calculated using a 2 nd Order 7 degrees of freedom calculation. Specifically for this stress check.[23]. with: o o o o o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping End and begin forces Loadings Intermediate restraints (diaphragms. The calculated torsional and warping moments (St Venant torque Mxp.

Supported Sections The following table shows which cross-section types are supported for which type of analysis: FRILO LTBII CSS SCIA•ESA PT CSS Eigenvalue analysis Double T I section from library Thin walled geometric I Sheet welded Iw Double T unequal IPY from library Thin walled geometric asymmetric I Haunched sections Welded I+Tl Sheet welded Iwn HAT Section IFBA. 67 . IFBB U cross section U section from library Thin walled geometric U Thin walled Double T with top flange angle Rectangle Cold formed from library Cold formed from graphical input Welded I+2L Sheet welded Iw+2L Full rectangular from library Full rectangular from thin walled geometric Static values double symmetric Static values single symmetric all other double symmetric CSS all other single symmetric CSS x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 2 Order analysis x x x x x x x x x x x x x nd The following picture illustrates the relation between the local coordinate system of SCIA•ESA PT and Frilo LTBII. Special attention is required for U sections due to the inversion of the y and z-axis.

68 . reference is made to Ref. The forces in local x-direction are ignored. Load eccentricities are replaced by torsional moments. except for the torsional moments. Note: In Frilo LTBII a distinction is made between the centroid and the shear center of a cross-section. The dead load is replaced by an equivalent line force on the beam.For more information. Load impulses which do not pass through the shear center will cause additional torsional moments.[23] Loadings The following load impulses are supported: o o o o o o Point force in node (if the node is part of the exported beam) Point force on beam Line force in beam Moment in node (if the node is part of the exported beam) Moment on beam Line moment in beam (only for M x in LCS) The supported load impulses and their eccentricities are transformed into the local LCS of the exported member. Imperfections In the 2nd Order LTB analysis the bow imperfections v0 (in local y direction) and w0 (in local z direction) can be taken into account.

5. The code indicates that for a 2 Order calculation which takes into account LTB.3. only the imperfection v0 needs to be considered.[1] art. v0 Initial bow imperfection v0 according to code For EC-EN the imperfections can be calculated according to the code.v0 y z y. both the imperfections v0 and w0 can be inputted. 69 . The sign of the imperfection according to code depends on the sign of Mz in SCIA•ESA PT.4(3) nd v0  k  e0 Wit h k e0 Factor by default taken as 0. The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.5 Bow imperfection of the weak axis Manual input of Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 In case the user specifies manual input.

an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-sections in the Frilo LTBII solver (see paragraph “Supported Sections”). The use of an elastic restraint allows the positioning of the restraint since this is not possible for a fixed restraint. 70 . with horizontal elastic restraint Cy: Cy = 1e15 kN/m The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the LTB restraint (top/bottom). (Ref.[23] p23) Specifically for U-sections.[23] p22).LTB Restraints LTB restraints are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.

5 and Ref. For a bolt pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0.104 K2 K1 + Ls a Ls K1 K2 Frame distance Length of the diaphragm Factor K1 of the diaphragm Factor K2 of the diaphragm With: The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the diaphragm.28.3.2 S (Ref.): S= a.26 p40): 2   Cy  S    L Wit h: S L Shear stiffness of the diaphragm Diaphragm length along the member The above formula for Cy is valid in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm is set as ‘br’.3.3.26 p22). Both a horizontal restraint Cy and a rotational restraint C are used.4. an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-sections in the Frilo LTBII solver (see paragraph “Supported Sections”).[23] p25). Specifically for U-sections. The elastic restraint Cy [kN/m^2] is calculated as follows (Ref. The shear stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows (Ref.[23] p52 and Ref.Diaphragms Diaphragms are transformed into 'Elastic Foundations' of type ‘elastic restraint’ (Ref.29. 71 .

[23] p23). The position of the restraint z(Cy) or y(Cz) is depending on the application point of the linked beam (top/bottom).[23] p22). In all other cases the restraint is set as Cy. the restraint is set as Cz. The end forces of the linked beam are transformed to point loads on the considered 1D member. with elastic restraint. Linked Beams Linked beams are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.direction for linked beams considered as z-restraint Specifically for U-sections. The position is only taken into account in case of a flexible restraint (Ref. o o in z -direction for linked beams considered as y-restraint in y. The direction of the restraint is dependent on the direction of the linked beam: If the linked beam has an angle less than 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration.The rotational restraint C [kNm/m] is taken as vorhC (see paragraph “Calculation of M cr – General Formula”). This is due to the rotation of Usections in the Frilo LTBII solver (see paragraph “Supported Sections”). the restraint is set as Cy. 72 . In all other cases the restraint is set as Cz. if the linked beam has an angle less than 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration.

.You want to calculate the structural safety with Elastic-Plastic method. nd order analysis instead of an eigenvalue calculation. The most important causes of the warning message are listed here.Limitations and Warnings The FRILO LTBII solver is used with following limitations: o o o o Only straight members are supported LTBII analysis is done for the whole 1D member. For more information.Design Torsion! Simplified analysis of lateral torsional buckling is not possible.Order ) The loading on the member is too big. Intermediate lateral restraints should be defined through LTB restraints. a 2 nd order calculation cannot be executed. It is recommended to use the Elastic-Elastic method. diaphragms and linked beams. This analytical procedure cannot be used for this cross-section. Due to the torsion in the member it is advised to execute a 2 . . reference is made to Ref. Plastic calculation is not possible. 2 nd Order Analysis .[22] and [23]. use imperfection according to code elastic instead of plastic. no LTB check needs to be performed.4 Due to the low relative slenderness. not for more members together When a LTB system length is inputted which differs from the member length.Lateral Torsional Buckling is not governing – relative slenderness < 0. Eigenvalue solution Mcr . not for a part of the member. 73 .Load is greater then minimum bifurcation load (Error at elastic calculation – system is instable in II. During the analysis. In this case it is not required to use the Frilo LTBII solver. a warning will be given.Bending of U-section about y-axis! The program calculates the minimum bifurcation load only. the Frilo LTBII solver may return a warning message.

Data for general section stability check The following properties have to be present in the profile library for the execution of the section and the stability check: Description Iy W y Sy Iz W z Sz It* Wt * A0 Iyz iy iz M py M pz fa b moment of inertie yy elastic section modulus yy statical moment of area yy moment of inertia zz elastic section modulus zz statical moment of area zz torsional constant torsional resistance sectional area centrifugal moment radius of gyration yy radius of gyration zz plastic moment yy plastic moment zz fabrication code 0=rolled section (default value) 1=welded section 2=cold formed section The fabrication code is not obligatory. which have to be present in the profile library. the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library.Profile conditions for code check Introduction to profile characteristics The standard profile sections have fixed sections properties and dimensions. The required dimension properties are described in chapter "Data depending on the profile shape”. When this is not the case. The section properties are described in chapter “Data for general section stability check". The plastic moments are calculated with a yield strength of 240 N/mm². When the section is made out of 1 plate. these properties have to be input by the user in the profile library. Property number 8 10 6 9 11 7 14 13 1 12 2 3 30 31 105 74 .

Propert y 49 48 44 47 66 74 140 61 146 Descriptio n H B t s R W wm1 R1  1 109 B t R1 s H R w a 75 . I .Data depending on the profile shape I section Formcode PSS Type 1 .

M .RHS Formcode PSS Type 2 . Property 49 48 67 66 109 Description H B s R 2 R H s B 76 .

CHS Formcode PSS Type 3 .R O. Property 64 65 109 Description D s 3 D w 77 .

Angle section Formcode PSS Type 4 . L . Property 49 48 44 61 66 Description H B t R1 R 74 75 76 109 W1 W2 W3 4 R1 t w2 w1 R w2 B w1 w3 78 .

U .Channel section Formcode PSS Type 5 . Property 49 48 44 47 66 Description H B t s R 68 41 61 146 R1  5 109 B R1 H s a R t 79 .

T .T section Formcode PSS Type 6 . Property 49 48 44 47 66 61 62 146 147 Description H B t s R R1 R2 1 2 6 109 B R2 s a2 H t R R1 a1 80 .

Full rectangular section
Formcode PSS Type 7 . B .

Property 48 67

Description B H

109

7

H

B

81

Full circular section
Formcode PSS Type 11 .R U.

Property 64

Description D

109

11

D

82

Asymmetric I section
Formcode 1 0 1

PSS Type

Property 49 48 44 47 42 43 45 46 66 109

Description H

s Bt Bb tt tb R 101

Bt tt

H tb R

Bb

83

Z .Z section Formcode 1 0 2 . PSS Type Property 49 48 44 47 67 61 109 Description H B t s R R1 102 B H s R t R1 84 .

The start and end parts are considered as un-stiffened elements. the intermediate parts are considered as stiffened parts. 85 . the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. Description form code Dy* Dz* CM* buckling curve around yy axis buckling curve around zz axis buckling curve for LTB Property number 109 22 23 26 106 107 108 (1) (1) (1) Valu e 110 (1) The values for the buckling curves are defined as follows : 1 = buckling curve a 2 = buckling curve b 3 = buckling curve c 4 = buckling curve d The conditions are that the section is an open profile. A may be used in the geometry description. The rounding in the corners is ignored. N. When the section is made out of 1 plate. Each part represents a plate unit which is considered as element for defining the effective width. This way of definition of the section assumes that the area is concentrated at its centre line. The properties from the reduced section can be calculated by the code check.General cold formed section Each section is considered as a composition of rectangular parts. Only the geometry commands O. L.

except for the marked properties. These properties have to be input by the user in the profile library. the properties marked with (*) can NOT be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library.When the section is made out of more than 1 plate. special for KLS section (Voest Alpine) sp is number of shear planes e2 s H B Cold formed angle section Formcode 1 1 1 PSS Type 86 . The properties from the reduced section can be calculated. Formcode 1 1 0 PSS Type Property 44 61 48 142 143 68 109 Remark: Description s r B sp e2 H 110 r is rounding.

Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 68 109 H 111 H s r B Cold formed channel section Formcode 1 1 2 PSS Type 87 .

Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 49 109 H 112 H s r B Cold formed Z section Formcode 1 1 3 PSS Type 88 .

Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 49 109 H 113 B H s R Cold formed C section Formcode 1 1 4 PSS Type Property Description 89 .

44 61 48 s r B 49 68 109 H c 114 c H s r B Cold formed Omega section Formcode 1 1 5 PSS Type Property 44 Description s 90 .

Property 148 149 150 Description h1 h2 h3 91 .61 48 r B 49 42 109 H c 115 c H s R B Rail type KA Formcode PSS Type 15 0 .K A.

Property 48 154 49 153 Description b k h b3 92 .151 152 153 154 155 156 157 61 62 63 158 159 160 109 b1 b2 b3 k f1 f2 f3 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 a 150 k r1 h3 b3 r3 h1 r4 f1 b2 b1 r5 r2 h2 f2 f3 Rail type KF Formcode PSS Type 15 1 .K F.

K Q.155 157 148 149 61 62 63 109 f1 f3 h1 h2 r1 r2 r3 151 k r1 h1 h2 r2 h r2 f3 r2 f1 r2 r3 b3 b Rail type KQ Formcode PSS Type 15 2 . Property 48 154 49 153 155 Description b k h b3 f1 93 .

149 150 61 109 h2 h3 r1 152 k r1 h3 h2 f1 b3 b 94 .

Düsseldorf 1982 Dietrich von Berg Krane und Kranbahnen – Berechnung Konstruktion Ausführung B.Aero. Stuttgart 1988 C.1 : General structural rules EN 1999-1-1:2007 [ 2 ] TALAT Lecture 2301 Design of members European Aluminium Association T. 1999.16 Feb. Düsseldorf 1986 Kaltprofile 3. Vol. Braunschweig 1988 Handleiding moduul STACO VGI Staalbouwkundig Genootschap Staalcentrum Nederland 5684/82 [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 1 0 ] [ 1 1 ] Newmark N. Teubner. BI-87-20/63.M. Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken November 1990 Rapportnr. A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of columns J. Auflage Verlag Stahleisen mbH.3360 Controleregels voor lijnvormige constructie-elementen IBBC Maart 1987 [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] 95 . Vieweg & Sohn. Höglund.Sc. Auglage Band I/ Teil 2 Verlag Stahleisen mbH. Petersen Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von Stahlbauten Friedr.References  1  Eurocode 9 Design of aluminum structures Part 1 . [ 3 ] Stahl im Hochbau 14.4.G.1949 pp.116 Stabiliteit voor de staalconstructeur uitgave Staalbouwkundig Genootschap DIN18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten : Stabilitätsfälle.

Berlin-Köln 1993 Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Stabiliteit NEN 6771 . Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg .com [ 1 4 ] Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . 2006 www. Mazzolani (2002) Design of Metallic cold formed thin-walled members Spon Press.Auflage Beuth Verlag. 1988 ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 [ 1 7 ] [ 1 8 ] [ 1 9 ] [ 2 0 ] [ 2 1 ] [ 2 2 ] [ E.Ordnung (BTII) http://www. Düsseldorf Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4. Valtinat (2003) Aluminium im Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau Ernst & Sohn.access-steel. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11. Germany Frilo LTBII software Friedrich + Lochner Lateral Torsional Buckling 2 nd Order Analysis Biegetorsionstheorie II.de Friedrich + Lochner LTBII Manual 96 .90) Werner-Verlag. Landolfo. F.frilo. Berlin. R.1991 A Gerhsi. december 1991 SN001a-EN-EU NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes Access Steel. 1.[ 1 2 ] [ 1 3 ] Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies NEN 6770.M.1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992 [ 1 5 ] [ 1 6 ] R. Faculté des Sciences Appliquées. London. UK G.

1999 http://www. Berlin-Köln 1993 97 .1 : General rules and rules for buildings EN 1993-1-1:2005 [ 2 6 ] J.und Sandwichelementdeckungen. Schikowski Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Scheibenwirkung von Trapez. 2002 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . 1.90) Werner-Verlag.jschik.2 3 ] [ 2 4 ] [ 2 5 ] BTII Handbuch Revision 1/2006 J.Auflage Beuth Verlag. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11. Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken November 1990 [ 2 7 ] [ 2 8 ] [ 2 9 ] E. Düsseldorf Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4. Meister Nachweispraxis Biegeknicken und Biegedrillknicken Ernst & Sohn.de/ DIN 18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle.