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Ad|ectlve Cluuses

Here ls u brlef revlew of ud|ectlve cluuses und relutlve pronouns.
An ud|ectlve cluuse ls used to descrlbe u noun:
The cur, whlch wus red, belonged to Young-Hee.
A relutlve pronoun ls usuully used to lntroduce un ud|ectlve cluuse:
Young-Hee, who ls u Koreun student, llves ln Vlctorlu.
The muln relutlve pronouns ure:
Pronoun Use Exumple
Who used for humuns ln sub|ect posltlon Huns, who ls un urchltect, llves ln Berlln.
Whom used for humuns ln ob|ect posltlon
Murlke, whom Huns knows well, ls un
lnterlor decorutor.
Whlch used for thlngs und unlmuls ln sub|ect or ob|ect posltlon
Murlke hus u dog whlch follows her
everywhere.
Thut
used for humuns, unlmuls und thlngs, ln sub|ect or ob|ect
posltlon (but see below)
Murlke ls decorutlng u house thut Huns
deslgned.
There ure two muln klnds of ud|ectlve cluuse:
1. Non-deflnlng cluuses
Non-deflnlng cluuses glve extru lnformutlon ubout the noun, but they ure not essentlul:
The desk ln the corner, whlch ls covered ln books, ls mlne.
Explunutlon: We don't need thls lnformutlon ln order to understund the sentence. իThe desk ln the corner ls mlneլ ls u
good sentence on lts own դ we stlll know whlch desk ls referred to. Note thut non-deflnlng cluuses ure usuully
sepuruted by commus, und իthutլ ls not usuully used ln thls klnd of context.
2. Deflnlng cluuses
Deflnlng cluuses glve essentlul lnformutlon ubout the noun:
The puckuge thut urrlved thls mornlng ls on the desk.
Explunutlon: We need thls lnformutlon ln order to understund the sentence. Wlthout the relutlve cluuse, we don't know
whlch puckuge ls belng referred to. Note thut իthutլ ls often used ln deflnlng relutlve cluuses, und they ure not
sepuruted by commus.
Adjective Clauses

At a certain point in your writing in English, you should be able to identify every sentence you write as simple,
compound, or complex. Two additional structures, adjective clauses and appositives, will give you a much
greater sentence variety within which to accomplish your writing objectives. This page contains a small
amount of information about adjective clauses along with just ten very difficult exercises. First, we will
define what adjective clauses are and how they work.
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It is possible to combine the following two
sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause:
The children are going to visit the museum.
They are on the bus.
The children who are on the bus are going to visit the museum.
| adjective clause |
In the sentence above, there are two other ways to write the sentence correctly using the second sentence as
the adjective clause.
The children that are on the bus are going to visit the museum.
The children on the bus are going to visit the museum.
Some other sentences can be combined into a sentence using adjective clauses in a variety of ways, and they
are all correct. Note the variety of ways in which the following two sentences can be combined.
The church is old.
My grandparents were married there.
The church where my grandparents were married is old.
The church in which my grandparents were married is old.
The church which my grandparents were married in is old.
The church that my grandparents were married in is old.
The church my grandparents were married in is old.
In the sentences above, the adjective clauses are underlined. All answers are correct. Note the use of the
word "in" and how and where it is used.
IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT PUNCTUATION
Managing simple, compound, and complex sentences, and then adding adjective clauses into the mix can
result in some confusing situations regarding punctuation. There are some specific rules when punctuation is
permissible or required around adjective clauses (when the information in the adjective clause is non-essential
information); however, in my composition classes, I insist that students NOT use commas around adjective
clauses for several reasons.
First, non-essential information should generally be avoided in academic writing, at least in the short essays
required for these composition classes. Thus, not including the commas will more often be right than wrong.
Second, my Spanish speaking students have a natural tendency to write long sentences using many commas
inappropriately. By not using commas around adjective clauses, students can perhaps more readily recognize
when a period is required.
Third, I believe it is easier to learn to apply commas later when they are required than the other way around.
Indiscriminate use of commas is a hard habit to undo in my experience. Therefore do not use commas around
adjective clauses, at least for one semester.
Are you ready to take the quiz?
This quiz is very difficult. These sentences are actually the hardest I could find (in the sense that you need to
know ALL the rules in order to get them all correct), so please follow the directions carefully.
1. Do not use commas in any of the completed sentences.
2. Make adjective clauses of the second sentence in every case. (Obviously, any of these sentences could be
written using the first sentence as the adjective clause; however, making adjective clauses of the second
sentence is harder because it requires knowledge of all the "rules" of writing adjective clauses.)
3. Spell correctly! This quiz is "graded" by computer, so any spelling mistake or punctuation error, like
forgetting a period at the end of a sentence, will be counted wrong.

Sentences: Simple, Compound, and Complex

SIMPLE SENTENCE
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a
complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green.

A. Some students like to study in the mornings.
B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
The three examples above are all simple sentences. Note that sentence B contains a compound subject,
and sentence C contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and
express a complete thought, but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs.
COMPOUND SENTENCE
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as
follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells
FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the
following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the
commas that precede them are in red.

A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.
B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.
C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.
The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two independent clauses,
and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. Note how the conscious use of
coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences B and C, for example, are
identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B, which action occurred first? Obviously, "Alejandro
played football" first, and as a consequence, "Maria went shopping. In sentence C, "Maria went shopping"
first. In sentence C, "Alejandro played football" because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, for
or because "Maria went shopping." How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between
the two clauses? What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence?
COMPLEX SENTENCE
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex
sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun
such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in
green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.
B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a comma is required at
the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in
the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the
subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.
Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is
followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The
comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will
often hear a slight pause there. In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent
clause begins the sentence.
COMPLEX SENTENCES / ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
Finally, sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an
independent clause and a dependent clause. The subjects, verbs, and subordinators are marked the same as in the
previous sentences, and in these sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined.

A. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics.
B. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf.
C. The house which AbrahAM Lincoln was born in is still standing.
D. The town where I grew up is in the United States.
Adjective Clauses are studied in this site separately, but for now it is important to know that sentences containing
adjective clauses are complex.
CONCLUSION
Are sure you now know the differences between simple, compound, and complex sentences? Click QUICK
QUIZ to find out. This quiz is just six sentences. The key is to look for the subjects and verbs first.
Another quiz, this one about Helen Keller contains ten sentences.
These quiz sentences based on the short story, The Americanization of Shadrach Cohen, by Bruno Lessing.
Quick Quiz: Shadrach
After each quiz, click GRADE QUIZ to see your score immediately.


Complex sentence
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A complex sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
Contrast
y I ate the meal that you cooked.
I ate the meal is an independent clause and that you cooked is a relative clause.
More examples of a complex sentence are:
I enjoyed that apple pie that you bought for me.
I like the pomegranate juice that my father poured into the hi
y I ate breakfast before I went to work.
I ate breakfast is an independent clause, and before I went to work is a dependent clause, meaning it cannot stand alone as a
sentence.
y I was scared, but I didn't run away.
Both clauses are independent. Therefore, this is a compound sentence but not a complex sentence.
y The dog that you gave me barked at me, and it bit my hand.
This is a compound-complex sentence with two independent clauses (The dog barked at me and It bit my hand) and one
dependent clause (that you gave me).
A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses. It does not require a dependent clause. The clauses
are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), a correlative conjunction (with or without a comma), a
semicolon that functions as a conjunction, or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon. A conjunction can be used to
make a compound sentence. The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses is called a comma splice and is
generally considered an error (when used in the English language).
Examples
y My friend invited me to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me go.
y Do you want to stay here, or would you like to go shopping with me?
y I have a lot of work to finish, so I will be up all night.
y Compound And Complex Sentences
y Compound Sentences
1. Use a Comma and a Joining Word.
[Joining Words (coordinating conjunctions): For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So]
y The teacher lectured for over an hour, and his students slept soundly.
The old man wanted hide his money, for he feared his children would steal it from him.
The student had a test the next day, so she studied all night long.
y Pattern: Sentence, joining word sentence.
Subject + Predicate, joining word Subject + Predicate.
y 2. Use a Semicolon.
y The teacher lectured for over an hour; his students slept soundly.
The old man wanted hide his money; he feared his children would steal it from him.
The student studied all night long; she had a test the next day.
y Patterns: Sentence ; sentence.
Subject + Predicate ; Subject + Predicate.
y 3. Use a semicolon and a transition word.
[Transition words (adverbial conjunctions): however, therefore, in fact, on the other hand, nonetheless, besides,
instead, then, instead, moreover, similarly, nevertheless, still, etc.]
y The car had a V-8 engine and a new paint job; however, it had no brakes.
The Pit Bull had quite a bite; in fact, its bite was "outlawed" in seven states.
Larry studied for the test all weekend; therefore, he expected a good grade on the test.
y Patterns: Sentence ; transition word, sentence.
Subject + Predicate ; transition word, Subject + Predicate.
y

y Complex Sentences
Use one of the two patterns illustrated below.
[Joining words (subordinating conjunctions) : As, As if, Because, Since, Although, Even though, When, While,
Until, Unless, Where, etc. ]
y When I looked into the mirror, I saw an old man.
I saw an old man when I looked into the mirror.
Until Josh attended Merced College, he had no focus in life.
Josh had no focus in life until he attended Merced College.
y Pattern: 1. Joining word subject + predicate, subject + predicate.
2. Subject + predicate joining word subject + predicate.
y
y
y Compound-Complex Sentences
Create a sentence which is a combination of a compound and complex sentence.
y When I looked into the mirror, I saw an old man, and I was surprised.
As I look out the window, I see no clouds, but the weather report predicted rain.
Whenever the old man walked around the mansion, he wanted hide his money, for he feared his children would
steal it from him.
y Pattern:
Subordinating conjunction subject + predicate, subject + predicate, coordinating conjunction subject + predicate.
y Komposisi Lanjutan untuk non-penutur asli bahasa Inggris
http://eslbee.com
Kalimat: Sederhana, Senyawa, dan Kompleks

Penulis berpengalaman menggunakan berbagai kalimat untuk membuat tulisan mereka menarik dan
hidup. Terlalu banyak kalimat sederhana, misalnya, akan terdengar berombak dan belum dewasa,
sementara kalimat panjang terlalu banyak akan sulit untuk membaca dan sulit dimengerti.
Halaman ini berisi definisi kalimat sederhana, maj emuk, dan kompleks dengan contoh-contoh
sederhana banyak. Tujuan dari contoh ini adalah untuk membantu para pelajar ESL / EFL untuk
mengidentifikasi dasar-dasar kalimat termasuk identifikasi kalimat dalam jangka pendek yang mengikuti
kuis. Setelah itu, akan mungkin untuk menganalisis lebih kompleks varietas kalimat.
Kalimat tunggal
Sebuah kalimat sederhana, juga disebut sebagai klausa independen, berisi subjek dan kata kerja, dan
mengekspresikan pemikiran yang lengkap. Dalam kalimat sederhana berikut, mata pelajaran yang di
kuning, dan verba berada di hijau.

A. Beberapa siswa ingin belajar di pagi hari.
B. Juan dan Arturo bermain sepak bola setiap sore.
C. Alicia pergi ke perpustakaan dan studi setiap hari.
Ketiga contoh di atas adalah semua kalimat sederhana. Perhatikan bahwa B kalimat berisi subjek
majemuk, dan C berisi kalimat verba majemuk. Kalimat sederhana, karena itu, mengandung subjek dan
kata kerja dan mengekspresikan pemikiran yang lengkap, tetapi mereka juga dapat berisi senyawa
subj ek atau kata kerja.
COMPOUND KALIMAT
Sebuah kalimat majemuk mengandung dua klausa independen bergabung oleh seorang koordinator.
Para koordinator adalah sebagai berikut: untuk, dan, atau, tapi, atau, belum, jadi. (Petunjuk:. Huruf
pertama dari masing-masing koordinator mantra fanboys) Kecuali untuk kalimat yang sangat singkat,
koordinator selalu didahului oleh tanda koma. Dalam kalimat majemuk berikut, subjek berada dalam
kuning, verba dalam hijau, dan para koordinator dan koma yang mendahului mereka dalam merah.

A. Saya mencoba untuk berbicara bahasa Spanyol, dan teman saya mencoba untuk berbicara bahasa
Inggris.
B. Alejandro bermain sepak bola, sehingga Maria pergi belanja.
Alejandro C. bermain sepak bola, Maria pergi berbelanja.
Ketiga kalimat di atas adalah kalimat majemuk. Setiap kalimat berisi dua klausa independen, dan
mereka bergabung oleh seorang koordinator dengan koma mendahuluinya. Perhatikan bagaimana
penggunaan sadar koordinator dapat mengubah hubungan antara klausa. Kalimat B dan C, misalnya,
adalah identik kecuali untuk koordinator. Dalam kalimat B, dimana aksi terjadi pertama? Jelas,
"memainkan sepakbola Alejandro" pertama, dan sebagai konsekuensinya, "lanjut Maria belanj a. Dalam
C kalimat," lanjut Maria belanja "pertama. Dalam C kalimat," memainkan sepakbola Alej andro "karena,
mungkin, ia tidak memiliki apa-apa lagi untuk melakukan, untuk atau karena "Maria pergi berbelanj a."
Bagaimana penggunaan koordinator lainnya mengubah hubungan antara dua klausa? Apa implikasinya
akan penggunaan "belum" atau "tetapi" memiliki pada makna kalimat itu?
KOMPLEKS KALIMAT
Sebuah kalimat yang kompleks memiliki klausa independen bergabung dengan satu atau lebih klausa
tergantung. Sebuah kalimat yang kompleks selalu memiliki subordinator seperti karena, karena, setelah,
meskipun, atau kapan atau kata ganti relatif seperti itu, yang, atau yang. Dalam kalimat-kalimat
kompleks berikut, subjek berada dalam kuning, verba dalam hijau, dan subordinators dan koma mereka
(bila diperlukan) dalam merah.

A. Ketika dia menyerahkan pekerjaan rumahnya, ia lupa untuk memberi guru halaman terakhir.
B. Guru PR kembali setelah ia melihat kesalahan.
C. siswa belajar karena mereka memiliki tes besok.
D. Setelah mereka selesai belajar, Juan dan Maria pergi ke bioskop.
Juan E. dan Maria pergi ke bioskop setelah mereka selesai belaj ar.
Ketika sebuah kalimat kompleks dimulai dengan subordinator seperti kalimat A dan D, koma diperlukan
pada akhir klausa tergantung. Ketika klausa independen memulai kalimat dengan subordinators di
tengah seperti pada kalimat B, C, dan E, koma tidak diperlukan. Jika koma ditempatkan sebelum
subordinators dalam kalimat B, C, dan E, itu salah.
Perhatikan bahwa kalimat D dan E adalah sama kecuali D kalimat dimulai dengan klausa dependen
yang diikuti dengan koma, dan E kalimat dimulai dengan klausa independen yang berisi tidak ada koma.
Koma setelah klausa dependen dalam D diperlukan kalimat, dan pendengar mengalami bahasa Inggris
akan sering mendengar jeda sebentar di sana. Di E kalimat, bagaimanapun, tidak akan ada jeda ketika
klausa independen dimulai kalimat.
KOMPLEKS KALIMAT / KATA SIFAT PERSYARATAN
Akhirnya, kalimat yang mengandung klausa kata sifat (atau klausa dependen) juga kompleks karena
mereka berisi klausa klausa independen dan dependen. Subyek, kata kerja, dan subordinators ditandai
sama seperti dalam kalimat sebelumnya, dan dalam kalimat, klausa independen juga digarisbawahi.

A. Wanita yang (m) ibuku berbicara untuk kosmetik menjual.
B. Buku yang Jonathan dibaca di rak.
C. rumah yang Abraham Lincoln lahir di masih berdiri.
D. Kota tempat saya dibesarkan adalah di Amerika Serikat.
Klausul Adjective dipelaj ari dalam situs ini secara terpisah, tapi untuk saat ini adalah penting untuk
mengetahui bahwa kalimat yang mengandung klausa kata sifat yang kompleks.
KESIMPULAN
Yakin Anda sekarang tahu perbedaan antara kalimat sederhana, majemuk, dan kompleks? Klik CEPAT
KUIS untuk mencari tahu. Kuis ini hanya enam kalimat. Kuncinya adalah untuk mencari subjek dan kata
kerja pertama.
Kuis lain, yang satu ini tentang Helen Keller berisi sepuluh kalimat.
Kalimat ini kuis didasarkan pada cerita pendek, Amerikanisasi Sadrakh Cohen, oleh Bruno Lessing.
Kuis Cepat: Sadrakh
Setelah setiap kuis, klik GRADE KUIS untuk melihat skor Anda segera.


Kompleks kalimat
Dari Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari
Sebuah kalimat kompleks adalah sebuah kalimat dengan satu klausa independen dan setidaknya satu
klausa dependen.
Kontras
‡ Saya makan makanan yang dimasak Anda.
Aku makan makan adalah klausa independen dan bahwa Anda dimasak adalah klausa relatif.
Lebih banyak contoh kalimat kompleks adalah:
Saya menikmatinya pai apel yang Anda beli untuk saya.
Saya suka jus delima yang ayahku dituangkan ke dalam hi
‡ Saya makan sarapan sebelum aku pergi bekerja.
Aku makan sarapan adalah klausa independen, dan sebelum aku pergi untuk bekerja adalah klausa
tergantung, yang berarti tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat.
‡ Aku takut, tapi aku tidak lari.
Kedua klausa independen. Oleh karena itu, ini adalah kalimat majemuk, tetapi bukan kalimat kompleks.
‡ Anjing yang Anda memberi saya menyalak pada saya, dan sedikit tanganku.
Ini adalah kalimat majemuk-kompleks dengan dua klausa independen (anjing menggonggong padaku
dan itu menggigit tangan saya) dan satu klausa dependen (yang Anda berikan kepada saya).
Sebuah kalimat majemuk terdiri dari setidaknya dua klausa independen. Ini tidak memerlukan klausa
dependen. Klausa yang bergabung dengan koordinasi bersama (dengan atau tanpa koma), konjungsi
korelatif (dengan atau tanpa koma), titik koma yang berfungsi sebagai konjungsi, atau adverbia
penghubung didahului oleh titik koma. Hubungannya dapat digunakan untuk membuat kalimat
majemuk. Penggunaan tanda koma untuk memisahkan dua klausa independen disebut sambatan koma
dan umumnya dianggap kesalahan (bila digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris).
Contoh
‡ Teman saya mengundang saya ke pesta teh, tetapi orang tua saya tidak membiarkan saya pergi.
‡ Apakah Anda ingin tinggal di sini, atau apakah Anda ingin pergi berbelanj a dengan saya?
‡ Saya memiliki banyak pekerjaan yang harus selesai, jadi saya akan terjaga sepanj ang malam.
‡ Senyawa Dan Kalimat Kompleks
‡ Senyawa Kalimat
1. Gunakan koma dan Firman Bergabung.
[Bergabung Kata (koordinasi konjungsi): Untuk, Dan, Juga, Tapi, Atau, Namun, dan So]
‡ Guru mengaj ar selama lebih dari satu jam, dan murid-muridnya tidur nyenyak.
Orang tua itu ingin menyembunyikan uangnya, karena ia takut anak-anaknya akan mencurinya dari dia.
Siswa menjalani tes pada hari berikutnya, jadi dia belajar sepanjang malam.
‡ Pola: Kalimat, bergabung dengan kalimat kata.
Subject + Predikat, bergabung dengan kata Predikat Subject +.
‡ 2. Gunakan titik koma.
‡ Guru mengaj ar selama lebih dari satu jam, murid-muridnya tidur nyenyak.
Orang tua itu ingin menyembunyikan uangnya, ia takut anak-anaknya akan mencurinya dari dia.
Siswa belaj ar sepanjang malam, dia menjalani tes pada hari berikutnya.
‡ Pola: kalimat; kalimat.
Subject + Predikat; Subjek Predikat +.
‡ 3. Gunakan koma dan kata transisi.
[Kata Transisi (konjungsi adverbial): Namun, oleh karena itu, pada kenyataannya, di sisi lain, tetap,
selain itu, sebagai gantinya, maka, sebaliknya, apalagi, sama, bagaimanapun, masih, dll]
‡ Mobil itu V-8 mesin dan pekerjaan cat baru, namun tidak memiliki rem.
Pit Bull sudah cukup menggigit, bahkan, gigitannya adalah "dilarang" di tujuh negara.
Larry belajar untuk ujian akhir pekan, karena itu, ia mengharapkan nilai yang baik pada tes.
‡ Pola: Kalimat; kata transisi, kalimat.
Subject + Predikat; kata transisi, Subjek Predikat +.
‡
‡ ________________________________________
‡ Kalimat Kompleks
Gunakan salah satu dari dua pola yang digambarkan di bawah.
[Kata Bergabung (konjungsi subordinatif): Sebagai, Seolah-olah, Karena, Karena, Walaupun, Meskipun,
Ketika, Ketika, Sampai, Kecuali, Dimana, dll]
‡ Ketika aku melihat ke cermin, aku melihat seorang pria tua.
Saya melihat seorang tua ketika aku melihat ke cermin.
Sampai Josh dihadiri Sekolah Merced, ia tidak fokus dalam hidup.
Josh tidak fokus dalam hidup sampai ia menghadiri Sekolah Merced.
‡ Pola: 1. Bergabung kata subjek + predikat, subyek + predikat.
2. Subject + predikat subjek predikat kata + bergabung.
‡
‡ ________________________________________
‡ Senyawa Kompleks Kalimat
Buat kalimat yang merupakan kombinasi dari senyawa dan kalimat yang kompleks.
‡ Ketika aku melihat ke cermin, aku melihat seorang pria tua, dan saya terkejut.
Saat aku melihat keluar jendela, saya tidak melihat awan, tapi laporan cuaca diperkirakan hujan.
Setiap kali orang tua berjalan di sekitar rumah, dia ingin menyembunyikan uangnya, karena ia takut
anak-anaknya akan mencurinya dari dia.
‡ Pola:
Membawahi subjek bersama + predikat, subyek + predikat, koordinasi bersama subjek + predikat.



First. or complex. you should be able to identify every sentence you write as simple. . adjective clauses and appositives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djective Clauses At a certain point in your writing in English. we will define what adjective clauses are and how they work. compound. This page contains a small amount of information about adjective clauses along with just ten very difficult exercises. will give you a much greater sentence variety within which to accomplish your writing objectives. Two additional structures.

The church where my grandparents were married is old. 1. The church is old. Do not use commas in any of the completed sentences. The children who are on the bus are going to visit the museum. Spell correctly! This quiz is "graded" by computer. IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT PUNCTUATION Managing simple. at least for one semester. The children that are on the bus are going to visit the museum. I insist that students NOT use commas around adjective clauses for several reasons. however. It is possible to combine the following two sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause: The children are going to visit the museum. the adjective clauses are underlined. Thus. so any spelling mistake or punctuation error. in my composition classes. There are some specific rules when punctuation is permissible or required around adjective clauses (when the information in the adjective clause is non-essential information). All answers are correct. I believe it is easier to learn to apply commas later when they are required than the other way around. These sentences are actually the hardest I could find (in the sense that you need to know ALL the rules in order to get them all correct). and then adding adjective clauses into the mix can result in some confusing situations regarding punctuation.) 3. First. My grandparents were married there. students can perhaps more readily recognize when a period is required. compound. Second. Indiscriminate use of commas is a hard habit to undo in my experience. Note the variety of ways in which the following two sentences can be combined. The children on the bus are going to visit the museum. however. so please follow the directions carefully. The church which my grandparents were married in is old. making adjective clauses of the second sentence is harder because it requires knowledge of all the "rules" of writing adjective clauses. any of these sentences could be written using the first sentence as the adjective clause. Third. at least in the short essays required for these composition classes. Make adjective clauses of the second sentence in every case. By not using commas around adjective clauses. and complex sentences. Therefore do not use commas around adjective clauses.An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. and they are all correct. my Spanish speaking students have a natural tendency to write long sentences using many commas inappropriately. not including the commas will more often be right than wrong. non-essential information should generally be avoided in academic writing. (Obviously. Note the use of the word "in" and how and where it is used. there are two other ways to write the sentence correctly using the second sentence as the adjective clause. In the sentences above. 2. They are on the bus. The church my grandparents were married in is old. | adjective clause | In the sentence above. The church in which my grandparents were married is old. like . Are you ready to take the quiz? This quiz is very difficult. The church that my grandparents were married in is old. Some other sentences can be combined into a sentence using adjective clauses in a variety of ways.

and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. Simple sentences. "Maria went shopping" first. C. will be counted wrong. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B. but. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. In sentence B. C. The coordinators are as follows: for. In the following compound sentences. therefore. so Maria went shopping. and as a consequence. and E. Alejandro played football. for example. and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red." How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses? What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence? COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. although. Alejandro played football. When he handed in his homework. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.) Except for very short sentences. which action occurred first? Obviously. verbs are in green. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS. After they finished studying. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. he forgot to give the teacher the last page. Some students like to study in the mornings. contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought. Compound. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying. or which. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. "Maria went shopping. nor. a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. and my friend tried to speak English. A. Sentences: Simple. Sentences B and C. for Maria went shopping.forgetting a period at the end of a sentence. after. "Alejandro played football" first. In sentence C. In sentence C. In the following simple sentences. Juan and Maria went to the movies. B. also called an independent clause. Each sentence contains two independent clauses. and Complex SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence. subjects are in yellow. no comma is required. C. In the following complex sentences. When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D. Note that sentence B contains a compound subject. C. B. D. possibly. so. The above three sentences are compound sentences. verbs are in green. yet. and sentence C contains a compound verb. "Alejandro played football" because. and. The three examples above are all simple sentences. A. and verbs are in green. and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. contains a subject and a verb. subjects are in yellow. coordinators are always preceded by a comma. If a comma is placed before the . who. he didn't have anything else to do. and it expresses a complete thought. for or because "Maria went shopping. E. Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because. or when or a relative pronoun such as that. since. are identical except for the coordinators. subjects are in yellow. or. A. I tried to speak Spanish. B.

it is wrong. A. click GRADE QUIZ to see your score immediately. and E. the independent clauses are also underlined. search A complex sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. COMPLEX SENTENCES / ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Finally. I like the pomegranate juice that my father poured into the hi y I ate breakfast before I went to work. C. CONCLUSION Are sure you now know the differences between simple.subordinators in sentences B. I ate the meal is an independent clause and that you cooked is a relative clause. verbs. and complex sentences? Click QUICK QUIZ to find out. Complex sentence From Wikipedia. The subjects. The comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required. compound. there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. this one about Helen Keller contains ten sentences. The Americanization of Shadrach Cohen. These quiz sentences based on the short story. and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics. Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Adjective Clauses are studied in this site separately. by Bruno Lessing. . D. but for now it is important to know that sentences containing adjective clauses are complex. In sentence E. More examples of a complex sentence are: I enjoyed that apple pie that you bought for me. Another quiz. and in these sentences. This quiz is just six sentences. The key is to look for the subjects and verbs first. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf. Contrast y I ate the meal that you cooked. B. sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. Quick Quiz: Shadrach After each quiz. and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. The town where I grew up is in the United States. The house which AbrahAM Lincoln was born in is still standing. however. and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences. C.

etc. he feared his children would steal it from him. its bite was "outlawed" in seven states. Since. Examples y y y My friend invited me to a tea party. y 3. she had a test the next day. transition word. Use a Comma and a Joining Word. [Joining words (subordinating conjunctions) : As. 2. Subject + Predicate. instead. Even though. Because. therefore. meaning it cannot stand alone as a sentence. his students slept soundly. A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence. Therefore. The clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma).I ate breakfast is an independent clause. so she studied all night long. y The dog that you gave me barked at me. instead. transition word. This is a compound-complex sentence with two independent clauses (The dog barked at me and It bit my hand) and one dependent clause (that you gave me). or would you like to go shopping with me? I have a lot of work to finish. Subject + Predicate . Or. Where. and So] y The teacher lectured for over an hour. y Pattern: Sentence. etc. a semicolon that functions as a conjunction. Until. Subject + Predicate. a correlative conjunction (with or without a comma). Nor. y Patterns: Sentence . and his students slept soundly. therefore. ] When I looked into the mirror. sentence. but my parents didn't let me go. in fact. Yet. Until Josh attended Merced College. As if. it had no brakes. A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses. then. Unless. he had no focus in life. Joining word subject + predicate. joining word Subject + Predicate. however. The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses is called a comma splice and is generally considered an error (when used in the English language). y y Complex Sentences Use one of the two patterns illustrated below. besides. Both clauses are independent. and it bit my hand. The student studied all night long. It does not require a dependent clause. The Pit Bull had quite a bite. Pattern: 1. similarly. When. Subject + Predicate. but I didn't run away. nonetheless. in fact. or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon. And. Although. for he feared his children would steal it from him. Do you want to stay here. Larry studied for the test all weekend. I saw an old man when I looked into the mirror. Use a Semicolon. Josh had no focus in life until he attended Merced College. The old man wanted hide his money. y I was scared. joining word sentence. sentence. y 2. Subject + predicate joining word subject + predicate. nevertheless. moreover. and before I went to work is a dependent clause. on the other hand.] y The car had a V-8 engine and a new paint job. so I will be up all night. Use a semicolon and a transition word. y y y y . [Transition words (adverbial conjunctions): however. The old man wanted hide his money. I saw an old man. Subject + Predicate . y Patterns: Sentence . y The teacher lectured for over an hour. this is a compound sentence but not a complex sentence. [Joining Words (coordinating conjunctions): For. y Compound And Complex Sentences y Compound Sentences 1. While. The student had a test the next day. he expected a good grade on the test. But. subject + predicate. still.

Perhatikan bahwa B kalimat berisi subjek majemuk. Jika koma ditempatkan sebelum . untuk atau karena "Maria pergi berbelanja. dan E. dan teman saya mencoba untuk berbicara bahasa Inggris. C. koma tidak diperlukan. adalah identik kecuali untuk koordinator. Kalimat B dan C. dan sebagai konsekuensinya. Halaman ini berisi definisi kalimat sederhana. atau. Dalam C kalimat. subjek berada dalam kuning. dan. karena. belum. Juan E." lanjut Maria belanja "pertama. ia lupa untuk memberi guru halaman terakhir. akan terdengar berombak dan belum dewasa." memainkan sepakbola Alejandro "karena. tapi. Beberapa siswa ingin belajar di pagi hari. and I was surprised. atau yang. Alejandro bermain sepak bola. he wanted hide his money. bermain sepak bola. setelah. Sebuah kalimat yang kompleks selalu memiliki subordinator seperti karena. Dalam C kalimat. verba dalam hijau. koma diperlukan pada akhir klausa tergantung. B. Setiap kalimat berisi dua klausa independen. A. koordinator selalu didahului oleh tanda koma. dimana aksi terjadi pertama? Jelas. Senyawa. verba dalam hijau. Alicia pergi ke perpustakaan dan studi setiap hari. Juan dan Arturo bermain sepak bola setiap sore. Ketiga contoh di atas adalah semua kalimat sederhana. C. but the weather report predicted rain. "lanjut Maria belanja. (Petunjuk:. I see no clouds. meskipun. atau kapan atau kata ganti relatif seperti itu. Pattern: Subordinating conjunction subject + predicate. Ketika sebuah kalimat kompleks dimulai dengan subordinator seperti kalimat A dan D. dan mengekspresikan pemikiran yang lengkap. Ketika dia menyerahkan pekerjaan rumahnya. Dalam kalimat majemuk berikut. Guru PR kembali setelah ia melihat kesalahan. misalnya. akan mungkin untuk menganalisis lebih kompleks varietas kalimat. dan para koordinator dan koma yang mendahului mereka dalam merah. B. dan mereka bergabung oleh seorang koordinator dengan koma mendahuluinya. dan Kompleks Penulis berpengalaman menggunakan berbagai kalimat untuk membuat tulisan mereka menarik dan hidup. Dalam kalimat sederhana berikut. siswa belajar karena mereka memiliki tes besok. A. Dalam kalimat B. "memainkan sepakbola Alejandro" pertama. Perhatikan bagaimana penggunaan sadar koordinator dapat mengubah hubungan antara klausa. mata pelajaran yang di kuning. dan C berisi kalimat verba majemuk. Kalimat sederhana. When I looked into the mirror.com Kalimat: Sederhana. for he feared his children would steal it from him. As I look out the window. subjek berada dalam kuning. Terlalu banyak kalimat sederhana. mungkin. dan verba berada di hijau. A. sementara kalimat panjang terlalu banyak akan sulit untuk membaca dan sulit dimengerti. I saw an old man. juga disebut sebagai klausa independen. ia tidak memiliki apa-apa lagi untuk melakukan. jadi. mengandung subjek dan kata kerja dan mengekspresikan pemikiran yang lengkap. Saya mencoba untuk berbicara bahasa Spanyol. Ketiga kalimat di atas adalah kalimat majemuk. B. Setelah itu. COMPOUND KALIMAT Sebuah kalimat majemuk mengandung dua klausa independen bergabung oleh seorang koordinator. Maria pergi berbelanja. berisi subjek dan kata kerja. atau. Juan dan Maria pergi ke bioskop. Ketika klausa independen memulai kalimat dengan subordinators di tengah seperti pada kalimat B. C. Para koordinator adalah sebagai berikut: untuk. sehingga Maria pergi belanja. dan Maria pergi ke bioskop setelah mereka selesai belajar. majemuk. yang. D. Alejandro C. Tujuan dari contoh ini adalah untuk membantu para pelajar ESL / EFL untuk mengidentifikasi dasar-dasar kalimat termasuk identifikasi kalimat dalam jangka pendek yang mengikuti kuis. karena itu. Komposisi Lanjutan untuk non-penutur asli bahasa Inggris http://eslbee. Setelah mereka selesai belajar. Kalimat tunggal Sebuah kalimat sederhana.y y y y Compound-Complex Sentences Create a sentence which is a combination of a compound and complex sentence." Bagaimana penggunaan koordinator lainnya mengubah hubungan antara dua klausa? Apa implikasinya akan penggunaan "belum" atau "tetapi" memiliki pada makna kalimat itu? KOMPLEKS KALIMAT Sebuah kalimat yang kompleks memiliki klausa independen bergabung dengan satu atau lebih klausa tergantung. dan kompleks dengan contoh-contoh sederhana banyak. Dalam kalimat-kalimat kompleks berikut. misalnya. coordinating conjunction subject + predicate. Whenever the old man walked around the mansion. dan subordinators dan koma mereka (bila diperlukan) dalam merah. subject + predicate. Huruf pertama dari masing-masing koordinator mantra fanboys) Kecuali untuk kalimat yang sangat singkat. tetapi mereka juga dapat berisi senyawa subjek atau kata kerja.

tapi untuk saat ini adalah penting untuk mengetahui bahwa kalimat yang mengandung klausa kata sifat yang kompleks. Subject + Predikat. Kota tempat saya dibesarkan adalah di Amerika Serikat. tetapi bukan kalimat kompleks. Ini tidak memerlukan klausa dependen. dan E kalimat dimulai dengan klausa independen yang berisi tidak ada koma. Dan. kata kerja. KESIMPULAN Yakin Anda sekarang tahu perbedaan antara kalimat sederhana. rumah yang Abraham Lincoln lahir di masih berdiri.subordinators dalam kalimat B. yang berarti tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat. Lebih banyak contoh kalimat kompleks adalah: Saya menikmatinya pai apel yang Anda beli untuk saya. kalimat yang mengandung klausa kata sifat (atau klausa dependen) juga kompleks karena mereka berisi klausa klausa independen dan dependen. C. C. Wanita yang (m) ibuku berbicara untuk kosmetik menjual. ‡ Guru mengajar selama lebih dari satu jam. atau adverbia penghubung didahului oleh titik koma. Buku yang Jonathan dibaca di rak. Gunakan koma dan Firman Bergabung. Siswa menjalani tes pada hari berikutnya. jadi saya akan terjaga sepanjang malam. konjungsi korelatif (dengan atau tanpa koma). Kuis ini hanya enam kalimat. bergabung dengan kalimat kata. dan subordinators ditandai sama seperti dalam kalimat sebelumnya. ‡ Pola: Kalimat. A. karena ia takut anak-anaknya akan mencurinya dari dia. dan sedikit tanganku. ‡ Senyawa Dan Kalimat Kompleks ‡ Senyawa Kalimat 1. Aku makan sarapan adalah klausa independen. cari Sebuah kalimat kompleks adalah sebuah kalimat dengan satu klausa independen dan setidaknya satu klausa dependen. dan So] ‡ Guru mengajar selama lebih dari satu jam. Kalimat ini kuis didasarkan pada cerita pendek. Klausul Adjective dipelajari dalam situs ini secara terpisah. tidak akan ada jeda ketika klausa independen dimulai kalimat. ‡ Anjing yang Anda memberi saya menyalak pada saya. atau apakah Anda ingin pergi berbelanja dengan saya? ‡ Saya memiliki banyak pekerjaan yang harus selesai. oleh Bruno Lessing. Saya suka jus delima yang ayahku dituangkan ke dalam hi ‡ Saya makan sarapan sebelum aku pergi bekerja. D. dan murid-muridnya tidur nyenyak. Perhatikan bahwa kalimat D dan E adalah sama kecuali D kalimat dimulai dengan klausa dependen yang diikuti dengan koma. klik GRADE KUIS untuk melihat skor Anda segera. B. Contoh ‡ Teman saya mengundang saya ke pesta teh. ini adalah kalimat majemuk. Kedua klausa independen. Di E kalimat. dan sebelum aku pergi untuk bekerja adalah klausa tergantung. Klausa yang bergabung dengan koordinasi bersama (dengan atau tanpa koma). Subyek. jadi dia belajar sepanjang malam. dan dalam kalimat. tetapi orang tua saya tidak membiarkan saya pergi. Ini adalah kalimat majemuk-kompleks dengan dua klausa independen (anjing menggonggong padaku dan itu menggigit tangan saya) dan satu klausa dependen (yang Anda berikan kepada saya). ‡ 2. yang satu ini tentang Helen Keller berisi sepuluh kalimat. Kuis lain. klausa independen juga digarisbawahi. Koma setelah klausa dependen dalam D diperlukan kalimat. Juga. ensiklopedia bebas Langsung ke: navigasi. Sebuah kalimat majemuk terdiri dari setidaknya dua klausa independen. . Namun. Gunakan titik koma. Atau. Kompleks kalimat Dari Wikipedia. titik koma yang berfungsi sebagai konjungsi. Kontras ‡ Saya makan makanan yang dimasak Anda. Penggunaan tanda koma untuk memisahkan dua klausa independen disebut sambatan koma dan umumnya dianggap kesalahan (bila digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris). bagaimanapun. Tapi. KOMPLEKS KALIMAT / KATA SIFAT PERSYARATAN Akhirnya. tapi aku tidak lari. Orang tua itu ingin menyembunyikan uangnya. Aku makan makan adalah klausa independen dan bahwa Anda dimasak adalah klausa relatif. Hubungannya dapat digunakan untuk membuat kalimat majemuk. Oleh karena itu. itu salah. ‡ Aku takut. [Bergabung Kata (koordinasi konjungsi): Untuk. majemuk. dan E. ‡ Apakah Anda ingin tinggal di sini. bergabung dengan kata Predikat Subject +. dan pendengar mengalami bahasa Inggris akan sering mendengar jeda sebentar di sana. Kuncinya adalah untuk mencari subjek dan kata kerja pertama. murid-muridnya tidur nyenyak. Amerikanisasi Sadrakh Cohen. dan kompleks? Klik CEPAT KUIS untuk mencari tahu. Kuis Cepat: Sadrakh Setelah setiap kuis.

Orang tua itu ingin menyembunyikan uangnya. ia tidak fokus dalam hidup. ia takut anak-anaknya akan mencurinya dari dia. Josh tidak fokus dalam hidup sampai ia menghadiri Sekolah Merced. [Kata Bergabung (konjungsi subordinatif): Sebagai. Saya melihat seorang tua ketika aku melihat ke cermin. masih. ‡ Pola: Membawahi subjek bersama + predikat. Pit Bull sudah cukup menggigit. bahkan. Subjek Predikat +. Meskipun. tapi laporan cuaca diperkirakan hujan. Subject + predikat subjek predikat kata + bergabung. Saat aku melihat keluar jendela. kalimat. tetap. namun tidak memiliki rem. selain itu. ‡ ‡ ________________________________________ ‡ Kalimat Kompleks Gunakan salah satu dari dua pola yang digambarkan di bawah. Subjek Predikat +. ‡ Ketika aku melihat ke cermin. bagaimanapun. apalagi. ia mengharapkan nilai yang baik pada tes. Walaupun. aku melihat seorang pria tua. Setiap kali orang tua berjalan di sekitar rumah. Subject + Predikat. ‡ Pola: Kalimat. dll] ‡ Ketika aku melihat ke cermin. saya tidak melihat awan. karena ia takut anak-anaknya akan mencurinya dari dia. maka. dia ingin menyembunyikan uangnya. ‡ 3. dan saya terkejut. Dimana. sebagai gantinya. dia menjalani tes pada hari berikutnya. Siswa belajar sepanjang malam. subyek + predikat. Seolah-olah. koordinasi bersama subjek + predikat. dll] ‡ Mobil itu V-8 mesin dan pekerjaan cat baru. Sampai. . sama. subyek + predikat. Karena. oleh karena itu. 2. ‡ Pola: kalimat. Kecuali. ‡ ‡ ________________________________________ ‡ Senyawa Kompleks Kalimat Buat kalimat yang merupakan kombinasi dari senyawa dan kalimat yang kompleks. Ketika. kata transisi. Ketika. Bergabung kata subjek + predikat. aku melihat seorang pria tua. Sampai Josh dihadiri Sekolah Merced. kata transisi. gigitannya adalah "dilarang" di tujuh negara. Subject + Predikat. di sisi lain. kalimat. [Kata Transisi (konjungsi adverbial): Namun. sebaliknya. ‡ Pola: 1. Larry belajar untuk ujian akhir pekan. Karena. karena itu. Gunakan koma dan kata transisi. pada kenyataannya.