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INTRODUCTION
1.1 Data Management and Industrial Engineering
Industrial Engineering (IE) – the broadest engineering discipline. IEs in almost every sector of the economy: • Manufacturing sector - automotive, electronics, etc. • Service sector - restaurant chains, hotels, etc.
2009 John P. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 1

• Financial sector − banks, financial companies (e.g., Cap One) • Healthcare - hospitals, nursing

homes, etc.
• Government − commerce, defense, etc. • Transportation/Distribution - trucking firms, distribution centers, etc. • Entertainment − amusement parks, video games, etc.
2009 John P. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 2

Regardless of what area an IE works in or his/her exact job description, it is almost certain to involve data management.

DATA MANAGEMENT
- the process of identifying what types of data are of interest, developing suitable methods for acquiring, storing, and using this data, and implementing such methods in practice.

2009 John P. Shewchuk

ISE 3024 Course Notes

Introduction – 3

2009 John P. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 4 .What types of data are of interest to IEs? • Production data • Cost data • Capacity data • Human (Employee) data • Sales/Marketing data + others.

etc. buy) • Operations . • Decision making .data needed to run facility • Location and Tracking • Recordkeeping and Reporting + others. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 5 . make vs. scheduling.g.choosing between alternatives (e. inventory control. 2009 John P.layout.What do IEs typically use data for? • Problem solving ..

2009 John P. pictures) • Volume of data (e.Whatever IE area we work in and particular need we have for data. hourly vs.000). What things must we consider in developing a data management application? • Types of data (e.. • Frequency with which accessed (e.. text. 100 data items vs.g.g.000. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 6 . monthly).. 100. numeric. we must be sure we’ve designed an appropriate data management application.g.

• Data security requirements (how critical)? 2009 John P. • Data storage requirements (e.Simple record storage/retrieval? Or queries too? • Who needs access and where. • Data integrity requirements (low vs.. weeks vs. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 7 . high).• Type of data access .g. decades).

Software/hardware purchase necessary? • Maintaining data management system . Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 8 .Specially-trained personnel needed/available? .Specially-trained personnel needed/available? 2009 John P.Additional considerations: • Designing data management system .How difficult? .

3) Database Systems • store/access data. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . via computer. as separate files. using Web technology. via computer.We will study four main data management approaches: 1) Manual filing systems • forms and filing cabinets. 2) Computerized File-Based Systems • store/access data. as related data structures. 2009 John P. 4) Web-based Databased Systems • database systems accessed over the Internet.

Focus in this course: computerized file-based systems. concepts. respectively. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 10 . • focus: theory. and Web-based database systems. that the goal of this course is NOT to teach you the above software packages and programming languages. to demonstrate how various spreadsheet. 2009 John P. We will use MS Excel (2007). techniques. SQL Server Express with Tools (2008) and Visual Web Developer Express (2008). database systems. Keep in mind. all on PC (Windows or Vista). and Web-based concepts can be applied. database. however. • in the context of typical IE problems. Access (2007).

each properly identified and stored in a particular filing cabinet drawer. How is data structured in such systems? To answer this.1.2 Overview of Data Management Approaches 1. we need some basic file terminology: 2009 John P. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 11 . Each folder: one or more documents of information.2.1 Manual Filing Systems Manual filing system = collection of file folders.

John Smith. partNumber • Record Type = unique collection of fields..g. customers: customerName customerState products: partNumber. specifying how to define similar objects of interest. customerName.g. e. 41X-02265 • Field = label identifying a particular type of data e. partName 2009 John P.. e.• Data = smallest item that can convey some specific information to us.. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 12 .g.

per the associated record type. Widget • File = collection of records of the same type. VA Alice Jones.• Record = unique collection of data. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 13 . e.. Customer records: John Smith. NY Product records: 41X-02265. defining a particular object of interest. Customer file: collection of Customer records Product file: collection of Product records 2009 John P.g.. e.g.

Typical manual filing system: • each filing cabinet drawer (set of drawers) = file • each folder of information = record • while the information in each folder may be different. all folders that drawer.. (i. data types (i..) 1985 1982 1987 1984 1986 1983 e.e. • preprinted forms ensure records all same type..g. 2009 John P. fields) are the same.e. CUSTOMER file: • each folder has information on a different customer. same record type. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 14 .

Data in a manual filing system is typically organized functionally. any company which sells stock items to customers will likely have the following files (plus others) in a manual system: • Customer file • Product file − − customer name. availability of each product. description etc. Shewchuk . • Inventory file − • Order file − what customer orders are open. what different products sold: price. etc. address. ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 15 2009 John P. details on each. account #. For example.

2009 John P. several filing cabinets in the main office).. Inventory file cabinet on shop floor). Customer file in main office.g. If the # of items is small or we are simply interested in storage and retrieval of individual records. the manual approach may well work fine.g. • large firm: decentralized storage (e.Where would we find manual filing system data? • small firm: centralized storage (e. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 16 .. Order file in Sales department.

For example. however. when we need to process data in more ways than simply retrieving individual records. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 17 .The manual system falls apart. how would you expect to answer each of the following queries (questions): • How many customers reside in VA? • Which products cost $10 or less? • Which items are ordered in quantities of 2 or more? VA 2009 John P. given the preceding manual files.

Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 18 . Product.Customer. Order files! 2009 John P.Product and Inventory files • How many open orders contain “hot” items (< 5 units available) costing more than $50 and headed for the state of CA? .Manual system even worse when we need to crossreference or process data from multiple files: • Which customers have ordered a particular item? . Inventory.must access both Customer and Order files • What is the average inventory for all items in the $10-or-less category? .

e. errors! 2009 John P. • Back-up concerns. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 19 . • Error prone. time/effort. • Security/access concerns. • Lots of duplicate data (i. same data in different files).Other disadvantages of manual filing systems: • Lots of physical space (floor space) required. • Excessive time entering/retrieving data. ⇒ more wasted space..

• main need is record keep (contractual) 2009 John P. it’s still important to be familiar with them: • many file-based systems still in use today. while manual systems have many disadvantages. • understanding the manual system and its shortcomings helps you better understand how to implement a good computer-based system. • data processing limited to record storage/retrieval. v • workers lack sufficient computer knowledge. Additionally. skills.So. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 20 . a manual system may sometimes be best! • very small amount of data.

2 Computerized File-Based Systems A computerized file-based system works like a manual filesystem. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 21 .2. the difference being that a computer is used to store data for each file rather than one or more filing cabinet drawers. 2009 John P.1.

Substantial improvement over manual filing systems: • data processing many times faster and more accurate: can be automated. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 22 . • computerized data storage allows for data access via different application programs. 2009 John P.

) 2009 John P.Resulting structure: Customer records Customer applications Product records Product applications Inventory records Inventory applications (etc. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 23 .

Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 24 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2009 John P.g.Various software packages (e. • spreadsheet interface separates data from application. Excel) are available for this approach.. • one spreadsheet (ideally) each file.

management.2. and use of data. 2009 John P. • Database Management System (DBMS) – system (software) which allows users to interact with the database. Consists of two components: • Database – collection of files. storage. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 25 . capturing the relationships between the various records.1. in an organized manner.3 Database Systems A database system is an organized set of components that define and control the collection.

) 2009 John P. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 26 .Basic structure: Customer applications DATABASE DBMS Inventory applications Product applications (etc.

• greater querying flexibility. m • easy to share data (across files). 2009 John P.Databases are a great improvement over computerized (and hence manual) file-based systems: • minimal data duplication. Still. • more complex. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 27 . • higher impact of failure. • standard methods for data management (DBMS). some disadvantages: • increased initial cost.

when should a database system be used? When we need to • capture the relationships between the various objects of concern.. Web).Compared to the computerized file-based approach. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 28 . • accomodate a larger amount of data. 2009 John P. Most important reason! • allow multiple users to access the data at the same time.g. • integrate with databased-specific applications (e.

using Web applications/technology.4 Web-Based Database Systems A Web-based database system is a database system Webwhere data input. and utilization is done over a network (typically the Internet).1.2. 2009 John P. modification. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 29 .

it is important that you have some idea of how these systems are designed and implemented. Web-based database systems can also be used for internal company data management applications. You are all familiar with Web-based databases already! • e.This approach to databases is popular as it offers • improved accessibility (browsers everywhere). • and hence IE problem-solving! Thus.. 2009 John P.g. Shewchuk ISE 3024 Course Notes Introduction – 30 . • improved ease-of-use (everyone familiar with Web). online shopping. VT website.