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NewberryVolcanoEnhanced GeothermalSystem(EGS) DemonstrationProject

UNITEDSTATESDEPARTMENTOFTHEINTERIOR BUREAUOFLANDMANAGEMENT(BLM)
DOIBLMORP00020110003EA
DOE/EA1897
ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTDECEMBER2011
Location: Applicant: LeadAgency: CooperatingAgencies: FederalGeothermalLeasesontheWestFlankofNewberryVolcano, DeschutesCounty,22milessouthofBend,Oregon DavenportNewberryHoldingsLLCand AltaRockEnergy,Inc. 225NWFranklinAvenue,Suite1 Bend,OR97701 Tel:5413231190 U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior, BureauofLandManagement PrinevilleDistrictOffice 3050NEThirdStreet Prineville,OR97754 Tel:5414166890;Fax:5414166798 U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestServiceDeschutesNationalForest, BendFortRockRangerDistrict 63095DeschutesMarketRd. Bend,OR97701 Tel:5413834000;FAX5413834700 U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,GoldenFieldOffice 1617ColeBoulevard Golden,CO80401 Tel:7203561563;Fax:7203561560

CONTENTS
TableofFigures........................................................................................................................................................................4

ListofAcronymsandGlossaryofTerms......................................................................................................................6

Chapter1. IntroductionandPurpose&NeedfortheProposedAction......................................................9

1.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................................................9

1.2 SummaryoftheProposedAction.........................................................................................................................9

1.3 Background..................................................................................................................................................................13
1.4 PurposeandNeedfortheProposedAction...................................................................................................14
1.5 ManagementDirectionandConformancewithLandUsePlans..........................................................16
. 1.6 RelationshiptoLaws,Regulations,Policies,andNEPADocuments...................................................20
1.7 ScopingandPublicInvolvement.........................................................................................................................23
1.8 IdentificationofIssues............................................................................................................................................23

1.9 DecisionsToBeMade..............................................................................................................................................30
Chapter2.

AlternativesIncludingtheProposedAction....................................................................32

2.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................32

2.2 ProjectLocation..........................................................................................................................................................32
2.3 AlternativeAProposedAction.........................................................................................................................32

2.4 AlternativeBProposedActionwithClosedPressureVesselandAirCooledCondensers....49
2.5 AlternativeCNoActionAlternative...............................................................................................................52
2.6 ProjectDesignFeatures..........................................................................................................................................52
2.7 AlternativesConsideredbutEliminatedfromFurtherAnalysis..........................................................68
2.8 ComparisonofAlternatives..................................................................................................................................68
.
Chapter3.

AffectedEnvironment.............................................................................................................70

3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................70
3.2 GeneralSetting............................................................................................................................................................70
3.3 ResourcesBroughtForwardforAnalysisBasedonKeyIssues............................................................71
3.4 Wildlife...........................................................................................................................................................................71
3.5 ScenicResources........................................................................................................................................................73
3.6 WaterResources........................................................................................................................................................77

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3.7 GeologyandNaturalSeismicity...........................................................................................................................82
Chapter4.

EnvironmentalEffects.............................................................................................................86

4.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................86
4.2 Past,Present,andReasonablyForeseeableFutureActionsintheProjectArea...........................86
4.3 AlternativeAProposedAction:Direct,IndirectandCumulativeEffects........................................92

4.4 AlternativeBProposedActionwithClosedPressureVesselandAirCooledCondensers.143

4.5 AlternativeCNoAction....................................................................................................................................146

Chapter5. ConsultationandCoordination..........................................................................................147

5.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................147
5.2 Tribes,Individuals,Organizations,andAgenciesConsulted...............................................................147
5.3 ListofPreparers......................................................................................................................................................147

APPENDIXAInducedSeismicityMitigationPlan(AltaRock,2011) APPENDIXBIndependentHydrologistReview(Kleinfelder,2011) Note: TheappendicesattachedtothisPDFdocumentareavailableonlineat http://www.blm.gov/or/districts/prineville/plans/newberryegs/index.php orbycontactingtheBLMPrinvevilleDistrictOffice.

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TABLEOFFIGURES

Figure1:ProjectVicinityMap.....................................................................................................................11
Figure2:DetailedProjectLocationMap................................................................................................18
Figure3:ProjectAccessRoutes..................................................................................................................19
Figure4:TypicalMSAStationwithSolarPanelAndTelemetryAntenna...............................35
Figure5:StimulationofaSingleFractureSet......................................................................................38

Figure6:StimulationofSecondFractureSetAfterDiverterApplicationtoFirstFracture
Set............................................................................................................................................................................39
Figure7:EGSWellwithMultipleFractureSetsafterDiverterDissolution............................40

Figure8:TemporaryIrrigationPipingRoute......................................................................................45
Figure9:Alt.APadS29CirculationsTestFacilityConceptualConfiguration.................48
.
Figure10:CoolingFansUsedinEGSCirculationTestingatSoultz,France.ShownHere
PriortoInstallation,TheseWouldBePositionedOverorAdjacenttotheHeat
ExchangersforOperation.............................................................................................................................50
Figure11:Alt.BCirculationTestFacilityConceptualConfiguration........................................51

Figure12:ProjectAccessRoutesandSnowmobileTrails..............................................................53

Figure13:FinalMSA,IncludingBoreholeInstallations,ShownInRelationTo
Planned Stimulation Zone.......................................................................................................................55
Figure14: CrossSectionandMapShowingExpectedEGSReservoirArea,MSAandSMS
StationLocations,HorizontalandVerticalGrowthLimits,andTriggerBoundaries.........56
Figure15:Wellhead,FlowLine,ControlValve,JamesTubeandAtmosphericSeparator
UsedinaGeothermalWellFlowTestinNevada,Similarto,butSmallerThanthe
SeparatortobeUsedAtNewberry...........................................................................................................59

Figure16:DecisionTreeforTriggersandMitigationActions.....................................................65
Figure17:WaterPointLocationMap......................................................................................................81
Figure18:HistoricalSeismicityoftheSiteRegion............................................................................84

Figure19:HistoricalSeismicityintheVicinityoftheSite..............................................................85

Figure20:VOP1U.S.Highway97(LookingEast)..........................................................................109
Figure21:VOP2MckayButte(LookingEast)..................................................................................109
Figure22:VOP3ForestRoad21Overlook(LookingNorth)....................................................110
Figure23:VOP4Trail57CraterRimTrail(LookingWest)...................................................110

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Figure24:VOP5PaulinaPeak(LookingNorthwest)....................................................................111
Figure25:VOP6PaulinaCreekTrail56(LookingWest)............................................................111

Figure 26: Major Events and Durations of Water Use.......................................................118


Figure27:WaterUsageByMonth..........................................................................................................119

Figure28:DavenportWellNWG5529WellBoreandCasingProfile...................................127

Figure29:PredictedGroundShakingMapinIntensity................................................................132

Figure30:PredictedGroundShakingMapinPGA.........................................................................133
Figure31:PredictedPGAGroundShakingMapforSiteVicinity.............................................136
Figure32:PredictedPGAGroundShakingMap...............................................................................139

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LISTOFACRONYMSANDGLOSSARYOFTERMS
API ASL BE bgs BH BLM CE CEQ CFR cfs CMP csg DOE DOGAMI DOI DR DRC EA EGS EIS ESC FEIS FEMA FLPMA Flashing FONSI FR FS GL gpm GPS HP IEA AmericanPetroleumInstitute Abovesealevel BiologicalEvaluation belowgroundsurface Borehole BureauofLandManagement CalEnergy CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality CodeofFederalRegulations cubicfeetpersecond ComprehensiveManagementPlan Casing DepartmentofEnergy DepartmentofGeologyandMineralIndustries DepartmentofInterior DecisionRecord DeschutesRiverConservancy EnvironmentalAssessment Enhanced/EngineeredGeothermalSystems EnvironmentalImpactStatement ExistingScenicCondition FinalEnvironmentalImpactStatement FederalEmergencyManagementAgency FederalLandManagementandPolicyAct Suddenloweringofthepressureofhotwater,thus allowingboiling FindingofNoSignificantImpact ForestRoad ForestService Groundlevel Gallonsperminute GlobalPositioningSystem Horsepower InternationalEnergyAgency

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ISMP KB kW LBNL LiDAR LLC LPHS LRMP M Mmax MA MIS MM MSA Microseismometer

InducedSeismicityMitigationPlan Kellybushing Kilowatt LawrenceBerkeleyNationalLab LightDetectionandRanging LimitedLiabilityCompany LaPineHighSchool LandandResourceManagementPlan Magnitude(seismicity) MaximumMagnitude ManagementArea ManagementIndicatorSpecies ModifiedMercalli Microseismicarray Aninstrumentusedtomeasuremicrsoseismicevents. Microreferstotheabilityoftheinstrumenttomeasure microseismicevents,notthephysicalsizeofthe instrumentitself. MaterialSafetyDataSheet Megawatt NationalAgricultureImageryProgram NationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct NewberryGeothermalCompany SurfaceMicroseismicStation BoreholeMicroseismicStation NewberryNationalVolcanicMonument NorthwestGeothermal OilandGas Offhighwayvehicle OregonWaterResourcesDepartment PreliminaryEnvironmentalImpactStatement Peakgroundacceleration Polymeroflacticacid PaulinaLakeVisitorCenter PacificNorthwestSeismicNetwork PlanofOperations PartialRetention

MSDS MW NAIP NEPA NGC NM NN NNVM NWG O&G OHV OWRD PEIS PGA PLA PLVC PNSN POO PR

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PSHA psi psia psig PVC PW RF RM RMHA S&G SCL SeismicRisk SMS SMS SPE T&R TD TG TGH TM TVD U.S.C. URS USDA USFS USGS VAC VOP VQS

Probabilisticseismichazardanalysis poundspersquareinch poundspersquareinchabsolute poundspersquareinchgauge Polyvinylchloride Productionwell RossiForel Rivermile RiverMeadowsHomeownersAssociation StandardsandGuidelines ScenicConditionLevel Theprobabilityoflossordamageduetoseismicity SceneryManagementSystem(ScenicResources) StrongMotionSensor SocietyofPetroleumEngineers Treadwell&RolloEngineers Totaldepth Temperaturegradient TemperatureGradientHole Trademark Trueverticaldepth UnitedStatesCode UnitedResearchServices U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture U.S.ForestService U.S.GeologicalSurvey VisualAbsorptionCapability Visualobservationpoint VisualQualitySystem

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTIONANDPURPOSE&NEEDFORTHEPROPOSEDACTION
1.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
ThisEnvironmentalAssessmenthasbeenpreparedtodiscloseandanalyze environmentaleffectsofdevelopingandtestingageothermalreservoircreatedbyusing enhancedgeothermalsystem(EGS)technologies,asproposedbyDavenportNewberry HoldingsLLC(Davenport)andAltaRockEnergy,Inc.(AltaRock).ANoticeofIntent(NOI) andPlanofExploration,OperationsPlan,andDrillingProgramfortheNewberry VolcanoEGSDemonstrationProject(Project,EGSProject)weresubmittedtothe PrinevilleOfficeoftheBureauofLandManagement(BLM)inMay,2010. TheproposedProjectislocatedincentralOregononDeschutesNationalForestlands alongthewesternflankofNewberryVolcano.Exceptforsomeseismicmonitoring stations(Figure2 anddescribedinSection2.3),theProjectislocatedoutsidethe NewberryNationalVolcanicMonument(MonumentorNNVM),onfederalgeothermal leasesadministeredbytheBLMthatwereissuedbetween1982and2003.Davenport NewberryLLCiscurrentlytheholderofallgeothermalleasesidentifiedintheNOI. TheBLMistheleadagencyforthisprojectbecausethemajorityoftheProjectactivity wouldoccuronleasesissuedandadministeredbytheBLM.TheproposedProjectis locatedentirelyonNationalForestsystemlandsaspartoftheUSDAForestService, DeschutesNationalForest(ForestServiceorFS).Nine(9)ofthemonitoringstations necessarytoimplementtheSeismicMitigationPlanarewithinlandswheresurface disturbanceisundertheauthorityoftheForestService.ThereforetheForestServiceisa cooperatingagencyforthepreparationofthisEnvironmentalAssessment.TheEnergy PolicyActof2005givestheSecretaryofEnergytheauthoritytoconductaprogramof research,development,demonstration,andcommercialapplicationforgeothermal energy.TheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy(DOE)isfundingaportionoftheProject; thereforeDOEisalsoacooperatingagencyinthisEA.

1.2 S U M M A R Y O F T H E P R O P O S E D A C T I O N
DavenportandAltaRock(Proponents)proposetocreateanEGSDemonstrationProject involvingnewtechnology,techniques,andadvancedmonitoringprotocolsforthe purposeoftestingthefeasibilityandviabilityofenhancedgeothermalsystemsfor renewableenergyproduction. TheProjectwouldutilizeanexistingwellpadandexistingdeepgeothermalwellon federalgeothermalleaseOR40497heldbyDavenportNewberryHoldingsLLC.Nearby therewouldbe20microseismicmonitoringstations.Allofthesesitesareonnational forestsystemlands.Elevenofthesiteswouldbeonfederalgeothermalleases administeredbytheBLM,and9wouldbeonlandsthatareadministeredbyUSFS(Table 1 ).Ifapproved,drillingandinstallationofthedownholemicroseismicmonitoring stationsfortheProjectwouldbegininearly2012.
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Table 1: MSALocationsandSurfaceManagementAuthority

MSASite NN19 NN24 NN21 TG19 NN18 NN17 TG32 NP03 TG17 TG30 NM08 NM22 NM03 NM05 NM06 NM18 NM40 NM42 NM41 NM11

Type NewBorehole NewBorehole PreExistingWell PreExistingWell PreExistingWell NewBorehole ExistingWell ExistingWell ExistingWell ExistingWell SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation SurfaceStation

Section 29 29 21 19 21 29 32 6 17 30 4 29 16 21 28 21 27 15 33 36

NEPADecisionAuthorityfor SurfaceManagement BLM BLM FS BLM FS BLM BLM BLM BLM BLM FS BLM BLM FS FS FS FS FS FS BLM

Theproposedprojectareaislocatedapproximately22milessouthofBendand10miles northeastofLaPine,withintheBendFortRockRangerDistrictoftheDeschutes NationalForest.RefertoFigure1 ,ProjectVicinityMap.TheProjectislocatedinanarea oftheDeschutesNationalForestidentifiedasappropriateforfuturegeothermal explorationinthe1990DeschutesNationalForestLandandResourceManagementPlan (LRMP),asamended.Thisareawasalsorecognizedasbeingappropriateforgeothermal useinthecongressionalprocessandsubsequentfederallegislationthatcreatedthe NewberryNationalVolcanicMonument(NewberryNationalVolcanicMonumentAct (PublicLaw101522),November1990).

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Figure1:ProjectVicinityMap
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CREATIONOFTHERESERVOIR
TheproposedProjectwoulddevelopandtestanEGSreservoirdeepunderground,using anexisting10,060footgeothermalwell(NWG5529/Well5529).Thiswellpad(S29) wasbuiltandthewelldrilledbyDavenportin2008.DatafromWell5529showsthat thissitehasagreatdealofheatinthedeepundergroundrockformations(>600F)but itdoesnothavesufficientnaturalwaterforastandardhydrothermalgeothermal system.SitessuchasthismaybesuitableforEGS,wherewatercanbeaddedtonaturally occurringhotrockinordertocreateaviablegeothermalsystem. CreationoftheEGSinvolvesengineeringareservoirinsuitablehotrockswherewater cancirculatethroughandheatup,muchliketheheatexchangeprocessofaradiator. Thereservoiriscreatedbyusingaprocessofwellstimulationtermedhydroshearing. Hydroshearingistheprocessofusingcoldwatertocreateanetworkofminutecracksin therocksdeepunderground,wherenaturalfracturesandcracksalreadyoccur.During thisprocess,waterwouldbeinjectedathighpressure(estimatedtorangebetween 1,160and2,600psig)atthebottomofWell5529,atdepthsofapproximately6,500to 10,000feet.ShallowgroundwaterwellswouldprovidethewaterfortheProject. TheProjectgoalistocreateanetworkofporespacesfromtheinjectedhighpressure waterinafiniteareaofthehotrockformationthatwouldthenserveasaheat exchangerandbecometheEGSreservoir.Coldwaterwouldbepumpedfromthesurface downtheexistingwellintothereservoir,whereitwouldbecomeheatedasitcirculates throughthehotrocksandthenbebroughtbackuptothesurfaceashotwater,viatwo productionwells. Afterthereservoirhasbeencreated,twoadditionaldeepgeothermalproductionwells wouldbedirectionallydrilledfromthesamewellpadintotheotherendoftheEGS reservoir.Theheatedwaterwouldbebroughtbackuptothesurfaceinthesewells,after ithascirculatedthroughthenetworkofporesandcracksofthehotrocksbetweenthe wells.ThisProjectwouldprovidetheProponentstheabilitytocreate,test,and demonstratetheEGSreservoirtechnologyanditspotentialapplicationtoproduce electricityinareaswithundergroundheatbutnonaturalwater. ThisProjectisforEGSreservoirdemonstrationpurposesonly;productionofelectricity isnotbeingproposedandisnotpartofthisProject.IfanEGSreservoirweredeveloped toproduceelectricityhowever,thehotwaterand/orsteambroughttothesurface wouldbeusedtoprovideenergytoturnturbinesandgenerateelectricityinasimilar mannerthatnaturalhydrothermalgeothermalsystemsarecurrentlyusedtogenerate electricityintheU.S.andaroundtheworld.Ifapowerplantwereproposeditwould requirefurtherNEPAanalysis.

MONITORINGTHESTIMULATIONPROCESS
Minutefracturescreatedbytheinjectionofhighpressurewaterduringthe hydroshearingprocesswouldcausemicroseismiceventswhichwouldbemappedand monitoredusingstateoftheartequipmentandtechnology.Monitoringandmappingof themicrofractureswouldbeaccomplishedthroughanarrayusingsmallpiecesof microseismicmonitoringequipment(microseismometers)installedeitherafewfeet
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belowground(surfacestations),orinnearbyboreholes(boreholestations)drilledtoa depthofupto1,100feet.Ofthe20monitoringsites,10locationswouldbesurface stationsand10locationswouldbeboreholestations.Theequipmentwouldbe strategicallyandcarefullylocatedinanarraydesignedtoeffectivelyreceivethe scientificdata. Thismicroseismicarray(MSA)wouldmonitormicroseismiceventsandthecreationof theminutecracksinrealtime.Ofthe10boreholeMSAlocations,3newboreholeswould bedrilled(SitesNN17,NN19andNN24showninFigure2 ),usingatruckmounted rotarydrillingrigsimilartothoseusedtodrilldomesticwaterwells.Existingwellsites (temperaturegradientwells,waterwellsandgeothermalexplorationwells)wouldbe utilizedtotheextentpossibletominimizenewsurfacedisturbance,asaresult7ofthe 10proposedboreholeMSAsiteswouldbelocatedinexistingwellsoratsitesalready approvedforsuchwells. SitefootprintsforeachofthenewMSAboreholeswouldaverageapproximately75ft.x 125ft.(9,375sq.ft.,or0.2acre)insizetosafelyaccommodateequipment,includinga drillrigandwatertruck.Totalsurfacedisturbanceforall3newboreholestationswould beapproximately28,125squarefeet,(2/3acres)total.Allproposedsitesareaccessible fromexistingForestServiceroadsandnonewroadswouldbeconstructed. Allofthe10surfaceMSAsiteswouldbelocatedinareasthatwouldnotrequiretree removal.Forthesesites,themicroseismometerswouldbeplacedinshallowholesduga fewfeetdeepusinghandtools. OncetheundergroundEGSreservoiriscreatedandthe2newproductionwellshave beendrilled,acirculationtestofapproximately30to60dayswouldbeconductedin ordertotestthecirculatingsystemandcollectscientificdata.Thisdatawouldbeusedto createadetailedconceptualmodelofahypotheticalEGSreservoir,wellfield,andpower plantthatcouldpotentiallybeusedtoplanEGSprojectsinthisareaandotherareasof theUnitedStates.ThedecisionwhethertoallowthisEGSProjectdoesnotallowforthe productionofelectricityandnofacilitiescapableofgeneratingelectricpowerarebeing proposed.FurtheranalysisunderNEPAwouldberequiredpriortoadecisiontodevelop anelectricproductionfacilityatNewberry. TheProjectwouldbeconductedoveratotaltimeperiodofapproximately2years. Duringthistime,therewouldberelativelyconstantongoingprojectrelatedactivities includingclearing,installation,drilling,andflowtestingactivitiesononeormoresites. ActivitieswouldbeconcentratedaroundtheexistingpadS29.

1.3 B A C K G R O U N D
Geothermalenergyisrenewableenergyderivedfromtheheatstoredintheearth, typicallycirculatedbywaterwithinzonesofnaturallyoccurringfracturedrock formationsdeepunderground.Athighenoughtemperaturesthenaturallyoccurringhot waterand/orsteamcanbebroughttothesurfaceandharnessedtogenerateelectricity. Aftertheheatisremoved,thecondensedsteam/geothermalfluidsarethenrecirculated backunderground.Thisisthewayinwhichatypicalhydrothermalgeothermalenergy systemfunctions.
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NewberryVolcanohaslongbeenrecognizedbygeologicandscientificcommunitiesfor itsgeothermalpotential,andanumberofexplorationoperationsinsearchofaviable geothermalresourcehaveoccurredintheareaoverthelastthreedecades.Nearlytwo dozenexploratorywellshavebeendrilledatdepthsfromabout1,300feettonearly 12,000feetinareasonthewestflank,including2explorationwellsdrilledto10,060 and11,600feetbyDavenportin2008. ExplorationactivitiesandscientificstudiesatNewberryhaveverifiedthatcertainrock formationsdeepundergroundindeedcontainsufficientheat,andinsomecasesthere havebeenindicationsofthepresenceofwater.However,theuniquecharacteristicsof thegeothermalresourceinthisareahaveyettobefullydepictedorunderstood,anda viablenaturalhydrothermalsystemhasyettobediscovered.Theproposed demonstrationprojectseekstofurtherexplorethepotentialofnewenhanced geothermaltechnologythatcouldpotentiallyutilizethenaturallyoccurringheatin suitableundergroundrockformationsthatlackanaturallyexistingwatercomponent andpermeability.

1.4 P U R P O S E AN D N E E D F O R T H E P R O P O S E D A C T I O N BLM
Thepurposeoftheproposedactionistogrant,grantwithmodifications,ordenythe ProponentsproposaltouseNationalForestlands,includingNationalForestlandswith andwithoutgeothermalleasesthathavebeenissuedandareadministeredbytheBLM, todevelopandtestanEGSdemonstrationfacilityincompliancewithBLMgeothermal leasingregulations,andotherapplicableFederallaws.Theproposedactionwouldassist theBLMinmeetingthemanagementobjectivesintheEnergyPolicyActof2005(TitleII, Section211),whichestablishagoalfortheSecretaryoftheInteriortoapprove10,000 MWsofelectricityfromnonhydropowerrenewableenergyprojectslocatedonpublic lands.TheproposedactionalsowouldfurtherthepurposeofSecretarialOrder3285 (March11,2009)thatestablishedthedevelopmentofenvironmentallyresponsible renewableenergyasapriorityfortheDepartmentoftheInterior. TheneedfortheproposedactionisforBLMtorespondtoaNoticeofIntentandPlanof Exploration,OperationsPlan,andDrillingProgramfortheNewberryVolcanoEGS DemonstrationProject(Project,EGSProject)submittedbytheProponentstodevelop andtestEGSdemonstrationtechnologyandassociatedmonitoringequipmenton NationalForestlands.TheselandsincludeNationalForestlandswithandwithout geothermalleasesthathavebeenissuedandareadministeredbytheBLM.In accordancewithTheGeothermalSteamAct((GeothermalSteamActof1970(30U.S.C. 10011025)and43CFRsubpart3207)),BLMmustrespondtorequestsbylesseesto exploregeothermalresourcesinaccordancetoleasestipulationsonfederalgeothermal leases.

FS
Asacooperatingagency,thepurposeoftheproposedactionastotheForestServiceisto assistBLMindecidingwhethertogrant,grantwithmodifications,ordenythe ProponentsproposaltousepubliclandsmanagedbytheBLMtodevelopandtestan
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EGSdemonstrationfacilityincompliancewithapplicablegeothermalleasingregulations andotherFederallaws.AsecondarypurposeisfortheForestServicetocarryout federalenergypolicy,orders,andobjectives,includingthosefrom: TheNationalEnergyPolicy(May2001)whichincludestheneedtoexpedite projectsthatwillincreasetheproduction,transmission,orconservationof energy(Section1,PolicyandExecutiveOrder13212),and TheEnergyPolicyActof2005(PublicLaw10958)forpromotingtheleasing anddevelopmentofgeothermalresourceswhereappropriateonpubliclands.

AsthemanagerofthenationalforestlandsonwhichtheEGSProjectisproposed,Forest ServicehasaneedtocooperatewithBLMasitevaluatesprojectsongeothermalleases thatwereissuedwithForestServiceconsent.ForestServicealsohasaneedtoensure thattheproposedEGSProjectmeetsthegoals,objectives,standardsandguidelinesof the1990LRMPfortheDeschutesNationalForest,andtheNewberryNationalVolcanic MonumentPlan. ThisprojecthasMSAstationsbeingproposedwheretheForestServicehasthedecision authorityunderNEPAandasaresulttheForestServicehasaneedtomakeadecisionto issueornotissueapermitforthesestations.

DOE
TheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(42U.S.C.4341etseq.;NEPA),theCouncilon EnvironmentalQualitysNEPAregulations(40CodeofFederalRegulations[CFR]Parts 1500to1508),andtheDOEsNEPAimplementingprocedures(10CFRPart1021) requirethatDOEconsiderthepotentialenvironmentalimpactsofaproposedaction beforemakingadecision.Thisrequirementappliestodecisionsaboutwhetherto providedifferenttypesoffinancialassistancetoprivateentities. Asbackground,inanefforttoincreasenationalenergyoptions,reducevulnerabilityto disruptionandincreasetheflexibilityofthemarkettomeetU.S.needs,DOEs GeothermalTechnologiesProgram(GTP)facilitatesresearch,development,and demonstrationtoestablishgeothermalenergyasamajorcontributorforelectricity generation.Onewaytoaccomplishthisistoextractheatfromhot,undergroundrock,an indigenousresource,andconverttheheattoelectricity.EnhancedGeothermalSystems (EGS)areengineeredreservoirscreatedtoproduceenergyfromgeothermalresources deficientinwaterand/orpermeability. WithregardtoEGS,DOEisseekingtoaddresskeyaspectsofsiteselectionand characterization,reservoircreationandvalidation,reservoirsustainability,andplant operationandmanagementthroughadvancedtechnologies.AspartoftheAmerican RecoveryandReinvestmentActof2009,DOEissuedafundingopportunity announcementDEPE3609GO99019EnhancedGeothermalSystemsDemonstrations throughwhichDOEsoughttofundprojectsinavarietyofgeologicformationsthatcould quantitativelydemonstrateandvalidatestimulationtechniquesthatsuccessfullysustain sufficientfluidflowandheatextractionratesfor57yearsthatproduceupto50MWe peryearperprojectsite/geothermalreservoir.TheproposedEGSProjecthasthe potentialtoadvanceEGStechnologybydevelopingandtestinganEGSreservoir.DOEis
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proposingtoauthorizetheexpenditureoffederalfundingthroughtheGTPtoAltaRock fortheproposedEGSProject.DOEhasalreadyauthorizedtheuseofasmallpercentage oftheFederalfundingforpreliminaryactivitiesandassociatedanalyses.

1.5 M A N A G E M E N T D I R E C T I O N A N D C O N F O R M A N C E W I T H L A N D U S E P L A N S
TheproposedProjectislocatedonfederallandsmanagedbytheForestService.Land ManagementPlans(DeschutesNationalForestLRMP(1990)andNewberryNational VolcanicMonumentPlan(1994))havebeencompletedforalllandsuponwhich activitiesareproposed,bothlandsleasedforgeothermalexplorationandunleased lands.InaccordancewiththeNationalForestManagementAct(NFMA)andthe NewberryNationalVolcanicMonumentAct,allactivitiesonNationalForestlandsmust beconsistentwiththeapplicablemanagementplans. InaccordancewiththeFederalLandPolicyandManagementAct(FLPMA)of1976,as amended,forleasedlands,BLMregulationsrequirethatactivityongeothermaland otherleasesconformwiththeDeschutesNationalForestLRMP.TheDeschutesNational ForestLRMPprovidesstatutoryguidanceforallForestmanagementactivitiesincluding thepotentialforgeothermalexplorationanddevelopment. ForestmanagementgoalsreflectavisionforallForestresourcesincludingagoalto provideforexploration,development,andproductionofenergyresourcesonthe Forestwhilemaintainingcompatibilitywithotherresourcevalues.(LRMPp.42). AccordingtotheLRMP,thedesiredfutureconditionforenergyresourcespredictsthe potentialimportanceofthegeothermalresourceandstates,LargeareasoftheForest havebecomeprimetargetsfortheexplorationanddevelopmentofgeothermalenergy. Ifthesupplyofelectricityinthewesternstatesslipsfromsurplustodeficit,geothermal energydevelopmentwillbecomeincreasinglyattractive.(LRMPp.46).Further anticipatinggeothermalexplorationanddevelopment,thedesiredfutureconditionalso explainsthatgeothermalleasesandpermitshavebeenissuedinatimelyway.Drill pads,pipelines,powerplants,andelectricaltransmissionlines,totheextentpossible, aredesignedandlocatedtominimizeimpactsonotherresources,particularlyvisual quality.(LRMPp.46). Standardsandguidelines(S&Gs)intheLRMPprovidemoredetaileddirectiontohelp mitigateeffects,minimizeconflicts,andprotectresourcevalues.Forestwidestandards andguidelinesprovideoverallForestdirectionandaffirm,amongotherthings,thatthe noticesandstipulationsinleasesissuedpriortoimplementationofthisPlantake precedentoverstandards/guidelinesdevelopedinthisPlan.Theseexistingleaseswill continueandhavepriorrights.Proposalstoexploredevelop,andproduceelectricityon allleases,pastandfuturewillbeevaluatedthroughtheNEPAprocess.Totheextent possible,consistentwithexistingleaserights,standards/guidelineswillbefollowed. (LRMPp.477) Geothermaloperationsareguidedbywhichmanagementarea(MA)theyarelocatedin andtheS&GsthatapplytothatparticularMA.TheproposedProjectfallswithintwo MAs,generalforestandscenicviews.BothMAsallowforgeothermaluses.Thegoal forgeneralforest(MA8)istoemphasizetimberproduction,andthegoalforscenic
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views(MA9)istoprovideForestvisitorswithhighqualityscenery.TheS&Gsthat addressgeothermalandmineralactivitiesforeachMAare: GeneralForestS&GM817.Geothermalleaseswillbeissued.Conditional SurfaceUseandSeasonalRestrictionsStipulationswillbeusedtoprotect wildlifehabitatandrecreationareasthatareincludedintheGeneralForest Area. ScenicViewsS&GM983.Mineraldevelopments,utilities,andelectronicsites maybelocatedintheseareasifthefacilitiesandassociatedimprovementsare located,designed,andmaintainedtoblendwiththecharacteristiclandscape. Visualqualityobjectivesmaynotalwaysbemetwhenthevieweriswithinthe specialusesiteitself,duetotheusuallargescaleofthesefacilities.However, whenviewedfromtravelroutes,recreationareas,andothersensitiveviewer locations,VisualQualityObjectivesshouldbemet. ScenicViewsS&GM984.TreesmayberemovedwithintheScenicViews ManagementAreawherenecessarytopermitaccesstogeothermalsites, mineraldevelopment,electronicsites,utilities,andotherspecialusesites.

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Figure2:DetailedProjectLocationMap


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Figure3:ProjectAccessRoutes

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1.6 R E L A T I O N S HI P T O L A W S , R E G U L A T I O N S , P O L I CI E S , A N D NEPA D O C U M E N T S
N E W B E R R Y N A T I O N A L V O L C A N I C M O N U M E N T A C T ( P U B L I C L A W 10 1522 ), N O V E M B E R 199 0. In1990,Congressdesignatedover50,000acrestobecometheNewberryNational VolcanicMonumentthroughtheNewberryNationalVolcanicMonumentAct (MonumentAct).TheActcreatingtheMonumentrestrictsgeothermaldevelopment withintheNNVMandalsoprovidesspecificguidancerelatedtoactivitiesoutside theMonumentboundaries. NothinginthisActshallbeconstruedasauthorizingordirectingtheestablishment ofprotectiveperimetersorbufferzonesaroundtheMonumentorSpecial ManagementAreaforthepurposeofprecludingactivitiesoutsidetheMonument andSpecialManagementAreaboundarywhichwouldotherwisebepermittedunder applicablelaw.ThefactthatactivitiesorusesoutsidetheMonumentandSpecial ManagementAreacanbeseen,heard,measured,orotherwiseperceivedfrom withintheMonumentandSpecialManagementAreashallnot,ofthemselves,limit, restrict,orprecludesuchactivitiesorusesuptotheboundaryoftheMonumentand theSpecialManagementArea(PublicLaw101522,Section8(a)). Inaddition,theActincludesaprovisionfor:TheSecretary,incooperationwiththe SecretaryofInterior,shallmaintainaresearchandmonitoringprogramfor geothermalresourcesforthepurposeofidentifyingandassessingtheimpactthat presentandproposedgeothermaldevelopmentinthevicinityoftheMonumentand SpecialMangementAreamayhaveonthevaluesforwhichsuchMonumentand SpecialManagementAreawereestablished(Sec.6(b)(7)). N E W B E R R Y N A T I O N A L V O L C A N I C M O N U M E N T C O M P R E H E N S I V E M A N A G E M E N T P L A N ,
A U G U S T 1994 .
AsmandatedintheMonumentAct,theForestServicepreparedaComprehensive ManagementPlan(CMP)fortheNNVMestablishingprogrammaticmanagement directionforNationalForestlandswithinthenewlycreatedMonumentandforthe fourspeciallydesignatedareas(SpecialManagementArea,TransferalArea Adjacent,TransferalArea,andTransferalCorridor)withintheMonumentboundary thatmaybeusedforgeothermalexplorationanddevelopmentundercertain circumstances. ConsistentwiththeMonumentAct,theCMPacknowledgestherearevalid geothermalleaseswithintheSpecialAreasidentifiedwithintheMonumentAct.The CMPincludesagoaltomanagethesurfaceoftheSpecialManagementAreaandof theTransferalAreaAdjacentaspartoftheMonument,whileallowingsubsurface explorationforanddevelopmentofgeothermalresources(CMP,page7). T H E F E D E R A L L A N D P O L I C Y A N D M A N A G E M E N T A C T O F 197 6 (F L PMA ), A S
A M E N D E D , O C T O B E R 20 01 ( P U B L I C L A W 94 579) .
Amongotherthings,FLPMAestablishespubliclandpolicy;establishesguidelinesfor itsadministration;andprovidesforthemanagement,protection,development,and
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enhancementofthepubliclands.FLPMAalsoestablishestheBLMsmultipleuse mandatetoservepresentandfuturegenerationsanddirectsthatonBLMleasesthe managementplaninplacebeusedforguidance. T H E N A T I O N A L F O R E S T M A N A G E M E N T A C T O F 1976 (NFMA ), A S A M E N D E D , 1990 ( P U B L I C L A W 94 588 ) NFMArequiresthatallNationalForestsdevelopLandandResourceManagement PlanstoguideallowableusesandactivitiesonNationalForestSystemLands,and thatallactivitiesbeconsistentwiththoseplans. PROGRAMMATICENVIRONMENTALIMPACTSTATEMENTFORGEOTHERMALLEASINGIN
T H E W E S T E R N US, D E C E M B E R 2008 .

OneofthegoalsoftheProgrammaticEnvironmentalImpactStatement(PEIS)isto facilitategeothermalleasingdecisionsinthewesternUS.ThePEISwasjointly preparedbyBLMandForestServiceincooperationwithDOE,andincludesa comprehensivelistofstipulations,bestmanagementpractices,andproceduresto provideconsistentguidanceforgeothermalexplorationanddevelopment.ThisEA isconsistentwiththePEIS,andincorporatesbyreferenceeffectsanalyzedand addressedinthePEISandRecordofDecision. N A T I O N A L E N E R G Y P O L I C Y (M A Y 2001) A N D E X E C U T I V E O R D E R 13 212 A C T I O N S T O E X P E D I T E E N E R G Y R E L A T E D P R O J E C T S . TheabovereferencedPolicyandExecutiveOrderapplytoenergyrelatedprojects anddirectthefederalagenciestoexpediteprojectsthatwillincreasethe production,transmission,orconservationofenergy,andexpeditetheirreviewof permitsortakeotheractionasnecessarytoacceleratethecompletionofsuch projects1. E N E R G Y P O L I C Y A C T O F 2005 ( P U B L I C L A W 109 58 ). ThisActalsoappliestoBLMandForestServiceanddirectstheagenciestopromote leasinganddevelopmentofgeothermalresourceswhereappropriateonpublic lands. G E O T H E R M A L S T E A M A C T O F 1970 ( P U B L I C L A W 91 581) . UnderthetermsoftheGeothermalSteamActandimplementingregulations,BLMis requiredtorespondtoproposedgeothermalplans,applications,andprograms submittedbyalesseeorthelesseesdesignatedoperator.
1FRVol.66,No.99,ExecutiveOrder13212ofMay18,2001,ActionstoExpediteEnergy

RelatedProjects,Section1and2,P.28357
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N A T I O N A L E N V I R O N M E N T A L P O L I C Y A C T O F 1969, C O U N C I L O F E N V I R O N M E N T A L QUALITYREGULATIONS,ANDTHEFEDERALLANDPOLICYANDMANAGEMENTACTOF 197 6. ThisEAispreparedinaccordancewiththeNationalEnvironmentalPolicyActof 1969(NEPA),theCouncilofEnvironmentalQuality(CEQ)regulations(40Codeof FederalRegulations[CFR]15001508)implementingNEPA,andtheFederalLand PolicyandManagementAct(FLPMA)of1976.Furthermore,thisEAhasbeen preparedinaccordancewiththeBLMNEPAHandbookH17901,January2008.

994 N E W B E R R Y G E O T H E R M A L P I L O T P R O J E C T F I N A L EIS A N D R E C O R D O F D E C I S I O N . In1994theDeschutesNationalForest,PrinevilleDistrictBLM,andBonneville PowerAdministrationanalyzedpotentialeffectsofaproposedfederalpilotproject forgeothermalexploration,development,andproductionofelectricalenergyon federalleasesatNewberry,neartheEGSprojectarea.Thepilotprojectwas approvedbyForestService(asleadagencywithBLMandBonnevillePower Administrationascooperatingagencies)andseveralexplorationwellsweredrilled, buttheresultswereinconclusiveandtheprojectwassuspendedin1996.An extensiveanddetailedenvironmentalanalysiswasconductedforthatprojectand someofthedatamayberelevanttotheanalysisoftheproposedEGSProject; therefore,thisNEPAdocument,andthetwolistedbelow,maybecitedthroughout thisdocumentwhereappropriateandareavailableatthePrinevilleDistrictoffice.

200 7 N E W B E R R Y G E O T H E R M A L E X P L O R A T I O N P R O J E C T EA A N D D E C I S I O N R E C O R D (OR 050 07 5). The2007EAandDecisionRecordissuedbyBLMareincorporatedbyreferencein thisEA.The2007EAanalyzedaDavenportNewberryexplorationprojectthat involvesdrillingdeepgeothermalexplorationwells(10,000feetdeepormore)on threewellpadseachapproximately5acresinsize.Allwellpadswereconstructed andtwowellshavebeendrilledandcontinuetobemonitoredandevaluated.One wellpadandwellfromthisproject(NWG5529)wouldbeusedfortheproposed Project.

201 0 EA A N D D E C I S I O N R E C O R D F O R D R I L L I N G , T E S T I N G , A N D M O N I T O R I N G O F U P T O 12 T E M P E R A T U R E G R A D I E N T / P A S S I V E S E I S M I C G E O T H E R M A L E X P L O R A T O R Y W E L L S (DO I B LM OR P000 2010 003 EA) . (D A V E N P O R T TG P R O G R A M ) ThisEAandsubsequentDecisionRecordissuedbyBLMandtheFindingofNo SignificantImpactsissuedbyDOEarealsoincorporatedbyreference.This2010EA analyzedtwelvesitesforshallowsmalldiameterwellsonacrewellpadsites,to beusedtocollectgeologicandseismicdatatoprovidenewinformationaboutthe geologyandpotentialgeothermalresourceinthearea.Sevenpadswereprepared since2010and7wellsweredrilled;theprojectwillcontinuein2012.Uptofourof the10boreholeMSAstationsproposedfortheEGSProjectwouldbelocatedatwell sitespreviouslyanalyzedandapprovedinthisEA,thereforetheseNEPAdocuments maybecitedandalsoincorporatedbyreference.

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1.7 S C O P I N G A N D P U B L I C I N V O L V E M E N T
OnOctober21,2010BLMmailedaScopingNoticeto462individuals,organizations,and agencies.MailinglistsfromPrinevilleBLM,DeschutesNationalForest,andDavenport werecombinedtoensureobtainingthewidestcoverageofpeoplewhoareknowntobe interestedin,orwhomaybeinterestedinEGStechnologyandtheproposedNewberry EGSProject. SeveralpublicmeetingswereheldtoprovideinformationabouttheproposedProjectat NewberryinordertoinformandengagethebroadestpossiblecentralOregonaudience. AltaRockandDavenportmadepresentations,answeredquestions,andengagedthe audienceindiscussionateachofthemeetings. OnJuly15,2010ameetingwasheldinLaPineandwasattendedby21people,and morethanadozenpeopleattendedasimilarmeetinginSunriveronAugust12,2010.A publicmeetingwasalsoheldinBendonSeptember21,2010andattendedby approximately26people.RepresentativesfromBLM,ForestService,andDOE participated,AltaRockandDavenportmadepresentations,andaudienceinteractionand questionswereencouraged.VariouscentralOregonmediarepresentativeswereatall threepublicmeetings.TheBLMwiththeForestServiceandtheproponentsledafield tourduringthepublicscopingperiodonNovember10,2010,with25membersofthe publicparticipating. Inthelocalmedia,therewereatleast23articlesandnoticespublishedaboutEGS, geothermalexplorationatNewberry,andtheproposedEGSProject,manyofwhichwere pickedupbyInternetnewswebsitesandblogs.Atleast6ofthesewereprintedand1 televisionnewsstorywasairedduringthescopingperiodbetweenOctober21,2010 andNovember22,2010.

1.8 I D E N T I F I C A T I O N O F I S S UE S
BLMreceivedninecommentlettersfromthepublicinresponsetotheScopingNotice andconsideredtheseaswellascommentsmadeduringthepublicmeetings.All commentswereconsidered,andsubstantiveandrelevantcommentsandconcernsare addressedintheenvironmentalanalysis.Thelettersandthescopinganalysisreportare onfileandpublicallyavailableatthePrinevilleBLMoffice. Concernsandtopicsraisedbythepublic,aswellasthoseraisedbyspecialistsfromthe threecooperatingagencies,werereviewedandusedtodevelopkeyissuesandhelp guidetheEA.Adecisioninstrumentwasusedtoidentifythesekeyissuesbyevaluating thecommentsandaccessinghowtheissuesandconcernscanbemetbycustomaryand usualmethods.Forexample,someissuesaredealtwithbyfollowingtheDeschutes LRMPStandardsandGuidelines;otherissuesareresolvedbyfollowingbest managementpractices(BMPs);andothersareresolvedthroughprojectdesignfeatures ormitigations.Anyissuesorconcernsnotalreadymetbythesemethodsthatarewithin thescopeoftheprojectbecomekeyissues.Acopyofthisdecisioninstrumentisonfile atthePrinevilledistrictoffice.Keyissuesdescribepotentialeffectsonaspecific resourcethatmayberelevanttotheenvironmentalanalysisandwillthereforebe analyzedanddiscussedindetailintheEA.
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Followingreview,BLMdeterminedthatotherconcernssubmittedwerebeyondthe scopeofanalysisandwouldnotbeconsidered.

ISSUESCONSIDEREDBUTNOTBROUGHTFORWARDFORDETAILEDANALYSIS
DISTURBANCEOFFORESTVEGETATIONANDTIMBERSTANDS Theproposedprojectarealieswithinextensiveareasofpast,present,andfuture vegetationmanagement,thinning,andtimberharvestingprojects.TheEGSProject woulddisturbaverysmallamountofland(2/3acre)incomparisontotheseandother forestprojects.TheEGSProjectandothergeothermalprojectshavebeendesignedto: minimizethetypeandamountofvegetationtoberemoved;requireassmallamountof surfacedisturbanceaspossible;andutilizesitesthatareadjacenttoexistingroads, clearings,andareasthathaveotherwisealreadybeendisturbedandarelikelytosoon bedisturbedagain.Allofthesitesrequiringgrounddisturbancewerelocatedtouse naturalopeningsandavoidthecuttingoflargetrees.Asaresult,impactstoforest vegetationandtimberstandswouldbenegligible. EFFECTSTOSOCIOECONOMICS TheProjectwouldhaveasmallbutpositiveeffectonsocioeconomicsintermsoflocal workershiredduringprojectimplementationandeachprojectsuseoflocalfacilities, services,andgoodspurchasedfrombusinessesintheLaPine,Sunriver,andBend communities.Asanexample,drillingoftheproductionwellswouldbethemostlabor intensivephaseoftheproject.Thedrillingofeachwellwouldbesupportedbytwo crews(approximately12peopleintotal)witheachcrewworking12hourdaysforan estimated90daysperwell.Theseeffectswouldcertainlybebeneficialtocertainspecific businessesandindividuals,andwouldhaveaminorbeneficialimpacttocommunities closetotheprojectsite(suchasLaPineandBend).Thenumberofworkersinvolved thoughwouldbesmall,aswellastemporary,andwouldnotbeexpectedtoimpact communityservices.Asaresult,socioeconomicsintheProjectareawouldnotbe substantiallychanged. EFFECTSTOINFRASTRUCTURE:UTILITIES,ENERGY,ANDMATERIALS TheProjectwouldoccuronNationalForestSystem(NFS)land,whichhaslimited infrastructurethatcouldbeaffected.Projectcrewswoulduseexistingroadsandwould providetheirownfueltosupportvehicleandequipmentuse.Fuel(gasolineanddiesel) usedduringtheProjectwouldbeaconsumptiveuseoftheseproducts,butitwouldbe temporary,shortterm,andarelativelysmallquantitycomparedtotheregionalmarket. TheworkforceassociatedwiththeProjectwouldsimilarlynotbeexpectedtoaffect utilitiesavailableinlocalcommunities. EFFECTSTOTRANSPORTATION BLMandFSdeterminedtransportationwasnotanissuetobeconsideredfordetailed analysisduetothesmallscaleandlimiteddurationoftheProject.Asmallnumberof vehiclesandequipmentwouldbeinvolved,whichwouldroutinelyutilizethehighway systemtoreachjobsites.OnceonNationalForestland,existingroadswouldbeused
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andForestServiceroadmaintenancestandardswouldapply.Vehiclesusingtheroads wouldincludeheavyequipment,servicevehicles,roadmaintenanceequipment,fuel trucks,andpickuptrucks.Trafficmaybefrequentattimes,suchaswhenanumberof vehiclesareneededtodeliverdrillrigequipment.Peakvehicletrafficwouldoccur duringthemobilizationandsetupofthedrillrig.Approximately30truckloadsof equipmentwouldmobilizeovera7dayperiod.Afterthat,typicaltrafficwouldconsistof afueltruckapproximately2timesaweek,adailywatertruckfordustabatementduring drymonths,andapproximately10pickuptruckstotransportthedrillingcreweachday duringtheplanneddrillingperiodof180days(twodiscrete90dayperiods approximately4monthsapart).TheaccessroutesproposeduseFSroadsthatare designedtohandlelargevehicles.TheProponent,incoordinationwithFS,wouldpost signsnotifyingthepublicofindustrialtrafficandwillmeetManualforUniformTraffic ControlDevicesstandards.ProjectvehicleswoulduseCBradiostoalertothersof ingressandegress.RoadsignsremindingvehiclestouseCBradiosarealreadyposted onthemainaccessroadtothesite(FSroad9735).DuringtheProject,someFSroads wouldbeclosedtothepublic.Theseroads(roads600,680,558,550,510)havebeen closedaspartoftheNewberryGeothermalExplorationprojectapprovedin2007.Road signsclearlyindicatethattheroadisclosedatthelockedgate.Becauseofthelimited scaleandduration,andimplementationoftheprojectanddesignfeaturesmentioned above,theprojectwouldbeexpectedtohaveminimaleffectsontransportation. ENVIRONMENTALJUSTICE ExecutiveOrder12898,FederalActionstoAddressEnvironmentalJusticeinMinority PopulationsandLowIncomePopulations,directsfederalagenciestoaddress environmentalandhumanconditionsinminorityandlowincomecommunities.The evaluationofimpactstoenvironmentaljusticeisdependentondemonstratingthat significant,adverseimpactsfromtheproposedEGSProjectarenotdisproportionately bornebyanylowincomeorminoritygroupsintheaffectedcommunity.TheProject locationisonNFSlandandtheproposedactionswouldhaveverylimitedpotentialfor directeffectsoncommunitiesthatbordertheNFSland.Assuch,analysesintheEAdo notindicateapotentialformorethanminimaladverseimpacttothehumanpopulation. MANAGEMENTOFHEALTH,SAFETYANDHAZARDOUSMATERIALS TheProponentwouldusebestmanagementpracticestoaddressthegeneralandproper managementofwastetobeusedontheProject.Atcertaintimeshazardousmaterials mayneedtobeused.Thesewouldbetransported,handled,utilized,anddisposedof properlyandaccordingtofederalandstaterequirementsforeachproduct.Safety, includingthesafeandproperhandlingofwasteandhazardousmaterials,wouldbean integralpartofProjectimplementation.MaterialSafetyDataSheets(MSDS)forall hazardouschemicalsareonfileatthePrinevilleBLMoffice. EFFECTTOCULTURALRESOURCES SurveysforculturalresourcesareconductedforeachprojectthatoccursontheForest, includingtheEGSProject.Culturalresourcesurveyshavebeenconductedonall proposedareaswherenewsurfacedisturbancewouldoccur.Noculturalresourceswere identifiedduringtheintensivepedestriansurveyofMSAlocations.Nohistoric
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structures,historicdistricts,ortraditionalculturalpropertieswereidentifiedduringthe recordssearch.2 AswithallprojectsonNFSland,ifanyculturalresourcesareuncoveredduringProject operations,workwouldimmediatelystopatthesitewhereartifactswereuncovered, theFSarchaeologistwouldbenotifiedandworkwouldnotresumeuntilappropriate treatmentrecommendationswereobtainedfromaqualifiedarchaeologist.TheCultural ResourcesInventoryReportisonfileatthePrinevilleBLMoffice.Asaresultofthe negativefindingsintheculturalresourcessurveysandtheappropriatemitigationsteps shouldanyculturalartifactsbefound,therewouldbenoimpacttoculturalresources. DISTURBANCETOTHREATENED,ENDANGEREDANDSENSITIVEPLANTS ABiologicalEvaluation(BE)oftheProjectAreawascompletedinJulyof2011for Threatened,EndangeredandSensitivePlants.Theevaluationconcludedthatthe proposedactionwouldhavenoimpactonProposed,Endangered,Threatened,or Sensitiveplantspecies.ThisBEisonfileatthePrinevilleofficeoftheBLM. EFFECTSTONOISELEVELS Noisefromequipment,vehicles,andmachineryarecustomaryforgeothermaland timberprojectsandwouldbemostevidentatcloserangewithineachprojectsite.Sound levelsfromdrillingdeepgeothermalwellsareestimatedtobeupto45Aweighted decibels(dBA)atadistanceof0.5miles.3Thissoundlevelisconsistentwiththatofa libraryoraquietroominaresidence.Theclosestpotentiallysensitivereceptortothe PadS29sitewherethemajorityofprojectactivitywilloccuristhePeterSkeneOgden Trail(TR56),whichis0.75milestothesouthandtheclosestnoisesensitivepropertyis thePaulinaLakeCampgroundandLodgelocated2.3milestotheeast.Anynoisefrom thedrillrigatthesetwolocationswouldbelessthan45dBAandwithinOregonnoise controllimits.Additionally,duringthedrillingofwellNWG5529inthesummerof 2008therewerenoreportsofnoisecomplaintstotheFS.Theprojectwouldhave minimalnoiseeffectsduetotheshorttermnatureoftheactivitiesandtheremote locationwithrespecttonoisesensitivelocations. EFFECTSTOAIRQUALITY EmissionsfromtheProjectwouldincludefugitivedustemissionsfromroaduseand constructionequipmentanddieselengineexhaustfromthestimulationanddrillingof thetwoproductionwells.Ventedsteamfromtheproductionwellsmaycontain hydrogensulfideandothernoncondensablegases.
2CulturalResourcesInventoryandMonitoringProgram,NewberryVolcanoEGS

DemonstrationProjectMSALocationStudy,BasinandRangeHeritageConsultants,LLC, November2011.
3NewberryGeothermalPilotProjectFinalEIS,June1994,p.469.

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Giventhesmallsizeofareasneedingearthwork(2/3acre)andthesmallfleetofvehicles routinelyneededforstimulationanddrillingoperations(lessthan20),fugitivedust emissionswouldbeminimal.TheProponentswouldusewatertrucksfordust abatement,asperFSrequirements,onthemosttraveledaccessroadsduringdry months.Thiswouldfurtherreducedustgeneration.Fugitivedustemissionsfromthe projectarenotexpectedtohaveanadverseimpactonairquality. Ventingsteamfromproductionwellsduringshorttermflowtestsandthelonger60day circulationtestmaycontainhydrogensulfide(H2S),anoncondensablegascommonly encounteredingeothermalactivities.Becausetheventedsteamwouldbeheated groundwaterinjectedfromthesurfaceandnotnaturallyoccurringgeothermalsteam traditionallyfoundinconventionalhydrothermalgeothermalsystems,itisanticipated H2Sconcentrationswouldbeminimal(1ppmorless)ifdetectableatall.Nonetheless, H2Smonitoringandabatementequipmentwouldbeonsiteandusedduringwelltesting. ContinuousabatementofH2Semissionswouldbeappliedifmeasuredconcentrations andflowratesindicateanemissionrategreaterthan5lb/hr,anindustrystandardH2S emissionlimit. Dieselcombustionemissionswouldbeemittedfromwellstimulationanddrilling equipmentandvehiclesusedtoaccesstheprojectsite.Airqualityimpactsfroma similar,butmuchlargerproposedgeothermalpilotprojectin1994,wereanalyzedin detail.Theanalysisdeterminedthattheseemissionswouldnotaddsubstantiallytothe levelsthatexistintheregionfromothersourcessuchashighwaytravel,forestry practices,andrecreationalactivities.4 Totheextentthatsomeofthepresentandfutureactionscouldoccuratthesametimeas theproposedEGSProject,therewouldbeanadditionofsmallquantitiesofairemissions fromequipment,vehicles,anddustfromeachoftheprojects,butcumulativetotals wouldnotbeexpectedtohavemeasurableeffectsonregionalairquality. EFFECTSTOLANDUSE TheproposedprojectisonNationalForestSystemlandsandwillconformtoexisting landmanagementdirection. EFFECTSTOWILDERNESSAREAS,POTENTIALWILDERNESSAREAS,INVENTORIED ROADLESSAREAS,WILDANDSCENICRIVERS TherearenoCongressionallydesignatedwildernessareasinorneartheProjectarea.A portionofPaulinaCreekisidentifiedasbeingeligibleasawildandscenicriverbutitis notdesignatedaswildandscenic;neitherPaulinaCreeknoranyofitsfeatureswouldbe affectedbythisProject.
4NewberryGeothermalPilotProjectFinalEIS,June1994,p.417.

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MSASiteNM40iswithintheNorthPaulinaInventoriedRoadlessArea(IRA),butthe 2001RoadlessAreaConservationRuledoesnotapplytoactivitiesthatdontinclude roadbuildingortreecutting.TheIRAmeetsthecriteriaforPotentialWilderness,butthe activityproposedatMSANM40(surfaceinstallationofmonitoringequipment)willnot affectorchangethewildernesscharacterofthearea. IMPACTONWINTERRECREATION PreparationanddrillingofthedownholeMSAsitescouldoccurduringthewinter monthsandsomeoftheaccessroadsareonFSroadsthatareusedbysnowmobiles duringthewinter.Adetaileddiscussionofproposedaccessroutesinrelationto snowmobiletrails,andprojectdesignfeaturesincorporatedtoreduceimpactsis discussedinSection2.6.Theseprojectdesignfeatureswouldallowsimultaneoususeof theroadsbybothsnowmobilesandProjectequipment,thereforeimpactsfromthe Projectonwinterrecreationisanticipatedtobeminimal. IRREVERSIBLEANDIRRETRIEVABLECOMMITMENTOFRESOURCES Theirreversiblecommitmentofresourcesisdescribedasthelossoffutureoptions.It appliesprimarilytononrenewableresources,suchasculturalresources,orresources thatarerenewableafteraregenerationperiod,suchassoilproductivity.Thetermmay alsoapplytothelossofanexperienceasanindirecteffectofapermanentchangein thenatureorcharacteroftheland.Anirretrievablecommitmentofresourcesisdefined asthelossofproduction,harvest,oruseofnaturalresources.Theamountofproduction foregoneisirretrievable,buttheactionisnotirreversible.Noirreversibleand irretrievablecommitmentofresourcesisexpected. INTENTIONALDESTRUCTIVEACTS InDecember2006,theDOEOfficeofGeneralCounselissuedinterimguidance stipulatingthatNEPAdocumentscompletedforDOEactionsandprojectsshould explicitlyconsiderintentionaldestructiveacts(i.e.,actsofsabotageorterrorism).The proposedEGSprojectwouldnotinvolvethetransportation,storage,oruseof radioactive,explosive,ortoxicmaterials.Consequently,itishighlyunlikelythat constructionoroperationofthegeothermalprojectwouldbeviewedasapotential targetbysaboteursorterrorists.Theprojectlocationisnotnearanynationaldefense infrastructureorintheimmediatevicinityofamajorinlandport,containerterminal, freighttrains,ornuclearpowerplants.TheProposedActionwouldnotofferanytargets ofopportunityforterroristsorsaboteurstoinflictadverseimpactstohumanlife,health, orsafety.

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KEYISSUESTOBECARRIEDFORWARD,ADDRESSED,ANDANALYZEDINDETAIL
Keyissuesarethosethatrepresentaconcernthatrequiresmoredetailedanalysisanda considerationofthetradeoffsinvolvedinchoosingonealternativeoveranother. Chapters3and4ofthisEAprovidethedescriptionandanalysisofthekeyissues identifiedbyBLM,FSandDOE. WILDLIFEKEYISSUE PreparingandclearingthevegetationforthethreeboreholeMSAstationshavethe potentialtoremovehabitatonthesesitesforsomespecies.Drillingactivities,testing andstimulationactivities,andanincreaseinhumandisturbancealsohavethepotential todisturbnestingsitesuptomileduringthebreedingseasonortemporarilydisplace somewildlifespecies. TheDeschutesLRMPWildlifeStandardsandGuidelinesthatsupporttheseissue statementsinclude:WL15,11,12,19,20,28,29,31,33,34,56,72,and73. o UNITSOFMEASURE: Distancebetweendrillsitesandnestingsites. Areaofhabitatremoved.

SCENICRESOURCESKEYISSUE Removalofvegetationonthemicroseismicmonitoringsiteshasthepotentialtocause upto3areasofapproximately9,375squarefeet(0.2acre)eachoratotalof28,125feet (2/3acres)tonotmeettheForestPlanstandardsforvisualqualityasseenfrom selectedviewpoints.TheDeschutesLRMPStandardsandGuidelinesthatsupportsthis issuestatementisM819.Theventingofsteamduringtheshortandlongterm circulationtestsmayalsocreateasteamplumethatcouldpotentiallybevisibleattimes fromcertainselectedviewpoints.Thedrillrigandcirculationtestingfacilitiesmaybe visibleattimesfromsomekeyviewerlocationsduringtheanticipated2yearduration oftheProject. o UNITSOFMEASURE: Numberofsitesandsizeinacresofareasthatwouldhavevegetation removedsufficienttobeseenfromkeyviewerlocations. ThedistancefromselectedviewpointsandabilitytobeseenbyForest visitors.

GROUNDWATERQUANTITYKEYISSUE Withdrawalofgroundwaterfromwaterwellsforthedevelopmentandtestingofa belowgroundEGSreservoirhasthepotentialtoreducethequantityofwateravailable forotheruseswithintheDeschutesdrainagebasin. o UNITSOFMEASURE: Totalamountofgroundwatertobewithdrawninmillionsofgallonsand rateofgroundwatertobewithdrawninmillionsofgallonsperday.

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GROUNDWATERQUALITYKEYISSUE ThedevelopmentandtestingofabelowgroundEGSreservoirhasthepotentialto negativelyimpactgroundwaterqualitywithintheaquifer. o U N I T S O F M E A S U R E : Amount,typeofadditivesanddepthatwhichtheyaretobeinjected. Injectionandproductionwelldesignfeaturestopreventcontaminationof thegroundwateraquifer.

INDUCEDSEISMICITYKEYISSUE ThedevelopmentofabelowgroundEGSreservoirbyhydroshearinghasthepotentialto produceinducedseismicityandincreasedseismicriskthatcouldaffecthistoric structures,resorts,andotherrecreationsiteswithintheNNVM,couldincrease avalancherisk,couldincreaserisktoaboveandbelowgroundgeologicfeatures,and couldresultinpropertydamageinnearbypopulationcenters. o U N I T S O F M E A S U R E : Probabilityofexceedingpeakgroundacceleration(PGA)above0.028g5, duetoEGSactivities,calculatedatwellpad5529,PaulinaandEastLake Resortsandcampgrounds,LavaLandsVisitorCenter,avalanchepronesites onNorthPaulinaPeakandPaulinaPeak,andthenearestpopulationcenters ofLaPine,Sunriver,andBend.

1.9 D E C I S I O N S T O B E M A D E BLMLEADAGENCY
TheDistrictManagerofthePrinevilleDistrictBLMwillmakethedecisionwhetherto approve,approvewithconditions,ordenytheProponentsproposedPlanof Exploration,OperationsPlan,andDrillingProgram. ThisEAprovidesanalysisusedbyBLMtodeterminewhetheritcanissueaFindingofNo SignificantImpact(FONSI)orwhetheritisnecessarytoprepareanEnvironmental ImpactStatement(EIS).SignificanceisdefinedbyNEPAandinregulation40CFR 1508.27.IftheDistrictManagerdeterminesthatthisProjectdoesnotpresenta substantialquestionastowhetheritmayhavesignificanteffectsbasedonthe environmentalanalysisdocumentedinthisEA,aDecisionRecord(DR)willbeissued approvingaselectedalternative,whetheritistheProposedActionoranother alternative.ADRandFONSIstatementdocumentthereasonsfortheselected


51gistheaccelerationduetogravity.APGAof0.028gisperceivedaslightshakingby

USGSstandards.
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alternative,whyitwouldnotresultinsignificantenvironmentalimpacts,andhowit meetsthePurposeandNeedfromSection1.4ofanEA.

FORESTSERVICEANDDOECOOPERATINGAGENCIES
TheForestServiceisinvolvedintheenvironmentalanalysisunderthetermsofa cooperativeagreementbetweenBLMandForestService.TheForestServicewillmakea separateNEPAdecisionandissueaFONSI,ordeclaretheneedtoprepareanEIS,on those9MSAstationsthatarenotongeothermalleasesadministeredbyBLM, Asacooperatingfederalagency,DOEwillmakethedecisionwhetherornottoauthorize theexpenditureoffederalfundsfortheproposedEGSproject.DOEwillmakeaseparate NEPAdecisionandeitherissueaFONSIordeclaretheneedtoprepareanEIS.

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CHAPTER 2. ALTERNATIVES INCLUDING THE PROPOSED ACTION


2.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
ThischapterdescribesthreealternativesanalyzedforthepurposeofthisEA: AlternativeA,theProposedAction;AlternativeB,developedtoaddressconcernsraised duringthescopingprocessoverwaterusageandvisualimpact;andAlternativeC,the NoActionAlternative.Abriefdiscussionofalternativesconsidered,buteliminatedfrom furtheranalysis,isalsoincluded.

2.2 P R O J E C T L O C A T I O N
Theproposedprojectareaislocatedapproximately22milessouthofBendand10miles northeastofLaPineonNationalForestsystemlandswithintheBendFortRockRanger DistrictoftheDeschutesNationalForest(Figure1 :ProjectVicinityMap),inDeschutes County,Oregon. Theprimaryprojectactivitieswouldoccuronanexistingwellpad,S29,completedby Davenportin2008.S29isapproximately5acresinsize,andislocatedonfederal geothermalleaseOR40497heldbyDavenportNewberryLLCinSection29,Township 21South,Range12East.Nearbytherewouldbe20microseismicmonitoringstations. AlloftheMSAstationswouldbelocatedonNationalForestsystemlands.Eleven(11)of thesiteswouldbeonfederalgeothermalleases,whereNEPAdecisionsforsurface disturbanceisunderthejurisdictionoftheBLM,andnine9stationswouldbeonlands whereFSwillmaketheNEPAdecisionforsurfacedisturbance(Table1 ).
2.3

A L T E R N A T I V E AP R O P O S E D A C T I O N
ThisalternativeisbasedontheNoticeofIntenttoconductgeothermalresource explorationoperationssubmittedbytheproponentsandtheassociatedPlanof Exploration,OperationsPlanandDrillingProgram.Thedescriptionofthisproposed actionwillincludeabriefoverviewoftheobjectives,intent,andasimplifiedsummary descriptionoftheprocessesinvolved.Thiswillbefollowedbyadetaileddescriptionof thekeypartsoftheproject: PhaseII6 DrillingthreenewMSAboreholes Installationandcalibrationofthefinalmicroseismicarray Stimulationandtestingoftheinjectionwell Drilling,stimulation,andtestingoftwoproductionwells Longtermcirculationtest
6PhaseI,waspermitting,publicoutreachandcollectionofbaselineseismicdata.

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PROJECTOVERVIEW
TheproposedprojectwouldcreateandtestanEGSreservoirbeneathanexisting geothermalwellpad(S29)thatDavenportconstructedin2008.Creationofthe belowgroundEGSreservoirwouldbeaccomplishedbyusingaprocessofwell stimulationtermedhydroshearing.Hydroshearingistheprocessofopeningminute cracksinthesubsurfacerockformationsalongexistingnaturalfractures.Inthe proposedProjectthiswouldbeaccomplishedbyinjectinggroundwaterdeep(atdepths ofapproximately6,500to10,000ft)intotheexistinggeothermalwell,NWG5529, locatedonpadS29.Shallowgroundwaterwells(approximately600to800ftdeep) locatedatandnearthesitewouldbeusedtoprovidewaterfortheproject.Thedesired outcomeofthisphaseoftheprojectistoestablishanundergroundnetworkof interconnectedfracturesinthehotrockthatwouldserveasaheatexchanger.When coldwaterispumpedfromthesurfaceitbecomesheatedasitflowsthroughthese subsurfacefracturesystems.Oncethisisaccomplished,heatedwaterwithinthe reservoirwouldbereturnedtothesurfacebydirectionallydrillingtwoadditionaldeep geothermalwellsonthesamewellpadthatwouldintercepttheEGSreservoirandallow thenaturallyheatedwatertobecirculatedbetweenthewells. Minutefracturescreatedduringthehydroshearingprocesswouldbemappedand carefullycontrolledandmonitored.Monitoringandmappingwouldbeaccomplished withanarrayofmicroseismicmonitoringequipment(microseismometers)installed eitherjustbelowground(surfacestations),orinboreholes(boreholestations)drilledto adepthofupto1,100feet.Ten(10)locationswouldbesurfacestationsand10would beboreholestations(Figure2 ).Themicroseismicarray(MSA)stationswouldbe strategicallyandcarefullydistributedtoprovidethehighestdegreeofseismic sensitivityandaccuracy.ThisMSAwouldmonitorthehydroshearingprocessinreal time. Ofthe10MSAboreholelocations,3newboreholeswouldbedrilledusingatruck mountedrotarydrillingrigsimilartothoseusedtodrilldomesticwaterwells.Existing wellsites,orsitesalreadyapprovedforsuchwells,wouldbeutilizedfor7ofthe10 proposedboreholeMSAstationsneededtosupporttherequiredmonitoringforthe project.EachsitefortheMSAboreholeswouldaverageapproximately75ftx125ft (9,375squarefeetor0.2acre)tosafelyaccommodateequipment,includingadrillrig andwatertruck.Totalsurfacedisturbanceforall3newboreholestationswouldbe approximately28,125squarefeet(2/3acres).Allsitesareaccessiblefromexisting ForestServiceroadsandnonewroadswouldbeconstructed. OncetheundergroundEGSreservoirissuccessfullycreated,andtwoadditionaldeep geothermalwellsaredrilledandtested,alongtermcirculationtestofapproximately30 60dayswouldbeconductedtotestreservoirperformance.Thisdatawouldbeusedto createaconceptualmodelofhowahypotheticalEGSwellfieldandpowerplantmight function.Thetestsystemwouldnotusegeothermalenergytoproduceelectricityanda powerplantisnotproposedatthistime.

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INSTALLATIONOFMICROSEISMICARRAY(MSA)
Finalinstallationofthemicroseismicarraywouldrequire: PreparingthenewboreholeandsurfaceMSAsitesforthemonitoring equipment
Placingdownholeseismometers
CalibratingtheboreholeandsurfaceMSAsites
Installingacentralizeddatarelaystation

ThepotentialMSAboreholesitesareshowninFigure2 .Thestepsinvolvedindrilling andcompletingtheseMSAboreholesaredescribedbelow: FORTHETHREENEWBOREHOLES:


1. Preparesitesfordrillrigaccess.ThethreenewsitesareaccessiblefromexistingFS

roads;nonewroadswouldbenecessary.Roadclearing,grading,andbrushingmay benecessaryontheroadsshownin 2. Figure 3.Thesitesareallrelativelyflat.Onlyminorgrading(nocutandfill necessary),ifany,wouldberequiredateachsitetoaccommodatetherigand associatedequipment.Thethreenewproposedboreholesitesarelocatedonsites thathavepreviousdisturbance.Vegetationthatwillneedtobeclearedismadeupof immaturelodgepolepinewithsomeponderosa,approximately620feetinheight. TreesneedingtobecutatthenewboreholeMSAsiteswouldbeleftontheground orpiledwithintheimmediateareatoprovidedownwoodydebris.Thiswould providehabitatforpreyspeciesforraptors,woodpeckers,ormartens.Livegreen treesorsnagsgreaterthan15inchesdbh(diameteratbreastheight)wouldnotbe cutwithoutpriorFSapproval. 3. Drill614inchoutsidediameterboreholestoapproximately1,100feetusinga truckmountedrotaryrig.Surfacecasingwouldbenecessarytopreventnear surfacecollapseorfilinginofthenewlycreatedwellboreinpoorlyconsolidated surfacematerials.Theholeswouldbecasedwith4inchdiameterPVCorsteel closedendcasingandcementedfromthebottomtothesurface.Waterfordrilling wouldbetruckedinfromexistinggroundwaterwellsonpadsS16andS29orfrom offsitewatersourcesinLaPine.Thewaterwouldbedeliveredtothedrillingsites byuptotwo3,5004,500gallonwatertrucks.Waterusagewouldbe2,0003,000 gallonsperdayfortheapproximately14daysofdrillingtimeanticipatedperwell. Averagewaterdeliveryisexpectedtobelessthanonewatertruckperdayforeach well.Nosumpswouldbeconstructedonthepadsite.Allmudandcuttingswouldbe containedinfreestandingtanksanddisposedofatapprovedreceivingsitesin accordancewithBLMrequirements. FORALLOFTHESELECTEDBOREHOLESITES: 4. Installmicroseismicmonitoringequipmentdownholeandplaceaweatherproof housing(approximately3feetby3feet)onthesurfaceateachsite.Installadjacent solarpanelandtelemetryantenna.Solarpanelsandtelemetryantennasatsome sitescouldbeasmuchas300feetfromtheseismicstation.Itisanticipatedthatin mostcases,thetelemetryequipmentwouldbeattachedtoanearbytalltree.

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However,intheeventitisnotfeasibletoattachtheantennatoatree,a1040foot telescopingpolewouldbeusedtoholdtheantenna.Thepolewouldbeconnectedto theboreholesurfaceequipmentbyhardwire.Dependingontheheightofthepole,a holewouldbedugwithashoveltoabout2feetdeep,thenapostholediggerwould beusedtogoanotherapproximately2feet(forthetallerpoles)andthepolewould becementedintoplace.Inadditiontothehardwiretoconnectthepoletothe boreholeequipment,tallerpolesrequirewiresthataresecuredintotheground. Installationwouldtake11weeksforallstations,followedbycalibrationandtesting forapproximately2weeks.Figure4 showsatypicalMSAstation.

Figure 4:TypicalMSA StationwithSolarPanel AndTelemetryAntenna

F O R S U R F A C E MSA S T A T I O N S : The10SurfaceMSAstationswouldbeidenticaltotheboreholeMSAstationsexcept thattheseismometerwouldbeplacedinashallowhole1to4feetdeepandless than2feetindiameter.Theseholeswouldbehanddug. 5. Todeterminetheoptimumseismometerarraydeployment,theresponseofeach potentialstationlocationtoseismicenergyreleasedinthereservoirmustbe calibrated.Calibrationcanbeaccomplishedbyproducingaseismicsignalateachof

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thestationsanddeployingaseismometerdeepinthetargetwell(NWG5529)ora suitablealternativelocation,tomonitorresponse(surfacecalibration). SurfaceCalibrationInthesurfacecalibrationmethod,seismicenergyisproduced usingexplosivechargesdeployedintoshallowcalibrationholes(shotholes),1530 feetindepth.Thesecalibrationshotholeswouldbelocatedonthesamesitesasthe MSAlocationsandwouldnotrequireadditionalsurfacedisturbance.Theprocedure isasfollows: Drillshotholes(34incheswide,1530feetdeep)withasmalltruckmounted rotarydrill. LineshotholeswithPVCcasingandinstallcapflushwiththegroundsurface. LoadshotholewithPentoliteexplosive. BackfillandtampnativesoilintothePVCcasingandshothole. Covershotholewithrubbermat,3ftx3ftx1inchthickhighdensityaluminum plate,andsandbags. Fireshotandrecordsignalontheseismographs. Oncethecalibrationissuccessfullycompletedtheshotholeswouldbefilled withdirtandtheshotholelocationrestoredtothesatisfactionoftheFS. 6. Uponcompletionofactivitiesrelatedtotheproject(anticipatedduringthesummer of2014),theboreholeswouldbepluggedandabandonedaccordingtoBLM specifications.TheMSAequipment,includingallassociatedwires,telemetrypoles andcementfootings,solarpanelsandbatterieswouldberemoved,andthesites wouldberestoredtoavegetatedconditioncapableofgrowingforestlandscapes similartothoseinplacepriortodisturbanceinaccordancewithForestServiceand BLMspecifications.Thiswillincluderecontouringanygradedpadstomatch surroundingtopography,spreadingstockpiledtopsoil/overburden,andreplanting vegetation. SurfaceMSAstationswouldbeidenticaltotheboreholeMSAstationsexceptthat theseismometerwouldbeplacedinashallowhole1to4feetdeepandlessthan2 feetindiameter.Theseholeswouldbehanddug. INSTALLREPEATERSTATION(S): Inordertorelaythedatatoacentrallocation,uptotwotelemetryrepeaterstations wouldbeinstalled.Thesestationswouldconsistofanantenna,solarpaneland battery.Theantennaswouldbeplacedhighupinatreeneartherepeaterstation andwouldbevisuallyinconspicuous.Onetelemetryrepeatermaybelocatedin Section16,justnorthofS16,andthesecondonemaybelocatedinSection21,just southofS16.

STIMULATEANDTESTINJECTIONWELL
DevelopmentoftheEGSsysteminvolvesthecreationofanartificialreservoirinsuitable hotrockswherewatercancirculatethroughandheatup,muchliketheheatexchange processofaradiator.Duringthisprocess,waterwouldbeinjectedathighpressure

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(estimatedtorangebetween1,160and2,600psig)intowellNWG5529,todepthsof approximately6,500to10,000feetbelowground. Tocreateanetworkofoptimumfracturewidth,fracturedensityandoveralldimension, hydroshearingstimulationwouldbeconductedatmultiplelevelsorfracturesetsinthe targetwell.Theadvantagesofstimulatingatmultiplelevelsinclude: Creatingalargerreservoirvolume,therebydoublingortriplingavailableheat exchangearea. Enhancingsystempermeabilityandconnectivitytoallowforhigherproduction ratesandlowerinjectionpressures,therebyincreasingtheeconomicviabilityof anyfutureproject. Establishingasinglewellproductiontotalmassproductionrateof75Kg/s.

Aformationinjectiontestwouldbeconductedtodeterminetheupperconstraintsfora hydroshearingtreatmentdesignbydefiningthemagnitudeoftheminimumhorizontal principalstress.Thiswillidentifythetensilefailurepressureofaspecificformation resultingfromhighpressure,lowvolumeinjection,sothatformationbreakdown pressureisnotexceededduringthemainstimulationtreatments.Thisstressmagnitude isacriticalcomponentofvolcanicstressregimeandcanonlybeidentifiedthrough formationinjectiontestanalysis. Theobjectiveofstimulationistocreateuptothreeseparateandstackedfracturesets. Stimulationwouldbeaccomplishedbypumpinggroundwaterintotheinjectionwellat relativelyhighpressure(butatapressurelowenoughtopreventtensilefailureand formationbreakdown)tohydrosheartheshallowestpreexistingwellborefractures belowthecasingshoe.Divertermaterials,discussedbelow,areusedtodirectthe stimulationfluidtospecificareasofpreexistingfractures,previouslyidentifiedbya boreholeteleviewersurvey.

USEANDAPPLICATIONOFDIVERTERS
ThecreationofEGSreservoirshashistoricallyinvolvedthestimulationofasingle fracturesetaroundanexistingwellbore.Thisisbecauseduringstimulationtheexisting fracturewiththelowesthydroshearingpressurewillopenwhenwaterispumpedfrom thesurfaceandpressureisappliedintheinjectionwell.Theotherexistingfractures, thatrequireahighershearpressure,aretypicallynotaffected(Figure5 ).

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Legend Fractures:
Figure 5:StimulationofaSingle FractureSet

ThestimulationofmultiplefracturesetsinasingleinjectionwellwillincreaseEGS efficiency.Creationofmultiplefracturesetsinasinglewellrequireshydraulicisolation ofeachfracturenetworkafterithasbeenstimulated.Toprovidehydraulicisolationfor thecreationofmultiplefractures,adivertermaterialcanbeused(Figure6 ).Afterthe stimulationofthefirstfractureset,adivertermaterialisappliedtotemporarilysealthe fracturenetworkfromacceptingadditionalfluid.Additionalpressureisthenappliedto thewellandasecondsetoffracturesisstimulated.Aftermultiplefracturesarecreated injectionisdiscontinuedandthewellboreisallowedtoreheattotheoriginalwell temperature.Thiscausesthedivertermaterialtodissolve,leavingallfracturesopenfor circulationandflowduringtheoperationoftheEGSsystem(Figure7 ).

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Legend Fractures:

Figure6:Stimulationof SecondFracture SetAfterDiverter ApplicationtoFirst FractureSet

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Legend Fractures:

Figure7:EGSWellwith MultipleFracture SetsafterDiverterDissolution

Proprietarydiverters7,primarilydevelopedbyAltaRock,wouldbeusedbetween pumpingofthestimulationtreatmentsforeachfractureset.Divertermaterialsare selectedtobeenvironmentallybenignandtohavebenignbreakdownproducts.The diverterswouldbeselectedfromtwoclassesofmaterials: biodegradableplasticsand naturallyoccurringminerals. Biodegradableplasticsareplasticsthatwilldecomposeinnaturalaerobic(composting) andanaerobic(landfill)environments.Theymaybecomposedofeitherbioplastics, whichareplasticswithcomponentsderivedfromrenewablerawmaterials,or petroleumbasedplastics,whichutilizeanadditive.Theuseofbioactivecompounds, compoundedwithswellingagents,ensuresthat,whencombinedwithheatand moisture,theyexpandthemolecularstructureoftheplasticandallowthebioactive compoundstobreakthepolymerchainsintotheircomponent,solubleparts.These smallercomponentscanthenbemetabolizediftheyareinthebiosphere.
7AltaRockhasaportfolioofpatentfilingsprotectingitsproprietarytechnologyand

methods.

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Forexample,oneofthedivertermaterialsmadefromrenewablebiologicrawmaterials thatAltaRockhasusedisBioVertTM,apolymeroflacticacid,orPLA.Thismaterialisa hardplasticthatisavailableasgrainsthatcanbesortedbysize.Whenheated,the chainsinthepolymerbreakdowntolacticacid,asolublesubstancefoundinhumanand animaltissueasanormalproductofmetabolismandexercise.Threeoftheother biodegradableplasticsthatcouldbeusedarealsomadefrombiologicmaterials.Two othersarederivedfrompetroleum,butbreakdownintosmallcomponentsthatare bioactiveandcanbemetabolizedintheenvironment.Biodegradableplasticswouldbe selectedbasedonthetemperatureatwhichtheymeltandthenthetemperatureat whichtheydissociate. WellNWG5529isveryhot(>600F),butwouldbecooledbyinjectingwaterforthe stimulation.Thedivertermaterialselectedneedstostayinplacelongenoughto stimulatetheremainingzones.Thefirstzonestimulatedmaynotbecooledenoughto makeitpossibletouseabiodegradableplasticasadiverter.Ifthiswerethecase,oneof themineraldiverterswouldbeselectedforthatzone. Themineraldivertersthatmaybeusedareallnaturallyoccurringmaterialsthatwould begroundtoaspecificparticlesizeandmixedwithcleangroundwatertopumpintothe well.Avarietyofdivertershavebeenselectedforvaryingsolubilityoverawiderangeof temperature.Onepossiblemineralthathasbeentestediscalciumcarbonate(calcite). Becauseanynaturalmineralmaterialcanhavecontaminantsthataretoxic,AltaRock usesmaterialsthathavebeenqualitycontrolledandtestedtohaveverylow contaminants.Forexample,thecalciteselectedforuseasadiverterisverypure,with greaterthan99%calciumcarbonateandlessthan0.3%quartz. Waterwouldbepumpedforaboutseven(7)daystostimulateeachfractureset. Stimulationofatleastthreefracturesetsisplanned,foratotaloftwentyone(21)days ofpumptime.Whenthedesiredwatervolumeforeachfracturesethasbeenpumped andthetargetfracturevolumehasbeenstimulated,asuspensionofdiverterparticles wouldbepumpedintothewell.Theamountofdivertermaterialisexpectedtobe between100250poundsperdivertertreatment.Theparticleswouldbecarrieddown tothefracturesthatarecurrentlyacceptingwater.Theparticleswouldpackoffinthe fracturesatthewellborefaceandsealoffadditionalflowintothefractures(Figure6 ). Additionalpumppressurewouldbeappliedandanewsetoffractures,typicallybelow thefirstsetoffractures,wouldbestimulated.Pumpingwouldcontinueuntilthesecond fracturesetgrowstothetargetvolume.Thisprocesswouldberepeatedagainto stimulateathirdfractureset.Itisexpectedthatatleasttwoapplicationsofdivertermay berequiredforeachstimulation.

HANDLINGANDSTORAGEOFDIVERTERMATERIALS
Divertermaterialsarestable,nontoxic,granularsolidsofvariousparticlesizes. MaterialswouldbestoredontheS29padlocationin50100lbsacks,55galdrumsor supersacks(35ft3polyethylenesacks).Materialwouldbeprotectedfromtheweather withplasticwrap,covering,andstoredinaprotectedareasuchasunderacanopyorin atrailer.Atotalof10002000poundsofeachselecteddiverterwouldbeonhandatthe welllocationduringthestimulationphase(approximately3months).AMaterialSafety

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DataSheet(MSDS)willbeincludedwithdivertermaterialduringshipmenttoandfrom storageatthesiteforinspectionbyappropriateregulatoryagencies.

COMPOSITIONOFPOTENTIALDIVERTERSANDTHEIRDEGRADATIONPRODUCTS
Belowisalistofpotentialproprietarydivertermaterialsthatmightbeusedinthe Project.Oneormoreoftheseproprietaryproductsmaybeusedduringthestimulation basedontheresultsofongoingproprietarysiteinvestigationsandlaboratorytestingof diverterperformance.TheProponentsanticipatepumpingthreestimulationstagesby usingapproximately100250poundsofdiverterbetweenstimulations,withone divertertreatmentpumpedbetweenthefirstandsecondstimulation,andanother treatmentpumpedbetweensecondandthirdstimulation.
Table2:DiverterMaterialandExpected DegradationProducts(AltarockProprietary)

Material BioVertTM AltaVertTM150

ClassofMaterial Biodegradablepolymer Biodegradableplasticfrom petroleum

CompositionofDegradation Byproducts LacticAcidmonomers,dimersand trimers Carbondioxide andadiol.Thisformulationofthe materialdoesnotcontainbisphenol. Mg2+,Cl,MgO Mg2+,(SO4)2,MgO Ca2+,CO32,HCO3 H4SiO4,H3SiO4,OH,H+,Na+,Ca2+ Na2O,CaO,Al2O3,silica polymerization Tobermorite,Ca5Si6O16(OH)24H2O, reportedasasolidresidue

AltaVert200 AltaVert201 AltaVert250 AltaVert300

Magnesiummineral Magnesiummineral CalciumMineral Oxideglass

AltaVert301 AltaVert151

Naturalmineral Biodegradablebioplastic

H4SiO4,H3SiO4,OH,H+,silica polymerization Hydrolysisproducesthe correspondinghydroxyacidsthatare mostlynontoxic oligosaccharidesandhexoses (mainlyglucose) glycolicacid

AltaVert152 AltaVert153

Biodegradablecellulosicfiber Biodegradablebioplastic

Twoexistinggroundwaterwells,describedinmoredetailinthenextsubsectionbelow, wouldprovidethewaterneededforstimulation. Waterwouldbeinjectedusingtriplexpumpstosheartheshallowestsetofpreexisting fractures.Thewaterwouldbetaggedwiththermallyreactiveandconservativechemical


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tracers8toaidindeterminationofreservoirsurfacearea,averagetemperatureandfluid traveltime.Thesetracercompounds,usedwidelythroughoutthegeothermalindustry andelsewhere,arenotradioactiveandareusedinverylowconcentrations. Duringstimulation,theProponentswouldcontinuouslymonitormicroseismicityalong withsurfaceinjectionratesandpressures.Afiberopticmonitoringsystemwouldbe deployedinthewellboretoproviderealtimedistributedtemperatureinformationand bottomholepressure.Theorientationandshapeofthefracturedreservoircreatedby stimulation,controlledbytheinsitustressregimeatanygivendepth,wouldbe determinedbyinterpretationofMSAdata. Afterthewellhasthermallyrecoveredfromstimulation,athreeday,singlewellflow testwouldbeconductedtocharacterizethenewlycreatedreservoir.Allresultingdata (e.g.,microseismic,hydraulic,fiberopticandflowtestdata)wouldbethoroughly analyzed.Thethermo,hydro,mechanical,chemicalmodelofthereservoirwouldthen beupdated. ThetypicalEGSreservoirgeometryobservedbymicroseismicmappingofstimulation treatmentsatotherprojectssitesisanoblatespheroid,orflattenedoval,elongatedin onedirection.Becausepreviousstudieshaveshownthatthefracturesystemwillgrow inrelativelyequalproportionsinoppositedirectionsfromthewellbore,athreewell configuration(oneinjector,twoproducers)proposedbythisprojectisidealtotake advantageoftheentirefracturenetworkcreatedbystimulation. Whenfracturegeometrywithalongaxisradiusofabout500metersisachieved,ahigh temperaturedivertermaterialwouldbepumpedinanattempttoredirectthehydraulic treatmenttothenextsetofnaturalfractures.Theresultingtemperature, microseismicityandpressuredatawouldbeanalyzedtodetermineifthediversionhas beensuccessful. Afterstimulationiscompleted,thewellwouldbeshutin(temporarilyclosedoffsothat nofluidflowsout)toallowforreheating.Thermalexpansionoftheinjectedwatercan resultincontinuedfracturestimulationafterpumpingisdiscontinued.Ifcontinued fracturegrowthisindicatedbymicroseismicity,reservoirpressurewouldbereducedby flowingthewelltotheatmosphericseparatorandwellpadsumpuntilseismicity subsidesandfracturegrowthceases. Aftersufficientthermalrecovery,asinglewellflowtestwouldbeconductedtoallow productivitymeasurement,wellboresurveys,andtracerandgeochemicalsampling. Flowtestequipmentwouldbeinstalledonthewellpadbeforehydroshearingis initiated.Theflowtestconfigurationwouldincludeaflowtee,flowcontrolvalve,flow
8Conservativetracersrefertotracersthatdonotreactwithreservoirfluidsorsolids,

suchthatthecompositionandtotalmassoftracerinthesystemareconserved.

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linewithtemperatureandpressuremonitoringinstruments,aJamestubewithlip pressuremonitoring,atmosphericseparator,andweirboxroutedtothewellpadsump. Ancillaryequipmentwouldincludeageochemicalsamplingseparatorandhydrogen sulfide(H2S)monitoringandabatementequipment. ContinuousabatementofH2Semissionswouldbeappliedifmeasuredconcentrations andflowratesindicateanemissionrategreaterthan5lb/hr,anindustrystandardH2S emissionlimit.AJamestubeandweirboxassemblywouldbeusedtomeasuretotal massflowandenthalpy(thetotalenergyrateofthesystem).Liquidandnon condensablegassampleswouldbecollectedforgeochemicalanalysis.Asuiteof productionwellsurveyswouldbeconductedtoidentifyflowzones,calculatetheflow contributionofeachfracturezone,andtomeasureheatflowasthewellwarmsupafter injection.Afterathreedayflowtest,thewellwouldbeshutin(themastervalvewould beclosedatthewellhead)whilethemicroseismic,hydraulic,fiberopticandflowtest dataisanalyzed.Asecondboreholeteleviewersurveyoftheinjectionwellmaybe conductedafterstimulationandinitialtestingtovisualizethefracturenetworkwellbore interface.

WATERFORSTIMULATION
Twoexistinggroundwaterwellswouldprovidethewaterneededforstimulation. DavenporthasanexistingwaterwellonwellpadS29andanotherwaterwellonpadS 16andbothwellshavethenecessarywateruselicenserequiredbytheOregonWater ResourcesDepartment(OWRD)foruseofthiswaterfortheProject.Waterfromthewell onpadS16wouldbetransportedtowellpadS29viatemporarysurfaceirrigation pipelinesrunningalongsideFSroads(Figure8 ).Wherethepipelinecrossesaroad,it wouldbetrenchedintotheroadandcoveredwithanearthenmound.Waterfromthese wellsmaybepumpedsimultaneouslytocontinuouslysupplystimulationpumps. Groundwaterwouldbepumpedintoatleasteighteenwaterstoragetanksinstalledon PadS29.Eachtankholds22,000gallonsofwater,thusthetankswouldprovidea 396,000gallonvolumebufferandallowthedoublelinedsumpsonbothpadstoremain empty.Fromthesetanks,multipledieselpoweredpumpswouldinjectthewaterinto wellNWG5529.Theestimatedamountofwatertobeused,alongwiththetimingof thatuse,isdiscussedindetailinChapter4EnvironmentalEffects.

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Figure8:TemporaryIrrigationPipingRoute


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DRILL,STIMULATEANDTESTFIRSTPRODUCTIONWELL
TheDOEtechnicalteamwillreviewandevaluateareportdocumentingtheresultsof hydroshearingstimulationandtesting,andthefeasibilityandplanfordrillingthefirst productionwell.Uponsuccessfulcompletionofthisreview,thefirstproductionwell wouldbedirectionallydrilledfromtheexistingS29wellpadtointersecttheEGS fracturenetwork.Drillingisanticipatedtotakeapproximately7590days(24 hours/day,7days/week). Afterwelldrillingreachestheplanneddepth,aseriesofwirelinesurveyswouldbe conducted(variousinstrumentsareloweredbyasteelwiredownthewellbore) includingasonic,gammaray,densitytool,andacousticboreholeteleviewer.The fracturenetworkconnectionwouldbeevaluatedbyconductinganinjectionand productionwellconnectivitytestofupto7daystoallowrelativelystabilizedflow.Fluid handlingequipmentrequiredforconnectivitytestingissimilartothatrequiredfor testingofthestimulatedinjectionwell,withtheadditionofpumpingequipment requiredtorecirculatewaterfromthesumptotheinjectionwell. Thereservoirandtestsystemwouldbefilledwithgroundwaterandmakeup9water suppliedbygroundwaterwells.Connectivitytestingwouldincludetheuseoftracer compoundsandfrequentanalysisoffluidchemistry.Thefiberopticmonitoringsystem wouldbedeployedintheproductionwelltoobservebottomholetemperature,pressure andflowzonecontributions.Ifthesystemisfoundtohavetoomuchskindamage10or toolittletransmissivity,astimulationtreatmentoftheproductionwellwouldbe designedandexecuted,similartothatdiscussedabovefortheinjectionwell.Flowtest datawouldbeevaluatedandthenumericalreservoirmodelwouldthenbeupdated.

DRILL,STIMULATEANDTESTSECONDPRODUCTIONWELL
DOEwouldreviewresultsfromtheflowtestandmakeago/nogodecisiononwhether toproceedwithasecondwellornot.IfDOEandtheProponentsdecidetomoveforward withasecondproductionwell,thewellwouldalsobedirectionallydrilledfromtheS29 wellpadintotheoppositesideoftheEGSfracturenetwork.Drillingisanticipatedto takeapproximately7590days(24hours/day,7days/week).Drilling,loggingand possiblestimulationofthesecondproductionwellwouldbesimilartotheprocedure usedforthefirstproductionwell,describedabove.Aflowtestofupto7dayswouldbe conducted,identicaltothatdescribedaboveforthefirstproductionwell.
9Makeupwaterreferstowaterneededtocompensateforlossessuchasevaporation. 10Skindamagereferstotheblockageofrockimmediatelysurroundingthewellbore,

withdriedsolidsforexample,leadingtolowtransmissivityandimpededfluidflowin thereservoir.

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LONGTERMCIRCULATIONTEST
Inthisfinalphase,a3060daycirculationtestoftheinjectionwellandbothproduction wellswouldbeconducted.Thelongtermcirculationtestwouldcollectdataonfluid temperature,pressure,flowrate,fluidchemistry,fluidpathwaysandwellconnectivity todemonstratethecapabilityoftheEGSreservoirtosustainheatextraction,andallow forwardmodelingofperformanceoverthetheoreticallifeofapowergenerationfacility. Aswasthecasepriortodrillingtheproductionwells,theDOEwouldreviewand evaluateresultstodateandthefeasibilityofplansandbudgetspriortomovingforward withthelongtermcirculationtest.Thistestwouldattempttoestablishsteadystate operationofthecirculatingsystemwithrespecttoinjectionandproductionflow, temperature,pressure,enthalpy,makeupwaterconsumption,andgasandliquid geochemistry.Duringthecirculationtest,steamwouldbeventedtotheatmosphere. Thiswouldresultinasteamplumethatwouldsometimesbevisibleduringthe3060 daycirculationtest.Thesize,opacityandoccurrenceofthesteamplumewoulddepend onmeteorologicalconditionsincludingtemperature,relativehumidity,windspeedand atmosphericturbulence(stabilityclass).TheFEISfortheNewberryGeothermalPilot Project(1994)estimatedthatthesteamplumefora33megawattgeothermalpower plantproposedintheprojectareacouldrangefrom40feetto930feetinheight11.The entiretestfacilitywouldbecontainedonpadS29(Figure9 );nonewsurface disturbanceisanticipated.Thetestsystemwillnotusegeothermalenergytoproduce electricity.Portabledieselgeneratorswouldprovideelectricalpower.Waterwouldbe suppliedfromthegroundwaterwellsdescribedabove.


11FinalEnvironmentalImpactStatement(FEIS)NewberryGeothermalPilotProject

(1994)p.441.Notethiswasamuchlargerfacilitythanbeingproposedhereand thereforethesteamplumeforthisprojectwouldbesmaller.

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Figure9:Alt. APad S29 CirculationsTest FacilityConceptualConfiguration

Thecirculationtestfacilitywouldutilizeconventionalgeothermalfluidprocessing methods.Thetestsystemwouldbefullyinstrumentedtoallowcontinuous,realtime, localandremotemonitoringoftemperature,pressure,flow,mechanicalsystemsstatus andotherparametersnecessaryforcomprehensivedatacollectionandoperational safety.Ataminimum,fluidchemistrywouldbeanalyzeddaily.Thesystemwouldbe designedforsemiautomaticoperation,butwouldbestaffedcontinuouslybyatleast twoprocesscontroloperators. Thetwoproductionwellsareexpectedtoproduceatotalofupto150Kg/s(1,191,000 lb/hr)oftotalmassflow,dependingonreservoirperformance.Productionflowwould besustainedeitherbyflashingorsubmersiblepump,toaflashseparator.Thebest methodforsustainingproductionflowishighlydependentontheenthalpyofthetotal flow,whichisdependentonseveralvariablesrelatedtoreservoirperformanceandwell design.Theflashseparatorwouldseparatethesteamfromtheliquidatatmospheric

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pressure(about11.9psia)andacorrespondingtemperatureof201F.Theflash separatorwouldbeacylindrical,vertical,opentopvessel,approximately515feetin diameterand2040feetinheight.Itisestimatedthatupto38%ofthetotalproduction wouldbeproducedassteamatatmosphericpressure,withtheremainderasresidual liquid.Theseparatedsteamwouldbedischargedtotheatmosphere.H2Sabatement wouldbeappliediftestresultsindicatepotentialH2Semissionsgreaterthan5lb/hr. Makeupwaterwouldberoutedfromnearbygroundwaterwellstothesumpor injectionpumpstoreplaceanyliquidlosttothereservoiroratmosphere.Thiswater wouldbeaddedtotheinjectionpumpsuctionpiping.Themakeupwaterwouldalso provideadditionalcoolingofthebulkfluidflow.Waterfromthegroundwaterwells and/orsumpwouldberoutedtohighpressureinjectionpumps,thentotheinjection well,andrecirculatedthroughtheEGSreservoirbacktotheproductionwells. Theequipmentwouldbefullyinstrumentedtoprovidecontinuous,realtimedata collectionanddistribution.Thesystemwouldbesufficientlyautomatedtoallow24/7 supervisionandoperationbyaminimumoftwoexperiencedplantoperators.The systemwouldbefullyselfcontainedontheS29pad,usingnoexternalutilities.Onsite waterwellswouldprovidethenecessarywaterandportabledieselgeneratorswould providetheelectricityrequired. Followingconstructionandstartup,thesystemwouldbeoperateduntilsteadystate conditionsareachieved,orforupto60days.Additionaldatacollectionwouldinclude wellloggingsurveys,geochemistry,andMSAmonitoring.Thefinaldesignofthetest systemwouldbehighlydependentontheresultsofinjectionwellstimulationand productionwellperformance.Therefore,thetestsystemdesignwouldcontinuetobe refinedasresultsbecomeavailable.TheProponentswouldinformtheBLM,DOE,USFS andotherconcernedpartiesofanydesignupdatesorchanges.

2.4 A L T E R N A T I V E B P R O P O S E D A C T I O N W I T H C L O S E D P R ES S U R E V E S S E L AN D AIRCOOLEDCONDENSERS
AlternativeBisidenticaltotheproposedactiondescribedinAlternativeAexceptforthe longtermcirculationtest,whichusesdifferentequipment.Thisalternativewasderived frompubliccommentsreceivedduringthescopingprocessexpressingconcernsover waterusageandthevisualimpactfromthesteamplume.Inthisalternative,closed, pressurizedvesselswouldbeusedtoseparatesteamatahigherpressureand temperaturetherebyreducingwaterlostthroughevaporationandreducingtheamount ofwatervaporinthesteamplume.Thisalternativewouldrequiredieselenginesin additiontothoseinAlternativeAtopoweraircooledheatexchangerstocoolthe separatedliquid.Detailsofthisfinalphaseoftheprojectaredescribedbelow.

LONGTERMCIRCULATIONTESTWITHPRESSUREVESSELS
A3060daycirculationtestoftheinjectionwellandbothproductionwellswouldbe conductedasdescribedaboveintheAlternativeA,theproposedactiondescription. AlternativeBdeviatesfromAlternativeAinhowthesteamisseparatedandcooled.

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InAlternativeB,theflashseparatorwouldbea66diameterby24ftlonghorizontal cylindricalpressurevessel.Theseparatedsteamwouldberoutedtodieseldriven electricfancondensers.Figure10 showsasimilarsinglecondensingfanunitpriorto installationattheEGSsiteatSoultz,France.Approximately200feetofpipingwould routesteamfromtheflashseparatortothecondensingfans.Atotaloftwelve(12)12 footdiameterfanunitswouldberequired.Thefanunitswouldbedrivenbyone40HP dieselpoweredmotorforeachfan.Two(2)75kWdieselfiredgeneratorswouldbe requiredtopowerthefans.Thedieselgeneratorswouldconsumeabout260gallonsof fueldaily,orabout15,600gallonsduringa60daytest.Thefanswouldbe approximately10ftabovegrade,installedonsemipermanentconcretefoundations. Foundationswouldrequiretheuseof396yardsofconcrete.Installationwouldrequire 68weeksmorethanAlternativeA.Fourshiftworkerswouldberequired,includinga LeadSupervisor,Mechanic,Electrician,andSteamPlantOperator,tosafelyoperateand maintainthesystemona24/7basis.Followingtestcompletion,thefansystemwouldbe dismantledandremovedfromsite,andtheconcretefoundationswouldberemovedfor wastedisposal.Figure11 showsaconceptualconfigurationoftheAlternativeBlayout onwellpadS29. Approximately33%ofthetotalproduction,orabout400,000lb/hr,wouldbeproduced assteamat20psigseparationpressure,withtheremainderasresidualliquid.This separatedsteamwouldberoutedtodieseldrivenelectricfancondenserstocondense andcoolthesteamto180F.Thiscondensedsteamwouldberoutedtothesumpor directlytothereinjectionpumps.Theresidualliquidfrom20psigseparationwouldbe routedtoanatmosphericseparatortoreducethepressurebeforereinjection.About6% oftheliquidwillflashtosteamandbedischargedtotheatmosphere(about43,000 lb/hr)fromthisseparator.Theremaining94%liquidwouldberoutedtothesumpor directlytothereinjectionpumps.

Figure10:CoolingFansUsedin EGSCirculationTestingatSoultz, France.Shown Here PriortoInstallation,TheseWouldBePositionedOverorAdjacentto theHeat Exchangers forOperation.

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Figure11:Alt.BCirculationTestFacility ConceptualConfiguration

Theresidualliquidfromthecondensersandatmosphericseparatorwouldberouted directlytoasetofvariablespeedinjectionpumps,ortothesumpfirstandthentothe injectionpumps.Theinjectionpumpsmightbearrangedinseriesand/orparallelto provideadequateflexibilityintermsofflowrateandinjectionpressure.Makeupwater wouldberoutedfromnearbygroundwaterwellsfirsttothesumpordirectlytothe injectionpumpstoreplaceanyliquidlosttothereservoiroratmosphere.Thiswater wouldbeaddedtotheinjectionpumpsuctionpiping.Themakeupwaterwouldalso provideadditionalcoolingofthebulkfluidflow.Thepumpdischargeliquidwouldbe returnedtotheinjectionwellandrecirculatedthroughtheEGSreservoir,backtothe productionwells. AsinAlternativeA,thefinaldesignofthetestsystemwillbehighlydependentonthe resultsofinjectionwellstimulationandproductionwellperformance.Therefore,the

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testsystemdesignwillcontinuetoberefinedasresultsbecomeavailableandBLM,DOE, USFSandotherconcernedpartieswillbeconsulted.

2.5 A L T E R N A T I V E C N O A C T I O N A L T E R N A T I V E
Underthenoactionalternative,theEGSdemonstrationprojectwouldnotbeapproved. AnalysisofthisalternativeisrequiredbyNEPAtoestablishabaselinefromwhichto evaluatetherelativeimpacttotheenvironmentofimplementingotheralternatives.

2.6 P R O J E C T D E S I G N F E A T U R E S
ThefollowingdesignfeaturesoftheProjectareincorporatedtominimizeenvironmental impacts.Adiscussionofthesespecificfeaturesispresentedbelow.Theseprojectdesign featuresarecommontoallactionalternativesandthereforewouldbeimplementedfor bothAlternativeAandB.

WILDLIFE
FieldsurveyshavebeenconductedbyFSfornestingraptorsintheareaofthenew boreholeMSAstations(NN17,NN24,andNN19),includingtheother17stations.There arenoknownactivenestswithinoradjacenttotheproposedsites,andthesurveysdid notdetectanyraptors.Sincehumandisturbancehasbeenknowntopotentiallycause nestabandonment,thefollowingseasonaldisturbancerestrictionswouldbeappliedif applicable.Sincetheproposeddrillingactivitieswouldproducenoisethatisexpectedto beheardatmileandtheLRMPdirectionismile,anddepictsthatdisturbing activitieswillvarysitespecifically,ifnestingraptorsarelocatedwithinmileofanyof thenewboreholeMSAsites,awildlifebiologistwouldmakeadeterminationifdrilling wouldbetimedtonotoccurduringthebreedingseasonforthefollowingspecies: Baldeagle Osprey Redtailhawk Northerngoshawk Coopershawk SharpshinnedHawk Greatgrayowl January1stAugust31st
April1stAugust31st
March1stAugust31st
March1stAugust31st
April1stAugust31st
April1stAug.31st
March1stJune30th

NOXIOUSWEEDS/INVASIVESPECIES
Drillrigs,tankertrucks,trailersandanyotherheavyequipmentwouldbepressure washedinLaPinepriortotheirfirstentranceintotheprojectarea,andpriortoany subsequententranceafterleavingtheprojectarea. TheProponentswouldberesponsibleforconductingannualJuneweedmonitoring visitstoensurethatweedsdonotbecomeestablishedonthedrillingorMSAsites.If weedsarefound,theProponentswouldhandpullthemandbagthemifflowersorseeds arepresent.TheProponentwouldprovidetheDistrictBotanistandSpecialUses CoordinatoroftheFSabriefannualreportthatshowscompliance. TheProponentswouldberesponsibleformonitoringtheareafortwogrowingseasons aftertheworkisdone.Forexample,iftheworkiscompletedinthewinterof

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2013/2014,theProponentswillmonitorinthesummersof2014and2015.Weed monitoringwouldbeginthefirstJuneaftertheprojecthasbeencompleted;itisstrongly encouragedthatthemonitoringoccursatthistimeratherthanlaterinthesummer becausetheweedswouldstillbesmallandnotfloweringorproducingseed.The Proponentswouldbereleasedfromfurtherresponsibilityforweedswithintheproject areaafterthesecondyearofmonitoring/treatmentisconcluded. TheannualweedmonitoringreportwouldbeduenolaterthanSeptember30,would includedescriptionsofwhentheymonitored,whatweedspecies,ifany,werefound,and thattheyweretreated.ThereportwouldbesubmittedtoBLMandFS.Handpulling wouldbethetreatment.Herbicideapplicationwillnotbeanoptionforthisarea,as herbicideshavenotbeenapprovedforuse.

WINTERRECREATION
TIMINGANDLOCATION DownholeMSAsitepreparationanddrillingwouldbeginimmediatelyuponProject approvalbyBLM,FSandDOE.Thiscouldoccurduringearly2012andthereforehasthe potentialtoimpactwinterrecreation.ThesequenceofdownholeMSAsitestobedrilled isshowninTable3 ,startingatNN21andfinishingatNN17.Eachsitewouldtake approximately14daystocomplete.Onetruckmountedrigwouldbeutilized. The5downholeMSAlocationsandaccessroutesaredescribedinTable3 belowandare listedintheordertheywouldbedrilled.Theaccessroutesinrelationtosnowmobile trailsareshowninFigure12 below.

Figure12:ProjectAccessRoutesand SnowmobileTrails

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Table3:DownholeMSAInstallation SequenceandPotentialforSnowmobileImpact

Priority 1 2 3 4 5

MSA Site NN21 NN18 NN19 NN24 NN17

Elevation(ft) FSRoadAccess 6,249 6,033 5,892 5,933 5,580 9735to600to685to687 9735to600to685 9735to600to680 9735to600to680 9735to500to300

Snowmobile Impact Yes Yes No No Yes

PROPOSEDDESIGNFEATURESTOMINIMIZEWINTERRECREATIONIMPACTS Duringthewinterseason,signswouldbepostedatappropriatesnowparks,andother principalentrancepointsprovidingwinteraccesstoNNVM,warningthatgeothermal andotheractivities,whencombinedwithweatherandsnowconditions,couldtrigger avalanches. Becausedrillingactivitywouldoccurduringthewintersnowmobileseason,active snowmobiletrailsthatfollowForestroadsneededtoaccessProjectsiteswouldbe groomedbytheLaPineLodgepoleDodgerssnowmobileclubwithasnowgrooming machineratherthanbeingplowedwithablade.SnowmobileTrail80overlapswith ForestRoad500,whichisnecessarytoaccessNN17.Thisisthelongestsectionoftrail thatoverlapsarequiredaccessroad.Thesnowwouldbegroomedtoadepthofafew inches,leavingaruttedsurfacethatisdrivablebybothtrucksandsnowmobiles.Where Trail80crossesForestRoadsusedfortheprojectinthewinter,thegroomingmachine wouldbuildandmaintainsnowrampstofacilitatesnowmachinesenteringandexiting theroadcrossing.Ifthisdoesnotprovideasafesurfaceforthetruckmounteddrillrigto driveon,someareasmaybeplowedtoprovideaccesswithFSapproval.Aminimumof 2ofsnowdepthwouldbelefttoprotecttheroadwayandallowsnowmobileaccess. AppropriatesigningmeetingMUTCDstandardswouldbeplacedtowarnwinterusersof thechangeinthetrailconditionduetovehicletraffic. Ifstimulationoccursinthewinter,theProponentswouldprovideinformationon ProjectactivitiestotheCentralOregonAvalancheAssociation(www.coavalanche.org) fortheirweatherandwarningspage,withalinktotheprojectwebsite.

INDUCEDSEISMICITY
TheDOErequiresthatEGSdemonstrationprojectsthroughouttheU.S.meetorexceed theInternationalEnergyAgency(IEA)ProtocolforInducedSeismicityAssociatedwith GeothermalSystems(Majeretal.,2008).Theprotocolincludesanumberofsteps includingthepreparationofaninducedseismicitymitigationplan.Thatmitigationplan, InducedSeismicityMitigationPlanfortheNewberryEGSDemonstration(AltaRockEnergy Inc.,2011),isincludedinAppendixA. Theinducedseismicitymitigationplandescribesindetailtheoperationalprocedures, proposedcontrolsandmitigationactionsthatwillbeimplementedtomitigateany

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potentialeffectsofinducedseismicityfromtheProject.Asummaryofthekeyinduced seismicitymitigationmeasuresispresentedhere.Thereaderisdirectedtothedetailed PlanincludedinAppendixAforindepthdetailsoftheplan.

DIMENSIONSOFTHEEGSRESERVOIR
ThegoalofthedemonstrationprojectistocreateasustainableEGSreservoirmeasuring approximately3,280ft.(1000m)horizontallywithaverticalgrowthlimitsetatadepth of6,000ft.(~1.8km).Settingaverticalgrowthlimitof6,000ft.wouldprovideabuffer of5,000ft.(1.5km)ofimpermeablerockbetweentheEGSreservoirandlocal groundwaterresources(Figure13 ).

Figure13:FinalMSA, IncludingBorehole Installations,ShownInRelationToPlanned StimulationZone.EllipseWith1 Km NorthSouth Major Axis,CenteredOverTheMiddle OfTheOpenHoleInterval,IsCurrentPredictionOfTheMicroseismicityCloudThat WouldBe InducedAndTheApproximateExtentOf TheEGSReservoir, BasedOnA PreliminaryStressModel.MultipleZonesWillHaveDifferentDepths,ButRoughly The Same MapView.Hatched AreaIsSpecialManagementArea(NoSurfaceOccupancy) AdjacentToNNVM,ShownInGreen.EvenIfThe EGSReservoirGrowsInAn Unexpected Direction(NotNorthSouth), The MapShows Sufficient RoomForAn EGS ReservoirOfAnyOrientationAround NWG5529.

InitialmodelingandexperienceatotherEGSprojectssuggeststhatmicroseismicitywill beclusteredwithina500mradiusoftheinjectionwellandgrowoutwardasthe injectedfluidopensconnectedfractures.ForthisdemonstrationProject,anoutlieris definedasanyseismiceventbetween1and3kmfromthemidpointoftheopenhole intervalof5529.Thisistheareabetweentheyellowandredcirclesandshownin crosssectioninFigure14 .Eventsthatmightoccurbeyond3kmcannotbereliably

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locatedbytheMSA,buteventsgreaterthanM2.0inthisareawouldbedetectedbythe regionalnetwork.

Figure14: CrossSection andMap Showing Expected EGSReservoirArea, MSAandSMS Station Locations,HorizontalandVerticalGrowth Limits,andTriggerBoundaries.

TheNewberryNationalVolcanicMonumentboundaryisabout2.3km(1.4mi)fromthe wellheadofNWG5529and1.8kmfromthebottomofthewell.Thus,thereis800m (0.5mi)betweentheclosestedgeofthenearestpossibleEGSreservoirandthe monument.However,becauseofspecialconcernbytheBLMandFS,aspecial,more aggressivemitigationactionisdesignatedforconfirmedoutlierswithin500m(1640ft)

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oftheNewberryNationalVolcanicMonument12.Whilemodelspredictthathorizontal errorsupto400marepossible,evenwitha400merror,the500mbufferwillprotect rocksundertheMonumentfrombeingaffected.

SEISMICMONITORING
TheMSAwouldbeusedtoconstantlymonitorthegrowthoftheEGSreservoirduring thehydroshearingoperations.Achiefseismologistwouldpreparedailyactivityreports fortransmittaltotheDOE,BLMandothersshowingseismiceventmagnitudesplotted versusdepthanddistancefromthestimulationwellNWG5529.Thesereportswould betransmittedtodesignatedthirdparties(e.g.,DOEandBLM)by11:00ameachday. Contactstobenotifiedofoperationalschedules,activities,dailyreportsandexception reportsarelistedinTable4 below.
Table4:ContactsFor InducedSeismicityCommunications

Organization
PacificNorthwestSeismic Network(PNSN) U.S.DepartmentofEnergy (DOE) LawrenceBerkeleyNational Lab(LBNL) U.S.BureauofLand Management(BLM) U.S.ForestService(FS)

ContactName
JohnVidale EricHaas ErnestMajer LindaChristian RodBonacker

EmailAddress
john_vidale@mac.com eric.hass@go.doe.gov elmajer@lbl.gov linda.christian@blm.gov rbonacker@fs.fed.us

Phone
(206)5436790 (303)2754728 (510)4866709 (541)4166890 (541)5497729

TechnicalNotificationandReview:Outlier,Trigger,andMitigationReports

EmergencyNotification:SeismicEventReports
DeschutesCountySheriff CentralORInteragency DispatchCenter DeschutesNFSupervisors Office Dispatch DutyOfficer NA NA (541)6936911 (541)4166800 18003142560 FrontDesk NA (541)3835300

FLOWBACKTOREDUCERESERVOIRPRESSUREANDSEISMICITY
OnesignificantdifferencebetweentheinjectionstrategyattheNewberryEGS DemonstrationandpriorEGSprojectsisthemannerinwhichtheexcesspressure createdbyinjectionwouldbereduced.InthisProject,thewellwouldbeflowedtopre installedsurfacetestequipmentimmediatelyafterhydroshearingiscompletedto
12SeeTriggerandMitigationAction#2discussedbelowandinSection5.3(p.48)ofthe

ISMPattachedinAppendixA.

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relievereservoirpressure.Reducingreservoirpressureisexpectedtodecreasethefluid pressureintheEGSreservoirandreduceposthydroshearinginducedseismicity. PriortostimulationofNWG5529,atleasteighteenwaterstoragetankswouldbe installedonPadS29.Eachtankholds22,000gallonsofwater.Theexisting groundwaterwells,oneonPadS29andoneonPadS16,wouldflowdirectlyintothe tanksviaaboveground,temporarypiping.Thus,thetankswouldprovidea396,000 gallonvolumebufferandallowthedoublelinedsumpsonbothpadstoremainempty. Thesuctionsideoftheinjectionpumpswouldpulldirectlyfromthestoragetanksand injectintoNWG5529.Theflowbackfluidhandlingequipment,whichconsistsofaflow line,flowcontrolvalve,instrumentation,Jamestubeassembly,atmosphericseparator andweirbox,wouldbeconnectedtothemastervalveonNWG5529duringtheentire stimulationtreatment.Ifaseismiceventoccursthatrequiresthemostaggressive mitigationactionthewellwouldbeimmediatelyflowedbackbyshuttingdownthe injectionpumpsandclosingthevalveontheinjectionline.Thevalveontheflowline wouldthenbeopened,andthewellwouldbeallowedtoflowthroughtheseparatorand weirboxandintotheemptysumponPadS29. Thewaterwouldtravelfromthewellheadthroughtheflowlineandcontrolvalveinto theJamestubeassembly.Thefluidwouldthenbeseparatedintotwophases,liquid waterandsteam,withanatmosphericseparator(Figure15 ).Thesteamdischarges verticallyandthewaterisfunneledintoanoutletatthebottomoftheseparator.From thatpoint,theliquidflowsthroughtheweirboxwheretheflowrateisdeterminedby measurementoftheheightoftheliquidflowingthroughaVnotchweir.Hence,the liquidandsteamflowrateswouldbemeasuredandcalculatedseparatelysothattotal fluidflowandtwophaseenthalpycouldbecalculated.Theweirboxdischargesintothe sumponPadS29.IfthePadS29sumpbeginstoapproachcapacity(1.4million gallons),redundant,highheadtransferpumpswouldbeinpositiontotransferwater fromthesumponPadS29tothesumponPadS16throughthetemporarypiping.For redundancy,eachpumpwouldbecapableofpumping1,000gpmofwateruphilltoPad S16,whichis362feethigherinelevationthanPadS29.Effectively,thetwosumps wouldprovideabout2.8milliongallonsofgeofluidstoragecapacityduringtheflow backoperations.Thisisapproximately12%ofthemaximumestimatedwaterusagefor the21daystimulation.

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Figure15:Wellhead,FlowLine,Control Valve,JamesTubeandAtmosphericSeparator UsedinaGeothermalWell FlowTest inNevada,Similarto,but SmallerThanthe Separator tobeUsed AtNewberry.

Atestimatedproductionrates,theinitiallyemptyPadS29doublelinedsumpwould havesufficientcapacityforapproximately70hoursofmaximumliquidwaterflow, representing11.6%oftheinjectionstimulationwater,whichisexpectedtobe 24,192,000gallonsifaninjectionrateof800gpmisappliedfor21days.Ifthewellflow approachesthesumpcapacity,whilestillallowinganadequatefreeboardoftwofeet, additionalproducedliquidwouldbetransferredtothedoublelinedsumponPadS16, whichprovidesforasimilarflowdurationandcapacity.Anothersystemsafeguardisthe flowlinevalve,whichcanalsobepartiallyclosedtoreducetheproductionrateifwater carryoverfromtheatmosphericseparatorortheweirboxisbecomingaconcernorif thesumpsarenearingcapacity.Waterdischargedtosumpswouldberemovedbyoneof severalmethods.Wheneverpossible,waterwouldbereinjectedintotheEGSreservoir. Iftheinjectionwellisunavailable,andpriorchemicalanalysisofsumpliquidindicates thewatercompositionhasnotchangedsignificantlyandithasbeendeterminedtobe beneficial,watermaybesprayedoverthenearbyforest,orspreadoverroadsandwell padsfordustcontrol.Otherwise,waterwouldbeevaporatedusingspraysystems positionedoverthesumps.

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GROWTH,MAGNITUDEANDSHAKINGLIMITS
Mitigationactionswillbetriggeredwheninducedseismicityexceedspredefinedlimits inanyoneofthefollowingthreecategories: 1. 2. 3. EGSreservoirgrowthtowardundesirablelocations, seismiceventmagnitudesinthereservoirthatcouldleadtolargereventsor, shakingthatcoulddisturbvisitorstotheNNVM.

Foreachcategory,thereareintermediatelevelsdesignedtoproactivelymanage potentialproblems.Thelimitsaredescribedfirstbelow.Howthelimitsareusedto triggermitigationactionsisdiscussedsubsequently. HORIZONTALGROWTHLIMITS Inthesimplestcase,the1000mlongEGSreservoirwillbecenteredonthewell(500m ineachdirection);however,itisalsopossiblethattheEGSreservoirwillgrowprimarily inonedirection,inwhichcaseaperimeterofupto1000m(3280ft)fromthewellis appropriatetoallowcreationofanadequatesizereservoir(Figure14 ).Microseismic eventsfurtherthan1000mfromthewellwillbeconsideredoutliers. VERTICALGROWTH AseismiceventwithM>1.0orthatcanbepickedon6ormoreMSAseismogramsandis locatedshallowerthan6000feet(1.8km)belowthegroundsurfaceatNWG5529may indicatethatthereservoirisgrowingshallowerthandesirable.Thisdepthdefinesthe minimumdesiredtemperatureoftheEGSreservoirandmaintainsatleast5000feet(1.5 km)ofimpermeablerockbetweentheEGSreservoirandlocalgroundwaterresources. M A G N I T U D E L E S S T H A N 2 .0 Most,andpossiblyall,seismiceventswillbesmallerthanM2.0.Fugro(2011) determinedtheprobabilityofgeneratinganM>2.0eventisbetween0.1%6.0%;the probabilityoflargereventsisordersofmagnitudelower.AtFentonHill,anEGSproject conductedinasimilargeologicsetting,thelargesteventswereM0.0.Becauseofthe wayseismiceventdistributionsfollowtheGutenbergRichterlaw,iftherewereoneM 2.0,therewillbeontheorderoftenM1.0,andahundredM0.0.Thiswouldresultina successfulEGSdemonstration.SeismiceventswithM<2.0willnotbeconsidereda concernunlesstheyindicategrowthoftheEGSreservoirintoundesirablelocations. M A G N I T U D E B E T W E E N 2 .0 A N D 2 .7 InducedseismiceventwithM2.0wouldbesimilarinsizetothefewnatural microseismiceventsrecordednearestNWG5529.Inaddition,ourstudyoftheBasel EGSproject(Section3.7)indicatesthatM2.0events,thefirstofwhichoccurred2days beforethemainM3.4event,andanadditionalfoureventsthatoccurredwithin16 hoursofmainevent,werewarningsignalsthatwereignoredbythoseoperators. M A G N I T U D E B E T W E E N 2 .7 A N D 3 .5 AnM2.7seismiceventreleasesseismicenergyequivalenttoabouteleven(11)M2.0 events(seeSection2.2).Thismagnitudeisclosetomidwaybetweenthelowerlimit

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(2.0)anduppermagnitudelimit(3.5),andthusprovidesanalertbeforereachingthe upperboundlimitofM3.5.Inaddition,atthisleveleventsthatoccuroutsidethe perimeteroftheMSAarereliablylocatedbytheregionalnetwork.Fugro(2011) concludedthattheprobabilityofanM>3.0eventduringtheDemonstrationis0.01% 0.8%. M A G N I T U D E G R E A T E R T H A N O R E Q U A L T O 3 .5 Wongetal.(2010)estimatedthattheupperboundrangeofmaximummagnitudesfor inducedeventswouldrangefrommagnitudeM3.5to4.0.Seismiceventslargerthan M3.5arenotdesirable,likelyorexpected,butarepossible;eventsatorabovethis magnitudewillresultinthemostaggressivemitigationactions.Fugro(2011)concluded thattheprobabilityofanM>4.0eventduringtheDemonstrationis0.002%0.09%. M E A S U R E M E N T S O N PL VC SM S Triggersbasedonmeasurementofpeakgroundacceleration(PGA)atthePaulinaLake VisitorCenterSMSareintendedtobeproactive,triggeringactionsatshakinglevels belowwhichmostvisitorswillnotice,andwellbelowlevelsofpotentialdamage.The instrumentmeasuredshakingonPLVSSMSmustbecorrelatedintimetoa microseismiceventtopreventfalsepositivescausedbyculturalnoise.Because perceivedshakinganddamageduetoPGAfromEGSinducedseismicityisthoughttobe lowerthanfornaturalevents(Majeretal.,2007),thesePGAtriggersareconsideredto includelargemarginsofsafety. P E A K G R O U N D A C C E L E R A T I O N B E L O W 0 .014 G BelowaPGAof0.014g,shakingisconsideredweak.PGA<0.014gcorrespondstoa MMILevelIII,whichisequivalenttovibrationssimilartothepassingofatruck. VisitorstoPaulinaLakeregularlyexperiencethislevelofseismicdisturbancedueto passingrecreationalvehicles,deliverytrucks,loudmotorcycles,and,inthewinter, snowmobiles.ThecautiousshakingmodelofWongetal.(2011)impliesthatanM2.7 eventatthewellwouldproduceshakinglessthan0.014gatPLVC.Thereisnopotential fordamageatthislevelofshaking. P E A K G R O U N D A C C E L E R A T I O N B E T W E E N 0 .014 G A N D 0 .028 G AboveaPGAof0.014g,shakingisconsideredlight.PGAbetween0.014gand0.039g correspondstoaMMILevelIVwhichisequivalenttosensationlikeheavytruckstriking building.ThereisnopotentialfordamageatorbelowMMILevelIV.Wongetal.(2011) suggeststhatshakingatthislevelcouldtriggersnowavalanches.FShasalsoexpressed concernthat,likesnowavalanches,rockfallontalusslopescouldbetriggeredbylight shaking. P E A K G R O U N D A C C E L E R A T I O N G R E A T E R T H A N O R E Q U A L T O 0 .028 G Twiceasmuchshakingasthepreviouslimitbutstillwithinalevelperceivedaslight andthepotentialfordamageisverylight(MMILevelIV).Thecautiousshakingmodel ofWongetal.(2011)impliesanM3.0eventcouldoccuratthewellandproduceshaking lessthan0.028g.

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EXCEPTIONREPORTS
Theoperationalcenterwillbestaffedbyseismologistswhowillrefinewaveformsauto picks,improveeventlocations,andtrackmaximumeventsizeandthesizedistribution ofmicroseismicity(thebvalue)24hoursaday.Thedailyreport,transmittedat11:00 amdaily,isdescribedinSection4.5oftheISMP(AppendixA).Herewebrieflydescribe theadditionalreportsthatwillbepreparedandtransmittedtoDOE,BLM,FS,PNSNand LBNLwhenexceptionsoccur: OUTLIERREPORTS Anoutlierreportwilldocumentthelocationandwaveformsofanyseismiceventpicked on6ormorestationsthatisinitiallylocatedoutsideoftheexpectedstimulationzone (i.e.,>1000mfromthewellorshallowerthan6000ft).Thereportwillincludeall relevantinformationabouttheseismicevent(location,size,time,numberofpicks, qualityofpicks,etc.)andstimulationconditions(e.g.,flowrate,wellheadanddownhole pressure,temperatureprofile).Thereportwilldocumentwhethertheoutlierwas confirmedorrelocatedbyadditionalanalysis.Iftheeventisconfirmedasanoutlier,the mitigationactionwillbedescribed.ThereportwillbetransmittedtotheDOE,BLM,FS andLBNLwithin2hoursaftertheoutlierhasbeeninitiallyidentifiedandthemitigation actioninitiated. TRIGGERREPORTS Atriggerreportwilldocumentthatamagnitudeorshakingtriggerhasbeenexceeded. Thereportwillincludeallrelevantinformationabouttheseismicevent(e.g.,location, size,time,numberofpicks)andstimulationconditions(e.g.,flowrate,wellheadand downholepressure,temperatureprofile).Thereportwilldocumentwhethertheevent wasfeltbyanyoneonthedrillpadorreportedbythepublic,andwhatmitigationaction wasinitiated.ThereportwillbetransmittedtotheDOE,BLM,FSandLBNLwithin2 hoursafterthetriggeroccurs. SEISMICEVENTPHONECALLS Forthehighermagnitudeandshakinglevels,initialnotificationwillbemadebyphone toinformthekeypersonnelattheorganizationslistedinTable43 .Callswillbemade bytheondutysitesupervisorassoonastheeventisreviewedbyaseismologist,andin nocasemorethantwohoursaftertheevent.Atriggerreportwithdetailsoftheevent analysisandmitigationactionswillfollowthephonealerts. MITIGATIONREPORTS Aftersufficienttimehaspassedtoevaluatetheefficacyofamitigationaction,asummary reportwilldocumentactionsthatweretaken,andtheseismicandwellresponse.

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TRIGGERSANDMITIGATIONACTIONS
CONFIRMEDOUTLIER Aconfirmedoutlierwithamagnitudegreaterthanorequalto2.0willresultintheuseof divertertoshiftstimulationtoanotherzone.Aconfirmedoutlierwithamagnitudeless than2.0willrequireasecondconfirmingevent(ofanylocatablemagnitude)totrigger useofadiverter.Anyplannedincreaseinflowratewillbepostponeduntilafterthe diverterisapplied.TheMSAradiusis3km,makinglocationandmagnitude determinationforeventsoutsidethisareaunreliable.Largermagnitudeeventscanbe detectedbythePNSNregionalnetwork.ForoutliersexceedingtheM2.7andM3.5 magnitudetriggers,themitigationactionforthemagnitudelimitswillbeused. O U T L I E R W I T H I N 500 M O F NN VM Anyconfirmedoutlierwithin500m(1640ft)oftheNNVMboundarywillresultinthe useofdivertertoshiftstimulationtoanotherzone.Anyplannedincreaseinflowrate willbepostponeduntilafterthediverterisapplied. UNWANTEDVERTICALGROWTH AnyseismiceventwithM>1.0orthatispickedon6ormorestationsoftheMSAthatis locatedshallowerthan6000feet(1.8km)belowthegroundsurfaceatNWG5529will resultinuseofdivertertoshiftstimulationtoanotherzone.Anyplannedincreasein flowratewillbepostponeduntilafterthediverterisapplied. INCOMPLETEDIVERSIONANDFAILURETOMITIGATE Afterthedecisiontousediverterismadeitmaytakeupto4hourstopreparethe diverterandapplyitatthedepthwherediversionisrequired.Twodiverterapplications maybenecessarytocompletelysealafracturezone.Therefore,8hoursmayberequired todeterminewhetherdiversionhassucceeded.Ifgrowthintoanundesiredlocation continueseighthoursaftertheeventthattriggeredthediversion,theflowratewillbe decreasedasdescribedbelowinMitigationAction6. NOFLOWRATEORPRESSUREINCREASE Thestimulationplanistoincreaseflowrateeverytwohoursaslongastheseismic responseissafeandthepressureremainslowerthanformationtensilefailure andcasingburstpressures.However,theflowrateandwellheadpressurewillnotbe increasedforatleast24hoursifoneormoreeventswithMgreaterthanorequalto2.0 andlessthan2.7arelocatedwithintheMSAradius(3km).Ifaconstantflowrateis leadingtoincreasingpressure,keepingthewellheadpressurefromincreasingmight requirereducingtheflowrate.Wellheadpressureincreasedataconstantflowrateof ~450gpmduringthefifthdayoftheBaselDHM1project,indicatingabuildupof pressureintheEGSreservoirthatwasapossibleprecursortoML>2.5seismicevents (Figure38andSection3.5oftheISMP). DECREASEFLOWRATEANDPRESSURE AnygroundmotionrecordedonthePaulinaLakeSMSwithaPGAgreaterthan0.014g thatcanbecorrelatedintimetoaseismiceventwillresultinareductionofflowrate.In
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addition,anyseismiceventwithMgreaterthan2.7andlessthan3.5andoccurring withinthe3km(1.9mi)radiusoftheMSA,asdeterminedbythePNSNregionalnetwork ortheMSA,willalsoresultinareductionofflowrate.Theinjectionratewillbe decreasedsothatthedownholepressureisreducedby250psi.IfeventswithMgreater thanorequalto2.0continuetooccur,theinjectionratewillbefurtherdecreasedto achieveanadditional250psireduction.Ifmorethan24hourspasseswithoutM>2.0 events,theflowratemaybegraduallyincreasedovera24hourperiodbacktotherate priortothetriggeringevent.Beginningatthisactionlevel,instructionstoreport damagewillbemadeavailableontheprojectwebsites.Inadditiontothewrittentrigger reports,phonecallswillbemadetoinformkeypersonnelattheTechnicalOrganizations andlocalEmergencyDispatchlistedinTable4 .Incooperationandprioragreementwith FS,AltaRockwillnotifyparkvisitors,usersofRoad500toPaulinaPeak,andownersand usersofNNVMassets(e.g.,lodgesandcabins)regardingthepotentialforinduced seismicity,shaking,slopeinstabilityandotherpossibledisturbance,andlimitaccessto certainareasasagreedinadvancewithFSpersonnel. STOPINJECTIONANDFLOWWELL AnygroundmotionrecordedonthePaulinaLakeSMSwithaPGAgreaterthan0.028g thatcanbecorrelatedintimetoaseismiceventwithinthe3km(1.9mi)apertureofthe MSAwillresultininjectionbeinghalted.Inaddition,anyseismiceventdetectedwithin the3km(1.9mi)apertureoftheMSAwithMgreaterthan3.5asdeterminedbyPNSNor theAltaRockMSA,willalsoresultininjectionbeinghalted.Afterinjectionisstopped,the wellwillbeimmediatelyflowedtosurfacetestequipmenttorelievereservoirpressure (seeSection4.6ofISMP).Sufficientsumpcapacitywillbeavailabletostoreatleast10% oftheinjectedfluid.Resumptionofstimulationwillbemadeonlyafterconsultationand agreementbetweenAltaRock,DOE,BLMandFS.Inadditiontothewrittentrigger reports,phonecallswillbemadetoinformkeypersonnelattheTechnicalOrganizations andlocalEmergencyDispatchlistedinTable4 .Incooperationandprioragreementwith FS,AltaRockwillnotifyparkvisitors,usersofRoad500toPaulinaPeak,andownersand usersofNNVMassets(e.g.,lodgesandcabins)regardingthepotentialforinduced seismicity,shaking,slopeinstabilityandotherpossibledisturbance,andlimitaccessto certainareasasagreedinadvancewithFSpersonnel.

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Figure16:Decision TreeforTriggersandMitigationActions

INDIRECTMITIGATION
Themitigationstepsabovearedesignedtominimizethelikelihoodofdamageto structures,slopesandotherassetsintheNNVM.TheProponentsbelievethatthe safeguardsandmitigationcontrolsdescribedabovearebasedonthebestpossible scienceandengineeringavailablepriortostimulation.However,becausethehistoryof EGSprojectsislimitedandtheseismicresponseoftherockvolumesurroundingNWG 5529cannotbepredictedwithcompletecertainty,noguaranteecanbemadethatno damagewilloccur.Therefore,theProponentsalsodevelopedindirectmitigationplans forunlikelyorworstcaseresults. DAMAGETOSTRUCTURES IfshakingmeasuredbytheSMSreachesPGA>0.05g(AppendicesIandJoftheISMP),it ispossiblethatsomecosmeticdamagecouldoccurtostructuresnearPaulinaLake. Instructionsandatentativeformtoreportdamagehavebeendeveloped(attachedas AppendixJoftheISMP)andwillbemadeavailableontheprojectwebsites13andto
13www.newberrygeothermal.com;www.altarockenergy.com

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ownersandusersofNNVMassets.Ifstakeholdersnoticenewdamagetothecabins, buildings,roads,orthedamafterafelt,inducedeventoccurs,theywillbeinstructedby theprojecthotline,websitesandprintednotificationstoNNVMassetownerstosubmit thedamagereportwithintwomonthsofevent.Alicensed,independentcivilengineer, selectedwiththeconcurrenceofallstakeholders,willevaluateallclaimsandcompare anyinformationcollectedpriortostimulation(seeSection3.6ofISMP)tothepotential damagedcondition,aswellastheshakingrecordedonthePLVCSMS,andthemagnitude oftherelevantinducedseismicevent.Paymentforrepairswillbebasedonengineering standardsandthemeasuredorinferredshaking,andwhetherthedamagecouldhave beencausedbyademonstrationprojectseismiceventorevents. AsimilarapproachhasbeenusedbytheGeysersSeismicMonitoringAdvisory CommitteeinMiddletown,CAwhereabout10M>3.0,and12M>4.0,seismicevents occurperyearduetogeothermalproductionandinjection14.InthetownofAnderson Springs,housesandcabinsareveryclose(within1km)tothegeothermaloperations. DamageclaimsareevaluatedbytheCommitteetoevaluatethevalidityandvalueof damagecompensation.Between2004and2009,fundswereapprovedbythecommittee forrepairsto19propertiestotaling$63,29915.Iflongtermoperationeveroccurredat Newberryacommitteemightbeappropriate.Foraquickresponsetoanunlikelyevent, DOEconsidersanindependentexpertmoreappropriatefortheshorttermNewberry EGSDemonstration. EMERGENCYPLANSFORROADDAMAGEANDCLOSURES SomeroadsintheNNVM,particularlyRoad500toPaulinaPeak,arequitesteepand crossbeneathslopespronetorockfalloravalanche.Althoughitisunlikelythatroads willbecomeblockedbyaseismicitytriggeredrockfall(itisclosedinthewinterseason), thispossibilitycannotberuledout.Therefore,theProponentshavedevelopedthe followingplantomitigatethisriskduringactivefieldoperations,includingstimulation andflowtesting. SignswillbepostedatthebeginningofRoad500foruphilltraffic,andonPaulinaPeak fordownhilltraffic,statingRockfallhazardahead.Pleasecontact855EGS4USAtoll free(8558724347)toreportrocksontheroad,oralternativetextapprovedbytheFS. TheProponentswillworkwithFStoensurethatthesignsareinplacetwoweeksbefore
14

http://www.andersonsprings.org/EarthquakeCharts/smacnov2009stronggroundmotio nanalysis1.pdf

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thestimulationandremaininplaceuntilatleasttheendofthethreewellcirculation flowtest. Afrontendloaderandequipmentoperatorwillbecontractedinadvanceandon standbyinLaPine,readytoremoveanydebristhatfallsontoroadsfromsteeproadcuts afterafeltseismicevent.FSwillbenotifiedandwillapproveofanyplanspriortowork commencing. Arrangementswillbemadeforaroadflaggingteamtobeavailabletocontroltraffic duringanypartialorfullroadclosure,orduringcleanupoftheroadbytheloader. Duringandforatleasttwomonthsafterthestimulationandflowtesting,responsewill bewithin2daylighthoursafteraslideisreported. SNOWAVALANCHEWARNINGS Ifstimulationorflowtestactivitiesareconductedduringthewinter,visitorstothearea willbewarnedofanincreasedriskofsnowavalanches(Wongetal.,2011). Signswillbepostedatsnowparksandotherentrancepointsthatprovidewinteraccess toNNVM.ThesignswillreadWarning:snowavalanchehazardsexistonanyslope steeperthan25,includingtheslopesleadingtoPaulinaLakeandEastLakefromthe CraterRim.Skiersandsnowmobilers,andgeothermaldemonstrationactivities occurringthiswintercantriggeravalanchesonhazardousslopes.Call855EGS4USA tollfree(8558724347)formoreinformation,oralternativetextapprovedbytheFS. AltaRockwillworkwithFStoensurethatthesesignsareinplacetwoweeksbeforethe stimulationandremaininplaceuntilatleasttheendofthethreewellcirculationflow test. INSURANCE TheProponentshaveobtainedbothgeneralliabilityandumbrellaliabilityinsurance underwhichathirdpartymaycollectiftheProponentsarefoundliablefordamage causedbyinducedseismicity.AltaRocksCommercialGeneralLiabilityInsurancewith theFederalInsuranceCompany,asubsidiaryoftheChubbGroupofInsurancewithan A.M.BestRatingofA++,hasageneralaggregatelimitof$2,000,000anda$1,000,000 limitforeachoccurrence.TheGeneralLiabilityPolicycoversbodilyinjuryorproperty damagethatAltaRockbecomeslegallyobligatedtopaybyreasonofliability.The GeneralLiabilityPolicydoesnotincludeanexclusionforsubsidencewhichisdefined asbodilyinjuryorpropertydamagearisingdirectlyorindirectlyoutof,causedby, resultingfrom,contributingtooraggravatedbysubsidence,settling,sinking,slipping, fallingaway,cavingin,shifting,eroding,mudflow,rising,tiltingoranyothermovement oflandorearth.AltaRockalsohasUmbrellaLiabilityInsurancewiththeFederal InsuranceCompanywithageneralaggregatelimitandoccurrencelimitof$5,000,000.


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2.7 A L T E R N A T I V E S C O N S I D E R E D B U T E L I M I N A T E D F R O M F UR T H E R A N A L Y S I S
ThreealternativeswereanalyzedforthepurposeofthisEA:AlternativeA,theproposed action;AlternativeB,theproposedactionwithclosedpressurevesselandaircooled condensers;andAlternativeC,thenoactionalternative.Oneotheralternativewas consideredbuteliminatedfromfurtheranalysis.

PADS16LOCATION
BLMalsoconsideredthepossibilityoflocatingtheProjectonPadS16insteadofonPad S29.PadS16,constructedbyDavenportin2008,islocatedapproximately2miles northeastofpadS29inanareadesignatedasgeneralforest(MA8)intheForestPlan, whereaspadS29islocatedinthescenicviewsarea(MA9).LocatingtheProjectonpad S16wouldnothavesubstantiallyreducedvisualimpacts,anditraisedanumberof problems.WellNWG4616,locatedonpadS16,developedanobstructionat4,568feet, inthecasedinterval,whenlastentered,andacompleteblockageat5,106feet, indicatingunstableformationatthisdepth.Itispossiblethatthiswellcannotbe repaired.Itwouldnotbepossibletodeterminewhetherthiswellcouldbemade mechanicallycompetentwithoutmobilizingadrillingrig,removingtheblockage,then determiningthecauseofthewellborefailure.Removaloftheblockageandrepairofthe well,ifatallpossible,wouldhaverequiredmobilizationofadrillrigfor3060daysto completetherepair.Havingadrillrigonsiteforanadditional60dayswouldincrease dieselfuelandwaterconsumptionaswellasincreasetrafficandvisualimpact. Followingremovalandrepairoftheblockage,additionalsurveyswouldberequiredto determinewhetherthiswellexhibitedtheappropriategeologicalconditionsconducive toEGSstimulation.Thesesignificantadditionstotheprojectschedulewouldresultina projectcompletiondatethatexceedsthatspecifiedbytheDepartmentofEnergyforthis demonstration.WellNWG4616isonlycasedandcementedto4,742feetwhileNWG 5529iscasedto6,462feet.Thisadditional1,720feetofcementandcasingatNWG55 29allowsforstimulationtooccuratagreaterdepthandprovidesbettergroundwater protection.Inaddition,backgrounddatacollectionsimilartothatalreadycompletedat NWG5529,includingMSAinstallation,calibrationandmonitoring,baselineinjectivity testing,andtemperatureandboreholeteleviewersurveyswouldneedtobeconducted toensurethatthewellintegrityhasnotbeencompromisedandthatthewellwouldbe anacceptablecandidateforstimulation.Finally,theboreholeMSAarraywouldnothave beenabletotakeadvantageofasmanyexistingwellsites,andwouldhaverequired moregrounddisturbanceasaresult.Duetothesefactorsandthetechnicalproblemsin thewellboreatwellNWG4616,BLMdeterminedthatconductingthedemonstration ProjectatNWG4616wouldnotbefeasible. Nootheralternativelocationswereconsideredbecausetherearenootherexistingdeep geothermalwellsintheprojectarea.

2.8 C O M P A R I S O N O F A L T E R N A T I V E S
Table5 providesasummarycomparisonofthealternatives.Formoredetailed

descriptionsoftheaffectedenvironmentandtheeffectsofthealternatives,pleaserefer toChapters3and4.
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Table5: Comparison of Alternativesand Key Issues

Resource

UnitofMeasure

Alt.A: Proposed Action

Alt.B: AirCooled Condensers

Alt.C: NoAction

Wildlife

Areaofhabitatremoved

3sites, 28,125 squarefeet (2/3acre) total 3sites, 28,125 squarefeet (2/3acre) total 40feetto 930feetin height

3sites,28,125 0 squarefeet(2/3 acre)total

Scenic Resources

Numberofsitesandsize ofareasthatwouldhave vegetationremoved sufficienttobeseenfrom designatedviewpoints SizeandDensityofSteam Plume

3sites,28,125 0 squarefeet(2/3 acre)total

Scenic Resources

40feetto930 feetinheight, lessvapor, lowerdensity

WaterUsage

Totalamountof groundwatertobe withdrawn Probabilityofexceeding PGAabove0.028g16due toEGSactivities

Maximumof Maximumof 141.7million 74.8million gallons gallons 0.2 % 0.2%

Induced Seismicity

0%17


161gistheaccelerationduetogravity.APGAof0.028gcorrespondstoaclassIVMM

Intensitylevel,perceivedaslightshakingbyUSGSstandards.
17Note:Theprobabilitythatnaturalseismicorvolcaniceventswillproduceshakingthat

exceeds0.028gis5%peryear(URS,2010)

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CHAPTER 3. AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT


3.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
ThischapterdescribestheenvironmentthatcouldbeaffectedbytheproposedProject. Itservesasabasisfordiscussionofenvironmentalimpactsandconsequencesofthe threealternativeswhichwillbediscussedinChapter4.Thediscussionoftheaffected environmentispreparedtoalevelofdetailthatiscommensuratewiththepotentialfor environmentalimpactstoeachresource.

3.2 G E N E R A L S ET T I N G
TheProjectareaislocatedonthewesternflankofNewberryVolcano,outsidethe NewberryNationalVolcanicMonument(NNVM)andwithintheBendFortRockDistrict oftheDeschutesNationalForest.Theprojectareaisadjacentto(butnotwithin)the NNVM. NewberryVolcanoisabroad,gentlysloping,shieldlike,forestedlandformthatrises approximately3,600feetabovethesurroundingterrain.Withanareainexcessof500 squaremiles,itisamongthelargestQuaternaryvolcanoesintheconterminousUnited StatesandthelargestinOregon.Theterrainismadeupofpressureridges,tumuli,and gentlytomoderatelyslopinghighlavaplains.Thehabitatsthroughtheprojectarea consistpredominatelyofdrypineforest(lodgepoleandponderosa)ofvariousage classeswithafewwhitefirmixedthroughout.Manzanita,Ceanothus.spandseveral speciesofcurrantmakeupthedeciduousshrubunderstoryatmostsiteswithgrasses, forbs,coniferduff,andotherdownedwoodymaterialcomprisingthegroundcover. Ahistoryoffireexclusionandlogginghasalteredtheforestvegetationintheareafrom whatmayhaveoccurredhistorically.TherearenumerousForestServiceroadsinand aroundtheprojectvicinitythatwereconstructedandmaintainedforforest management,timbersales,recreationaccess,andgeneralpublicorcommercialuses. Thereareusercreatedroadsintheareaaswell. TheprimarysitefortheproposedprojectiswellpadNWG5529.Thisisawellpadthat waspermittedbyBLMandFSandconstructedbyDavenportin2008.Thepadis approximately5acresinsize,level,andsurfacedwithcrushedrock.Thepadisgraded suchthatanyrunoffisdirectedtoanapproximately1.5milliongallondoublelined sump.Therecurrentlyisagroundwatersupplywellandadeepgeothermalwell(NWG 5529)onthepad.ThewellpadwasdesignedandpermittedbyBLMandFStosafely accommodateuptothreedeepgeothermalexplorationwells.AccesstowellpadNWG 5529isviaForestRoad(FR)9735toFR600toFR685.TheseForestServiceroadshave beenimprovedandmaintainedtoprovidesafeaccessforlargevehiclesanddrillrigsto thesite.

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3.3 R E S O U R C ES B R O UG H T F O R W A R D F O R A N A L Y S I S B A S E D O N K E Y I S S U E S
AsdescribedinChapter1.8and1.9ScopingandIdentificationofIssues,relevantissues tobecarriedforward,addressed,andanalyzedinChapters3and4includethefollowing resources.

3.4 W I L D L I F E
AForestServicebiologistconductedawildlifereportandBiologicalEvaluation(BE)to addressthepotentialeffectsfromtheproposedprojectonthefollowingspecies: federallythreatened,endangered,candidate,orproposedspecies(TEPC);Region6 sensitivespecies;ManagementIndicatorSpecies[LRMP,(MIS)];theUSFishandWildlife Service(FWS)BirdsofConservationConcern(BCC),FocalBirdSpecies,andHigh PriorityShorebirds(shorebirds),includingthecomponentsofthesespecieshabitats. ThesedocumentsmeetthedirectionprovidedbytheForestServiceManual(FSM2600), theDeschutesNationalForestLandandResourceManagementPlan(LRMP)[1990]as amendedbytheRecordofDecisionforAmendmentstoForestServiceandBureauof LandManagementPlanningDocumentsWithintheRangeoftheNorthernSpottedOwl (NorthwestForestPlan)[1994]and/orasamendedbytheEnvironmentalAssessment fortheContinuationofInterimDirectionEstablishingRiparian,EcosystemandWildlife StandardsforTimberSales(referencedastheEastsideScreens;USDA,1995),andthe EndangeredSpeciesAct(ESA)of1973. TheBEconcludedthatthereisnosuitablehabitatforNorthernspottedowlorOregon spottedfrogwithinoradjacenttotheprojectarea. Thereisnodenninghabitatforwolverinewithinoradjacenttoanyoftheexistingor proposedsites.Thereispotentialdenninghabitatfurthereast/northeastinthegreater NewberryCrater.Theeasternflanksofthecraterareundevelopedwithnoroadsand thecrateritself(PaulinaPeak,EastandPaulinaLakes)hasthehighelevationandtalus habitatutilizedbywolverines.However,theselandscapesarerelativelysmallanddo notcontainlargeblocksofcontiguoushabitat.Inaddition,partsofthecraterareheavily utilizedbyhumans(snowmobiles,roads,resorts,campgrounds,trails),anddonot providethesolitudewithwhichthisspeciesseemsisassociated.Basedonthehigh humanuseofthearea,andthevegetationwithinandadjacenttotheproposedsitesis nonhabitat,wolverineisnotlikelytoinhabittheproposedsiteareas,butmayusethe broaderareaiftransitioningtoorfromtheCascadeMountains. TherearetworecordsoffishersightingsseveralmilessouthwestofPaulinaLake,but reliabilityoftherecordsisunknown.Thesehistoricalsightingsareafewmilesfromthe nearestproposedsite.Aswithwolverine,habitatconditionsforPacificfisherdonot existwithinorimmediatelyadjacenttoanyoftheproposedsites,andmostofthe vegetationinterspersedwithinthesitesappearstobetoodryandnotsuitable conditionsforthisspeciesduetothehighcomponentoflodgepolepineandponderosa pine.Althoughtherearesomepocketsofmontanemixedconiferinterspersedbetween thesites,itwouldnotprovidethelargercontiguousblocksofhabitatspreferredby fishers.Themostprobablehabitatorspeciesoccurrencemayoccurwithinthebroader NewberryCraterareaortheperimeterofPaulinaandEastLake.Whilethereispotential

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suitabledenninghabitatalongPaulinaCreek,itisunlikelyfisherswouldinhabitthis areaduetothehighpresenceofrecreation.Rather,PaulinaCreekwouldhavemore potentialtobeutilizedfortravel/movement.Similartowolverine,fisherspreferto inhabitareaswithminimalhumandisturbance.Basedonalloftheseconditions discussed,fishersaregivenalowprobabilityofoccurrence. Theinterspersedareasbetweentheproposedsitesprovidespotentialorsuitable habitatforsensitivespecies,suchasthewhiteheadedwoodpeckerandLewis woodpecker.PaulinaCreek,PaulinaLake,andEastLakeprovidepotentialhabitatfor severalsensitivespeciesassociatedwithriparianorlakehabitats,suchasbaldeagle, peregrinefalcon,bufflehead,harlequinduck,hornedgrebe,Northernwaterthrush,and CraterLaketightcoil.Severaloftheproposedmonitoringsurfacesitesarenorthand southofPaulinaCreek,whiletherearetwoproposeddrillingsitesapproximatelymile tothenorthofPaulinaCreek.Therearealsotwosurfacemonitoringsitesadjacenttothe westernflankofPaulinaLake. Theinterspersedareasbetweentheproposedsitesoradjacentto(i.e.PaulinaCreekand EastandPaulinaLakes)alsoprovideshabitatforManagementIndicatorSpecies(MIS) andmigratorybirds,suchasospreys,greatblueheron,afewwaterfowlspecies,great grayowl,Americanmarten,olivesidedflycatcher,chippingsparrow,browncreeper, Coopershawk,northerngoshawk,sharpshinnedhawk,redtailedhawk,several woodpeckers(i.e.northernflicker,threetoed,blackbacked,pileated,andhairy woodpeckers),muledeerandelk(theseareasareusedbydeerandelkmostlyduring spring,summer,andfall). FieldsurveyswereconductedbytheUSFSforthenortherngoshawkintheOgdenEA projectareabetweenJuly2ndandJuly24th2009andagaininthe2010and2011 breedingseasonsinanattempttolocatethepresenceofanestingpair(theOgden wildlifesurveyareaoverlapstheentireEGSProjectarea).Twonortherngoshawknest siteswithatotalofthreenestsweredetectedasaresultofthesesurveys.Inaddition, whiletherearenoknownactiveeagleorospreynests,thereisahistoricalospreynest locatedwithintheriparianareaalongPaulinacreek. Theapproximatedistancefromanyknownnestsite,andthehistoricalOspreynestsite, tothenearestproposedEGSEAsiteisprovidedbelow: OspreyNest(S31,PaulinaCreek):NN17=0.6miles GoshawkNestT22S,R11E,Sec.10:NM11=3.2miles GoshawkNestT22S,R11E,Sec.25:TG17=1.2miles

InadditiontoutilizingtheOgdenEAwildlifesurveys,theForestServiceconducted surveysspecificallyfortheTemperatureGradientsites(inFigure2)inthe2010and 2011breedingseasons,butnoraptorsweredetected.Inthe2011breedingseason,the ForestServicealsoconductedgoshawksurveysforallthesurfacestationsandthethree newboreholeMSAstations(NN17,NN24,andNN19),butnoraptorsorraptornestsof anykindweredetected. Thedetailedfindingsfromthesereports,includingthesurveysareonfileattheBLM PrinevilleDistrictOffice.


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3.5 S C E N I C R E S O U R C E S INTRODUCTION
AscenicresourceanalysiswascompletedbyRobertScottEnvironmentalServicesto identifyanddescribetheeffectsoftheproposedprojectonscenicvalueswithinthe Projectarea.TheanalysiswasconductedincompliancewiththeForestServiceVisual QualitySystem(VQS)andinconjunctionwithfederalguidelinesestablishedbythe ForestServiceSceneryManagementSystem(SMS).Theanalysisevaluatesexisting viewshedsaffectedbyactivitieswithinthesitesproposedintheProposedActionand AlternativeB.Thisstudyareawasdefinedbyconsideringtherelationshipofthe proposedEGSProjecttothesurroundingtopographicandvegetativepatterns,relative tokeyviewerlocations.Theanalysisisdocumentedinatechnicalreport,Scenic ResourcesInventoryandAssessmentNewberryVolcanoEGSDemonstrationProject, DeschutesCounty,Oregon,whichisonfileandpubliclyavailableuponrequestatthe BLMPrinevilleOffice. TheproposedEGSProjectmustbeconsistentwiththecurrentForestPlanforthe DeschutesNationalForest.Forvisualresourcedescriptionsandguidance,theForest PlanestablishesVisualQualityStandardsusingmethodologyfromtheVisualQuality System(VQS).In1996anewmethodologycalledtheSceneryManagementSystem (SMS)wasincorporatedintoForestServicedirectives18.TheSceneryManagement Systemprovidesadditionalsocialcomponentsforuseintheevaluationofalterationsto scenerythatarenotpresentintheVisualQualitySystem.Inordertodetermine consistencywiththeForestPlanvisualqualitystandards,theEGSEAprovidesacross walkoftheaspectsoftheSceneryManagementsystemthatequatestotheVisualQuality standardsintheForestPlan. TheDeschutesNationalForestLandandResourceManagementPlanestablishesVisual QualityObjectives(VQO)todeterminehowthevisualresourcesofanareaaremanaged. EachVisualQualityObjectivedescribesadifferentdegreeofmodificationallowedinthe landscapeandisrepresentedoveracontinuumoffourclassesofVQOsfromveryhighto verylowstandards.ThefourclassesofVQOsare: 1. PreservationP.Allowsecologicalchangesonlyandappliestowildernessand primitiveareas.Therearenoneoftheseinthestudyarea. 2. RetentionR.Activitiesmayonlyrepeatform,line,color,andtexturewhichare frequentlyfoundinthecharacteristiclandscape.Changesintheirqualitiesofsize,


18LandscapeEsthetics:AHandbookforSceneryManagement.ForestServiceHandbook

701.USDAForestService1996.

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amount,pattern,etc.,shouldnotbevisuallyevident.Therearenoneoftheseinthe studyarea. 3. PartialRetentionPR.Activitiesremainvisuallysubordinatetothecharacteristic landscape.Activitiesmayrepeatform,line,color,ortexturecommontothe characteristiclandscape,butchangesremainvisuallysubordinatetothestrengthof thecharacteristiclandscape.ExistingwellpadNWG5529andBoreholeNN19are withinthisclassification. 4. ModificationM.Activitiesmayvisuallydominatetheexistingcharacteristic landscape.However,activitieswhichaltervegetationandlandformmustborrow fromestablishedform,line,color,ortextureandatsuchascalethatitsvisual characteristicsaresimilartothoseofexistingoccurrenceswithinthesurrounding areaofcharactertype.ThisclassappliestoallsiteswithintheGeneralForestMA, andincludesBoreholesNN17andNN24. IntheSceneryManagementSystem,theFScombinesthecomponentinventoriesinto ScenicIntegrityLevels,whichareobjectivesbywhichvisualresourcesofanareaare managedbytheFS.ScenicIntegrityLevelsaredeterminedbysynthesizinginmatrix formtheinventoriesofscenicattractiveness,landscapevisibilityandvisualconcern,and seenareasanddistancezones.ASceneryManagementSystemratingsystemisapplied todistinguishscenicintegrity,whichindicatesthedegreeofintactnessandwholenessof thelandscapecharacter.Humanalterationscansometimesraiseormaintainintegrity. Moreoftenitislowereddependingonthedegreeofdeviationfromthecharactervalued foritsaestheticappeal. Scenicintegrityisacontinuumrangingoverfivelevelsofintegrityfromveryhighto verylow.Correspondinglevelsofexistingscenicconditionsandvisualqualitylevels fromtheoriginalVisualManagementSystemareshowninparentheses. VERYHIGHSCENICINTEGRITYUNALTERED(PRESERVATION) Referstolandscapeswherethevaluedlandscapecharacterisintactwithonly minuteifanydeviations.Theexistinglandscapecharacterandsenseofplaceis expressedatthehighestpossiblelevel. HIGHSCENICINTEGRITYAPPEARSUNALTERED(RETENTION) Referstolandscapeswherethevaluedlandscapecharacterappearsintact. Deviationsmaybepresentbutmustrepeattheform,line,color,texture,andpattern commontothelandscapecharactersocompletelyandatsuchscalethattheyare notevident. MODERATESCENICINTEGRITYSLIGHTLYALTERED(PARTIALRETENTION) Referstolandscapeswherethevaluedlandscapecharacterappearsslightlyaltered. Noticeabledeviationsmustremainvisuallysubordinatetothelandscapecharacter beingviewed. LOWSCENICINTEGRITYMODERATELYALTERED(MODIFICATION) Referstolandscapeswherethevaluedlandscapecharacterappearsmoderately altered.Deviationsbegintodominatethevaluedlandscapecharacterbeingviewed
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buttheyborrowvaluedattributessuchassize,shape,edgeeffectandpatternof naturalopenings,vegetativetypechangesorarchitecturalstylesoutsidethe landscapebeingviewed.Theyshouldnotonlyappearasvaluedcharacteroutside thelandscapebeingviewedbutcompatibleorcomplimentarytothecharacter within. VERYLOWSCENICINTEGRITYHEAVILYALTERED(MAXIMUMMODIFICATION) Referstolandscapeswherethevaluedlandscapecharacterappearsheavilyaltered. Deviationsmaystronglydominatethevaluedlandscapecharacter.Theymay borrowfromvaluedattributessuchassize,shape,edgeeffectandpatternofnatural openings,vegetativetypechangesorarchitecturalstyleswithinoroutsidethe landscapebeingviewed.Howeverdeviationsmustbeshapedandblendedwiththe naturalterrain(landforms)sothatelementssuchasunnaturaledges,roads, landings,andstructuresdonotdominatethecomposition. ThegeneralNewberryareaisknownforitsvolcanicfeatures,asevidentfromthe numerouslandformsincludinglavaflows,volcaniccones,andlavabuttesrisingfromthe surfaceofthesurroundingarea.Thefairlyhomogenousandextensivevegetation patternspresentaredominatedbymaturestandsoflodgepolepine.Thesehomogenous landscapeshavebeenbrokenintovisualmosaicswithblocksofevenagedyounger standsoflodgepolerepresentedacrossthelandscape.Thesemosaicsresultfroma combinationofnaturalregenerationafterlandscapescalemountainpinebeetle mortality,concentratedblocksofregeneratedstandsfollowingpastevenagedharvests, andlargescalewildfires.Activeforestmanagement,whichprimarilyfocuseson thinningtoreducethedensityoftheoverallhomogenousvegetationpatterns,isongoing throughoutthestudyarea.

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SUMMARYOFEXISTINGCONDITIONSFORSCENICRESOURCES
AsshowninFigureV1 andTable6 ,forsiteswithinMA9(ScenicViews),thesiteof primaryactivity,NWG5529,andonenewboreholestation(NN19)arelocatedwithin theModerateScenicIntegrityLevelSlightlyAltered(PartialRetentionVQO).Thetwo othernewboreholeMSAstationsarelocatedintheLowScenicIntegrityLevel ModeratelyAltered(ModificationVQO).Table6 summarizestheexistingvisual conditionsatNWG5529andthethreenewMSAboreholeswithintheScenicViews ManagementArea.
Table 6:SummaryOfExisting VisualConditions

ProposedProjectFacility WellPad5529 BoreholeNN17 BoreholeNN24 BoreholeNN19

SMS1 Moderate Low Low Moderate

VAC2 ModeratetoHigh High High High

Source:U.S.ForestService,fieldreconnaissance,andcoloraerialphotography.

1SMSScenicIntegrityLevel:ModerateScenicIntegrity(PartialRetention),LowScenic

Integrity(Modification)
2VACVisualAbsorptionCapability

3.6 W A T E R R E S O U R C E S
ThefollowingdescriptionofthehydrologicsystemintheProjectareaisprimarilybased onarecentreportwrittenbyKleinfelder(2011)19toprovideanindependentreviewof hydrologyinformationfortheProject.Thisindependenthydrologistreportisincluded asAppendixB.Informationfromthe1994NewberryGeothermalPilotProjectEISisalso usedtoprovidecontextforhydrologicresourcesinthearea. Thereareseveralhydrologicfeaturesthatwereconsideredandevaluatedforpotential effectsresultingfromproposedEGSactivity: EastLakeandPaulinaLakeintheNewberrycaldera;
Thermalspringsaroundthelakes;
Regionalandlocalgroundwatersystems;
SurfaceoutflowfromPaulinaLakeintoPaulinaCreek;and
SurfaceoutflowfromtheLittleDeschutesRiver.


19FiguresandreferencesnotedinthissectionmaybefoundinthereportinAppendixB.

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ThehydrologicsystemandwaterresourcesatNewberryarepartoftheupper DeschutesBasinwhichiswithinthelargerDeschutesRiverdrainagebasinofcentral Oregon.Thesystemrepresentsadynamicequilibriumbetweenrecharge,surfaceand groundwateroutflows,consumptiveuse,andevapotranspiration.

CALDERALAKES
ItiswelldocumentedthatEastandPaulinaLakesrechargealmostexclusivelyby precipitationandinfiltration,withapproximately35inchesofrainandsnowfallinginto thecalderaannually.EastLakedoesnothaveasurfacewateroutlet,whilePaulinaLake dischargesthroughadamandoutletstructureintoPaulinaCreekandisusedfor irrigationpurposes.ThelevelofPaulinaLakeandoutflowvolumetoPaulinaCreekhave beencontrolledandmanagedatthedamsincetheearly1900s.Lakelevelsnaturally fluctuateseasonallydependentuponprecipitation;however,theelevationofEastLake isgenerally40to50feethigherthanPaulinaLake.ThehydraulicgradientfromEast LaketowardPaulinaLakeandtherelativestabilityofPaulinaLakeandnearby groundwaterlevelsrelativetoEastLakelevels,indicatethereisappreciable groundwaterflowfromEastLakeintoPaulinaLake. Thegroundwatersystemwithinthecalderaappearstobestructurallycontrolledby faultingandaseriesofringfracturesaroundthecaldera.Thesefaultsandringfracture structurescreategroundwaterflowboundariesthatimpedetheverticaland/or horizontalflowofgroundwateroutofthecaldera,althoughsomegroundwaterflow fromthecalderatoregionalandlocalaquifersystemsdoesoccur.

THERMALSPRINGS
TherearetwodistinctcomponentsofthehydrothermalsystematNewberryCaldera:a shallowhydrothermalsystemconsistingofthermalspringsnearthesurfaceandadeep geothermalsystemconsistingofhighertemperaturesanddepthsgreaterthan1,300feet belowgroundsurface. ThermalspringsanddiffuseseepscanbefoundalongthenortheastshoreofPaulina LakeandthesoutheastshoreofEastLake.Thespringsareconsideredtobefumaroles (gasvents)coveredbythelakesandarenottheresultofdeepgeothermalfluid,norare theyconnectedtoadeepgeothermalsystemoutsidethecaldera.Theyhavebeen createdbytherecirculationofheatedwaterand/orbymixingwithsteamthatmigrates upthroughfracturesfromadeepersysteminsidetheringfracturesandwithinthe caldera.Therechargevolumefromthermalspringsanddiffuseflowstothecaldera lakeshasnotbeenquantified,howeverithasbeendescribedasmanysmalldiffuseflows andisrelativelysmallcomparedtorechargefromprecipitation(Kleinfelder,p3).

GROUNDWATERSYSTEMS
GroundwaterunderlyingthewestflankofNewberryvolcanoandtheLaPinesubbasin isdividedintotwosystems(regionalandlocal)basedupongeology,aerialextent,and flowcharacteristics.Theprolificregionalaquiferisofwideaerialextentandhostedin basalticlavas,volcaniclasticrocks,andsedimentaryunitsoftheDeschutesFormation thatoverlielowpermeabilitybasementrocksoftheClarnoandJohnDayFormations. Thedepthtothetopoftheregionalaquifervariesbaseduponelevation;however,it

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generallyrangesfrom100toover500feetbelowthegroundsurface(bgs).Thelocal aquiferisoflesseraerialextentandmadeupofunconsolidated,glaciofluvialsediments underwatertable(unconfined)conditions.ThesematerialsblanketmostoftheLaPine subbasinandweredepositedasoutwashfromglaciersemanatingfromtheHigh CascadeRangetothewest.Thelocalaquiferiscomprisedofwellgradedsandand gravelwithminorinterbedsoflowpermeabilitysiltandclaythatoverlieclayrich marshandlacustrinedepositsassociatedwiththedammingoftheancestralDeschutes River.MostdomesticwellsintheLaPinesubbasinaredrilledintothelocalaquifer anddepthsaregenerallylessthan50feetbgs.Waterlevelsfromwellsinstalledat variousdepthswithinthelocalsystemgenerallyshowsimilarwaterlevels(5to15feet bgs),whichsuggeststhereisnosignificantverticalmovementofwaterinthelocal aquifer(CenturyWestEngineering,1982). Basedonlosszonesencounteredwhiledrilling,isothermaltemperatureprofiles,and alterationdescribedinmudlogs,theshallow,mostlyunconfinedaquiferintersectedby thewaterwellsonpadsS16andS29(wellnumbersDESC58649andDESC58395, respectively)onlyextendstodepthsofabout300m(984ft)acrosstheprojectarea, withsomespatialvariability(DamesandMoore,1994).Belowthisdepth,decreasing permeabilitycausedbyincreasedclaycontentformsabasalaquiclude,orthebottomof theaquifer.Thetopoftheaquiferlikelyfluctuatesseveralmetersormoredependingon seasonalprecipitation.ThedepthtogroundwaterintheS29waterwellandS16water wellwererecentlymeasuredat324feetbelowgroundsurface(bgs)and678feetbgs respectively.20 Thegroundwatersystemisrechargedbyinfiltrationofprecipitation(rainfalland snowmelt),andtoalessextentbycanalleakage,infiltrationofappliedirrigationwater, andstreamloss.Precipitationistheprimarymeansforrecharge,andthereisastrong correlationbetweenrechargeandelevation.Rechargefromprecipitationrangesfrom lessthan1inch/yearinthelowerelevationswhereprecipitationislessthan12inches, tomorethan130inchesintheHighCascadeRangetothewestwhereprecipitation exceeds200inches.ThemeanrechargetotheupperDeschutesBasinbetween1962and 1997hasbeenestimatedat11.4inches/year,whichisequivalentto896billiongallons, or2,750,000acrefeet/year(Gannettandothers,2001).About84percentofrecharge fromprecipitationinfiltrationoccursbetweenNovemberandApril(Gannettandothers, 2001).RechargetothegroundwatersystemfromthewestflankofNewberryvolcano mayapproach224,000acrefeet/year(DamesandMoore,1994).TheFortRockBasinto thesoutheastalsocontributesapproximately36,200acrefeet/yeartotheupper DeschutesBasin(Gannettandothers,2001).


20AquiferPumpingTestReportPadS29WaterWellNewberryVolcanoEGS

DemonstrationProject,WallaceGroup,2011.

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GroundwaterflowseastwardfromtheHighCascadeRangeandwestnorthwestfrom NewberryvolcanotowardtheLaPinesubbasinwhereitenterstheregionalandlocal aquifers.FromtheLaPinesubbasin,groundwaterflowisgenerallytothenorthwithin basaltbedrockandoverlyingvolcanicandsedimentarydepositsoftheDeschutes Formation.TheClarnoandJohnDayFormationsunderlietheregional(Deschutes Formation)aquiferandincludelowpermeabilitystratigraphicunitsthatinhibitthe horizontalandverticalflowofregionalgroundwater(King,1991).Theshallow,local aquiferextendsnorthapproximately18milestotheBenhamFallsareawherethe ancestralDeschutesRiverwasdammedbyNewberrylavaflowseruptedfromacinder coneinthenorthwestriftzone(LavaButte),approximately7,100yearsago.Thereisan abrupttopographicgradientnorthofBenhamFallsatthecontactbetweenNewberry lavasandthoseoftheHighCascadeRangewithsourceareastothewest. Correspondingly,theDeschutesRivergradientincreasesfromapproximately2.6feet permile(ft./mi.)intheLaPinesubbasinto50ft./mi.betweenBenhamFallsandBend. TheslopeofthewatertablealsoincreasesnorthofBenhamFalls.Thedepthtowater neartheriveratBenhamFallsrangesfromapproximately5to25feetbgs. Approximately8milestothenorthbeneathBend,thedepthtotheregionalaquifer increasestoover300feetbgs(Sherrodandothers,2002). Thenorthwardincreasingdepthtogroundwaterhasimplicationsfortheinteractionof thegroundwatersystemandsurfacewater.WithintheLaPinesubbasinsouthof Sunriver,theDeschutesRiversystemexperiencesslightgainsduetogroundwater dischargeandsignificantgainsfromseveralmajorspringcomplexes.NorthofSunriver, theDeschutessystembeginstolosewaterasgroundwaterlevelsdropfarbelowstream levels.BetweenSunriverandBend,theDeschutesRiverlosesanestimated113cfsasit flowsthroughpermeablevolcanicsofLavaButteandthenorthriftzone(Gannettand others,2001).

PAULINACREEK
PaulinaCreekbeginsatthesouthwestshoreofPaulinaLakeatanelevationof6,330feet andflowswestover13milestotheconfluencewiththeLittleDeschutesRiveratan elevationof4,180feet.TheflowofPaulinaCreekiscontrolledbyaconcretespillway thathasbeeninplacesincetheearly1900s.PaulinaCreekgaugerecordsindicate seasonalflowsbetweenMarchandJuneof15to25cfs,whensnowmeltispeakingand thelakereachesthespillwayelevation.Outflowsof10to15cfsaregenerallysustained throughtheirrigationseason(AprilthroughOctober).Therearesixseniorwaterrights forPaulinaLakeandPaulinaCreekirrigationwaterdatingbackto1911and1918.These seniorwaterrightstotalapproximately8cfs. AbovethePaulinaEastLakeRoad(alsoknownasHighway21andForestRoad21) crossingatrivermile(RM)5.2(Figure17 ),thestreamlosesapproximately0.75cfs/mile togroundwater(Morganandothers,1997).BelowRM5.2PaulinaCreekdoesnot appeartoloseflowtogroundwaterandmayreceivesomeminorrechargeasthestream intersectsgroundwaterlevelsofthenearsurface,localaquifer.
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Figure17:WaterPointLocationMap
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LITTLEDESCHUTESRIVER
PaulinaCreekjoinstheLittleDeschutesRivernearLittleDeschutesRM15.Inthisportion oftheLaPinesubbasin,thewatertableelevationisnearlandsurface.Streamgainsand lossesalongmostoftheLittleDeschutesRiveraresmallandrelatedtolocalchangesin streambedmorphology.Thereisrelativelylittlenetexchangebetweengroundwaterand surfacewaterintheLittleDeschutesRiverbetweenRM15anditsconfluencewiththe DeschutesRiver.

3.7 G E O L O G Y AN D N A T U R AL S E I S M I CI T Y
Duringearlyplanning,andasrequiredbyDOE,theProponentscommissionedan independentevaluationofinducedseismicity/seismichazardsandriskfortheProject. Thisstudy,preparedbytheSeismicHazardsGroupatURSCorporationinNovember 2010,evaluatedthebaselineseismichazardsintheProjectarea,estimatedthepotential increaseinseismicityrateandthemaximummagnitudeofanearthquakeinducedby hydroshearingbelowNWG5529,andevaluatedtheincreasedseismicriskimposedby thehydroshearingactivity.Thefollowingdescriptionofthegeologyandbackground seismicityintheProjectareaisbasedonthisreport.Thereport,andafollowupstudyto thatreport,isincludedinAppendixFandGoftheISMP,whichisattachedasAppendixA tothisdocument21.

SEISMOTECTONICSETTING
Anunderstandingoftheseismotectonicsettingofasiteprovidestheframeworkinwhich theearthquakepotentialofgeologicstructuresinaregioncanbeidentifiedand characterized.Thefollowingisabriefsummaryoftheseismotectonicsettingof NewberryVolcano. Fromaglobalperspective,centralOregonisdominantlyinfluencedbytheunderthrusting andsubductionoftheJuandeFucaplatebeneaththeNorthAmericancontinentalongthe Cascadiatrench.ObliquesubductionoftheJuandeFucaplatehascreatedanorthsouth trendingvolcanicrangethatextendsfromnorthernCaliforniatosouthernBritish Columbia.IncentralOregon,therangeisdominatedbylatePleistocenestratovolcanoes includingMt.JeffersonandtheThreeSisters. Patternsofseismicity,volcanism,andcrustalstructuredifferentiatetherangeintoblocks, withtheboundaryoftheOregonblockextendingfromtheOregonWashingtonborderto theKlamathMountains,whichmarkthenorthernboundaryoftheSierraNevadablock. ThevolcanicarcinthisOregonblockischaracterizedbylowerratesofseismicity, particularlyincomparisontotheSierraNevadawhichhasgenerallyhigherratesof seismicityalongitseasternedge.CentralOregonisacomplextransitionalregion,asthe
21Figuresandreferencesnotedinthissectionrefertothereportsthatmaybefoundin

AppendixFandGoftheISMPattachedasAppendixAtothisdocument.

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regionisinfluencedinpartbythenorthernmostextentoftheBasinandRange extensionaltectonicsandalsobyvolcanicprocessesthatcharacterizetheHighCascade region. RegionalactivefaultinginOregonislargelyconcentratedalongfournorthtrendingfault zonesbroadlydistributedincentralandeasternOregon.Despitethelackoflarge magnitudeearthquakesinthehistoricalrecordinOregon,itislikelythatactivefault zonesinOregonservetokinematicallyconnectseismicactivityinnortheasternCalifornia andnorthwesternNevadatoseismicallyactivefaultzonesinsouthernandcentral Washington. TheregionaltectonicsnearNewberryVolcanoisuniquebecauseofitslocationeastofthe CascadeRange.ExtensionalmovementsintheNewberryregionareaccommodatedby slipalongthreeprincipalfaultzonesthatshowQuaternaryandHolocenedisplacements andprobablyintersectormergebeneaththecalderaandshield,includingtheNorthwest Riftzone,theSoutheastNewberryfaultzone,andtheSouthwestNewberryfaultzone.On thenortheastsideofNewberryVolcano,theBrothersfault(Figure9appendixFofthe ISMP)offsetsMioceneandPliocenevolcanics,yetdoesnotappeartooffsetQuaternary lavaflows.TheBrotherszoneisneverthelessincludedinthehazardanalysis.

HISTORICALSEISMICITY
Priortoabout1961,earthquakelocationsandsizeestimatesaremostlybasedonpre instrumentalrecordsandfeltreports.Earthquakedataweregatheredfromnewspaper accounts,whichbeganwiththeestablishmentofsettlementsintheregion.

PREINSTRUMENTALSEISMICITY
Noearthquakesgreaterthanmagnitude(M)5.0occurredwithin100km(62miles)of NewberryVolcanobetween1891and1961(Figure18 ).Theclosestlargeevent,165km (103miles)southwestofNewberryVolcano,wastheM6.0KlamathFallsearthquakethat occurredonOctober21,1993.Severalmoderatesizedeventshaveoccurredsince1891 andincludethreeM4.3orModifiedMercalliintensity(MM)Vearthquakesin1906,1920 and1921noneofwhichwerefeltatthesite(Figure18 ).Thelargestandmostsignificant earthquakeineasternOregon,knownastheMiltonFreewaterorStatelineearthquake, occurredonJuly15,1936.Basedontheisoseismalmapandanempiricalrelationship betweenmagnitudeandtotalfeltarea,theeventwasestimatedtobeanM6.4.

INSTRUMENTALSEISMICITY
TherehaveonlybeensixM3.0orgreaterearthquakeswithin100km(62miles)ofthe NewberryVolcanosince1980(Figure18 ).Oftheseevents,fourwerein1999consisting ofaminorswarmofearthquakesduringAprilandMay.Thelargesteventintheswarm wasanM4.3earthquakeonApril28,1999,locatedabout98km(61miles)southeastof theNewberryVolcano(Figure18 ),andwasfeltatChristmasValleyandPaisley,Oregon. TheclosestM3.0andlargerearthquaketotheProjectsitewasaneventestimatedatM 3.0in1943about35km(22miles)northofthesite(Figure19 ). Basedontheinstrumentalrecord,noearthquakeshavebeenlocatedwithin10km(6 miles)ofwellNWG5529orNewberryVolcano(Figure19 ).

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Figure18:Historical SeismicityoftheSiteRegion
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Figure19:Historical SeismicityintheVicinityoftheSite
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CHAPTER 4. ENVIRONMENTALE FFECTS


4.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
ThischapterdescribestheexpectedenvironmentaleffectsofimplementingAlternative A,theproposedaction;AlternativeB,theproposedactionwithclosedpressurevessel andaircooledcondensers;andAlternativeC,thenoactionalternative,andprovidesthe scientificandanalyticbasisfortheircomparison.Allknownenvironmentaleffects includingdirect,indirect,andcumulativeeffectsaredisclosedandmitigationmeasures toreduceanypotentialadverseeffectsaredescribedwithinthischapter. Thischaptercontainssummariesorportionsofresourcereportsthatcanbefoundin theappendixand/orintheAdministrativerecord. Theanalysispresentedhereconsidersdirect,indirectandcumulativeeffects.Direct environmentaleffectsarethoseoccurringatthesametimeandplaceastheinitialcause oraction.Indirecteffectsarethosethatarecausedbyorwillresultfromtheproposed actionandarelaterintimeorfartherremovedindistance,butarestillreasonably certaintooccur.Finally,cumulativeeffectsresultfromcollectivepast,present,and reasonablyforeseeablefutureactions,regardlessofwhatagencyorpersonundertakes suchactions.

4.2 P A S T , P R E S E N T , A N D R E A S O N A B L Y F O R E S E E A B LE F U T U R E A C T I O N S I N T H E PROJECTAREA
TherehavebeenaconsiderablenumberofpastNationalForestprojectsandactivitiesin andaroundthe32,000acregeothermalleaseareainwhichtheEGSDemonstration Projectisproposed. Thefollowingtable(Table7 )liststhegroupsofactionsthathavecontributedtothe existingconditionswithintheprojectarea.Table8 listsongoingorreasonably foreseeablefutureactionsintheprojectarea.Theeffectsanalysisthroughoutthis chapterconsidersthesepastactionsascontributingtothecurrentcondition.

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Table7:PastActionsandEventstheContributetotheCurrent Conditions intheProjectArea andCumulativeEffects Area

PastActions RoadAccess ForestSystemRoads Allwithinprojectarea Wildfire

Timing

Description

ResidualEffects

1920stoPresent

Roadsystemdeveloped 175.1milesofopenroad;6.1milesofclosed road(maintenancelevel1).

Currenttransportationsystemroaddensity is 4.22milespersquaremile;access,habitat fragmentation

1918 1918 Allwithinprojectarea 1994 1998 1999 2000 VegetationManagement/FuelsReductionProjects 1920s1930s IndustrialTimberOperations

PaulinaPrairiewildfire 2,827acres PaulinaCreekwildfire Ogdenwildfire McKaywildfire BlackBarkwildfire Newberry2wildfire 169acres 13acres 1,150acres 79acres 548acres

Contributedtocurrenttreesize/structure andspeciescomposition.TheMcKayfireisin thecenteroftheprojectareaandcomprised primarilyofshrubsandplantedregeneration. PCTandmowingareplannedintheOgden project.

Extensiverailroadloggingacrossprojectarea, primarilyclearcutting.

Extensiveareasofsinglestoryponderosa pine.Lodgepolepineinextensiveplantations andhasexpandeditsstockingsubstantially particularlywithinOgdentotheWestand outsideOgdentotheSouth. Pastharvesthascontributedtothecurrent vegetativestructureintheareaandis reflectedinthecurrentconditionassessment forforestedvegetationandfuels.

1970s Thinningandotherharvest 1980s 1990s

Thinning,regenerationharvest,andother managementhasoccurredthroughoutthe planningareasinceitwasaddedtothe DeschutesNF.

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PastActions

Timing

Description Commercialthinningandfuelsreduction analyzedfor9,515acresnorthofprojectarea. Harvestcomplete.Commercialandsmalltree thinning.FuelsTreatmentsongoing. Prescribedburningincludingpileand underburning.Twoofthethreesales(Bonand DiceTimberSales)havecompletedfuels treatments FuelsreductionwithintheLaPineWildland UrbanInterface(WUI)CommunityWildfire ProtectionPlan(CWPP)thewesternedgeof projectarea.1,000acresofladderfuel reduction,lowthinning,handpilingand mowing.Allprojectworkcompletedin2010.

ResidualEffects Moreopenstandsofponderosapinewith substantialreductionofstanddensity.Basal areaatlowermanagementzone. Standdensityreductionwith1)reducedrisk oftreemortalityasaresultofbeetleattack and2)reducedriskofstandreplacement wildfire. Fueltreatmentsinthisareawillbeeffective forapproximately710years.Surfacefire afterthistimewouldbefastmovingwith sometorchingoftrees.

LavaCastProject

DNsigned2007 Alternative3

DecisionMemo signed7/2006. Crossings

Range SugarpineAllotment SandFlatAllotment SPClosed2007 SFVacant Two rangeallotmentshavehadactivitywithin theprojectarea.TheSugarpineAllotmenthas beenclosed.TheSandFlatAllotmentisvacant. AllSugarpineAllotmentfenceshavebeen removed;risktowildlifeandhumans reduced.Twocattleguardshavebeen removedandothersareplannedforremoval, reducingmaintenancecosts.

GeothermalExplorationandOtherMisc. Authorizedexplorationanddevelopmenton CalEnergyleases(currentlyownedbyOrmat) NewberryGeothermalPilot ProjectFEIS/ROD RODsigned 6/30/1994 Threedrillpadswereconstructedandtwo padswerepartiallyconstructedforsurface disturbanceof31acres.Onewaterwell,three productionwells,andtwotemperature gradientexplorationwellsweredrilled. Resource notdeveloped;Sitesundergoing reclamation.Twopadshavebeenre contouredandpreppedfornatural regeneration;threepadsanticipatedforre contouringandpreppedfornatural regenerationin2011. Threeofthewellshavebeenpluggedand abandoned.Onewellandthewaterwellhave notbeenpluggedorabandoned.

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PastActions USGSPermanentVolcanic MonitoringStations

Timing
Categorical Exclusion completedAug. 2011;stations installed.

Description Monitoringstationstotrackseismicactivity. Stationslocatedinareasnotobvioustothe generalpublic.Onestationtobelocatedat NNVMvisitorcenterorNewberryCrater.

ResidualEffects Structuresminimizedetractionofthe surroundingarea.Grounddisturbingarea doesnotexceed100200feet.

Table8:Ongoingor ReasonablyForeseeableFuture Actions,in theProjectAreaandLowerLittle DeschutesWatershed thatmay ContributetoCumulativeEffects

ProjectName/Activity GeothermalExploration

Status/Timing

Description

PredictedorOngoingEffects

DecisionRecord signed TheimprovementofrequiredForestService Threewellpads,each5acresinsize.Allthree accessroads;constructionofthreewellpad currentlyinexploration;onewellpadhas byBLMin2007 NewberryGeothermal ExplorationProject


sites,includingdrillingpadsandareservepit forthestorageofwastedrillingmudand fluid;thedrilling(andredrilling,asmaybe necessary)ofuptoninegeothermalresource explorationwells;testingofeachdrilled well;andthecontinuedmonitoringofwell pressureandotherdataineachwell. Drillupto12temperaturegradient/passive seismicmonitoringwells,eachtodepthsof approximately2,500to3,500feet.Relatively shallowwells;smalldiameter(4.5orless). geothermalexplorationongoingandisbeing consideredforuseintheNewberryVolcano EGSDemonstrationProject.Continuedaccess needed.Existenceoftemporaryroad. Potentialshorttermdisruptionofrecreation ormanagementactivitiesonaccessroadsfor roadmaintenanceandequipmentmoving.

Drilling,Testing,andMonitoring DecisionRecord signed ofupto12TemperatureGradient byBLMinApril2010; /PassiveSeismicGeothermal ExploratoryWells ForestServiceCE signedJan.2010for SpecialUsePermit Testingongoing

Smallclearingsinvegetationtotalingabout 2.5acres;Worktobecompletedsummer 2011;wellsmaintainedandmonitored through2012.Seeroadaccessdiscussion above. Currentlycollectingdata.Stationsaretobe removed4to10monthsfollowing installationandwillbecomeholesinsteadof surfacesites.Seeroadaccessdiscussion above.

MicroSeismicTesting

12stationseach2feetwideby1to4feetin depth;datacollectionateachsite.

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ProjectName/Activity

Status/Timing

Description
ForestServiceassessingwhichparcelsto consenttoleasingforgeothermal explorationandidentifyingmitigations measuresifdeveloped.Allparcelsoutside NNVM.

PredictedorOngoingEffects
Nogrounddisturbingactionswillbe authorized.Programmaticdecision.Future developmentwouldundergofurtherNEPA.

Planning ForestServiceConsenttoLease EAexpectedtobe signed2011

OgdenVegetationManagement Project

FSDEISinprogress. DecisionexpectedJan. 2012

Proposalincludescommercialand precommercialthinning,shrubmowing,and prescribedburningacrossapprox.14,600 acresofthe26,500acreprojectareato reducetreedensities,encouragelateandold structurepinedevelopment,breakupfuel continuity;2planamendmentsminimize surfacedisturbance.

Thegoaloftheprojectistoreduceforest densityandfuelsintheprojectarea. Vegetationclearingandprescribedburns wouldoccurthroughouttheprojectarea.

BLMandFSNEPA OrmatTemperatureGradientWell documentexpectedto Proposal becompletedin2012.

Aspecialuseauthorizationisproposedtobe ProjecteffectsarewithintheUpperPaulina issuedtoOrmatTechnologies,Inc.todrillup subwatershedwildlifecumulativeeffects toseventemperaturegradientwellsforthe analysisarea. purposeofgeothermalresourceexploration. Wellsites(about100X100feet)have experiencedpreviousdisturbanceandare mostlyclearofvegetation,anddonot requireanysitegradingorconditioningto performdrillingoperations.

Recreation

LavaRockOHVTrailProject

Planning

41.9milesofmotorizedtrailtobe designatedwithinprojectarea;101.5 milesofmotorizedtrailtobedesignated withintheLittleLowerDeschutes watershed.58.5milesoflevel2FSroads wouldbecomelevel1roads.

Potentialincreaseofusercreatedtrailsin areasthatarethinnedand/or underburned,withpotentialforincreased motorizeduseintoRHCA.Lessoverall crosscountryusethroughoutprojectarea becauseoftraildesignationandtravel mgmt.restrictions.

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ProjectName/Activity

Status/Timing

Description
McKayCampground

PredictedorOngoingEffects
Recreationalusebypublic,primarilyduring SpringthroughFall.Soilcompactionof immediateareas.Whencampgroundsarefull, useisspreadtootherareas,particularlyon usercreatedroads,oftenintoriparianhabitat. Areaspossiblymoreaccessibleasresultof thinning:1)usercreatedtrails;2)campsites etc.Thiscouldresultindisturbanceto wildlife,soils,RHCA,otherresources. None.SnoparksadjacenttoForestRoad21. Snowmobiletrailsoversnowdonotaddto soilcompaction.

DevelopedRecreation

Seasonal,Ongoing

OgdenGroupCamp PaulinaPlunge PeterSkeneOgdentrail;7.08milesofnon motorizedtrails;OHVuseoccurringinarea; Usercreateddispersedcampsites,including alongPaulinaCreek 6MileSnoPark

Seasonal,Ongoing

DispersedRecreation Seasonal,Ongoing Winteruseonly

10MileSnoPark 29.39 milesofwintertrail 3.13ofNordicTrails 26.26milesofsnowmobiletrailgrooming

Roads 58.5milesofmaintenancelevel2roads wouldbecomelevel1roadsundertheLava RockOHVProjectEIS,currentlyinthe planningstages. Reductioninroaddensity.Reduceshabitat fragmentation.

RoadClosures

Planning

DeschutesOchocoTravel ManagementProject

DraftEIS; Implementation expectedin2011

ImplementationoftheTravelRule.

MotorizedtravelinCentralOregonwouldbe restrictedtodesignatedroadsandtrailsonly. Accesstodispersedcampingwouldhave specialprovisionstolimitaccesstosensitive areas.

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4.3 A L T E R N A T I V E AP R O P O S E D A C T I O N : D I R E CT , I N D I R E C T A N D C U M U L A T I V E EFFECTS
Thissectionanalyzesthedirect,indirectandcumulativeeffectsforAlternativeA,the proposedaction,foreachresourcethatwasidentifiedduringscoping,asrelatedtoakey issue.DetailsofthisalternativearediscussedaboveinChapter2.3.

WILDLIFEKEYISSUE
PreparingandclearingthevegetationforthethreeboreholeMSAstationshavethe potentialtoremovehabitatonthesesitesforsomespecies.Drillingactivities,testing andstimulationactivities,andanincreaseinhumandisturbancealsohavethepotential todisturbnestingsitesuptomileduringthebreedingseasonortemporarilydisplace somewildlifespecies. TheDeschutesLRMPWildlifeStandardsandGuidelinesthatsupporttheseissue statementsinclude:WL15,11,12,19,20,28,29,31,33,34,56,72,and73. o UNITSOFMEASURE: Distancebetweendrillsitesandnestingsites. Areaofhabitatremoved.

DISCUSSIONOFEFFECTSONWILDLIFEFROMINDUCEDSEISMICEVENTS
Thissectionisintendedforthosewildlifespeciesbroughtforwardforanalysisandto putincontexttheunknowneffectsorpotentialeffectsfromtheproposedactionsthat wouldoccurunderAlternativeA.Theremainingsectionsdisclosethelogicalorpotential effectsfromknownactivitiesthatwouldoccurunderAlternativeAforeachcategoryof species.Althoughthereferencedpaperbelowfocusesongrizzlybear,thereissuitable habitatinterspersedthroughouttheprojectareaforblackbearsandotherbiggame animals,suchasdeer,elk,andmountainlions. AsearchofscientificliteraturewasconductedbyURSCorporation(URS)onthe potentialeffectsofinducedseismiceventsonbirdormammalspecies.Basedonthis review,nodocumentedeffectswereidentified.Whileamagnitude3.5inducedseismic eventcouldresultinacoustic,visual,andtactilestimulithatwouldbedetectableby wildlifeintheareaintheformofshortduration,lowtohighfrequenciesofsound,and physicalshaking,thesestimulimaybemaskedbyormistakenfornatural,ambient environmentalconditionsandmaynotinducearesponseinwildlifespecies.Depending onthetimingandfrequencyofinducedseismicevents,theirimpactonlargemammal speciescouldvaryfromtemporarydisturbancetotemporarydisplacement.Theimpact ofinducedseismiceventsonnestingbirdscouldvaryfromstressabandonmentor failureandmortalityofeggs,fledglingsandadults.Howeveritisunknownwhetherthe magnitudeofdisturbancebirdsmightexperiencefollowinganinducedseismicevent wouldbesubstantiallydifferentfromthenatural,ambientstimuliand,thuswhether nestabandonment/failureorbirdmortalityislikelytooccur.

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Onestudy22thatdidnotappearinthescientificliteraturesearchconductedbyURS lookedattheeffectsofseismicsurveysondenningbearsinnorthernAlaska.Three radiocollareddenninggrizzlybearsweremonitoredforheartratechangesbeforeand afterdetonationofseismicshots1.41.8kmaway.Thestudyfoundthatthelimited numberofobservationsandthefactthatbearsshowincreasedheartratesduring undisturbedconditionslimitedtheconclusionsthatcouldbedrawn.Theauthors concludedthatevenifanimalsrespondedtonoisesassociatedwithseismicexploration activities,effectsonthebearswereprobablyminimal.Noneoftheradiocollaredbears desertedtheirdensinresponsetoseismicactivitiesandallemergedinthespringwith noobserveddeathsofaccompanyingoffspring. InamemorandumtoAltaRock23,URSconcludedthatthemagnitudeandintensityofthe inducedseismiceventsareanticipatedtocauseminimaltemporarydisturbanceor displacementtonestingbirdorlargemammalspecies.Nestabandonment/failureor birdmortalityisconsideredunlikely.Inaddition,themeasuresoutlinedintheISMP (AppendixA),aredesignedtomitigateinducedseismicevents.

THREATENED,ENDANGERED,PROPOSED,ANDCANDIDATESPECIESDISCUSSION
OREGONSPOTTEDFROGANDNORTHERNSPOTTEDOWL Sincethereisnosuitabledispersal,foraging,ornestinghabitatwithinoradjacentto theproposedboreholesitesormonitoringstations,AlternativeAwouldhaveno effectonthenorthernspottedowlorOregonspottedfrog.Theprojectareaisalso locatedoutsidetheNorthwestForestPlansothePDCsintheProgrammaticBAdo notapply.Thevegetationwithinmostoftheproposedsitesiseitherinearlyseralor earlytomidseraldryandwetlodgepolepinewhilesomesitesexhibitamixofdry andwetmidseralponderosapine/lodgepolepine,buttheydonotexhibitold growthmixedconiferstands(i.e.hemlock)includinglargediameterwoody material.Thenearestknownnorthernspottedowlsareapproximately16to18 mileswestoftheprojectarea.Therearealsonostreamsormarshwithinor adjacenttotheproposedsitesforOregonspottedfrog.PaulinaCreekisthenearest stream(approximately1/2mileawayfromanyproposedsite),butthegeneralarea isconsideredtoowarmanddryforOregonspottedfrog.PaulinaLakeandEastLake iswithinproximityoftwomonitoringstations,buttherearenoknownrecordsof
22Reynolds,PatriciaE.,HarryV.Reynolds,andErichH.Follmann.1986.Responsesof

grizzlybearstoseismicsurveysinnorthernAlaska.InternationalConf.BearRes.and Manage.6:169175.
23Bettelheim,Matthew,URSMemorandum,5April2011,Backgroundreviewonthe

PotentialImpactstoWildlifefromInducedSeismicEventsAssociatedwiththe NewberryVolcanoEGSDemonstrationProject.

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spottedfrogsoccurringineitherofthesetwolakes.Thenearestknownpopulations ofOregonspottedfrogsoccurapproximately18mileswestoftheprojectarea. FISHER Thereisnosuitabledenninghabitatwithinorimmediatelyadjacent(acouple hundredfeet)totheproposedsites,suchasmature,greaterthan60%closed canopyconiferousforestwithsomedeciduouscomponentassociatedwithriparian areas.However,thishabitatdescriptionoccursalongPaulinaCreek.PaulinaCreekis approximatelyawayfromthreeoftheprojectsproposedsites.Twoofthesites areproposeddrillingsitesandtheotherisamonitoringstationthatwouldbe accessedbyfoot.Highrecreationalusesuchascampingandhikingoccursalong PaulinaCreek,thereforeitisunlikelyfisherswoulddeninthearea,butmaybeused fortravelmovement.Theremainingvegetationinterspersedbetweentherestofthe monitoringstationsisconsideredmarginalorinmanyareasnonhabitat.Thereare somepocketsofmontanemixedconiferbetweenproposedsitesthatcouldprovide suitablehabitat,buttherearenolargeblocksofcontinuoushabitatforsolitude. Currently,manyhumanactivitiesalsooccurwithintheareasofPaulinaandEast Lake,includingasnowmobiletrailnorthandeastofthecrater. Itisunlikelythatthe2/3acretotaloflodgepolepinethatwouldberemovedforthe threeboreholesiteswouldimpedetraveltoorfromtheCascades.Sincenoise disturbancefromdrillingoccursouttoaboutmile,itisunlikelydrillingwould impedetravelmovementforfishers.Additionally,thedensevegetationandterrain changesbetweenthecreekanddrillsitesmayactasanoisebarriertolessenthe noiseimpact.Giventhereisalowprobabilityofspeciesoccurrenceinthearea,the increasedtrafficandnoisefromtheproposedactivitiesintheshortterm(upto2 years)isnotlikelytohaveameasurableimpactonmovement. WOLVERINE Sincethereisnosuitabledenninghabitatwithinoradjacenttoanyoftheproposed activities,AlternativeAwouldhavenoeffectsonhabitat.Althoughwolverineshave amuchbroadermovementthanfishers,theyarealsogivenalowprobabilityof occurrencesincetherearenolargeblocksofcontinuoushabitatforsolitude,and duetothecurrentlyhighrecreationalactivitiesinthearea.Inaddition,themajority ofactivities,noiseandtrafficwouldoccuratthemainpad,wheremuchofthearea hasbeenloggedandratheropen.Overall,theslightincreaseintrafficalongthe majorroads,andauthorizinggateaccesstothemainpadwithintheshorttermis notlikelytohaveanimpactonmovement.

REGION6SENSITIVESPECIESDISCUSSION
The2/3acretotalproposedforvegetationremovalforpreparingthethreeborehole sitesisnotconsideredsuitablenestinghabitatforanyRegion6sensitivespecies, thereforeAlternativeAwouldhavenoimpacttonestinghabitatinthesethreeareas. ThemostlogicalpotentialimpacttosensitivespeciesfromAlternativeAwouldbefrom additionalhumanpresenceand/ornoisedisturbanceinthearea.Ifnestingoccurs withinmiletoanyofthesites,drilling,increasedtraffic,andhumanpresencehasthe
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potentialtocausenestfailureifthespeciesbecomesintoleranttotheactivities. Typically,noisedisturbanceoccurswithinmilefromnestsitesformostspecies.Most ofthenoisedisturbancewouldbeconcentratedattheS29site(upto2years),the3 newboreholesitesfromdrilling(upto42days),andanyroadsthatwouldbeutilizedby worktrucks,especiallydieselengines.However,therearenoknownnestswithinor mileofthesitesandthehabitatimmediatelyadjacenttothesefoursitesisnot consideredsuitablehabitatforanyRegion6sensitivespecies. Suitablenestinghabitatdoesoccurinterspersedbetweensomesitesforspecies,suchas whiteheadedwoodpeckerandLewiswoodpecker,buttherearenoknownactive cavitiesornestsiteswithinmileormilefromanyoftheproposedmonitoringsites. Inthelastcoupleofyears,therehasbeenanactivebaldeaglepairthathasbeen alternatingnestsbetweenEastLakeandPaulinaLake.Withtheexceptionofthetwo monitoringstationsonthewesternflankofPaulinaLake,alloftheotherstationsare3 milesand/orbeyondfromtheknownnestsites;thetwomonitoringstationsonthe westernflankofPaulinaLakeareapproximately2milesawayandwouldbeaccessedby foot.Therefore,itisunlikelynoiseorhumandisturbancewouldhaveanimpactonbald eagles. TheriparianareaalongPaulinaCreekprovidessuitablehabitatforspeciessuchas harlequinduck,northernwaterthrush,orCraterLaketightcoil.Theproposedactivities wouldnotcontributetohabitatremovalintheseriparianorlakeareas.Duetoits distancefromtheactivities(approximately1milefromWellNWG5529and0.4mile fromthenearestMSAboreholestations)aswellasthesteepterrainanddense vegetationaroundPaulinaCreek,anygeneratednoisewouldbediffusedandwouldnot likelydisturbthesespecies. Thereisnosuitablenestinghabitatforperegrinefalconswithinorinterspersedwithin theplannedactivities.Although,foraginghabitatmayexistbecausethereissuitable nestinghabitatonPaulinaPeak,whichoccursover2milestothenorthwestfromthe concentrationofactivities.HighqualityforaginghabitatexistswithinthePaulinaand EastLakeareasduetotheincreaseddiversityofpreyspecies(i.e.waterfowland shorebirds),thereforeitisunlikelytheplannedactivitieswouldhaveanimpactor disturbanceonperegrinefalconforaging.

MANAGEMENTINDICATORSPECIESDISCUSSION
Thetotal2/3acreremovalofvegetationofearlyserallodgepolepineatthethree boreholesitesdoesnotprovidenestinghabitatforraptors,butmayprovidesomeform ofhabitatforcertainMISspecies,suchashidingcoverfordeer,orcoverforAmerican martens,orbirdspecies.Thetotalareaoftemporaryhabitatremovalateachsitewould haveaminimalimpactonoverallhabitatforMISspecies. ThetotalpresencefromtheactivitiesunderAlternativeAwouldoccurupto approximatelytwoyears.Alogicalassumptioncouldbemadethattheproposed activitiesmaycauseorhasthepotentialtocausesomeformofnoisedisturbanceto certainMIS(ifpresentinthearea)fromtheincreasedtrafficanddrillingnoise.The soundlevelsfromtheproposeddrillingunderAlternativeAareestimatedtobeupto45
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dBAatadistanceof0.5miles.Asstatedintheaffectedenvironmentsection,allthree knownraptornestsareovermileawayfromanyprojectsiterequiringdrilling. Drillingwouldbetemporary,approximately180daysatNWG5529,and14daysat eachofthe3newboreholeMSAsites(thehabitatsadjacenttothese3boreholeMSA sitesarenotconsideredraptornestinghabitat,norarethereknownnests). Thevegetation,includingvariousbuttesinterspersedthroughoutall20siteswouldact asanaturalbarriertoreducenoisedisturbancetohabitatsduringdrillingorfromtraffic noise,thereforenoiselevelswouldvaryfromareatoarea.Thefollowingdirection howeverisprovidedbytheDeschutesNationalForestLandandResourcesManagement Plan(USDA1990)tominimizeanypotentialimpactstonestingraptors: Disturbingactivitieswillvarysitespecifically.Activeraptornestsitesshouldbe protectedfromdisturbingactivitieswithinamile(onemilefortheuseof explosives)ofnestsbyrestrictingoperationsduringthenestingperiods.Ifthe specifiedrestrictionperiodmustbecompromised,projectactivityattheendofthe period(e.g.thelastmonthortwo)isleastlikelytocausenestabandonment. SincetheproposednoiseisexpectedtobeheardatmileandtheLRMPdirectionis mile,anddepictsthatdisturbingactivitieswillvarysitespecificallyifnestingraptorsare locatedwithinmileofanyoftheactivitysites,awildlifebiologistwillmakea determinationifdrillingwouldbetimedtonotoccurduringthebreedingseasonforthe followingspecies: Baldeagle Osprey Redtailhawk Northerngoshawk Coopershawk SharpshinnedHawk Greatgrayowl January1stAugust31st April1stAugust31st March1stAugust31st March1stAugust31st April1stAugust31st April1stAug.31st March1stJune30th

Inviewofthedirectandindirecteffects,andbyapplyingtheprojectdesignfeature above,theproposedactivitiesmaystillhaveaslightimpactonsomeMISspecies(i.e. unknownnests)fromhumandisturbanceandnoisetraffic,butitisexpectedtobeshort term(2years)andlocalized.

MIGRATORYBIRDSDISCUSSION
Oneoftheconsequencesofindustrialactivityinforestedenvironmentsisincreased anthropogenicnoiseduetovehicles,machinery,andinfrastructure(Bayneet.al2008). Industrialnoisecantakemanyforms.Forestryandenergysectoroperationscan generateintensenoiseforperiodsofdaystoweeksinarelativelysmallarea.Itseems logicalbecauseoftheimportanceofacousticinformationtoforestsongbirdsandthe myriadnumberofwaysanthropogenicnoisecanaffectaviancommunication,thatbirds mightavoidchronicallynoisylocations(Bayneet.al2008).Bayneet.al2008compared thedensityandoccupancyrateofforestpasserinesfromnoisegeneratingcompressor stationsandnoiselesswellpadsintheborealforestofAlberta,Canada.Theyfoundthat

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onethirdofthespeciesexaminedshowedpatternsthatsupportedthehypothesisthat abundanceisinfluencedbyanthropogenicnoise. Thisstudywasconductedatcompressorstationsthatarepartofthegaspipeline networkandsites>3kmawayfromeachotherwereselectedtoensurenoisefromone sitetoanothercouldnotbeheard.Acompressorconsistsof13motorscooledbyan equalnumberoflargefanunitshousedinaninsulatedmetalshedinasmallclearingof about24ha,producingbetween75and90dBatthesource,butcanreach105dBat largefacilities(MacDonaldetal.1996inBayneet.al2008).Nonpasserines(i.e. woodpeckers)werecountedbutexcludedfromallanalyses. UnlikethealreadyestablishedindustryinAlberta,Canada,includingcontinuousrunning compressorstationsandthelouderdecibeloutput,thetotalpresencefromtheactivities underAlternativeAwouldoccurforapproximatelyuptotwoyears.Alogical assumptioncouldbemadethattheproposedactivitiesmaycauseorhavethepotential tocausesomeformofdisturbancetocertainmigratorybirds(ifpresentinthearea) fromtheincreasedtrafficanddrillingnoise.Thesoundlevelsfromtheproposeddrilling underAlternativeAareestimatedtobeupto45dBAatadistanceof0.5miles.As describedabove,drillingwouldbetemporaryandvegetationandterrainchangeswould actasanaturalbarriertoreduceddisturbance. Inviewofthedirectandindirecteffects,theproposedactivitiesmayhaveaslight impactonsomemigratorybirdspeciesfromnoisedisturbance,butitisexpectedtobe shortterm(2years)andlocalized.

DETERMINATIONOFEFFECTSTOFEDERALLYTHREATENED,ENDANGERED,PROPOSED,AND CANDIDATESPECIES,ANDREGION6SENSITIVESPECIES
Below(Table9 )areeachspeciesFederalandForestlevelstatus,thestateofOregon Natureserverankings,andthedeterminationsofeffectsfromthebiologicalevaluation (BE)foreachalternative(Note:severalspecieshaveseverallistingsstatus).These determinationsweremadebyreviewingthedirect,indirect,andcumulativeeffects, includingapplyingtheprojectdesignfeatures.Whiletheremayhavebeenpotential habitatinterspersedbetweensites,adjacentto,oracoupleofmilestotheproposedsites forsomespecies,theanalysiswasthoroughlyconductedtoreachthesedeterminations. TheBEwaspreparedbasedonpresentlyavailableinformation.Iftheactionsare modifiedinamannerthatcauseseffectsnotconsidered,orifnewinformationbecomes availablethatrevealsthattheactionmayimpactfederallylistedorsensitivespeciesina mannerortoanextentnotpreviouslyconsidered,aneworrevisedBEwouldbe requiredwhichmayincludeadditionalprojectdesigncriteria.

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Table9:SummaryofDeterminationsofFederallyThreatened,Endangered,Proposed, and CandidateSpecies,andRegion6SensitiveSpecies.

Species

Federal& Forest Level Status T

Nature serve Status

Alternative Alternative Alternative A B C

NorthernSpotted Owl Strix occidentaliscaurina OregonSpottedFrog Ranapretiosa PacificfisherMartes pennantipacifica Wolverine Gulogulo luteus NorthernBaldEagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus AmericanPeregrine FalconFalco peregrinusanatum Bufflehead Bucephalaalbeola HarlequinDuck Histrionocus histrionicus GreaterSageGrouse Centrocercus urophasianus HornedGrebe Podicepsauritus YellowRail Coturnicops noveboracensis TricoloredBlackbird Agelaiustricolor Whiteheaded Woodpecker Picoidesalbolarvatus LewisWoodpecker Melanerpeslewis

S3

NE

NE

NE

C,S C,S C,S

S2 S2 S1

NI NI NI

NI NI NI

NI NI NI

S,MIS

S4B,S4N

NI

NI

NI

S,MIS

S2B

NI

NI

NI

S2B,S5N

NI

NI

NI

S2B,S3N

NI

NI

NI

S3

NI

NI

NI

S2B,S5N

NI

NI

NI

S1B

NI

NI

NI

S S*,MIS, Landbird focalspecies S*,MIS, Landbird focalspecies

S2B

NI

NI

NI

S2

MIIH

MIIH

NI

S2

MIIH

MIIH

NI

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Species

Federal& Forest Level Status

Nature serve Status

Alternative Alternative Alternative A B C

Northern WaterthrushSeiurus S noveboracensis PygmyRabbit Sylvilagusidahoensis TownsendsBig EaredBat Corynorhinus townsendii CraterLaketightcoil Pristilomaarcticum crateris Silverbordered fritillaryBoloria selene S

S2

NI

NI

NI

S2

NI

NI

NI

S,MIS

S2

NI

NI

NI

S1

NI

NI

NI

S2

NI

NI

NI

Johnsonshairstreak S Callophrysjohnsoni Keytoabbreviations:

S2

NI

NI

NI

E=FederallyEndangered,T=FederallyThreatened,C=CandidateforFederallisting, P=ProposedforFederallisting S=USFSRegion6Sensitive;MIS=ManagementIndicatorSpecies;BirdsofConservation ConcerncomefromtheUSFish&WildlifeServiceBCCBCR9(GreatBasin)[2008];Landbird FocalSpeciescomefromtheConservationStrategyforLandbirdsoftheEastSlopeofthe CascadeMountainsinOregon&Washington(Altman2000); OregonSensitiveSpeciesdeterminedfromtheNatureservedatabaseforOregon:S1,critically imperiled,S2=imperiled,S3=vulnerable,S4=apparentlysecure,S5=secure,B=breeding,N =nonbreeding NE=NoEffect;NI=NoImpact;MIIH=Mayimpactindividualsorhabitat,butwillnotlikely contributetoatrendtowardfederallistingorlossofviabilitytothepopulationorspecies;BI =BeneficialImpact

DETERMINATIONOFEFFECTSTODESCHUTESMISANDMIGRATORYBIRDS
Thefollowingtable(Table10 )showstheDeschutesNationalForestManagement IndicatorSpeciesandcombinedmigratorybirdslist(seefootnoteatthebottomasa referenceforeachstatusdescription),includingtheirpreferredhabitats.Thespecies boldedinblackwerespecieswhomhadpotentialhabitatorwithinthematrixofhabitat betweenthe20proposedsites(projectarea)andonlythosewhomaybepotentially impactedfromnoisedisturbanceduetotrafficandhumanpresence.Althoughtheremay
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bepotentialsuitablehabitatatPaulinaorEastLakeformanyoftheshorebirdsor waterfowlspecies,therewouldbenoimpacttothesespeciesbecausethemainsiteof projectactivity(NWG5529)andthethreenewboreholeMSAdrillsiteswouldoccur severalmilesaway,westofthetwolakes(note:PaulinaCreekwouldnotprovide suitablehabitatforthesespeciesandthosethatmayhavehabitatatthecreekwere consideredandanalyzed).Lastly,duetothetotal2/3acreofhabitatremovalofearly serallodgepolepine,themostlogicalimpactfromtheproposedprojectwouldbefrom noisedisturbanceandaregroupedtogetherintheAlternativeAandBcolumn.However, aspreviouslystatedintheanalysis,AlternativeBwouldhavemoreimpactthan AlternativeAduetoadditionalrequireddieselenginetrucksandlongerdurationofthe activity.AlternativeC(noaction)wouldhavenodirectorindirectimpactonanyof thesespecies.
Table 10:DeschutesNationalForestMISandMigratory Birds.

Species Northern goshawk

Status MIS S3Vulnerable

Habitat Matureandoldgrowth forests;especiallyhigh canopyclosureandlarge trees Similartogoshawk,canalso usematureforestswithhigh canopyclosure/treedensity Similartogoshawkin additiontoyoung,dense, evenagedstands Matureandoldgrowth forestsassociatedwith openingsandmeadows Riparianedgehabitats includinglakes,streams, marshesandestuaries Largeopenareaswithcliffs androckoutcrops Largesnags,opencountry interspersedwithforests Largesnagsassociatedwith fishbearingwaterbodies Mixedhabitats Mixedconiferorhigh elevationlatesuccessional forestswithabundantdown woodymaterial

AlternativesAandB Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance

Coopershawk MIS S4Apparently secure Sharpshinned hawk MIS S4Apparently secure

Greatgrayowl MIS S3Vulnerable Greatblue heron Goldeneagle Redtailed hawk Osprey Elk American marten MIS S4Apparently secure MIS,BCC S4Apparently secure MIS S5Secure MIS S4Apparently secure MIS S5Secure MIS S3Vulnerable

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Species Muledeer Snagsand DownedWood associated speciesand habitat Pygmy nuthatch Chipping sparrow Browncreeper

Status MIS S5Secure MIS

Habitat Mixedhabitats Snagsanddownwoody material

AlternativesAandB Potentialnoise disturbance

Flammulated owl Hermitthrush

Olivesided flycatcher Commonloon

Landbird focal species S4Apparently Secure Landbirdfocal species S4Apparently Secure Landbirdfocal species S4Apparently Secure Landbirdfocal species,BCC S3BVulnerable breeding Landbirdfocal species S4Apparently Secure Landbirdfocal species S3BVulnerable breeding MIS SHB,S5N Possibly Extirpated Breeding, SecureNon breeding MIS S5Secure MIS S2B,S5N Imperiled breeding, Securenon breeding

Matureponderosapine forestsandsnags Openunderstoryponderosa pineforestswith regeneration Largetreesinmixedconifer forests Interspersedgrassy openingsanddensethickets inmixedconiferforests Multilayered/densecanopy inmixedconiferforests Edgesandopeningscreated bywildfireinmixedconifer forests Edgesofremotefreshwater pondsandlakes

Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance

Piedbilled grebe Hornedgrebe

Edgeof openwaterin freshwaterlakes,ponds, sluggishriversandmarshes Openwaterwithemergent vegetation

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Species Rednecked grebe

Status MIS S1B,S4N Critically imperiled breeding, Apparently secure nonbreeding MIS S4Apparently secure MIS S3B,S2S3N Vulnerable breeding, Imperiled/Vuln erable nonbreeding MIS S5Secure

Habitat Lakesandpondsinforested areas

AlternativesAandB

Earedgrebe Westerngrebe

Openwaterwithemergent vegetation Marcheswithopenwater andlakesandreservoirs withemergentvegetation

Canadagoose

Varietyofhabitat:shoresof lakes,rivers,andreservoirs especiallywithcattailsand bulrushes Cavitynester Concealedclumpsofgrasses inmeadowsandtall grasslands Clumpsofgrassesin meadowsortallgrasslands Openwaterwithemergent vegetation Marshes,lakes,ponds,slow movingstreams Coverofvegetationnear shoreline Grassyareasnearwater Openareasnearwater Freshwatermarsheswith emergentvegetation Emergentvegetation

Woodduck Gadwall

MIS S4Apparently secure MIS S5Secure MIS S5Secure MIS S5Secure MIS S4Apparently secure MIS S5Secure MIS S5Secure MIS S5Secure MIS S5Secure MIS S4Apparently secure

American widgeon Mallard Bluewinged teal Cinnamonteal Northern shoveler Northern pintail Greenwinged teal Canvasback

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Species Redhead Ringnecked duck Lesserscaup

Status MIS S4Apparently secure MIS S3vulnerable

Habitat

AlternativesAandB

Freshwatermarshesand lakesconcealedinvegetation Thickemergentvegetation onshorelines Drygrassyareasnearlakes atleast10ft.deep

MIS S3B,S4N Vulnerable breeding, apparently Secure nonbreeding Common MIS goldeneye S4Apparently Secure Barrows MIS goldeneye S3B,S3N Vulnerable breeding, Vulnerable nonbreeding Hooded MIS merganser S4Apparently Secure Common MIS merganser S4Apparently Secure Ruddyduck MIS S4Apparently Secure WoodpeckerSpecies Williamsons MIS,Landbird sapsucker Focalspecies, BCC Rednaped sapsucker Downy woodpecker Hairy woodpecker Threetoed woodpecker Blackbacked woodpecker MIS S4Apparently Secure MIS S4Apparently Secure MIS S4Apparently Secure MIS S3Vulnerable MIS,Landbird focalspecies S3Vulnerable

Cavitynester Cavitynester

Cavitynester Cavitynester Freshwatermarshes, lakes, pondsindensevegetation

Matureoroldgrowthconifer Potentialnoise forestswithopencanopy disturbance cover;weakexcavator Riparianhardwoodforests Riparianhardwoodforest

Mixedconiferandponderosa Potentialnoise pineforests disturbance Highelevationandlodgepole Potentialnoise pineforests disturbance Lodgepolepineforests, burnedforests Potentialnoise disturbance

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Species Northern flicker Pileated woodpecker Swainsons hawk Ferruginous hawk Prairiefalcon Greatersage grouse American goldenplover Snowyplover American avocet Solitary sandpiper Whimbrel Longbilled curlew Marbled godwit Sanderling Wilsons phalarope Yellowbilled cuckoo Burrowingowl Blackswift Loggerhead shrike

Status MIS S5Secure MIS S4Apparently Secure BCC BCC BCC BCC BCC,Shorebird

Habitat Varietyofforesttypesbut moreassociatedwithforest edges Maturetooldgrowthmixed coniferforests Opencountry Opensagebrushflats;open country Rimrock,cliffsinopen country Sagebrushflats Uplandtundra,rareinORin drymudflats,fieldsand pastures Sandybeaches Shallowwater Small,freshwatermudflats Grassymarshesandtidal flats Drygrasslands Expansivemudflatsand sandflatsonbeaches Sandybeacheswithwave action Shallowpondswithingrassy marshes Riparianhardwoods Opengrasslandor agriculturalland Dampcoastalcliffs Openhabitatwithscattered treesandshrubs

AlternativesAandB Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance

BCC,Shorebird BCC BCC,Shorebird BCC,Shorebirds BCC,Shorebird BCC BCC,Shorebird BCC,Shorebird BCC BCC BCC BCC

Potentialnoise disturbance

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Species Grayvireo Virginias warbler Brewers sparrow Sagesparrow Pipingplover Mountain plover Buffbreasted sandpiper Black oystercatcher Upland sandpiper Bristlethighed curlew Hudsonian godwit Marbled godwit Black turnstone Surfbird

Status BCC BCC BCC BCC Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird

Habitat Rocky,dryhillsideswith scatteredtrees Mountainmahogany Sagebrushhabitats Sagebrushhabitats RareinORonsandybeaches Shortgrassprairies Nestsintundra,forageson shortgrassprairie Coastalrocks Grassyfields(48tall)with openpatches RareinORinmarshesor beaches.NestsinAlaska tundra Mudflatsandshallowwater; nestsaroundsprucewoods Prairieponds,mudflatsand sandflats Tundra,wintersonrocky, coastalshores Nestsonbarrengravel hilltops,wintersonrocky shorelines Mudflatsandsandybeaches Rockyshorelines Mudflatsandshallowmuddy pondsalongcoast Damp,brushywoods

AlternativesAandB

Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird

Western sandpiper Rock sandpiper Shortbilled dowitcher American woodcock Wilsons plover

Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird

RareinORonsandybeaches, sandflatsormudflatsaway fromshoreline

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Species American oystercatcher Bartailed godwit Ruddy turnstone RedKnot Dunlin Calliope hummingbird Blackswift Sagethrasher

Status Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird Shorebird BCC

Habitat RareinORonrockycoasts Lowtundrainwestern Alaska Rockyandsandyshorelines Sandybeaches Sandybeachesandmudflats Openmontaneforest, mountainmeadows,and willowthickets Waterfalls,wetcliffs,caves Juniper,sagebrush shrublands.Mt.mahogany andaspen Opendeciduousand coniferouswoodland,forest edgeandundergrowth Desert,shrubland/chapparal Brushyareaswithwillow andriparianshrubs Pinyon/juniperwoodland Sagebrushshrublands Alpinerocky,grassyareas

AlternativesAandB Potentialnoise disturbance

BCC BCC

Nashville warbler Blackchinned sparrow Willow flycatcher Pinyonjay Greentailed towhee Blackrosy finch

BCC

Potentialnoise disturbance Potentialnoise disturbance

BCC BCC BCC BCC BCC

LandbirdfocalspeciescomefromtheConservationStrategyforLandbirdsoftheEast SlopeoftheCascadeMountainsinOregonandWashington(Altman2000); ManagementIndicatorSpeciescomefromtheDeschutesNationalForestLandand ResourcePlan(LRMP)[1990];BirdsofConservationConcern(BCC)comefromtheUS FishandWildlifeServiceBirdsofConservationConcernBCR9(GreatBasin)[2008]; andShorebirdscomefromthe2004USFishandWildlifeServiceU.S.Shorebird ConservationPlan.

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SCENICRESOURCESKEYISSUE
Removalofvegetationonthemicroseismicmonitoringsiteshasthepotentialtocause upto3areasofapproximately9,375squarefeet(0.2acre)eachoratotalof28,125feet (2/3acres)tonotmeettheForestPlanstandardsforvisualqualityasseenfrom selectedviewpoints.TheDeschutesLRMPStandardsandGuidelinesthatsupportsthis issuestatementisM819.Theventingofsteamduringtheshortandlongterm circulationtestsmayalsocreateasteamplumethatcouldpotentiallybevisibleattimes fromcertainselectedviewpoints.Thedrillrigandcirculationtestingfacilitiesmaybe visibleattimesfromsomekeyviewerlocationsduringtheanticipated2yearduration oftheProject. o U n it s of M ea s ur e: Numberofsitesandsizeinacresofareasthatwouldhavevegetation removedsufficienttobeseenfromkeyviewerlocations. ThedistancefromselectedviewpointsandabilitytobeseenbyForest visitors.

DISCUSSION
SixkeyViewpointsofConcernwereselectedasthemostrepresentativeviewpointsin theprojectareafortravelersandrecreationistsandhavebeenconsideredfor comparisonofimpactsandconsequencesforeachactionalternative.OtherthanPaulina Peak,mostoftheviewpointpositionsarelowerinelevationorataboutthesame elevationastheproposedProjectsites.RefertoFigureV3 forthelocationsofeach visualobservationpoint(VOP)anditsrelationshiptotheprimaryactivitysite(PadS 29)fortheProject. VOP1:U.S.Highway97betweenmileposts150and167 VOP2:McKayButte VOP3:ForestRoad21Viewpoint VOP4:NewberryCraterRimTrail#57 VOP5:PaulinaPeaksummit VOP6:PaulinaCreekTrail#56

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Figure20 toFigure25 arephotographstakenfromeachofthesixviewpoints,looking towardthenearestproposedProjectsite.Thesephotosproviderepresentationofa typicalviewfromeachviewpointanddemonstratethedominantvisualfeaturesseenby avisitor.

Figure20:VOP1U.S.Highway97(LookingEast)

Figure21:VOP2MckayButte(LookingEast)

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Figure22:VOP3ForestRoad21 Overlook(Looking North)

Figure23:VOP4Trail57CraterRimTrail(LookingWest)

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Figure24:VOP5PaulinaPeak(LookingNorthwest)

Figure25:VOP6Paulina CreekTrail56(LookingWest)

ImpactstoscenicresourcesfromAlternativeAwouldbeshorttermandprimarily associatedwithdustfromtrafficonunimprovedForestroads,useofexistingwellpadS 29,removalofvegetationandsitepreparationatthenewboreholesites,andthesteam plumeduringventing.


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ThedrillrigonexistingwellpadS29wouldlikelybevisiblefromhigherviewpointsin theareaincludingPaulinaPeak,theviewpointwiththegreatestnumberofvisitors annually.Dependingonweatherconditions,avaporplumewouldalsobevisible.Plume heightanddurationisdependentuponweatherconditionswithcool,cleardaysbeing moresuitableforplumecreationandwarm,windy,cloudydaysbeinglesssuitablefor plumeformation.Assuch,aplumewouldbemorevisibleduringthefallandwinter monthsandlessvisibleduringlatespringandsummermonthswhenvisitoruseis higher.Sincethecirculationtestisestimatedtotakeapproximately2monthsto complete,visitorstoPaulinaPeakcouldseethevisualimpactforthesameperiodof time.Sincetheseimpactsareofshortdurationandintensity,theimpactstoaforest visitorwouldbesimilartothatexperiencedfromasmallprescribedfire,whichis commonwithinandaroundthesurroundinglandscapeandoccursduringthesametime period. OfthethreenewboreholeMSAsites,one(NN19)islocatedwithintheMA9Partial RetentionMiddlegroundscenicviewsareaandtwo(NN17andNN24)arelocatedinMA 8Modification/MaximumModificationarea. Exceptforthesteamplume,projectfacilitiesandactivitiesoftheProposedActionwould notbevisiblefrommostvisualreceptors,includingthesixVOPs,andwouldnotaffect sensitivevisualresources.Foreachofthethreenewboreholes(NN17,NN24,andNN19) approximately9,375squarefeet(0.2acre)offorestlandscapewouldbedisturbed duringsitepreparation.Drillingoperationateachoftheseboreholeswouldrequirea drillingrig,watertruck,andmudtankonsite.Theexistingboreholesites(TG17,TG19, TG30,TG32,NN18,NP03,NN21)wouldnotrequiresurfacepreparation,butwould havethesamedrillingactivityifexistingwellsonthosesitescouldnotbeutilized.Once drillingiscompleted,asolarpanel(approximatelyfourbyfourfeetonasevenfeettall pole)wouldbeinstalledandasmalldatagatheringboxwouldbeinstalledonthesolar panelpole.A3ft.longtelemetryantennawouldbeplacedonapoleorinanearbytree. Allothermonitoringequipmentwouldbeplacedinsidetheboreholeandwouldnotbe visibleonthesurface. Forthe10surfaceMSAsites,therewouldbenonewsurfacedisturbanceforsite preparationorwelldrilling,butsurfacemonitoringstationswouldstillbeinstalled, equipmentwouldbeplacedinapartiallyburiedsecuredbox,andasolarpanelwith recordingequipmentwouldbelocatedonthesite.Avisitorstandingimmediatelyin frontofasitemaynoticea3ft.x3ft.solarpanelupinatreeorthepartiallyburiedbox. Noneofthisequipmentwoulddrawvisualattentionoraffectvisualresources. ViewersatthePaulinaPeakviewpointmaynoticeshorttermindirecteffectsfromthe projectsuchasthedrillingrigduringthetwoapproximately90daydrillingperiods,or thesteamplumeduringtheapproximate60daycirculationtest.Duringthesummer, dustmaybecreatedfromsitepreparationofnewboreholesandbytrafficalongaccess roadsandatpadS29thatmaydrawsomevisualattention.TheProponentswould watertheroadsusingawatertruckfordustabatement,whichwouldalleviatemostof this.Steamfromventingwouldbevisible,primarilyduringthe60daycirculationtest, particularlyduringcoldcleardays,andmaydrawvisualinterestfromaviewerat

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PaulinaPeak.TheupperportionofthedrillrigonpadS29mayalsobevisibletoa vieweratPaulinaPeak;however,theuseofdrillingrigswerepreviouslyanalyzedand approvedinthe2007geothermalexplorationproject.Duetonumerousothersignificant features(lakes,lavaflows,etc.)whichreadilydrawvisitorsattentionatPaulinaPeak, plusthetopography,screeningfromvegetation,andthedistancefromtheproject,the casualobserverwouldnoticeverylittleornoneoftheProjectwhilevisitingPaulina Peakoranyotherviewpoint. Noneofthenewboreholesiteswouldbediscernibleinthelandscapefromanyofthe viewpoints,duetothesmallsize,distance,andbecausethesiteswerespecifically selectedtoblendinwiththesurroundingsetting.Althoughtheexistingwellpadand drillingactivitieswereanalyzedandapprovedinthe2007EA,theymaybeseenfrom PaulinaPeakbutwouldbedifficulttodiscernbytheaverageviewer. Steamventingwasalsoanalyzedandapprovedinthe2007explorationEA,though ventingfromproposedEGSactivitiescouldbeoflongerduration(60daysvs.3045 days)thanthatalreadyapproved.TheEGSventingactivitywouldcreateasteamplume thatcouldbeseenfromPaulinaPeakandbepartiallyvisiblefromMcKayButte,the overlookonForestRoad21,andbyhikerstravelingonsomesegmentsoftheRimTrail (TR#57).ViewersatthemostdistantVOP,U.S.Highway97,couldseeaportionofthe plume,butgiventhedistanceandlimitedviewingtime,theplumewouldbevisually subordinateinthatsetting.Thesteamplumewouldbevisibleonacleardaywhen viewedfromalltheVOPsotherthanVOP4(CraterRimTrail)andtheVOP6(Paulina CreekTrail)butwouldnotbereadilyobservedincloudyorovercastweatherconditions andwouldblendinwithnaturalclouds. Adoptedin1994,AmendmentNumberThreeoftheForestPlanaddressesvisualaspects bymodifyingmanagementareavisualstoallowforageothermalsteamplume.This amendmentwasaddedtoaddressthesituationthatageothermalsteamplumewasnot specificallyconsideredduringtheLRMPprocessandthatitmayexceedthe classificationofPartialRetention,particularlywhenviewedfromPaulinaPeak.This amendmentwasadoptedtoaddressandallowalarger,longterm(50years),and constantsteamplumefromanoperating33megawattgeothermalpowerplantwhich hadbeenproposedatasiteneartheEGSProject.Incomparison,asteamplumefromthe EGSdemonstrationwouldbesmallerandonlyofshortduration(severalmonthsas opposedto50years),giventhattheEGSventingwouldbefromonlyoneortwowells andacirculationtestfacilityandonlyforalimitedtimeperiod. Equipmentusedmaycreatereflections,butthiswouldbeofnomoreconsequenceor importancethanitwouldbeforothervehiclesorequipmentontheForest.Reflections haveneverbeenknowntobeaconcernforanytemporaryForestactivity,includingpast geothermalexplorationprojects.
TableV2 displaysasummaryofvisibilityfromeachVOPlocation.

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TableV2.ViewpointsofConcern Summary

View Direction (Viewpoint toProject) East East North West Northwest North

View Distance to5529 (mi) 7.6 2.7 1.5 2.0 4.0 3.0

ProjectFacilitiesSeen2

Viewpoint No. VOP1 VOP2 VOP3 VOP4 VOP5 VOP6

Viewpoint Location U.S.Highway 97 McKayButte

Jurisdiction Private USFS

Elevation (feet) 4,249 5,250 5,841 6,591 7,947 4,800

Viewer Position1 I I N S S I

Pad S29 N N N N Y N

NN17 N N N N P N

NN24 N N N N P N

NN19 N N N N P N

Steam Plume3 Y P P N Y N

ForestRd.21 USFS Overlook TR57Crater RimTrail PaulinaPeak Paulina CreekTR56 NNVM (USFS) NNVM (USFS) USFS

1SSuperior,NNormal,IInferior 2NNotVisible,YVisible,PPartiallyVisible 3SteamPlumeVisibilitywouldbepartiallyvisibleforeitheractionalternative

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SCENICRESOURCESSUMMARY
Verylittle,ifany,oftheprojectfacilitiesandactivitieswouldbeseenbyaveragevisitors atanyofthesixkeyVOPs,primarilyduetotheverysmallscaleoftheproposedProject (lessthan2/3acreofnewgrounddisturbance)anditsrelationshiptothesurrounding landscapesthathaveModeratetoHighVisualAbsorptionCapability.Someactivitycould benoticedfromPaulinaPeakandMcKayButteundercertaincircumstances,suchas whenthewellsorcirculationtestfacilityisventingonaclearday. TheproposedProjectwouldbeincompliancewithForestPlandirectionandScenic ManagementObjectivesforbothGeneralForestandScenicViewsmanagementareas. OncetheProjectactivitiesinAlternativeAarecompleted,disturbedareasarenotlikely todrawanyvisualconcern.Thesteamplumewouldnolongerexist,treeswouldbe plantedwherenecessarytofeatheredgesofthecreatedopeningsatthethreenew boreholesites,furtherreducinganyline,texture,orcolorcontrast.Alloftheborehole sitesarewithinproposedtimberharvestunitsorvegetationtreatmentareasofthe OgdenVegetationManagementproject.Asaresult,anyvisualeffectsrelatedtoground disturbance,vegetationclearing,andsitepreparationfortheboreholeswouldbe virtuallyunnoticeablewithin5years.

GROUNDWATERQUANTITYKEYISSUE
Withdrawalofgroundwaterfromwaterwellsforthedevelopmentandtestingofa belowgroundEGSreservoirhasthepotentialtoreducethequantityofwaterwithinthe Deschutesdrainagebasin. o U N I T S O F M E A S U R E : Totalamountofgroundwatertobewithdrawninmillionsofgallonsand rateofgroundwatertobewithdrawninmillionsofgallonsperday.

GROUNDWATERQUALITYKEYISSUE
ThedevelopmentandtestingofabelowgroundEGSreservoirhasthepotentialto negativelyimpactgroundwaterqualitywithintheaquifer. o U N I T S O F M E A S U R E : Amount,typeofadditivesanddepthatwhichtheyaretobeinjected. Injectionandproductionwelldesignfeaturestopreventcontaminationof groundwateraquifer.

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DISCUSSION
ThefollowingdiscussionofpotentialeffectstothehydrologicsystemintheProjectarea isprimarilybasedonarecentreportwrittenbyKleinfelder(2011)24.Thisindependent hydrologistreviewreportisincludedasAppendixB.

GROUNDWATERQUANTITY
TheproposedactioninAlternativeAisestimatedtorequiretheuseofupto142million gallonsofwateroveraperiodofapproximately2years,allofwhichisconsideredas consumptiveuse(Table11 ).Theprojectwillrelyongroundwaterfromtheshallow aquiferpresentbeneaththewesternflankofNewberryvolcanotomeetitswatersupply demands.AsdiscussedinSection3.6,thisshallowaquiferisnotindirecthydraulic connectionwiththeLaPinesubbasinwhichisover4milesawayandwheretheclosest residentsdrawtheirwater.Therearecurrentlytwoexistingwatersupplywells availabletosupplywater,thePadS29waterwell(DESC58395)andthePadS16water well(DESC58649).Thesetwowaterwellsareexpectedtosupplyallofthewater demandduringthedemonstrationproject.

WATERRIGHTS
TheProponentshaveobtainedalimiteduselicense(LL1347)fromtheOregonWater ResourcesDepartment(OWRD)inordertousegroundwaterfromthesetwowells. GroundwatermitigationcreditswillbepurchasedfromtheDeschutesGroundwater MitigationBank,operatedbytheDeschutesRiverConservancy(DRC),inaccordance withtheOWRDpermit.TheDRCsgroundwatermitigationbankcreatestemporary creditsthroughinstreamleases.Thisleasingprogramallowslandownerswhodonot wishtousetheirwaterrightstheoptiontotemporarilyleavetheirwaterintheriverfor thepurposeofenhancingstreamflows.Newgroundwateruserspurchasethesecredits annuallytomitigatefortheirwateruse.Asaresult,theseinstreamleaseswouldoffset anylossofgroundwaterrechargeduetotheconsumptiveuseoftheprojectandthere wouldbenonetlossofwatertotheDeschutesriverbasin(Kleinfelder2011).


24FiguresandreferencesnotedinthissectionmaybefoundinthereportinAppendixB.

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Table 11:Maximum WaterUseEstimate for AllMajorActivities inthe NewberryEGS Demonstration

Activity

Estimated WaterUsage Rate,gpm 800

Maximum WaterVolume, gal 24,192,000 210,000 3,152,150 3,152,150

Maximum WaterVolume, acreft 74.2 0.6 9.7 9.7 14.1 35.4

Duration, days 21 21 90 90 7 5

Singlewell stimulation1 Riguseduring stimulation2 Drillingproducer#13 Drillingproducer#23 Connectivitytest PW15 Dualwellstimulation PW14 Connectivitytest PW25 Dualwellstimulation PW24 CirculationTest6 Total
networksize.

455 1600(split between2 wells) 455 1600(split between2 wells) 912

4,583,439 11,520,000

4,583,439 11,520,000

14.1 35.4

7 5

78,782,765 141,695,942

241.8 435

60

1ThisusesSoultzGPK2stimulationvolumesandmultipliesitbythreetoachieveourdesired

2Assumesrigissittingidleduring21daysofstimulationoperationsandrequireslessthan10,000

gpdofwaterforstandbyoperations.
3DavenportPowerused19.4acreftwhendrillingbothwell5529and4616.BLMassumesthat usagewouldbesimilarduringtheproposedproject. 4Thedualwellstimulationassumespumpingsimultaneouslyat800gpmintotwowellsfora

maximumtotaltimeof5days.
5Theconnectivitytestsbetweentheinjectionwellandeachindividualproducerareplannedfora

durationbetween3and7days.Itisassumedthat16.3to37.6%oftheflashingfluidwillbelostto theatmosphere.Additionally,itisassumedthat2%oftheinjectedvolumeisneverrecovereddue toleakoffinthereservoir.Thenumbersabovereflectawaterusagerateof455gpmforafull7 dayswith37.6%ofevaporativesteamloss.


6Thelongtermcirculationtestisplannedtolast3060days.Itisassumedthat16.3%37.6%of

theproductionfluidwillbelosttotheatmosphere.Additionally,itisassumedthat2%ofthe injectedvolumeisneverrecoveredduetoleakoffinthereservoir.Thehighendestimateislisted aboveanditrepresents37.6%evaporationfora60daytest.

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ESTIMATEDWATERUSEBYYEAR
Anestimatedtimelinefortheoccurrenceofmajorprojectevents,aswellasevent durations,isoutlinedinthetimelinebelow(Figure26 ).Thewaterusescheduleshown beginsinOctober2012withthestimulationofNWG5529,whichwillutilize approximately74.2acreftovera21dayperiod25.Followingthestimulation,athree dayflowbacktestof5529wouldbeconducted.Thistaskdoesnotuseanyadditional makeupwater.InSummer2013,drillingofthefirstoftwoproductionwellswould begin.BasedonDavenportsexperience,theProponentsexpectthateachwellwould require90daystodrilland9.7acreftofgroundwater.Followingthecompletionofeach producer,theconnectionbetweentheinjectorandtheproducerwouldbetestedforup to7daysandifnecessary,a5daystimulationtoenhancethatconnectionwouldbe conducted.Finally,athreewellcirculationtestbetweentheinjectorandnewlydrilled producerswouldcommenceinFebruary2014.Thecirculationtestisscheduledtolast between30and60daysandrequireupto242acreftofgroundwater.Figure27 presentstheprojectedmonthlywaterusagebetweenOctober2012andMarch2014.

Figure26:MajorEventsandDurationsof WaterUse.


25Priortostimulation,arelativelysmallamountofwater(upto126,000gals)wouldbe

usedtodrilltheMSAboreholesovera6weekperiodestimatedtobegininFebruary.

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Figure27:WaterUsageByMonth.

Thedirecteffectsonthegroundwaterresourcearetheanticipatedtemporary drawdownsneartheexistingwatersupplywells.Previouspumpingtestsonthewater supplywellonpadS29haveprovidedsomepreliminaryinformationonaquifer propertiesandthedirecteffectsthatcouldoccurduringtheproject.Themostrecent pumpingtestattheS29waterwellhadnoreadilyapparenteffectuponthewaterlevel inthenearestobservationwell(thewaterwellatS16,1.8milesaway).Whilethetest wasofshorterdurationthanthelengthoftimethewellwouldbepumpedduring stimulationthehydrologistreportconcludesthatthewaterwellappearstobe supportiveofprolongedpumpingdurationsandthattheaquiferappearstobeadequate tosupplysufficientwaterfortheProject.26Aquifertestingindicatesarelativesteep coneofdepressionaroundthewatersupplywellandasmall(lessthan2,500feet) radiusofinfluence(amountofwaterleveldrawdownasonemovesawayfromthe well).27Giventhattheclosestwaterwellisonemileaway(awaterwellownedbythe Proponentsthatwillbeusedtomonitorgroundwaterlevels)nodirectimpactsto groundwaterquantityintheimmediateareaareanticipated.
26AquiferPumpingTestReportPadS29WaterWellNewberryVolcanoEGS

DemonstrationProject,WallaceGroup,2011,AppendixBp.89.
27ReportIndependentHydrologistReviewEGSDemonstrationProject,Kleinfelder,

2011,p.7.

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TheindirecteffectswouldbepotentialconnectionbetweentheEGSreservoirandthe localandregionalaquifers,andimpactstosurfacewaterbodies.TheplannedEGS reservoircreatedthroughhydroshearingatthepadS29sitewillbeanetworkof fracturesextendingapproximately1,500feetradially.Ifthesefracturesextended upwardfromthetopoftheEGSreservoirzone,itwouldbeseveralthousandfeetbelow thebottomofthelocalandregionalaquifers.Giventheverylowpermeabilityofthe receptorrockthroughoutthelengthoftheverticalboreholebelowtheregionalaquifer, thereislittlechancethatfluidswouldbeabletomigrateverticallyduringthetesting period. TheconceptualhydrogeologicmodelindicatesthatPaulinaCreekisindirectconnection withtheshallowaquiferpresentbeneaththewesternflankofNewberryvolcano,but abovethePaulinaEastLakeRoadcrossingatRM5.2(Figure11,Sec.3.6),thestream losesapproximately0.75cfs/miletogroundwater(Morganandothers,1997).Current aquifertestingintheprojectvicinity(Schwartzandothers,2010)indicatesarelatively lowtransmissivityaquiferwhichwouldindicatearelativesteepconeofdepression aroundthewatersupplywellandasmall(lessthan2,500feet)radiusofinfluence (amountofwaterleveldrawdownasonemovesawayfromthewell).Theseconditions furtherimplythatthepumpingofthewatersupplywellonpadS29willnotimpact flowsinPaulinaCreek. TheonlyothersurfacewaterbodiesinorneartheProjectareaarePaulinaandEast Lakes.Sincethebaseofthecalderalakesistopographicallyhigherthantheshallow aquiferpresentbeneaththewesternflankofNewberryvolcano,theywouldnotbe impactediftheshallowaquifersysteminsidethecalderawasnotimpacted.Inaddition, thecalderaslakesarelocatedhydrologicallyupgradientofthetestsite,makingitthat muchmoreunlikelythataconnectioncouldoccur. ThemaximumwateruseproposedbytheProjectis141,750,000gallonsor435acre feet.Thisrepresentsapproximatelythreetenthsofonepercent(0.003)oftheestimated annualrecharge(73billiongallonsor224,000acrefeet)totheDeschutesBasinfrom thewestflankofNewberryvolcano(Kleinfelder2011,p.15).Thewatersupplywellsfor theprojectarelicensedbytheOregonWaterResourcesDepartment(OWRD). GroundwatermitigationcreditswillbepurchasedfromtheDeschutesGroundwater MitigationBank,operatedbytheDeschutesRiverConservancyinaccordancewiththe OWRDpermit.AsaresulttherewouldbenonetlossofwatertotheDeschutesriver basin. TheclosestbeneficialusewellsarelocatedaroundPaulinaandEastLakesat campgrounds.Thesewellstapshallowaquifersthatarenotindirecthydraulic connectionwiththewaterthatwillbeusedforthedemonstrationproject.Theother, nearby,localbeneficialuseaquiferislocatedinLaPinesubbasinwhichisover4miles away.Theseaquifersarenotinhydraulicconnectionwiththeshallowaquiferpresent beneaththewesternflankofNewberryvolcanoattheProjectsite.Thereforenoindirect effectstogroundwaterquantityintheProjectareaareanticipated. BasedonthecurrentunderstandingofthehydrologicsystemintheLaPinesubbasin, theaquiferunderlyingthewesternflankofNewberryvolcanoisindirectcontinuityand
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rechargestheregionalaquiferoftheDeschutesFormation.Groundwaterwithdrawalfor theProjectwillnotbefromtheLaPinesubbasinaquifer,whichsupplieswaterto shallowwellsinLaPine. Becausetherearenootherreasonablyforeseeableprojectsintheareathatwoulduse largequantitiesofwaterandtherearenoanticipateddirectorindirecteffectsfromthe projectonwaterresourcesinthearea,thecumulativeeffectsonthehydrologic environmentfromgroundwaterpumpingorinjectionduringtheEGSDemonstration Projectarenotconsideredlikelybasedonthereasonscitedabove.

GROUNDWATERQUALITY
Theamount,typeofadditives,anddepthatwhichtheyaretobeinjectedwillbe discussed.Additionally,injectionandproductionwelldesignfeaturestoprevent contaminationofthegroundwateraquiferwillalsobedescribed. MATERIALSADDEDATEACHSTAGE 1. Duringstimulation: a. Tracersthermallyreactive,sorptive,diffusive,andconservativefluid tracersthatareinjectedintermittentlyduringthestimulationaspulses.Ina typicaltracertestduringstimulation,25kgeachofoneormorereactive tracersandoneconservativetraceraremixedwithapproximately100gal ofwaterandinjectedasapulseoveradurationofafewminutes(areactive tracerdecayswithtime,whileconservativetracersremainconstantovera givenperiodoftime).Thepulseisthenfollowedbyoneormorewellbores ofwaterinordertodispersethetracerthroughoutthenearwellbore reservoirformation.Afterashutinperiodthatmayextendforseveral hourstoafewdays,thewellismadetoflowbackandthetracer concentrationsaremeasuredatthewellhead.Aninversionofanumerical flowmodelbasedontracerdataisthenusedtoestimatethenearwellbore fracturesurfacearea.Thetracerconcentrationswillbeapproximately10to 100partsperthousandintheinjectedpulse,andapproximately0.1to100 partsperbillionwhenproducedatthewellhead.Thesetracersaretypically detectableatthepartpertrillionlevel.Foreachtracertestusedduring stimulation,only25kgofoneconservativetracer(anaphthalenesulfonate) willbeusedincombinationwith25kgofonetothreereactivetracers(e.g., rhodamineWT,1,3,6,8pyrenetetrasulfonate,orsafraninT).Eight naphthalenesulfonatetracerswerelistedinTable12 butonly4willbe usedduringthethreestimulationexperimentsandtheonecirculation experiment.Eightofthetentracersthatwillpotentiallybeusedduringthe Demonstrationarecommonlyusedtomonitorgroundwateraquifers(Table 12 ).

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Diverterssolidmaterialthatisinjectedinslugsbetweeneachstimulation
stage28. c. FrictionreducerTheProponentsdontexpecttousefrictionreducersin thestimulationfluid,butitisanoptionifsurfacepressuresneedtobe reduced.Typically,FR26LCisusedtoreducepipefrictionathigher pumpingrates.FR26LCisahydrotreated,lightpetroleumdistillatethatis addedatconcentrationsof0.51.0gallonspermilliongallonsofwater.See productbulletinbelow. 2. Duringproductionwelldrilling: a. Mudadditivesseewell5529mudreportintheappendix.Itisassumed thatverysimilarmudadditiveswillbeusedinthedrillingofthetwo productionwells. 3. Duringcirculationandconnectivitytesting: a. Tracers. b. FrictionreducerFR26LCorsimilar. b.
Table12:Tracer AdditivestoSystem throughoutNewberryDemonstrationProject

AdditiveName

Typeof Timeof Additive Use Stimulation

Quantity Concentration Breakdown Injected Products 25kg Variable 1,5naphthalene disulfonate anion,Na+ 2,6naphthalene disulfonate anion,Na+ 1,6naphthalene disulfonate anion,Na+ 2,7naphthalene disulfonate anion,Na+ 1naphthalene sulfonateanion, Na+ 2naphthalene sulfonateanion, Na+

*1,5naphthalene tracer disulfonate, disodium *2,6naphthalene tracer disulfonate disodium *1,6naphthalene tracer disulfonate disodium *2,7naphthalene tracer disulfonate disodium *1naphthalene sulfonate disodium *2naphthalene sulfonate disodium tracer

Stimulation

25kg

variable

Stimulation

25kg

variable

Stimulation

25kg

variable

Stimulation

25kg

variable

tracer

Stimulation

25kg

variable


28AltaRockhasaportfolioofpatentfilingsprotectingitsproprietarytechnologyand

methods.

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AdditiveName *1,3,6,8pyrene tetrasulfonate tetrasodium SafraninT disodium *RhodamineWT disodium *Lithium Bromide
*Cesium Bromide
*Rubidium Bromide
*LithiumIodide *CesiumIodide *Rubidium Iodide
*1,3,5 naphthalene trisulfonate trisodium *1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonate trisodium *Fluorescein disodium safraninT disodium

Typeof Timeof Additive Use tracer Stimulation

Quantity Concentration Breakdown Injected Products 25kg variable 1,3,6,8pyrene tetrasulfonate anion,Na+ SafraninTanion, Na+ RhodamineWT anion,Na+ Li+,Br
Cs+,Br
Rb+,Br
Li+,I Cs+,I Rb+,I
1,3,5 naphthalene
trisulfonate
anion,Na+
1,3,6 naphthalene
trisulfonate
anion,Na+
Fluorescein
anion,Na+
SafraninTanion, Na+

tracer tracer tracer tracer tracer tracer tracer tracer tracer

Stimulation Stimulation Stimulation Stimulation Stimulation Stimulation Stimulation Stimulation Circulation Testing

25kg 25kg 100kg 100kg 100kg 100kg 100kg 100kg 100kg

variable variable variable variable variable variable variable variable variable

tracer

Circulation Testing

100kg

variable

tracer tracer

Circulation Testing Circulation Testing

50kg 100kg

variable variable

*Denotestracersthatarecommonlyusedingroundwateraquifermonitoring. Foreachtracertestusedduringstimulation,only25kgofoneconservativetracer(a naphthalenesulfonate)willbeusedincombinationwith25kgofonetothree reactivetracers(e.g.,rhodamineWT,1,3,6,8pyrenetetrasulfonate,orsafraninT). Onlyfournaphthalenesulfonatetracerswillbeusedduringthethreestimulation experimentsandtheonecirculationexperiment. EightofthetentracersthatwillpotentiallybeusedduringtheNewberryprojectare commonlyusedtomonitorgroundwateraquifers.

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DIVERTERS
ThepurposeanduseofdivertersinEGSstimulationiscoveredinthedescriptionofthe proposedactioninChapter2.3.Theamountandtypeofmaterialisdiscussedbelow. ProprietarydivertersprimarilydevelopedbyAltaRockwouldbeusedintheNewberry EGSDemonstrationbetweenpumpingofthestimulationtreatmentsforeachfracture set.Divertermaterialsareselectedtobebenignandtohavebenignbreakdown products.Thediverterswillbeselectedfromtwoclassesofmaterials: biodegradable plasticsandnaturallyoccurringminerals.Biodegradableplasticsareplasticsthatwill decomposeinnaturalaerobic(composting)andanaerobic(landfill)environments.They maybecomposedofeitherbioplastics,whichareplasticswithcomponentsderived fromrenewablerawmaterials,orpetroleumbasedplasticswhichutilizeanadditive. Theuseofbioactivecompounds,compoundedwithswellingagents,ensuresthat,when combinedwithheatandmoisture,theyexpandthemolecularstructureoftheplastic andallowthebioactivecompoundstobreakthepolymerchainsintotheircomponent, solubleparts.Thesesmallercomponentscanthenbemetabolizediftheyareinthe biosphere. Forexample,oneofthedivertermaterialsmadefromrenewablebiologicrawmaterials thatAltaRockhasusedisBioVertTM,apolymeroflacticacid,orPLA.Thismaterialisa hardplasticwhichisavailableasgrainswhichcanbesortedbysize.Whenheated,the chainsinthepolymerbreakdowntolacticacid,asolublesubstancefoundinhumanand animaltissueasanormalproductofmetabolismandexercise.Threeoftheother biodegradableplasticswhichcouldbeusedontheProjectarealsomadefrombiologic materials.Twoothersarederivedfrompetroleum,butbreakdownintosmall componentsthatarebioactiveandcanbemetabolizedintheenvironment. Biodegradableplasticswouldbeselectedbasedonthetemperatureatwhichtheymelt andthenthetemperatureatwhichtheydissociate. ThewellsatNewberryareveryhot,butwillbecooledbyinjectingwaterforthe stimulation.Thedivertermaterialselectedneedstostayinplacelongenoughto stimulatetheremainingzones.Thefirstzonestimulatedmaynotbecooledenoughto makeitpossibletouseabiodegradableplasticasadiverter.Ifthisisthecase,oneofthe mineraldiverterswouldbeselectedforthatzone. Themineraldivertersthatmaybeusedareallnaturallyoccurringmaterialsthatwould begroundtoaspecificparticlesizeandmixedwithcleangroundwatertopumpintothe well.Avarietyofdivertershavebeenselectedforvaryingsolubilityoverawiderangeof temperature.Onepossiblemineralthathasbeentestediscalciumcarbonate(calcite). Becauseanynaturalmineralmaterialcanhavecontaminantsthataretoxic,AltaRock usesmaterialsthathavebeenqualitycontrolledandtestedtohaveverylow contaminants.Forexample,thecalciteselectedforuseasadiverterisverypure,with greaterthan99%calciumcarbonateandlessthan0.3%quartz. Waterwillbepumpedforaboutseven(7)daystostimulateeachfractureset. Stimulationofatleastthreefracturesetsisplanned,foratotaloftwentyone(21)days ofpumptime.Whenthedesiredwatervolumehasbeenpumpedandthetargetfracture
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volumehasbeenstimulated,asuspensionofdiverterparticlesinwaterwillbemixedup andpumpedintothewell.Theamountofdivertermaterialisexpectedtobebetween 100250poundsperdivertertreatment.Theparticleswillbecarrieddowntothe fracturesthatarecurrentlyacceptingwater.Theparticleswillpackoffinthefractures atthewellborefaceandsealoffadditionalflowintothefractures(Figure6 ).Additional pumppressurewillbeappliedandanewsetoffractures,typicallybelowthefirstsetof fractures,willbestimulatedbyhydroshearing.Pumpingwillcontinueuntilthesecond fracturesetgrowstothetargetvolume.Thisprocesswillberepeatedagaintostimulate athirdfractureset.

HANDLINGANDSTORAGEOFDIVERTERMATERIALS
Divertermaterialsaregranularsolidsofvariousparticlesizes.Materialswillbestored onlocationinsacks,drumsorsupersacks(onecubicmeterpolyethylenebags).Material willbeprotectedfromtheweatherwithplasticwrap,covering,andstorageina protectedarea.Atotalof10002000poundsofeachselecteddiverterwillbeonhandat thewelllocation.

COMPOSITIONOFPOTENTIALDIVERTERSANDTHEIRDEGRADATIONPRODUCTS
Table13 isalistofpotentialproprietarydivertermaterialsthatmightbeusedinthe

NewberryEGSDemonstration.Oneormoreoftheseproprietaryproductsmaybeused duringtheDemonstrationbasedontheresultsofongoingproprietarysiteinvestigations andlaboratorytestingofdiverterperformance.TheProponentsexpecttopumpthree stimulationstagesbyusingbetween100250poundsofdiverterbetweenstimulations, withonedivertertreatmentpumpedbetweenthefirstandsecondstimulation,and anothertreatmentpumpedbetweensecondandthirdstimulation.


Table13:DiverterMaterialandExpected DegradationProducts (AltarockProprietary)

Material BioVertTM AltaVertTM150

ClassofMaterial Biodegradablepolymer Biodegradableplasticfrom petroleum

CompositionofDegradation Byproducts LacticAcidmonomers,dimersand trimers Carbondioxide andadiol.Thisformulationofthe materialdoesnotcontainbisphenol. Mg2+,Cl,MgO Mg2+,(SO4)2,MgO Ca2+,CO32,HCO3 H4SiO4,H3SiO4,OH,H+,Na+,Ca2+ Na2O,CaO,Al2O3,silica polymerization Tobermorite,Ca5Si6O16(OH)24H2O, reportedasasolidresidue

AltaVert200 AltaVert201 AltaVert250 AltaVert300

Magnesiummineral Magnesiummineral CalciumMineral Oxideglass

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Material AltaVert301 AltaVert151

ClassofMaterial Naturalmineral Biodegradablebioplastic

CompositionofDegradation Byproducts H4SiO4,H3SiO4,OH,H+,silica polymerization Hydrolysisproducesthe correspondinghydroxyacidsthatare mostlynontoxic oligosaccharidesandhexoses


(mainlyglucose)
glycolicacid

AltaVert152 AltaVert153

Biodegradablecellulosicfiber Biodegradablebioplastic

INJECTION,PRODUCTIONANDWELLDESIGNFEATURES
TheplannedEGSreservoirwillbecreatedatdepthsofapproximately6,500to10,000 feetbelowground.Thenetworkoffractureswillextendapproximately1,500feet radially.EvenifthesefracturesextendedupwardfromthetopoftheEGSreservoirzone, itwouldstillbeseveralthousandfeetbelowthebottomofthelocalandregional aquifers.Giventheverylowpermeabilityofthereceptorrockthroughoutthelengthof theverticalboreholebelowtheregionalaquifer,thereislittlechancethatfluidswould beabletomigrateverticallyduringthetestingperiod.Therefore,materialsinjectedas partoftheEGSdemonstrationwouldnothaveaneffectongroundwaterqualityinthe regionalaquifer. BoththeexistingwellNWG5529andtwoproductionwellstobedrilledwillbecased andcementedperBLMandDOGAMIregulationsinordertopreventanychemicalsfrom enteringthegroundwater.NWG5529isarelativelyyoungwellandhadapositive casingintegritytestconductedin2008.Thecalipersurveyin2008,temperaturesurveys in2008and2010,andthemaximumpressureprofileachievedduringtheinjecttocool operationin2010,indicatethecasinghasretaineditsintegrity.Thiswillbothprotect groundwaterresourcesandpreventdegradationofthegeothermalproductionfluid withinthewellbore.AcrosssectionofwellNWG5529designisshowninFigure28 .

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Figure28:DavenportWellNWG5529WellBore andCasingProfile

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INDUCEDSEISMICITYKEYISSUE
ThedevelopmentofabelowgroundEGSreservoirbyhydroshearinghasthepotentialto produceinducedseismicityandincreasedseismicriskthatcouldaffecthistoric structures,resorts,andotherrecreationsiteswithintheNNVM,couldincrease avalancherisk,couldincreaserisktoaboveandbelowgroundgeologicfeatures,and couldresultinpropertydamageinnearbypopulationcenters. o U N I T S O F M E A S U R E : Probabilityofexceedingpeakgroundacceleration(PGA)above0.028g29, duetoEGSactivities,calculatedatwellpad5529,PaulinaandEastLake Resortsandcampgrounds,LavaLandsVisitorCenter,avalanchepronesites onNorthPaulinaPeakandPaulinaPeak,andthenearestpopulationcenters ofLaPine,Sunriver,andBend.

ANALYSIS
TheInternationalEnergyAgency(IEA)developedaprotocolforaddressinginduced seismicityduringgeothermalprojectsthatwasadoptedbytheU.S.Departmentof Energy(DOE)forEGSdemonstrationprojects(Majeretal.,2008).TheProponents adaptedthisprotocoltothegeologicandenvironmentalconditionsforitsNewberryEGS Demonstrationanddevelopedsitespecificcontrolsandmitigationprocedures.Arecent updatetotheIEAprotocol,nowavailableindraftform(Majeretal.,2011),hasalsobeen incorporatedintothisplan. TheDOEandindependentspecialistsretainedbytheProponentshaveevaluated potentialEGSinducedseismicityandseismichazardsintheProjectareaandhave analyzedtheseismicrisk.Thespecificobjectivesofthestudywereto:(1)evaluatethe baselineseismichazardsintheProjectAreaincludingatLaPine,theclosestcommunity tothesite;(2)estimatethepotentialincreaseinseismicityrateandthemaximum magnitudeofanearthquakeinducedbythehydroshearingintheinjectionwellNWG55 29;and(3)evaluatetheincreasedseismicriskimposedbythehydroshearingactivities. InMayof2011,FSprovidedtheProponentswithalistof52keyassetswithinthe NNVM,whichincludesvariousbuildings,twobridges,aroad,adam,andthreeslope faces.TheProponentssubsequentlyretainedanindependentengineeringfirmto conductastructuralengineeringanalysistodeterminethevulnerabilityofthese structuresandfeaturestopotentialinducedseismicity. Thefollowingdiscussionofpotentialincreasedseismicriskthatcouldresultfromthe proposedaction(AlternativeA)isbasedprimarilyonthereportandthefollowon addendumpreparedbytheSeismicHazardsGroupatURSCorporationinNovember
291gistheaccelerationduetogravity.APGAof0.028gisperceivedaslightshaking

byUSGSstandards.

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2010.ThesereportsareincludedinAppendixFandGoftheInducedSeismicity MitigationPlan(ISMP)preparedbyAltaRock30,whichisincludedasAppendixAtothis document.

MAXIMUMMAGNITUDEPREDICTIONS
Todevelopsitespecific,theoreticalmodelsofMaximummagnitudeseismicevents (Mmax)fortheNewberryEGSDemonstration,theProponentscommissionedtheWilliam Lettis&AssociatesdivisionofFugroConsultants(Fugro)inApril,2011.Thisassessment includedadditionalanalysisofLiDAR31data,updatedphysicalandinjectionplan parameters,amodelincorporatinghighheatflowatNewberry,andestimatesofthe probabilityofthedifferentMmaxlevels.TheFugrostudyfindsthattheprobabilityofthe NewberryinjectionactivityinducinganeventwithM>3.0islessthan1%overa50day periodthatwouldincludeinjectionandpressuredissipation(flowback).Ata95% probability,themaximuminducedeventispredictedtobeM<2.2.Themedian (probability=0.5)MmaxforthemostconservativeassumptionsislessthanM=1.0.32A summaryofthesecalculatedprobabilitiesisshownbelowinTable14 .
Table 14:Calculated ProbabilityofEvenOccurrence

EventMagnitude >1 >2 >3 >4

EventProbability Minimum 0.7% 0.1% 0.01% 0.002%

Maximum 40% 6% 0.8% 0.09%


30FiguresandreferencesnotedinthissectionmaybefoundinthereportinAppendixF

oftheISMP.
31LightDetectionandRanging,amethodforhighprecisiontopographicmapping. 32MmaxAssessmentfortheNewberryEGSDemonstrationattheDavenport5529Site,

FugroConsultants,Inc.May2011.

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SEISMICHAZARD
TheURSstudyusedtheprobabilisticseismichazardanalysis(PSHA)approachtoassess thepotentialincreasedprobabilityofinducedseismicityfromtheProjecttothree locations:LaPine,Sunriver,andtheareaimmediatelyaboveWellNWG5529.Thestudy concludedtherewouldbenoincreasedearthquakeorseismichazardoverexisting baselineconditionsasaresultoftheEGSstimulation: ..thereisbasicallynocontributiontotheprobabilistichazardatLaPine,Sunriver, oratWellNWG5529fromEGSseismicity.TherelativelylowrateofM4.0 inducedearthquakesandassociatedlowgroundmotionsresultinnodifferencesin thehazardwhenEGSeventsareincluded.(URS2010)

GROUNDSHAKING
URSalsoestimatedthelevelofgroundshakingthatmightoccurasaresultofapotential inducedseismiceventfromtheProject.AnM3.5scenarioeventwasselectedto representanupperrangeseismiceventfortheProjectbasedonothersimilarEGS projectsworldwide.Thisassumptionhasbeenapprovedbytwoindependenttechnical teamscontractedtoreviewthisreportandtheseismicmitigationplanbytheDOE. Groundmotionpredictionmodelsalongwithcharacterizationofnearsurfacegeology wereusedtoestimatepeakhorizontalgroundaccelerations(PGA)valuesandcreate groundshakingmaps.Themapsshowpredictedlevelsofgroundshakingaroundthe ProjectsiteascharacterizedbyPGAandtheModifiedMercalli(MM)intensityscale.The MMintensityscaleisusedtoquantifytheeffectsofanearthquakeontheimpacted population,andthebuiltandnaturalenvironment(Table16 ).Therelationshipbetween PGAandMMintensityisshowninTable15 .
Table15:ComparisonofQuantitativeandQualitative MeasuresofGroundShaking

MMI* I IIIII IV V VI VII VIII

PeakGround Acceleration(g) <0.0017 0.00170.014 0.0140.039 0.0390.092 0.0920.18 0.180.34 0.340.65

Peak Ground Velocity (cm/s) <0.1 0.1 1.1 1.1 3.4 3.4 8.1 8.1 16 16 31 3160

Perceived Shaking NotFelt Weak Light Moderate Strong VeryStrong Severe

PotentialDamage None None None Verylight Light Moderate Moderate/Heavy

ContinuestoMMIXII,butnotrelevantforthisdiscussion. *ModifiedMercalliintensityscale,seediscussionbelow

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Table16:FirstEightofTwelveLevelsoftheModifiedMercalliIntensityScale

I. II. III.

Notfeltexceptbyaveryfewunderespeciallyfavorableconditions.
Feltonlybyafewpersonsatrest,especiallyonupperfloorsofbuildings. Feltquitenoticeablybypersonsindoors,especiallyonupperfloorsofbuildings. Manypeopledonotrecognizeitasanearthquake.Standingmotorcarsmayrock slightly.Vibrationssimilartothepassingofatruck.Durationestimated. Feltindoorsbymany,outdoorsbyfewduringtheday.Atnight,someawakened. Dishes,windows,doorsdisturbed;wallsmakecrackingsound.Sensationlikeheavy truckstrikingbuilding.Standingmotorcarsrockednoticeably. Feltbynearlyeveryone;manyawakened.Somedishes,windowsbroken.Unstable objectsoverturned.Pendulumclocksmaystop. Feltbyall,manyfrightened.Someheavyfurnituremoved;afewinstancesoffallen plaster.Damageslight.

IV.

V. VI.

VII. Damagenegligibleinbuildingsofgooddesignandconstruction;slighttomoderate inwellbuiltordinarystructures;considerabledamageinpoorlybuiltorbadly designedstructures;somechimneysbroken. VIII. Damageslightinspeciallydesignedstructures;considerabledamageinordinary substantialbuildingswithpartialcollapse.Damagegreatinpoorlybuiltstructures. Fallofchimneys,factorystacks,columns,monuments,walls.Heavyfurniture overturned. ContinuestoXII,butnotrelevantforthisdiscussion. ThesegroundshakingmapsareshownbelowinFigure29 ,Figure30 ,Figure31 ,and Figure32.

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Figure29:PredictedGround Shaking MapinIntensity


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Figure30:PredictedGround Shaking MapinPGA


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TheURSstudypredictedgroundshakingtobelocalizedjustaroundwellNWG5529. ThehighestestimatedPGAis0.25gatthewell(MMintensityscaleVII).Becausethe groundshakingisexpectedtobepredominantlyhighfrequencyincontentandshortin duration,itwasjudgedunlikelytobedamaging.PGAvaluesof.06gandgreater (moderateandstrongershaking)isconfinedtoanareaoutto5kmfromthewell.PGAof 0.01gandgreater(lightandstrongershaking)isfeltouttodistancesof12km.Residents westofHighway97betweenLaPineandSunrivermayfeelweakshakinginanM3.5 seismicevent.Ifthepostulatedinducedseismiceventwassmallerinmagnitude,the PGAvalueswouldbesmaller.Forexample,inanM3.0scenarioevent,themedianPGA attheinjectionwellwouldbe0.15g.

IMPACTONLOCALSTRUCTURESANDPAULINACREEKBRIDGE
Thereareonlyafewbuildingslocatedneartheinjectionwell(<5km)wheremoderate groundshakingofMMVandgreatercouldpossiblyoccurandwheretheremaybe occupantsinthesebuildingsforanextendedperiodoftime(morethananhour).Those buildingsarethePaulinaLakeLodgeandassociatedcabins,thePaulinaLakeGuard StationandtheNNVMentrancestation. TheengineeringevaluationofbuildingsandbridgesisincludedinAppendixHofthe ISMP,acopyofwhichisattachedasAppendixAofthisdocument.Twelverepresentative structureswerescoredusingthenationalstandarddocument,FEMA154,RapidVisual ScreeningofBuildingsforPotentialSeismicHazards:AHandbook.ForthetwelveNNVM structuresscored,thePGAresultingina10%probabilityofcollapsewasdeterminedto bebetween0.25and1.1g.Furtheranalysisindicatesthatinaworstcase0.10gPGA thatanM3.5seismiceventcouldproducethecollapseprobabilitywouldbe1.2%orless forallNNVMstructures.Theengineeringevaluationnotedthatthebridgeisconstructed onfairlycompetentbedrock.ItcalculatesthePGAlimitforthebridgetobe0.28g, similartomostsusceptiblebuildings. Theengineeringstudyalsoevaluatedthresholdsforcosmeticdamagetobuildingsand recommendedthatthepeakparticlevelocitybelimitedto2cm/stominimizethe potentialforcosmeticdamagetothebuildings.ThiscorrelatestoanapproximatePGAof 0.025g.Aswillbediscussedinsectionsbelow,mitigationmeasuresdesignedtoslow inducedseismicitywillbeginataPGAof0.014g,wellbelowtheshakinglevelthatmight causecosmeticdamage,andanorderofmagnitudebelowtheshakinglevelthatwould causecollapseofNNVMbuildings. ThePaulinaLakebuildingsarelocatedinthezonewherePGAsareexpectedtobeinthe rangeof0.06to0.10giftheM3.5scenarioeventweretooccur(Figure31 ).Itis expectedthatifthesebuildingsweretobeshakeninanM3.5inducedseismicevent withitsexpectedshortduration,structuraldamagewouldnotbeexpectedtooccur assumingthatthesebuildingsareinreasonablygoodstructuralcondition,althoughitis possiblethatsomeminornonstructuraldamagemightbeincurred.Thisconclusionis consistentwithobservationsofstructuralresponseatTheGeysers.TheGeysersisa geothermalfieldinnorthernCalifornia,wheremorethan50yearsofgeothermal productionhasresultedinmoreinducedseismicityandseismicmonitoringthan anywhereintheworld.

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ThestudyalsolookedatthebridgesoverthePaulinaCreekdam(thebridgeconsistsof bothanolderconcretebridgethatalsosupportsanewersteelbridge).Theengineering studynotedthattheconcretebridgeisinpoorcondition,withlargehorizontalcracksat thewestface,whilethenewersteelbridgeingoodcondition.Thestudyconcludedthat theexistingbridgecapacityiswellabovetheexpectedmaximumlevelofacceleration expectedatthebridgesite.Asaresult,thetriggerlevelsestablishedintheISMPare appropriatetoprotectagainstcollapseofthebridge.Cosmeticdamageisnotexpectedat PGA0.15g,farhigherthanmitigationtriggers.Becausetheconcreteportionofthe bridgeisinpoorcondition,thestudydidrecommendinstallingcrackmonitorsonthe bridgeandtheProponentswillimplementthisasaprecautionarymeasureduringthe project.

IMPACTONLAVARIVERCAVE
LocatedwelloutsidetheareaoflightgroundshakingandPGAvalueslessthan0.01g (Figure29 ),visitorstotheLavaRiverCavewillprobablynotdetectanygroundshaking intheoccurrenceofanM3.5seismicevent.Itisveryunlikelythatthecaveitselfwill sufferevenminordamagesuchassmallrooffallsifweakgroundshakingweretooccur. ObservationsbyBartWills,DeschutesNationalForestgeologist,indicatethatevenwhen thecaveunderwentshakingfromconstructionactivitiesincludingcompaction equipmentduringtheexpansionofHighway97whichcrosseddirectlyoverthecave,no damagewasobserved.

IMPACTONPAULINACREEKDAM
PaulinaCreekdamislocatedonthewesternsideofPaulinaLakeattheoutlettoPaulina Creek.Thedamwasbuiltaround1943andislocated2.1miles(3.4km)fromthe injectionwellNWG5529(Figure31 ).Thedamisdescribedasaconcretewall3to4 feethighand12to14inchesthick,connectedtoaconcretebridgeonthedownstream side.Bothconcretestructuresarekeyedintoandbottomedinbedrock. BasedontheM3.5scenariogroundshakingmapforpeakhorizontalground acceleration(PGA)developedbyWongetal.(2011),themedianPGAvalueexpectedat thedamsiteisintherangeof0.06to0.10g.InaMemorandumdated5April2011,Ivan WongofURSconcluded: .itishighlyunlikelythatthislowlevelofgroundshakingwillimpactthedam... ThehighfrequencyshortdurationgroundshakingfromanEGSseismiceventmay resultinsomeslightmovementofpreexistingminorcracksbutnosignificant deformationofthedamisexpected.

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Figure31:PredictedPGAGroundShakingMapfor SiteVicinity
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AsafollowuptotheURSstudy,engineersfromTreadwell&Rollo(T&R)conducteda geotechnicalengineeringevaluationofthedamandsteepslopes,whichisattachedas AppendixIoftheISMP,attachedasAppendixAofthisdocument.Accordingtothe evaluation,noconcretedamisknowntohavefailedasaresultofearthquakeinduced groundmotion,includinga372foothighconcretearchdamthatsurvivedaccelerations of0.6to0.8gcausedbyanM6.6earthquake.Theyconcludedthatthelikelihoodof damageisnoneforPGAvaluesof0.014and0.028gandonlyverylighttolightdamage, whichcouldconsistofminorcrackingforPGAvaluesof0.05and0.10g.Considering theselowlevelsofaccelerationandthepreviousperformanceofconcretedams,the probabilityofadditionaldamagetothedamislowandtheprobabilityoffailureofthe damisextremelyremote. Theynotethatthedamalreadyshowssignsofcrackingandevidenceofcrack monitoring,andconcludethatadditionalcrackingcouldoccuratPGAupto0.10g,and thatcontinuedcrackmonitoringofthedamshouldbeconductedasamitigation measure.ThismitigationisincludedintheISMP,whichwouldbeimplementedduring theproject.

POTENTIALTOTRIGGERLANDSLIDES
TheT&Rgeotechnicalengineeringstudyalsolookedatthelikelihoodoflandslideson theslopesofconcernintheNNVM.Thiswasevaluatedbycomparingthemaximum stableslopeinclinationforthefiverocktypesexposedtotheslopeinclinationsmeasured fromLiDARimagery.TheT&Rgeotechnicalengineerconcludesthatallgeologicunits havealowtoverylowriskofadeepseatedlandslideduringstaticandminor earthquakeloadingwithPGAsupto0.1g.T&Rprovidesfurthersupportforthis conclusionfromasurveybytheUSGS(Keefer,1984)oflandslidescausedby earthquakes,whichconcludedthatforalandslidetooccurduringanM4earthquake, theepicentraldistancewouldneedtobelessthan0.2km.AtNewberry,thenearest slopeofconcernismorethan4kmawayfromtheNWG5529stimulationzone.

POTENTIALTOTRIGGERAVALANCHES
Groundshakingfromearthquakescantriggerallformsofslopefailureincluding avalanches.AccordingtoAvalancheSafetyforSkiersandClimbers(Daffern,1992),the majorfactorscontrollingavalancheriskareweather,snowfall,temperature,wind direction,snowpackconditions,slopeangle,slopeorientation,terrain,andvegetation. Whentheaboveconditionscreateanavalanchehazard,avalanchescanbetriggered naturallybyadditionalsnowfall,temperaturechanges,rockfall,icefall,andoccasionally byearthquakes(Wongetal.,2011),orartificiallybyskiers,snowmobiles,andcontrolled explosivework.Thus,aninducedseismiceventcouldpotentiallyserveasatriggertoa snowavalanche,butthepotentialforanavalanchewouldbecontrolledbythenatural riskfactorsunrelatedtohumanactivitysuchassnowpackconditions,weather, temperature,etc.Iftheavalanchehazardsarehigh,wintervisitorstotheNNVM,suchas backcountryskiersorsnowmobilers,thatventureontoslopessteeperthan25willrisk triggeringanavalanchethemselves(Daffern,1992). T&Rdiscussthepotentialforavalanchesonthesteeperslopesonthenorthshoresof PaulinaandEastLakespecificallyidentifiedbyFSasareasofconcern.Avalanchescan
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occuronslopesasflatas15degreesandthelikelihoodincreaseforslopeswith inclinationsof30to45degrees.Mostoftheslopesinthisareaaregenerallylessthan25 degreesexceptforisolatedareasthataresteeper.Itappearsthatsnowcouldaccumulate toasufficientthicknessontheseslopeswheregroundshakingcouldtriggeran avalanche.However,heavilyforestedareasreducethepotentialforavalanchestooccur andthemajorityoftheareaisforested.Ifstimulationoccursinthewinter,the ProponentswouldworkwiththeFStoensurethatwarningsignsarepostedatsnow parksandotherprincipalentrancepointsprovidingwinteraccesstoNNVM,warning thatgeothermalandotheractivities,whencombinedwithweatherandsnowconditions, couldtriggeravalanchesandtotakeextraprecautionsinavoidingsteepslopesand avalancheproneareas.

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Figure32:PredictedPGAGroundShakingMap
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SUMMARY
Thecombinedconclusionsoftwodifferentindependentengineeringanalyses33indicate that: Theprobableupperboundmaximummagnitudeofaninducedseismic eventatNewberryisM3.5to4.0. TheprobabilityofaseismiceventwithamagnitudebetweenM3.0andM 4.0islessthan1%. Thereisnodifferenceinseismichazardbetweenthenaturalseismicityand thehazardintroducedbyEGSinducedseismicity. MitigationmeasuresoutlinedindetailintheISMP(AppendixA)andSection 4.4,decreaseflowatdetectionofeventsM2.7to3.4andthenstopinjection andflowthewelltothesurfacetorelievepressureatdetectionofevents equaltoorhigherthanM3.4. IfanM3.5seismiceventdidoccur,thepotentialfordamageatthenearest structureswithintheNNVMwouldbelight,correspondingtoaMM IntensitylevelofVI.

ALTERNATIVEA,CUMULATIVEEFFECTS
Cumulativeeffectsresultfromcollectivepast,present,andreasonablyforeseeable futureactions,regardlessofwhatagencyorentityundertakessuchactions. TheProposedAction,AlternativeA,hasbeenevaluatedforitspotentialeffectsto resourcestobecumulativewithotheractionsthatareoccurringormightoccuron Newberryswestflankwithinthe32,000acreareaencompassingDavenports geothermalleasesandareasrecognizedaspotentiallyhavinggeothermalresources. Past,present,andreasonablyforeseeablefutureprojectsfromSection4.2havebeen considered. WILDLIFE EffectstowildlifeunderAlternativeAwereanalyzed.Thecumulativeeffectsareasfor thespeciesfurtheranalyzedwereeithertheLowerandUpperPaulinaCreek12thfield subwatershedsorboth(formerly6thfield).LowerPaulinaCreeksubwatershedis slightlynorthwestofPaulinaLakeandextendswestoftheprojecttoHighway97.Upper PaulinaCreekencompassesbothPaulinaandEastLake,extendingtothenorth,east, south,andwestofthetwolakes.Belowisasummaryofthecumulativeeffectsforthe wildliferesource,whilethespecificsubwatershedsused,includingamoredetailed analysisforeachspeciesaredisclosedinthewildlifereportandBiologicalEvaluation.
33M maxAssessmentfortheNewberryEGSDemonstrationattheDavenport5529Site,

FugroConsultants,Inc.May2011andURSStudyattachedasAppendixEandFofthe ISMP,acopyofwhichisincludedasAppendixAofthisEA.

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Theanalysisfoundthatthethreemostinfluentialactivitiestohabitatswithinthelast 100yearsorsowithinthecumulativeeffectareashavebeenfrom:1.)road development,2.)timbermanagement(bothharvestandfuelsreductions),and3.) recreationaluse.Otherpastactivitiesthathaveinfluencedhabitatsinclude:1).wildfires, 2).twograzingallotmentsand3).geothermalexploration. Pastroaddevelopmenthashadthemostinfluenceonhabitatfragmentationinthe cumulativeeffectsareasduetotheamountofroaddensity,impactingsomespecies moresothanothers.Habitatfragmentationfromroadshasnotonlyreducedthenumber ofacresofhabitat,itlikelycausedanimpacttospeciesthatrequirelargerblocksof continuoushabitatsandisolationand/orthosespeciesthataresensitivetohuman disturbance. Theearlieryearsoftimberharvest(1920s1930s)hashadamajorinfluenceon habitats(i.e.oldgrowthponderosapinestands)duetothemoreextensiveareasor acresofharvestthaninmorerecentyears(1970s1990s),thereforeimpactingthose speciesdependentonoldgrowthstands,thosethatrequireamoreclosedcanopystand andthosethatrequiremoreisolation.Themorerecentyearsoftimberharvestincluded thinningandregeneration,butwerenotasextensive.Fuelstreatmentshaveimpacted somewildlifespecies(i.e.decreaseinshrubhabitatsorearlytomidseraltrees),while benefittingotherspecies,especiallytheareasthatreceivedprescribedburning. Recreationhasalsohadamajorinfluenceonacresofhabitatandfragmentationdueto developedtrailsandthroughdispersedpublicuse.Recreationaluseoccursyearround anduseisconsideredhighinthearea,butwithmostuseoccurringaroundthePaulina andEastLakeareas,andcamping,fishing,andhikingalongPaulinaCreek.Thishas causedsomespeciesofwildlifetochangemovementpatterns,andeithertomovefrom theareaorcausedatemporarydisturbance.Otherrecreationalusesintheseareas includesnowmobiling,ATVs,hunting,sightseeing,and/orjoyriding. Itcouldbeassumedthatthefutureactionsthatmaycumulativelyaffectthewildlife resourcesinrelationtopastandpresentactionsareasfollow: othergeothermal activities,vegetationmanagement,recreationuse,andcontinueduseofroads. Othergeothermalactivitiesincludeclearingsmallareasfordrillingandexploration. Theseactivitiescontributetonoisedisturbanceandmaycausehabitatfragmentation and/orcausetemporarilydisplacementofspeciesduetotheincreaseinhuman disturbanceandnoise. TheongoingOgdenvegetationmanagementprojectwouldinfluencehabitatchangesfor somespecies,whileimprovinghabitatforothers,butwouldcontributetoincreased trafficandnoisedisturbanceforthelifeoftheproject. Insummary,whenlookingatthetwosubwatersheds,theexistingconditions,andthe scopeoftheproposedactivities,suchasthesmallareaofvegetationtoberemoved(2/3 acre),lowprobabilityofoccurrenceforsomespecies,noknownnestingsiteswithin proximityofdrillingsites(tomiledistance),andtemporarydurationofactivityof

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theproject(180daysfordrilling/projecttotal2years),theEGSProjectincludingthe ongoingandforeseeablerecreationalusesandothergeothermaldevelopmentswould contributetoaslightincreaseintrafficandnoisedisturbance.Thiswouldslightly decreasethenumberofacresorareasofhabitatwithoutdisturbance(fragmentation). SCENICRESOURCES TheEGSProjectwouldbeconsideredpartofthecumulativeeffectsforscenicresources inthearea.Giventhesmallscope,temporaryduration,limitedsize,andminimalamount ofnewsurfacedisturbance(2/3acre)fromtheEGSProject,particularlywhencompared totheextensiveandlargescale(14,600acres)OgdenVegetationManagementprojectin thevicinity,TheEGSProjectwouldhaveaminimalcontributiontotheoverall degradationofthevisualresource.Cumulativevisualeffectsfromtimbersalesand vegetationmanagementprojectshave,andwillcontinuetoaffecttheareaandbethe majorinfluenceonthesceniccharacterofthelandscape. GROUNDWATER PotentialimpactstogroundwaterresourcesfromtheEGSProjecthavebeenanalyzedin detailandhavebeenconsideredincontexttootherprojectsintheareathatmayuse largeamountsofwater.TheDOElookedatcumulativeimpactsfromtheDavenportTG Program34.Atotalofapproximately432,000gallonsofwaterwouldbepumpedfrom localshallowgroundwaterwellstosupplywaterfordrillingthetemperaturegradient wellsoverthelengthoftheproject(estimatetobeapproximately2years).Todate, Davenporthasdrilledtheupperportionsof7ofthose12wells.Thegroundwaterwells havebeenpermittedbytheOWRDandgroundwatermitigationcreditshavebeen purchasedfromtheDeschutesGroundwaterMitigationBank,operatedbytheDeschutes RiverConservancyinaccordancewiththeOWRDpermit.Duetothegoalofthe MitigationBankofmaintainingsustainablelevelsofwaterwithinthebasinandthe purchaseofthecreditstherewouldbenonetlossofwatertotheDeschutesriverbasin fromthisproject TheproposedOrmattemperaturegradientwelldrillingproject,expectedinspringof 2012isanticipatedtouseapproximately216,000gallonsofwater.Waterforthesewells wouldcomefromoffsitemunicipalwatersourcesinLaPine.Alloftheseprojectsare temporaryinuseandarespreadoutovertime. Theadditionalamountofwaterusedbythesetwoprojects(648,000gallonstotalover atleast3years)issmallincomparisontothewaterusagefortheEGSProject(141.7 milliongallons)andbothprojectswillobtainwaterthroughlocalgroundwaterwells
34Supplementtothecumulativeimpactanalysisofdrilling,testing,andmonitoringof

upto12temperaturegradient/passiveseismicgeothermalexploratorywellsDOE/EA 1758.

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permittedbytheOWRDwithmitigationcreditspurchasedfromtheDeschutes GroundwaterMitigationBank,orfrompermittedmunicipalsourcesinLaPine. Beyonddirectandindirecteffectsforeachspecificproject,cumulativeeffectswouldbe minimalonwaterresources. GEOLOGYANDSEISMICITY Adetailedevaluationhasbeenconductedforseismicgeologiceffects,butotherprojects identifiedinthetableofreasonablyforeseeablefutureactions(Table8 )typicallywould nothaveapotentialforsimilareffects.Allprojectswouldhaveimpactstosoilsdueto sitedisturbance,butbyapplyingBestManagementPractices,reclaimingsites,and followingLRMPguidance,cumulativeeffectstosoilswouldbeminimal.

CUMULATIVEEFFECTSSUMMARYFORALTERNATIVEA
Asdescribedabove,underAlternativeA,theEGSProjectwouldutilizeaverysmall amountofarea,minimizenewsurfacedisturbance,betemporaryinduration,and thereforenotcontributetocumulativeimpactstoresourcesinthearea.

4.4 A L T E R N A T I V E B P R O P O S E D A C T I O N W I T H C L O S E D P R ES S U R E V E S S E L AN D AIRCOOLEDCONDENSERS
AsdiscussedinChapter2.4,AlternativeBisidenticaltotheproposedactiondescribed inAlternativeAexceptforthelongtermcirculationtest,whichusesdifferent equipment.Thisalternativewasderivedfrompubliccommentsreceivedduringthe scopingprocessexpressingconcernsovervisualimpactandwaterusage.Inthis alternative,closed,pressurizedvesselswillbeusedtoseparatesteamatahigher pressureandtemperaturetherebyreducingwaterlostthroughevaporationand reducingthevisiblesteamplume,butrequiringadditionaldieselenginesandaircooled heatexchangerstocooltheseparatedliquid. BecauseAlternativeBdiffersfromAlternativeAonlyinthelongtermcirculationtest equipment,manyoftheeffectswillbesimilartothosediscussedforAlternativeA.

WILDLIFE
AlternativeBcouldhaveaslightlyhigherimpactonsomewildlifespeciesduetothe extraroadtrafficthatwouldberequiredtosupplyequipmentanddieselfuelfortheair cooledcondensers.Theimpactstowildlifewouldbesimilarfortheotheractivities underbothalternatives.

SCENICRESOURCES
AlternativeBdiffersfromAlternativeAinthatitusesadifferentcoolingsystemthat wouldminimizethewatervaporventingintotheair,therebyrequiringsomeadditional facilitiesandequipmentinordertocaptureandcondensemoreofthesteam.A pressurizedliquidvaporseparator,aircooledcondensers,andrelatedpiping,valves andinstrumentationwouldbeadded,andrequireadditionaldieselgenerators,fuel tanksandpersonneltooperate.Thisadditionalequipmentwouldnotbenoticeably higherthanthatinAlternativeA,butitwouldtakeupmoreroomonthewellpadand thereforebemorevisiblefromPaulinaPeak.Alloftheadditionalequipmentand

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facilitieswouldbelocatedonexistingwellpadS29,butthelayoutandtypeof equipmentandfacilitieswouldneedtobemodifiedandmoreareaofthepadwouldbe utilized.Theremayalsobeaslightincreaseinvehicletrafficandassociatedroaddustin ordertosupplydieselfuel,maintenancepersonnelandequipment,whichwouldbe abatedasinAlternativeA.EffectsofthesechangesinAlternativeBwouldnotbe discerniblydifferentfromthosedescribedinAlternativeA. EffectstoscenicresourcesfromAlternativeBdifferprimarilybecauseAlternativeBmay resultinareducedsizeandscaleofthesteamplume,makingaplumelessvisiblethanin AlternativeAfromanyviewingpoint.Whileitisdifficulttoquantifythedifferencein sizeandfrequencyofthesteamplumebetweenthetwoalternatives,onecancompare thedifferenceinwatervaporbeingreleasedtodeterminetherelativedifferencein evaporativelossbetweenthetwo.TheuseofaircooledcondensersinAlternativeB wouldreduceevaporativelossesbyroughly90%relativetoAlternativeA.This translatestoadifferenceofapproximately67milliongallonsoverthe60daytest period.Thisreductioninevaporativelosswouldreducethedensity,sizeand/or frequencyofthesteamplume,butwouldnoteliminateit.Ineitheralternativetheplume wouldstillbevisiblefromanumberoflocations,butanyimpactonscenicresources wouldbetemporary,localizedandshortterm.

GROUNDWATERQUANTITY
Asdiscussedabove,theuseofaircooledheatexchangersduringthecirculationtest wouldreducewateruseinAlternativeBascomparedtothatinAlternativeA.Table17 showstheestimatedwaterusageofAlternativeBoveraperiodofapproximately2 years.
Table 17:Maximum WaterUseEstimate for AllMajorActivities inthe NewberryEGS Demonstration,AlternativeB

Activity Singlewell stimulation1 Riguseduring stimulation2

EstimatedWater UsageRate,gpm 800

MaximumWater MaximumWater Duration, Volume,gal Volume,acreft days 24,192,000 210,000 3,152,150 3,152,150 4,583,439 11,520,000 74.2 0.6 9.7 9.7 14.1 35.4 21 21 90 90 7 5

Drillingproducer #13 Drillingproducer #23 Connectivitytest PW15 Dualwell stimulation PW14 455 1600(split between2wells)

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Activity Connectivitytest PW25 Dualwell stimulationPW2 4 CirculationTest6 Total

EstimatedWater UsageRate,gpm 455 1600(split between2wells) 137

MaximumWater MaximumWater Duration, Volume,gal Volume,acreft days 4,583,439 11,520,000 14.1 35.4 7 5

11,850,404 74,763,582
*

36.4 229.6

60

*Totaldoesnotincludetherelativelysmallamountofwaterrequiredtodrillthe3 MSAboreholesatthebeginningoftheproject(estimatedtobeupto126,000gals overa6weekperiod)


1ThisusesSoultzGPK2stimulationvolumesandmultipliesitbythreetoachieveourdesired

networksize.
2Assumesrigissittingidleduring21daysofstimulationoperationsandrequireslessthan

10,000gpdofwaterforstandbyoperations.
3DavenportPowerused19.4acreftwhendrillingbothwell5529and4616.BLMassumes

thatusagewouldbesimilarduringtheproposedproject.
4Thedualwellstimulationassumespumpingsimultaneouslyat800gpmintotwowellsfora

maximumtotaltimeof5days.
5Theconnectivitytestsbetweentheinjectionwellandeachindividualproducerareplanned foradurationbetween3and7days.Itisassumedthat16.3to37.6%oftheflashingfluidwill belosttotheatmosphere.Additionally,itisassumedthat2%oftheinjectedvolumeisnever recoveredduetoleakoffinthereservoir.Thenumbersabovereflectawaterusagerateof 455gpmforafull7dayswith37.6%ofevaporativesteamloss. 6Thelongtermcirculationtestisplannedtolast3060days.Itisassumedthat16.3%37.6%

oftheproductionfluidwillbelosttotheatmosphere.Additionally,itisassumedthat2%of theinjectedvolumeisneverrecoveredduetoleakoffinthereservoir.Thehighendestimate islistedaboveanditrepresents37.6%evaporationfora60daytest.

TheuseofaircooledcondensersinAlternativeBwouldreduceevaporativelossesby roughly90%relativetoAlternativeA.Thistranslatestoadifferenceofapproximately 67milliongallonsoveraperiodofapproximatelytwoyears.Thisrepresents approximatelyonetenthofonepercent(0.001)oftheestimatedannualrecharge(73 billiongallonsor224,000acrefeet)totheDeschutesBasinfromthewestflankof Newberryvolcano. Lesswaterwouldbewithdrawnfromtheaquiferbeneaththeprojectsiteunder AlternativeB,butcorrespondinglyfewermitigationcreditswouldbepurchasedfrom thegroundwatermitigationbanksotherewouldbenonetdifferenceinwaterrecharge totheDeschutesRiverBasin.Therewouldbenodifferenceineffectstoothersurface waterbodiesandaquifersintheprojectareacomparedtothosediscussedunder AlternativeA.

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GROUNDWATERQUALITY
TherewouldbenodifferenceinpotentialeffectstoGroundwaterQualityfrom AlternativeBincomparisontoAlternativeA.

INDUCEDSEISMICITY
Therewouldbenodifferenceinpotentialeffectswithrespecttoinducedseismicityfrom AlternativeBincomparisontoAlternativeA.

ALTERNATIVEB,CUMULATIVEEFFECTS
Cumulativeeffectsresultfromcollectivepast,present,andreasonablyforeseeable futureactions,regardlessofwhatagencyorentityundertakessuchactions. AlternativeBhasbeenevaluatedforitspotentialeffectstobecumulativewithother actionsthatareoccurringormightoccurintheprojectarea.Past,present,and reasonablyforeseeablefutureprojectsfromSection4.2havebeenconsidered. Cumulativeeffectsresultingfromcollectivepast,present,andreasonablyforeseeable futureactionsforAlternativeBareessentiallythesameasthoseidentifiedabovefor AlternativeA,theProposedAction.Althoughthedirectandindirecteffectsfor AlternativesAandBmayvaryforcertainspecificresources,thecumulativeeffectsof eitheralternativewouldbenearlyidentical.AlternativeBcouldhaveaslightlyhigher impactonsomewildlifespeciesduetotheextraroadtrafficthatwouldberequiredto supplyequipmentanddieselfuelfortheaircooledcondensers.Giventherelatively limitedscope,smallscale,minimalsurfaceareaaffected,andtemporarydurationofthe EGSProjectundereitheralternative,therewouldbelittledifferenceincumulative effectsbetweenAlternativeAandAlternativeB,particularlywhenconsideringtheother longertermandextensiveprojectsinthearea.Thereforeforcumulativeeffectsfor AlternativeB,refertothediscussionprovidedaboveforcumulativeeffectsfor AlternativeA.

4.5 A L T E R N A T I V E C N O A C T I O N
UnderTheNoActionAlternative,theEGSDemonstrationProjectwouldnottakeplace andtheexistingwellpadS29wouldremainasitis.Whenconsideredwithotherpast, present,andreasonablyforeseeableprojects,itwouldnotcontributetoasignificant cumulativeeffectonanyresourceswithintheprojectarea.Therefore,theincremental contributionoftheNoActionAlternativeisnotcumulativelyconsiderable.

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CHAPTER 5. CONSULTATIONAND COORDINATION


5.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
Thischapteridentifiesindividuals,organizations,andagenciesthatcontributedtothe environmentalanalysisandparticipatedinthepreparationoftheEA.

5.2 T R I B E S , I N D I V I D U A L S , O R G A N I Z A T I O N S , A N D A G E N C I E S C O N S U L T E D
PrinevilleBLMandDeschutesNationalForestareengagedinongoingconsultationwith theConfederatedTribesoftheWarmSpringsReservation,theKlamathTribes,andthe BurnsPaiuteTribesonprojectsandissuesinvolvingusesofpublicorNationalForest landsincentralOregon,includingtheEGSProjectandothergeothermalactivities.The KlamathTribehadaninpersonconsultationonthisprojectbymanagementofthe PrinevilleDistrict.Nocommentsweresubmittedbyanyofthetribesduringscoping. DuringtheanalysisandpreparationoftheEA,additionalinformationwasobtained throughcontactswithindividuals,organizations,andotheragenciesthatcontributed additionalknowledgeandexpertiseusedduringtheNEPAprocess.Alistofthose consultedandtheirsubjectareaarelistedbelow. NAME,ORGANIZATION,AGENCY SUBJECTAREA Geothermal Geothermal Seismicrisk

RobertFujimoto,USFSRegionalandNationalOffices KermitWitherbee,BLMNationalOffice IvanWong,URSCorporation

5.3 L I S T O F P R E P A R E R S
Thisenvironmentalassessmentwaspreparedbyathirdpartycontractor,PLS Environmental,LLC,underthedirectsupervisionandcontrolofBLM.Individualswho participatedinthepreparationofthisdocumentarelistedbelow,alongwiththe sectionstowhichtheyprovidedassistanceorprepared. NAME PaulL.Stern,MESc AliceB.Tye WillOsborn TITLE Principal, PLSEnvironmental,LLC
PermittingConsultant AltaRock Energy,Inc. SeniorGeologist AltaRockEnergy,Inc. Coordinator, BLM EASECTIONS All
Chapters1,3,4,5 EGS InducedSeismicityMitigation PlanningandEnvironmental Coordination,review,oversight

Trenton Cladouhos, PhD,LG LindaChristian

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RobertScott LandscapeArchitect, RobertScottEnvironmental Services,Inc. BotanyConsultant BasinandRangeHeritage Consultants AGENCY USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS USFS DOE Visualresources Botany CulturalResources

KathleenCooper StephenHorne,PhD NAME RodBonacker BenHernandez SteveBigby ToddRenwald BarbaraSchroeder RobinGyorgyfalvy MarvLang BartWills BethPeer JasonLoomis CharmanePowers JanineMcFarland MollieChaudet CaseyStrickland

RESPONSIBILITY Teamleader Wildlife Roads Soils Forestvegetation Visuals Recreation Geology Cumulativeeffects Fuels Botany Culturalresources GeothermalProgram,NEPA Overall

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