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January 1

TYPES OF VEGITATIONN

2012
MADE BY RANVIJAY SINGH

atmosphere. soil. Natural vegetation in India can be classified in different ways. according to their position. Rain Forestsof Southern India. weather condition etc. the Alpine and Tundra Vegetation etc. the Desert Region.NATURAL VEGITATION Natural vegetation in India is influenced by a few factors like topography. amount of rainfall and temperature. Apart from these. the Temperate Forests and Grasslands. there are also some other varieties of natural vegetation in India like Himalayan Vegetation. Some of the common characteristics of various types of natural vegetation in India include the Tropical Rain Forest. the Tropical Deciduous Forests.etc .

with a short dry season. is vast and assorted to utilise them commercially. Therefore. like ebony. mahogany and rosewood. Such regions are limited within rainy slopes of the Western Ghats.Tropical Rain Forests The tropical rain forests play an important role in natural vegetation in India. Apart from Kerala. cost-effective and they demand a lot of maintenance. as they are less resistant to fire. Tropical Deciduous Forests Another variety of natural vegetation in India can be found in the tropical deciduous forests. . Most of the tropical deciduous forests are found in the state of Kerala in India. these forests are called as Archetypal RainForests. These types of forests include the tropical evergreen forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests and they are mostly found in places where there is plenty of rainfall and sunshine throughout the year. these forests can be found in the eastern slopes of Western Ghats and also in the northeastern parts of the peninsular plateau and in the valleys of the Himalaya mountains. plains of West Bengaland Orissa and North-eastern India. Growth of the trees is usually at its best where rainfall is in surplus of 200 cm. They are also called the monsoon forests with all their grandeur and beauty. These forests can be divided into moist and dry deciduous forests. The number of species in these forests. especially within regions having 200 and 75 cm of annual rainfall. Trees grow very briskly in these forests and attain sublime heights of about 60 m and above. The tropical deciduous forests are pretty substantial. They are called as deciduous as they cast leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in summer. This is so because they form a natural cover approximately all over India.

These forests slowly die away into scrubs and thorny bushes comprising the classic desert vegetation. Thorn Forests and Shrubs The Thorn Forests and Shrubs offer another kind of natural vegetation in India. They can be found along the coasts and rivers and they are enshrouded by mangrove trees that can live in both fresh and salt water. the thorn forests and shrubs extend towards northern Madhya Pradesh (primarily Malwa Plateau) and south-west Uttar Pradesh. from Saurashtra in the south to Punjab plains in the north. broadened in a radial pattern are the most familiar features of the trees in these forests. south Bihar and west Orissa. They are also widespread along the Shiwaliks in the northern India. These forests are mainly found in dry places where the annual rainfall is less than 70 cm. covering Bundelkhand plateau. Kikar and coarse Grasses. covering eastMadhya Pradesh. and sandalwood. In the east. mainly found in the . They are also found in the north-eastern part of the peninsula that is in the region of Chota Nagpur plateau. They are stretched over the north-western part of India. Tidal or Mangrove Forests The tidal forests provide another variety of natural vegetation in India. Some of the most valuable plant species found in these forests include Babul.Moist Deciduous Forests The moist deciduous forests are most commonly found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. Some of the important trees found in these forests include teak. Sundari is a renowned mangrove tree. Dispersed trees with long roots. Sal.

The broad-leaved evergreen trees usually grow between altitudes of 1 km and 2 km. Alpine and Tundra Vegetation Alpine and Tundra Vegetation is another kind of natural vegetation in India. Temperate Forests and Grasslands Natural vegetation in India can be found in the temperate forests and grasslands. The temperate grasslands are also commonly seen at higher altitudes in these regions. The vegetations like Lichen and Mosses are also found in high altitudinal regions.tidal forests and it is after this tree that the name Sundarban has been entitled to the forested parts of the Ganga-Brahmaputradelta. The trees like oak.6 km MSL is usually known as Alpine Vegetation and it can be noticed that with the increment of the altitude. Juniper and Birch belong to this category. The thick tropical forests in the eastern . They are mainly found in the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Pine. Various types of plants are found in the Himalayas in relation to the varying altitudes. The trees like Silver Fir. silver fir and spruce are grown between altitudes 1. as well. the plants show stunted growth.5 km and 3 km. chestnut and maple belong to this category. Vegetation growing at altitudes above 3. The Alpine Grasslands are mainly found at higher altitudes in this region. the coniferous trees like pine. deodar. The people belonging to the tribal groups like Gujjar and Bakarwal make extensive use of this region. On the other hand. Himalayan Vegetation The Himalayan vegetation is one of the major kinds of natural vegetation in India.

with mainly high alpine meadows nearer the snowline. dense Sandal. with the exception ofKashmir. Oak. Apart from that. fern and grass and the Brahmaputra Valley also have patches of tea plantations and fluorescent-green rice fields. Teak and Sisoo forests also flourish on the Karnataka plateau. The Thar Desert in India presents a wonderful picture of natural vegetation in India. the dry Telengana plateau in Andhra Pradesh offers only thorny scrub and wild Indian Date Palm. The trees in this desert are short and stout. On the other hand. The other plants like Chilgoza. Rain Forests of Southern India The rain forests of Southern India are contributing hugely to the natural vegetation in India. also grow abundantly in the Inner Himalayas.region of India have a sharp distinction with the pine and coniferous woodlands of the western Himalayas. and stunted by . The evergreen forests. Desert Region Natural vegetation in India can be found in the desert region of India also. shrubs. in the state of Kerala. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the state of Arunachal Pradesh are some of the other regions with well preserved rain forests in India. usually have more of temperate forests in the lower elevations. Ash etc. The plant named Chir Pine grows throughout the northwest Himalayas. The most luxuriant rain forests lie on the southwestern coast. Maple. The rain-soaked foothills of the Himalayas are covered with deciduous trees. Here the lagoons are canopied by coconut trees and lead to the longest uninterrupted stretch of rain forests in the country.

Ak etc. planting new tress every year etc. Some of the most common trees in this region include Cacti. Reunjha. which needs to be addressed in order to protect and conserve the natural vegetation in India. Khejra.the scorching sun. over-grazing. Jhum cultivations. . the Government has also taken various steps to spread awareness about the need for conservation and has educated the general civilians about the several measures that need to be adopted in order to protect the natural vegetation in India. Kanju. The Government of India is taking several steps such as the Van Mahatsov programme. But there are several problems like deforestation. All these varieties of forests and areas significantly contribute to the natural vegetation in India. Moreover.