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Industrial and Organizational Psychology Introduction to the World of Work

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, March 15, 2005

What Is I/O Psychology?
• Psychology is the science of human behavior • I/O psychology is the science of human behavior at work • Dual focus • Efficiency/productivity of organizations (I) • Health/well-being of employees (O) • Dual nature • Development and application of the science of psychology to the workplace

Fields of I/O Psychology • Personnel Psychology • Organizational Psychology • Human Factors/Ergonomics 3 .

Activities and Settings of I/O Psychologists • Practice – Consulting firms. private corporations – Major focus is application of field to real world workplaces • Research – Most are college professors – Much of time spent teaching and doing research • Considerable overlap between the two settings. and most I/O psychologists do both to some extent. government. .

.Percentage of I/O Psychologists Who Work in Various Settings Source: Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2006 Member Survey: Overall Report.

8% 44.0% 23.2% 25.0% 10.3% 7. Katkowski & Furr (2005) M.D.5% 37. 40.Employment Settings of I/O Psychologists Highest Degree Employment Setting Education Private sector Public sector Consulting Other Medsker.3% 8.A.0% 3.5% 6 .4% Ph. 0.

research methods. & I/O content necessary • I/O Professional Associations – Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychologists (SIOP) • Comprised entirely of I/O psychologists • About 6.D. majority of members are not psychologists – European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP) – Society of Occupational Health Psychology (SOHP) • Newest addition relevant to I/O • Those interested in issues of employee health.I/O as a Profession • Graduate degree necessary (MA or Ph.) • Basic psychology. 38% are student affiliates – Academy of Management (AoM) • Very large.000 members. and well-being . safety.

research methods (heavy emphasis).How to Become an I/O Psychologist • Graduate degree MAY BE necessary but some Universities (such as MTSU) offer a Bachelor’s degree in I/O Psychology • Basic psychology. and I/O content all part of graduate training • Entry requirements very competitive • Involves training in research and practice • Less than 1% unemployment • Academic and nonacademic market strong • No longer predominantly males – SIOP was 36% female as of 2006 .

000 $85.500 $73.600 $100.A. Ph.A.000 $98. Source: Khanna & Medsker (2007). level and being younger.D. .000 Note: Gender difference mostly accounted for by women being more likely to be M. Applied starting Academic starting Men Women $72.Median Salaries of I/O Psychologists in the US in 2000 M.750 $55.

Difference Between I/O and MBA Programs Typical I/O Courses Statistics Experimental methodology Psychometric theory Employee selection and placement Organizational psychology Performance appraisal Job analysis Typical MBA Courses Statistics Business research Organizational behavior Administrative policy Managerial economics Marketing management Managerial accounting 10 Employee training and development Financial management .

D. 1.41 2 Yes No Ph.A.I/O Graduate Programs Degree Characteristic Average GRE Score Average GPA Years to complete Internship Dissertation M.237 3. 1.084 3.58 5 Yes Yes 11 .

Germany Australia Canada England Belgium China Netherlands Number of programs Country France New Zealand Spain Turkey Korea Nigeria Puerto Rico Number of programs 124 11 7 7 7 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 .S.Countries With the Most I/O Graduate Programs Country U.

I/O Psychology as a Science • Research is one of the major activities for I/O psychologists • Develop new methods and procedures for activities like selection and training • Results shared through: – Meetings: held by associations like SIOP – Journals: such as the Journal of Applied Psychology – Publication of research papers is difficult and competitive .

motivation. work environment Job satisfaction. M. Employee selection. organizational level Career development. job stress. performance appraisal . (1994) Topics Career development. turnover. job stress. leadership. values Career development. job stress. motivation Gender. job stress. motivation. gender Job Stress. job satisfaction. motivation. training. performance appraisal.The Most Popular I/O Research Topics in Eight Countries Country Canada England Germany India Israel Japan Scandinavia United States From Erez. leadership. unemployment Career development. shift work. leadership Employee selection. job stress. leadership. employee selection.

The History of I/O Psychology According to Dr. Frame 15 .

advancements and predicaments • gain an understanding of the direction that they are headed • learn from previous successes while hopefully avoiding the mistakes of the past 16 .Why Do We Care? • realize the contributions and actions of people that came before • comprehend how past situations and circumstances led to current scenarios.

C. by Sun Tzu In 400 B. .Machiavelli In 1776 .Jethro. through 220 A.Aristotle In 260 B.Socrates In 370 B. .Before 1800 • • • • • • • • • In 1491 B.Plato In 360 B.Adam Smith 17 .D.C.C.The Art of War.Han Dynasty The Disclosures (1513) .C.Xenophon In The Republic . . . .C. a Midianite priest In 500 B. .C.

Henry R. Towne 18 .Before 1900 • • • • • In 1813 .Robert Owen In 1832 .Charles Babbage In 1855 .Captain Henry Metcalf In 1886 .Daniel McCallum in 1885 .

psychology helping business: I side • Hawthorne studied impact of social aspects: O side • World War II: Psychology and the war effort • Civil rights movement: Job relevance • ADA • ADEA • Technological change .History of I/O • Early 1900s • World War I first mass testing • Between the wars.

Human factors • Bruce V.Leading Historical Figures • Hugo Münsterberg: Psychology and Industrial Efficiency • Walter Dill Scott: The Theory of Advertising • Frederick Winslow Taylor: Scientific Management • Robert Yerkes: Army Alpha and Beta tests • Lillian Gilbreth: Time and motion. Moore: First I/O PhD? • Roethlisberger & Dickson: Hawthorne Studies .

Timeline of Major Events .

I/O Psychology Around the World • I/O interest has exploded over the past 10-15 years and accelerating • American consulting firms have become international. to International • Research focus varies by country • Number of graduate programs increasing rapidly around the world . reflected in names – DDI--Developmental Decisions Inc. to International – PDI--Personnel Decisions Inc.

6 Ethical Principles from American Psychological Association Code • • • • • • Competence Integrity Professional and Scientific Responsibility Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity Concern for Others’ Welfare Social Responsibility .

1920 1903 Walter Dill Scott publishes The Theory of Advertising 1913 Hugo Munsterberg publishes Psychology and Industrial Efficiency 1917 Journal of Applied Psychology first published 24 .History of I/O Psychology 1900 .

History of I/O Psychology World War I • Selection of Soldiers – Army Alpha – Army Beta • John Watson developed tests for pilots • Henry Gantt increased cargo ship efficiency 25 .

History of I/O Psychology 1920 .D. in I/O Psychology awarded to Bruce Moore and Merrill Ream at Carnegie Tech First I/O text book written by Morris Viteles Hawthorne Studies published American Association for Applied Psychology Established 1932 1933 1937 26 .1940 1921 First Ph.

Division 14 History Year 1937 1945 1951 1960 1964 1982 1986 1990 2000 2.600+ 27 Members Event American Association for Applied Psychology formed 130 Society for Industrial and Business Psychology established as Division 14 of APA Marion Bills elected first woman president of Division 14 700+ Renamed “Society for Industrial Psychology” First edition of The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist published 1.800+ Renamed “Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology” SIOP conference held separately from APA .500+ 3.