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Machine Components: RollingElement Bearings

ME 72 Engineering Design Laboratory

Function of Bearings
• A bearing permits relative motion between two machine members while minimizing frictional resistance. • A bearing consists of an inner and outer member separated either by a thin film of lubricant, or a rolling element.

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Comparison Table .

Rolling-Element Bearings • Pros – Low starting and running friction – Easy lubrication – Small axial space – Radial and axial loads – Predictable failure – Standards (ABEC) – Can be preloaded – Easy mounting • Cons – Greater diametrical space – More expensive – Noisy – Finite life – Vulnerable to dirt – Limited shock loading .

Ball Bearings • Ball Bearings – Point contact. used in pairs • Self-Aligning Bearings • Double Row Bearings – Support higher loads • Thrust Bearings – Designed for pure axial loading . support radial and axial loads • Angular Contact Bearings – Designed for axial loading.

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used in pairs • Spherical – Allows for misalignment • Needle – Thrust and radial types. typically no inner race .Roller Bearings • Straight – Supports high radial loads. slower speed ratings • Tapered – High radial and axial load ratings.

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shielded.Terminology • Inner race • Outer race • Inner and outer diameters • Width • Options – Open. sealed – grooves. flanges – wide inner race .

series.Bearing Specifications • Types. options • Dimensions • Load Ratings – Static (C0): maximum (pre-damage) load – Dynamic (C): the load that will give a life of 106 revolutions – Axial/Radial • Speed Rating .

2 0.7480 14 0.3 0.2 0.012 0.7 0.039 Abutment and fillet Dimensions Designation 60/2.0236 35 1.1969 7 0.1024 32 1.4331 19 0.669 17 0.268 9.5512 19 0.1969 7 0.1 34 7.669 17 0.3780 24 0.3937 da mm in 8 0.3780 42 1.024 1 0.1 0.3543 11 0.2598 35 1.7480 26 1.012 0.2598 32 1.669 24 0.004 0.2756 8 0.0984 5 0.max mm in 6.8 255 57.323 12 0.3 67000 53000 36000 45000 36000 30000 20000 28000 24000 22000 22000 19000 17000 80000 63000 43000 53000 43000 36000 26000 34000 30000 28000 28000 24000 20000 Speed ratings grease oil D b.669 17 0.3 620 139 400 89.47 26 5.min mm in 3.0 120 27.146 6.62 83 18.8 0.024 0.181 30 1.787 D a.472 12 0.3 0.004 0.82 25 5.220 22 0.64 85 19.5 618/5 635 618/7 61800 6000 6300 61802 61902 16002 6002 6202 6302 15 0.004 0.4331 5 0.7 143 32.3 0.2756 10 0.244 7 0.551 17 0.6535 bw mm in 2.1378 5 0.181 31 1.669 12.3150 11 0.457 r a.8 0.3150 11 0.max mm in 0.945 31 1.1102 3 0.012 0.1 120 27.6 0.0 228 51.5 0.8 0.012 0.220 37 1.3 0.3 0.012 0.669 19 0.748 20 0.899 11 2.3 0.9 585 132 1960 441 3400 764 800 180 2040 459 2850 641 2850 641 3750 843 5400 1210 4 0.012 0.504 17 0.5118 Basic load ratings dynami c C N lbf 319 71.0 160 36.85 17 3.386 17 0.1969 8 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.5906 .9449 28 1.024 30 1.5 0.1 0.Single Row Deep Groove Ball Bearings Principal Dimensions db mm in 2.866 26 1.4331 13 0.3150 9 0.2362 3.012 0.276 8.472 14 0.1 0.7 637 143 1720 387 956 215 1380 310 4620 1040 8060 1810 1560 351 4030 906 5590 1260 5590 1260 7800 1750 11400 2560 static C0 Allowable load limit w all rpm 106 23.1181 6 0.

millions of revolutions • F = load • a = 3 for ball bearings. 3.33 for roller bearings • Design Equation L1  C  =  6 10  F1  a .Bearing Life • Bearing Life-Load Equation L1  F2  =  L2  F1  a • L = life.

0 IRR.Radial and Thrust Loads • Equivalent Radial Load P = XV Fr + Y Fa • • • • • • P = equivalent load Fr = applied constant radial load Fa = applied constant thrust load V = rotation factor (1. 1.2 ORR) X = radial factor (provided by manufacturer) Y = thrust factor (provided by manufacturer) .

56 0.42 x cotβ 0.45 x cotβ 0.56 0.44 0.5 x tanβ 1.56 0.54 0.50 Do ub l e ro w b e ari ng s Pa/ Pr< e X Y Pa/ Pr> e X Y Deep groove ball bearings Pl/C0 =0.67 x cotβ .40 x cotβ 1 1.87 0.78 0.80 0.76 0.65 0.33 1.35 0.55 0.31 0.66 0.37 0.4 1.43 0.5 x tanβ 1.63 1.56 0.56 0.13 Pl/C0 =0.93 0.22 0.40 0.24 0.2 1 1 0.67 x cotβ 0.07 0.33 Y 2.57 0.42 x cotβ 0.56 0.67 1.65 x cotβ 0.24 1.025 Pl/C0 =0.6 1.04 Pl/C0 =0.14 1.41 0.57 0.67 0.92 0.50 β=20° β =25° β =30° β =35° β =40° β =45° 0.41 1.70 0.8 1.Capacity Formulas for Radial and Angular Bearings B e ari ng t y p e e S i ng l e ro w b e ari ng s Pa/ Pr< e X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pa/ Pr>e X 0.37 0.68 0.27 0.09 0.5 x tanβ Angular contact ball bearings Self-aligning ball bearings Spherical roller bearings Tapered roller bearings 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0.39 0.0 1.07 Pl/C0 =0.81 0.67 0.47 0.60 0.63 0.57 0.66 0.25 Pl/C0 =0.95 1.

Mounting Bearings • Mounting Issues – – – – Design to fix relative axial/radial location Avoid misalignment: maintain concentricity Consider preloading (to eliminate backlash) Follow Press/Slip Fit guidelines • Always press to a shoulder – Be aware of shaft hardness requirements – NEVER use more than 2 bearings / shaft .

Typical Mountings .

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such as in accurate machine tools and precise automotive parts. Where light tapping with a hammer is necessary to assemble the parts. In semipermanent assemblies suitable for drive of shrink fits on light sect ions. Where small clearance is permissible and where moving parts are not intended to move freely under load. In rotating journals with speeds under 600 rpm. such as locomotive wheels and heavy crankshaft disks of large engines 8 Heavy force or shrink Interference . such as in engines and some automotive parts. Where considerable bonding between surfaces is required. such as in roadbuilding and mining equipment. Where considerable pressure is needed to assemble and for shrink fits of medium sections.Classes of Fit C lass 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 De scription Loose Free Medium Snug Wringing Tight Medium Type Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance Interference Interference Interference Applications Where accuracy is not essential. suitable for press fits on generator and motor armatures and for car wheels. In rotating journals with speeds of 600 rpm or greater.

5δ  r  ri2 + r 2  r  ro2 + r 2 + νo  +  2 + νi   Eo  ro2 − r 2   Ei  ri − r 2 • Torque transmitted T = 2π r 2 µpl .Interference Fits • Pressure created by a press fit p= 0.

• Rolling element bearings are configured to support a variety of axial and radial loads and provide low rolling friction between a shaft and hub. • Bearings are typically press fit into a housing and slip fit onto a shaft. .Summary • Sliding bearings use hydrodynamic forces to support loads and lubricant shear to provide low friction.

. and Mischke. Machine Design Fundamentals: A Practical Approach.. • Shigley.References • Hindhede. Fundamentals of Machine Elements. et al. B.. • Norton. • Hamrock. B. Machine Design: An Integrated Approach. .. S. San Francisco. Mechanical Engineering Design. 1999..... B. C. and Schmid... Zimmerman. Jacobson. 1983. U. J. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. 1989.. 1998. Hopkins. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Inc. J. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall. 5th Ed.. WCB McGraw-Hill. R.