Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Complex Vectors
Complex Vectors
ECE 3317
Dr. Stuart Long
12
Why study electromagnetic waves?
Motivation:
Most basic of all ECE courses: Mathematically the most satisfying; all
others courses are just more specific cases (i.e. circuit theory
is the low
frequency special case)
Electromagnetics explains physical phenomena: Confirms
observations in areas of electricity and magnetism; closer to the
electrophysics
side of ECE, more like applied physics
Important to know about EM: Even if you are specializing in circuits,
computers, control, communications, biomed, or solid state devices
13
Applications:
Applied Electromagnetics : Radar; Antennas; Microwaves; Military
uses; Electrical machinery; Aircraft
Wireless Communications: Cell phones; Bluetooth; Wireless routers;
Cordless handsets; EZ pass tags; RFIDs
Computer Applications: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC);
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI); Chip design beyond simple circuit
analysis (faster circuits mean smaller wavelengths).
Why study electromagnetic waves?
16
Notation, Symbols, and Units
Real Scalars:
Indicated by italic type or Greek letters e.g. a or ρ.
Complex Scalars:
Indicated by a ~
underneath letters e.g. c
Real Vectors:
Indicated by boldface italic type e.g. B.
Unit Vectors:
Indicated by the symbol ^
above a quantity and boldface italic
type or Greek letters e.g. ˆ
x
~
Complex Vectors:
Indicated by bold type with a ~
underneath letters e.g. J
~
17
• References to equations and pages in your book will be written in green.
•
Appendices A, B, C, and D
in the text book list frequently used symbols and
their units.
Notation, Symbols, and Units
18
Complex Numbers
real imaginary magnitude phase
1
c  c
j
a j b e

= + =
2
h  h
j
f j g e

= + =
19
1
1 1
c  c   c  cos  c  sin
j
a j b e j

  = + = = +
real imaginary magnitude phase
Re
a
Im
c a jb = +
( )
1
c sin 
( )
1
c cos 
c
1

b
Graphic Representation of
Complex Numbers
( )
2 2
1
1
 c 
tan
a b
b a 
÷
= +
=
110
1
 *
c h ( ) ( )
c
h (  ) (  )
c   c 
j
a f j b g
a f j b g
a jb e

+ = + + +
= +
= =
addition
subtraction
complex conju t ga e
Complex Algebra
1
2
c  c
h  h
j
j
a j b e
f j g e


= + =
= + =
111
1
( )
c h  c   h 
c c
h h
j
j
e
e
 
 
1 2
2
( + )
÷
× = ×
(
=
(
¸ ¸
multiplication
division
1
2
c  c
h  h
j
j
a j b e
f j g e


= + =
= + =
Complex Algebra
112
( )
1
2
c c
c c
j n
x
j x n x
x
e
e

t
 t
1
 
+

\ .
+2
=
=
square root
power
( )
1
2
c  c
j n
e
 t +
=
Complex Algebra
Where n
is an integer
Note: square root will have
two possible values, one
for n=0 and one for n=1.
113
{ }
{ }
0
0
( ) = cos( )
( ) = Re
( ) = Re V
j j t
j t
V t V t
V t V e e
V t e
 e
e
e  +
0
V =
j
V e

Time Harmonic Quantities
2
f
e
t
=
Amplitude Angular Phase
Frequency
[1.4]
[1.5]
114
B
( , , , ) ( , , ) x y z t x y z · V
V
real, time
harmonic
quantity
complex
representation
B
A
V(t)
t
c
Φ
c
A
( )
Re V
( )
Im V
Time Harmonic Quantities
115
( ) ( ) +
(t)
( )
Note:
However,
)
(
t t
j
t
t t
e
·
·
·
+
c
c
V U
V
VU
V U
V
V U
( , , , ) ( , , ) x y z t x y z · V
V
real, time
harmonic
quantity
complex
representation
Time Harmonic Quantities
B
A
V(t)
t
c
Φ c A
( ) Re V
( ) Im V
B
116
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
cos
ˆ
ˆ
cos
ˆ
( ( ) ( ) s ) co ( )
x z
y
x
x x
y
y z y
z
z
j j
j
t
V e V e
V
V t
V
t
t
e
V



e    e e +
= + +
= + + + +
V x
x V
z
z
y
y
Transform each component of a time
harmonic vector function into complex
form
{ }
( ) Re
j t
t e
e
= V V
Complex Vectors
117
Example 1.15
{ }
{ }
{ }
Let
ˆ ˆ
( ) Re
ˆ ˆ
( ) Re ( )
ˆ ˆ
( ) Re ( )(cos sin )
ˆ ˆ
( ) cos sin
j t
j t
j
t e
t j e
t j t j t
t t t
e
e
e e
e e
= +
=
= +
= + +
= ÷
A x y
A A
A x y
A x y
A x y
ωt = 3π/2
ωt = π
ωt = π/2
y
x
ωt = 0
[Fig. 1.8]
[p.16]
The direction
of the vector
varies with time.
118
119
Recall from example 1.15
and
Let and
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( ) cos sin
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( ) ( ) sin cos
ˆ
(A B A B )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
x y y x
j t t t
j j j t t t
j j
e e
e e
= + = ÷
= + = ÷ = ÷ ÷
× = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
=
A
B
A B
x y A x y
x y x y B x y
z
1 1
1 1
0
( )
(xformation only for basic vector produc ) N ts T O
( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ
( ) (
Ho
) cos si
w
n
ever, t t
t t t t e e
× = ×
× = ÷ ÷
=
= = ÷
A B
2 2
0 A B 0
A B z z 0
Example 1.16
[p.16]
120
0
0
2 2 2
0
0
2
0
0
2
2 0
Not true for pro t
2
duc s
1
( ) cos( ) 0
1
( ) cos ( )
1 cos[2( )]
2
( )
2
T
T
T
T =
V t V t dt
T
1
f
V t V t dt
T
V
t
dt
T
V
V t
t
e
e 
e 
e 
÷ + =
 
=

\ .
= +
+ +
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
=
}
}
}
[p.17]
Time Average of Harmonic Quantities
[p.17]
[p.17]
121
time average po
2
wer
Usual 60 [Hz] power
A way to compute the time average of the cr
Quic oss products of
two time har
k
monic vectors is g
!!!
(t) 0 (t) but 0 = =
V V
{ }
*
timeaverage
1
(t) (t) Re
2
iven belo
rule
w
× = × A B
A B
[1.19]
Example
circuit theory is the low frequency special case) 12 Electromagnetics explains physical phenomena: Confirms observations in areas of electricity and magnetism. or solid state devices .Why study electromagnetic waves? Motivation: Most basic of all ECE courses: Mathematically the most satisfying. biomed. all others courses are just more specific cases (i. more like applied physics Important to know about EM: Even if you are specializing in circuits. closer to the electrophysics side of ECE.e. computers. control. communications.
Why study electromagnetic waves? Applications: Applied Electromagnetics : Radar. Military uses. Antennas. RFIDs Computer Applications: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). . Electrical machinery. Bluetooth. Microwaves. Chip design beyond simple circuit analysis (faster circuits mean smaller wavelengths). Wireless routers. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Aircraft 13 Wireless Communications: Cell phones. Cordless handsets. EZ pass tags.
g. x ˆ . Real Vectors: Indicated by boldface italic type e. a or ρ.g.g. c ~ Complex Vectors: Indicated by bold type with a ~ underneath letters e. Symbols. and Units 16 Real Scalars: Indicated by italic type or Greek letters e. B.g. Complex Scalars: Indicated by a ~ underneath letters e.Notation. J ~ Unit Vectors: Indicated by the symbol ^ above a quantity and boldface italic type or Greek letters e.g.
.Notation. B. Symbols. and D in the text book list frequently used symbols and their units. C. 17 • Appendices A. and Units • References to equations and pages in your book will be written in green.
Complex Numbers 18 c a j b  c e real imaginary magnitude j 1 phase h f j g h e j 2 .
Graphic Representation of Complex Numbers 19 c a j b  c  e j 1  c  cos 1 j  c  sin 1 real imaginary magnitude phase  c  a 2 b 2 1 tan 1 b a Im c cos 1 b c a c a jb c sin 1 Re 1 .
g ) c a .Complex Algebra 110 c a j b c e j 1 j h f j g  h e 2 addition c h ( a f ) j (b g ) ch ( a .jb  c  e * .j1 subtraction complex conju ga te .f ) j (b .
Complex Algebra 111 multiplication c a j b c e j 1 j h f j g  h e 2 j c h  c   h  e division c h c j (1 ) e h .
Complex Algebra 112 Where n is an integer c  c e j 1 2n square root c c e power j n 2 Note: square root will have two possible values. c c e x x j 1 x n x . one for n=0 and one for n=1.
4] f V (t ) = Re V0 e e j jt 2 V (t ) = Re Ve jt V = V0 e j [1.5] .Time Harmonic Quantities 113 V (t ) = V0 cos( t ) Amplitude Angular Frequency Phase [1.
time harmonic quantity complex representation V(t) A c A Re V Φ c t Im V B B . z) real. y.Time Harmonic Quantities 114 V ( x. z. t) V ( x. y.
z) real. y. z. . t) V ( x. time harmonic quantity complex representation B t Im V B Note: V (t ) U (t ) V + U V (t) j V t V (t ) U (t ) V U However.Time Harmonic Quantities V(t) A c A R e V 115 Φ c V ( x. y.
Complex Vectors Transform each component of a time harmonic vector function into complex form 116 V ( t ) Re V e j t V ˆ xVx e jx ˆ yVy e j y ˆ zVz e jz ˆ ˆ ˆ V (t ) xVx cos( t x ) yVy cos( t y ) zVz cos( t z ) .
1.16] 117 y ωt = 3π/2 ˆ ˆ A(t ) Re ( x jy )(cos t j sin t ) ˆ ˆ A(t ) x cos t y sin t The direction of the vector varies with time.Example 1. ωt = π ωt = 0 x ωt = π/2 [Fig.8] .15 ˆ ˆ Let A x jy A(t ) Re Ae jt ˆ ˆ A(t ) Re ( x jy )e jt [p.
118 .
16 [p.16] Recall from example 1.15 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A x jy and A(t ) x cos t y sin t ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Let B j ( x jy ) jx y and B (t ) x sin t y cos t ˆ A B z (A x B y A y B x ) (1)(1) ( j )( j ) (1) (1) 0 AB 0 However.Example 1. A(t ) B (t ) 0 119 ˆ ˆ A(t ) B (t ) z cos 2 t sin 2 t z 0 (xformation only for basic vector NOT products ) .
Time Average of Harmonic Quantities 120 1 T V (t ) V0 cos( t ) dt 0 T 0 [p.17] 1 2 f Not true for products T = 1 V (t ) T 2 0 T V0 2 cos 2 ( t ) dt 1 cos[2( t )] dt 2 2 V02 T [p.17] 0 T V02 V (t ) 2 [p.17] .
Example Usual 60 [Hz] power 121 V (t) 0 but time average power V 2 (t) 0 A Quick!!! way to compute the time average of the cross products of two time harmonic vectors is given below A(t) B (t) 1 Re A B* 2 timeaverage rule [1.19] .