You are on page 1of 19

1-1

Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Complex Vectors
Complex Vectors
ECE 3317
Dr. Stuart Long
1-2
Why study electromagnetic waves?
Motivation:
Most basic of all ECE courses: Mathematically the most satisfying; all
others courses are just more specific cases (i.e. circuit theory

is the low
frequency special case)
Electromagnetics explains physical phenomena: Confirms
observations in areas of electricity and magnetism; closer to the
electrophysics

side of ECE, more like applied physics
Important to know about EM: Even if you are specializing in circuits,
computers, control, communications, biomed, or solid state devices
1-3
Applications:
Applied Electromagnetics : Radar; Antennas; Microwaves; Military
uses; Electrical machinery; Aircraft
Wireless Communications: Cell phones; Bluetooth; Wireless routers;
Cordless handsets; EZ pass tags; RFIDs
Computer Applications: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC);
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI); Chip design beyond simple circuit
analysis (faster circuits mean smaller wavelengths).
Why study electromagnetic waves?
1-6
Notation, Symbols, and Units
Real Scalars:

Indicated by italic type or Greek letters e.g. a or ρ.
Complex Scalars:

Indicated by a ~

underneath letters e.g. c
Real Vectors:

Indicated by boldface italic type e.g. B.
Unit Vectors:

Indicated by the symbol ^

above a quantity and boldface italic
type or Greek letters e.g. ˆ
x
~
Complex Vectors:

Indicated by bold type with a ~

underneath letters e.g. J
~
1-7
• References to equations and pages in your book will be written in green.


Appendices A, B, C, and D

in the text book list frequently used symbols and
their units.
Notation, Symbols, and Units
1-8
Complex Numbers
real imaginary magnitude phase
1
c | c|
j
a j b e
|
= + =
 
2
h | h|
j
f j g e
|
= + =
 
1-9
1
1 1
c | c | | c | cos | c | sin
j
a j b e j
|
| | = + = = +
   
real imaginary magnitude phase
Re
a
Im
c a jb = +

( )
1
c sin |

( )
1
c cos |

c

1
|
b
Graphic Representation of

Complex Numbers
( )
2 2
1
1
| c |
tan
a b
b a |
÷
= +
=

1-10
1
- *


c h ( ) ( )
c



-h ( - ) ( - )
c - | c |


j
a f j b g
a f j b g
a jb e
|
+ = + + +
= +
= =
addition
subtraction
complex conju t ga e


 
 
 
Complex Algebra
1
2

c | c|
h | h|
j
j
a j b e
f j g e
|
|
= + =
= + =
 
 
1-11
1
( )



c h | c | | h |
c |c|

h |h|
j
j
e
e
| |
| |
1 2
2
( + )
÷
× = ×
(
=
(
¸ ¸
multiplication
division

   
 
 
1
2

c | c|
h | h|
j
j
a j b e
f j g e
|
|
= + =
= + =
 
 
Complex Algebra
1-12
( )
1
2
c c
c c
j n
x
j x n x
x
e
e
|
t
| t
1
| |
+
|
\ .
+2
=
=
square root
power
 
 
( )
1
2
c | c|
j n
e
| t +
=
 
Complex Algebra
Where n

is an integer
Note: square root will have
two possible values, one
for n=0 and one for n=1.
1-13
{ }
{ }
0
0
( ) = cos( )
( ) = Re
( ) = Re V
j j t
j t
V t V t
V t V e e
V t e
| e
e
e | +

0
V =
j
V e
|

Time Harmonic Quantities

2
f
e
t
=
Amplitude Angular Phase
Frequency
[1.4]
[1.5]
1-14
B
( , , , ) ( , , ) x y z t x y z · V

V
real, time
harmonic
quantity
complex
representation
B
A
V(t)
t
c
Φ
c
A
( )
Re V

( )
Im V

Time Harmonic Quantities
1-15
( ) ( ) +
(t)
( )
Note:
However,


)

(
t t
j
t
t t
e
·
·
·
+
c
c
V U
V

VU
 

 
V U
V
V U
( , , , ) ( , , ) x y z t x y z · V

V
real, time
harmonic
quantity
complex
representation
Time Harmonic Quantities
B
A
V(t)
t
c
Φ c A
( ) Re V

( ) Im V

B
1-16
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
cos
ˆ
ˆ
cos
ˆ
( ( ) ( ) s ) co ( )
x z
y
x
x x
y
y z y
z
z



j j
j

t
V e V e
V

V t
V
t

t
e
V
|
|
|
e | | | e e +
= + +
= + + + +
V x
x V
z
z
y
y

Transform each component of a time
harmonic vector function into complex
form
{ }
( ) Re
j t
t e
e
= V V

Complex Vectors
1-17
Example 1.15
{ }
{ }
{ }
Let
ˆ ˆ

( ) Re
ˆ ˆ
( ) Re ( )
ˆ ˆ
( ) Re ( )(cos sin )
ˆ ˆ
( ) cos sin
j t
j t
j
t e
t j e
t j t j t
t t t
e
e
e e
e e
= +
=
= +
= + +
= ÷


A x y
A A
A x y
A x y
A x y
ωt = 3π/2
ωt = π
ωt = π/2
y
x
ωt = 0
[Fig. 1.8]
[p.16]
The direction
of the vector
varies with time.
1-18
1-19
Recall from example 1.15
and
Let and
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( ) cos sin
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( ) ( ) sin cos
ˆ
(A B A B )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )


x y y x
j t t t
j j j t t t
j j
e e
e e
= + = ÷
= + = ÷ = ÷ ÷
× = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
=

A
B
A B


 

x y A x y
x y x y B x y
z
1 1
1 1
0
( )
(x-formation only for basic vector produc ) N ts T O
( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ
( ) (
Ho
) cos si
w
n
ever, t t
t t t t e e
× = ×
× = ÷ ÷
=
= = ÷
A B

2 2
0 A B 0
A B z z 0
Example 1.16
[p.16]
1-20
0
0
2 2 2
0
0
2
0
0
2
2 0
Not true for pro t
2
duc s
1
( ) cos( ) 0
1
( ) cos ( )
1 cos[2( )]

2
( )
2
T
T
T
T =
V t V t dt
T
1
f
V t V t dt
T
V
t
dt
T
V
V t
t
e
e |
e |
e |
÷ + =
| |
=
|
\ .
= +
+ +
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
=
}
}
}
[p.17]
Time Average of Harmonic Quantities
[p.17]
[p.17]
1-21
time average po
2
wer

Usual 60 [Hz] power
A way to compute the time average of the cr

Quic oss products of
two time har
k
monic vectors is g
!!!
(t) 0 (t) but 0 = =

V V
{ }
*
time-average
1
(t) (t) Re
2

iven belo


rule

w
× = × A B
 
A B
[1.19]
Example

circuit theory is the low frequency special case) 1-2 Electromagnetics explains physical phenomena: Confirms observations in areas of electricity and magnetism. or solid state devices .Why study electromagnetic waves? Motivation: Most basic of all ECE courses: Mathematically the most satisfying. biomed. all others courses are just more specific cases (i. more like applied physics Important to know about EM: Even if you are specializing in circuits. closer to the electrophysics side of ECE.e. computers. control. communications.

Why study electromagnetic waves? Applications: Applied Electromagnetics : Radar. Military uses. Antennas. RFIDs Computer Applications: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). . Electrical machinery. Bluetooth. Microwaves. Chip design beyond simple circuit analysis (faster circuits mean smaller wavelengths). Wireless routers. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Aircraft 1-3 Wireless Communications: Cell phones. Cordless handsets. EZ pass tags.

g. x ˆ . Real Vectors: Indicated by boldface italic type e. a or ρ.g.g. c ~ Complex Vectors: Indicated by bold type with a ~ underneath letters e. Symbols. and Units 1-6 Real Scalars: Indicated by italic type or Greek letters e. B.g. Complex Scalars: Indicated by a ~ underneath letters e.Notation. J ~ Unit Vectors: Indicated by the symbol ^ above a quantity and boldface italic type or Greek letters e.g.

.Notation. B. Symbols. and D in the text book list frequently used symbols and their units. C. 1-7 • Appendices A. and Units • References to equations and pages in your book will be written in green.

Complex Numbers 1-8 c  a  j b  | c| e   real imaginary magnitude j 1 phase h  f  j g  |h| e   j 2 .

Graphic Representation of Complex Numbers 1-9 c  a  j b  | c | e j 1  | c | cos 1  j | c | sin 1     real imaginary magnitude phase | c | a 2  b 2  1  tan 1  b a  Im c cos 1   b c  a c  a  jb  c sin 1   Re 1 .

g )   c  a .Complex Algebra 1-10 c  a  j b  |c| e j 1   j h  f  j g  | h| e 2   addition c  h  ( a  f )  j (b  g )   c-h  ( a .jb | c | e   * .j1 subtraction complex conju ga te .f )  j (b .

Complex Algebra 1-11 multiplication c  a  j b  |c| e j 1   j h  f  j g  | h| e 2   j     c  h | c |  | h | e     division c  h   |c|  j (1 )    e  |h|   .

Complex Algebra 1-12 Where n is an integer c  | c| e   j 1 2n  square root c c e   power    j   n  2  Note: square root will have two possible values. c  c e   x x j 1  x   n x  . one for n=0 and one for n=1.

4] f  V (t ) = Re V0 e e j jt   2 V (t ) = Re Ve jt   V = V0 e j  [1.5] .Time Harmonic Quantities 1-13 V (t ) = V0 cos( t   ) Amplitude Angular Frequency Phase [1.

time harmonic quantity complex representation V(t) A c A Re  V   Φ c t Im  V   B B . z)  real. y.Time Harmonic Quantities 1-14 V ( x. z. t)  V ( x. y.

z)  real. y. z. . t)  V ( x. time harmonic quantity complex representation B t Im  V   B Note: V (t )  U (t )  V + U    V (t)  j V  t V (t ) U (t )  V U   However.Time Harmonic Quantities V(t) A c A R e V   1-15 Φ c V ( x. y.

Complex Vectors Transform each component of a time harmonic vector function into complex form 1-16 V ( t )  Re V e j t   V   ˆ xVx e jx  ˆ yVy e j y  ˆ zVz e jz ˆ ˆ ˆ V (t )  xVx cos( t  x )  yVy cos( t   y )  zVz cos( t  z ) .

1.16] 1-17     y ωt = 3π/2 ˆ ˆ A(t )  Re ( x  jy )(cos t  j sin t ) ˆ ˆ A(t )  x cos t  y sin t The direction of the vector varies with time.Example 1. ωt = π ωt = 0 x ωt = π/2 [Fig.8] .15 ˆ ˆ Let A  x  jy  A(t )  Re Ae jt  ˆ ˆ A(t )  Re ( x  jy )e jt [p.

1-18 .

16 [p.16] Recall from example 1.15 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A  x  jy and A(t )  x cos  t  y sin  t  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Let B  j ( x  jy )  jx  y and B (t )   x sin  t  y cos t  ˆ A  B  z (A x B y  A y B x )    (1)(1)  ( j )( j )  (1)  (1) 0 AB  0   However.Example 1. A(t )  B (t )  0 1-19 ˆ ˆ A(t )  B (t )  z  cos 2  t  sin 2  t   z  0 (x-formation only for basic vector NOT products )   .

Time Average of Harmonic Quantities 1-20 1 T V (t )   V0 cos( t   ) dt  0 T 0 [p.17]   1 2      f Not true for products  T = 1 V (t )  T 2 0 T V0 2 cos 2 ( t   ) dt 1  cos[2( t   )]   dt 2    2 V02 T [p.17] 0 T V02 V (t )  2 [p.17] .

Example Usual 60 [Hz] power 1-21 V (t)  0 but     time average power V 2 (t)  0 A Quick!!! way to compute the time average of the cross products of two time harmonic vectors is given below A(t)  B (t)  1 Re A  B*   2   time-average rule [1.19] .