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LINSEED (FLAXSEED), MILK COMPOSITION AND METHANE (May 14, 2011)

BACKGROUND (Woods et al. 2005): "Traditionally grown for industrial purposes, linseed is rich in EFA, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, but is highly unpalatable to both humans and animals. However, plant breeders have produced new edible varieties. Linseed may contain 40% oil, 95 % of which can be extracted. Linseed meal composition is variable depending upon the extraction process. Current recommendations for the use of rape meal suggests 20% for ewes, 5% in lambs, 25% in dairy and beef cattle. (Machmuller, A. et al. 1998) examined the potential of various feeds to reduce methane in vitro. Coconut oil, sunflower seed and linseed decreased CH4 release by 43, 23 and 20% respectively, and indicated that the relatively small effect of linseed was unexpected, perhaps because it may have protected to a higher degree than in the sunflower seed.

In their review (Singh et al. 2011) conclude that linseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich content of linolenic acid, lignans and fiber.Lignans phytoestrogens appear to have anti-carcinogenic effects.

DAIRY CATTLE (Kennelly 1996) reviewed the FA composition of milk, mainly cow's, as influenced by feeding oil seeds, including canola, soy, safflower, soy, sunflower, cotton and linseed. Table 1 in the paper compares FA profile of oil seeds. Cows fed protected linseed oil and safflower oil produced milk > 30% and 20% respectively of 18:2 and 18:3, compared to 3 and 1% in controls. Author indicated that upper limits to level of unsaturated FAs are dictated by the effect of these acids on the processing quality of milk and milk production, and not by the ability of the udder to secrete them. The inclusion of unprocessed or rolled flaxseed reduces SCFA and SFA in milk and increases LCFA and unsaturated FA; however the magnitude of the effect is much less than observed when linseed oil is protected from rumen bio H or infused directly into the abomasum or small intestine. The author cites Khorasani and Kennelly, 1994, that compared a TMR 60% concentrate 40% forage, and that included a control diet, unprocessed whole flaxseed at 10%, rolled flaxseed 10% and a 50:50 mixture of rolled flaxseed and rolled canola seed also at 10% of the diet. Control 31.0 a 3.34 29.66 a 2.41 b 0.47 c whole flax 28.5 b 3.54 24.43 b 2.45 b 0.77 b rolled flax 31.5 a 3.32 22.33 c 3.10 a 1.04 a mixture 33.6 a 3.34 23.44 bc 2.41 b 0.76 b

Milk FCM, kg/d Fat, % 16:0 18:2 18:3

. (Weill & et al. 2002) investigated the effect of linseed-based diets given to dairy cows
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(1000g/d or 5% of diet), laying hens (13 g/d, 10%), pigs (62 g/d, 2,5%) and broilers (4 g/d, 3.5%), when the animal product was subsequently offered to human volunteers. Linseed was cooked/extruded and reached 75% free fat/total fat, to inactivate lipases and cyanogenic anti nutritional factors. Volunteers were given either a full dose (all meals controlled, and either free or with linseed-based animal products) or a half dose (the lunch was freely chosen by the volunteers). The omega 6/omega 3 ratio for control and linseed animal products was as follows: milk 7 and 3 respectively; eggs 15 and 2; pork 7 and 3; broilers 10 and 3. Serum lipids in full dose volunteers has sign less 16:0, more 18:2 c9 t11, more 18:3 n3, 20:5 n3, 22:5 n3, more omega 3 and a lower ratio 6/3 of 14.2 vs 10.2. Similar trends in the half-dose group, with little difference relative to the full dose group. (Luna et al. 2005) studied the effect of cheese processing on its content of CLA in two commercial cheeses during the manufacturing stages.Total CLA concentrations ranged from 7.5-7.9 mg/g fat and rumenic acid represented >80% of total CLA. Processing had negligible effects on CLA content, and the stability of rumenic acid during manufacturing was confirmed. (Glasser et al. 2008) conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of oilseed supplements on the composition of cow milk. In essence, they confirmed the plasticity of the milk's fatty acid composition, with the widest variation accounted for by medium sized FAs, in comparison with the C18s. However, relative to basal levels, trans 18:1 and PUFA, including CLA,showed very large variations. Oils, compared to with seeds, induced large percentage of vaccenic and tended to decrease C6 to C12 more. A large amount of information derived from 145 experiments was summarized in tables. (Martin et al. 2008) examined the effect of linseed supplementation to dairy cows on the milk and CH4 output: Control Linseed (5.7% Extruded linseed Linseed oil, 5.8% crude + 12.4% + wheat (21.2%) linseed meal) 21.5 a 20.8 ab 18.9 b 23.1 a 18.9 b 16.9 b 45.4 a 35.3 b 32.3 b 19.5 a 16.7 b 14.7 b 369 b 256 c 149 d 29.0 a 25.7 a 15.7 b

Milk, kg/d FCM, kg/d Fat, g/kg DMI, kg/d CH4, g/d CH4, % of milk energy output

23.0 a 23..4 a 41.1 a 19.8 a 418 a 33.8 a

(Bork & et al. 2008) evaluated supplementing rolled flaxseed on two commercial dairies for a total of 195 animals. Flaxseed was 0.85 kg DM/d.cow. Flaxseed increased 18:0, 18:1, and 18:3 n3, without affecting milk yield (36.49 kg/d), milk protein, protein yield, milk fat (3.34%) or milk fat yield.
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The same authors, (Bork et al. 2010) evaluated the same diets in 3 dairies. Cows fed flaxseed has greater proportion of rumenic acid, 18:3 n3 and 20:= and a lesser proportion of 20:3 n6 when compared with the control diets. Treatment did not affect milk components, days open, pregnancies per AI at 1st or 2d service or pregnancy loss. (Chilliard et al. 2009)studied the effect of linseed on milk fatty acids and methane production in dairy cows 213 DIM with an average milk yield of 23.4 kg/d and BW of 672kg. Experimental diets included 58.7% maize silage, 6.4% grass hay and 34.9% concentrates.

Crude linseed, Extruded Linseed meal 12.4%+5.5% linseed + 14.3% + 5.8% extruded extruded oil wheat, and wheat, 21.2%; 5.7% linseed 0% linseed meal meal Diet EE, % 2.6 5.2 5.7 8.0 Total DMI,kg 11.7 11.7 9.0 7.7 Milk, kg 23.0 a 21.5 a 20.8 ab 18.9 b Milk fat, % 4.11 4.54 3.53 3.23 Fat yield, g/d 950 a 965 a 709 b 622 b Protein yield, g/d 776 a 733 ab 680 bc 644 c PUFAs, % 4.42 c 3.45 d 63.94 b 8.48 a CLA, % 0.84 b 0.48 c 1.33 a 0.66 bc For Methane results see (Martin et al. 2008) above. A strong correlation, R2= 0.95 between methane output and a number of milk FAs is reported, and a simpler equation R2=0.93: CH4 output, g/d= - 100.8 x (t16 18:1 + c14 18:1) + 6.78 x (16:0) + 13.1 Forage intake - 80.1 More generally, methane output increased linearly with milk 8:0 to 16:0 (R2=0.88) decreased linearly with C18 (R2=0.88), and decreased asymptotically with t16 18:1 + c14 18:1 (R2=0.88), and with c9,t14 18:2 (R2= 0.83). The authors conclude that a 5% supplementation of lipids from linseed changes milk FA composition, with a marked effect of the physical form of linseed oil, and that inhibition of milk fat secretion simultaneously with decreased CH4 increases with the theoretical availability o linseed oil in the rumen and the appearance of high concentrations of several trans FA. (Laurain & et al. 2010) report in brief abstract,a study carried out on 15 organic dairy farms using stored grass diets supplemented either with linseed meal (11 farms), or extruded whole linseed (4 farms), with average supplementation of 2.1kg/cow and 0.9 kg/cow respectively. Compared with the control month, both groups showed a significant improvement in the milk fatty acid profile, with a decrease in 16:0, and an increase in 18:3.Methane output was calculated based on the fatty acid profile of milk; all equations
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Control, including 10.6% linseed meal

showed a reduction of CH4 output compared to the control. Milk yields were not altered. (Petit 2010) recently reviewed the feed intake, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows fed flaxseed.Linseed contains 55% of the total fatty acids as alpha-linolenic acid and is rich in lignans, which are strong antioxidants.. In general, feeding up to 15% of total DM as whole linseed has a limited effect on intake; heat treatment such as micronization and extrusion have no effect on dry matter intake. Responses to supplementation in early lactation have been neutral. The extent of change in the concentration of fatty acids in milk is generally proportional to the level of inclusion of linseed in the diet. "In conclusion, feeding linseed does not affect milk production or composition (fat%) in the large majority of studies, but its long-term effects on health of cows and productivity still need to be determined". "Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) contains about 40%oil, 20%protein, and 30%n eutral detergent fiber (Petit 2002, 2003), which makes it an interesting feed ingredient for inclusion in lactating dairy cows rations as a source of both energy and protein. Flaxseed has attracted attention as a lipid supplement for dairy cattle due to its high concentration of a-linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid that is not synthesized by mammals.". "Cyanogenic glycosides are the main anti-nutritional factors in flaxseed, which on enzymatic hydrolysis release hydrocyanic or prussic acid (Feng et al. 2003). According to Conn (1979), oral lethal doses for hydrocyanic acid in cattle are 2.0 mg/kg of body weight, which is equivalent to approximately 1300 mg for a 650-kg cow. Feeding 10%flaxseed in the diet of dairy cows and using an average concentration of 0.16 g of hydrocyanic acid per kilogram of seed (Brimer et al. 1983), consumption of hydrocyanic acid will average 352 mg/d , which is far below lethal levels. "

(da Silva-Kazama et al. 2011) "Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (FA) but there is little information on its value for dairy production. Monensin supplementation is known to modify biohydrogenation of FA by rumen microbes. Therefore, the main objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding a combination of monensin and flaxseed hulls on ruminal fermentation characteristics and FA profile of ruminal fluid and milk. Four ruminally fistulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 6655 d in milk were assigned to a 42 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were: 1) control, neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin; 2) diet containing (dry matter basis) 198% (dry matter basis) flaxseed hulls and 16 mg monensin/kg. Flaxseed hull supplementation decreased the acetate to propionate ratio in ruminal fluid and monensin had no effect. Concentrations of trans-18:1 isomers (trans9,trans11,trans13/14+6/8) and cis9,12,15-18:3 in ruminal fluid and milk fat were higher and those of cis9,12-18:2 in milk fat tended (P=0·07) to be higher for cows supplemented with flaxseed hulls than for cows fed no flaxseed hulls. Monensin had little effect on milk fatty acid profile. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better milk fatty acid profile than when feeding only flaxseed hulls."
(Bell et al. 2006) examined the effects of safflower oil, linseed oil, monensin and vitamin E on the CLA content of cow milk. The combination of safflower oil with monensin was particularly effective at increasing milk fat CLA, and the addition of vitamin E partially prevented milk fat depression associated with oilseed feeding. Cows were 213 DIM, and average weight of 607 kg.

Data for experiment 2 control control + 24 safflower safflower oil, 6% of same+ flax oil ppm oil, 6% of control diet + 24 ppm vit E 150 6% + vit Monensin control diet Monensin IU/kg E DM diet EE 6.50 10.49 9.04 9.2 8.89 9.78 DMI, kg 19.06 a 18.75 ab 18.81 ab 17.01 b 17.72 ab 17.76 ab Milk, kg 32.02 29.81 31.01 29.89 28.52 29.36 Fat, % 3.66 a 2.97 bc 3.26 ac 2.85 c 3.28 ac 3.30 ab Fat, kg/d 1.15 a 0.85 b 1.02 ab 0.86 b 0.92 b 0.96 b 9 c, 11 t CLA 0.68 d 4.12ab 3.48 bc 4.55 a 4.75 a 2.80 c 18:3 n3 0.41 b 0.32 c 0.33 c 0.32 c 0.32 c 0.73 a uns/sat 0.41 c 0.98 ab 0.93 b 1.04 a 0.99 ab 0.92b

drr
R2 between milk t11 18:1 and c9,t11 18:2 was 0.93.

(Sympoura et al. 2009) tested the effect of extruded linseed supplementation, with or without alpha-tocopherol, when added to a maize silage-based diet, on the odor compounds of Saint Nectaire cheese. Extruded linseed (3.4 kg) substituted for 3.6 kg concentrate. Cheese odor and flavor profiles were wtudied by sensory analysis. The cheese-making date had a greater effect than the diet on thearomatic profiles of the cheese, but differences between diets were significant (principal component analysis) and were repeatable. Linseed supplementation successfully enhanced cheese nutritional vlaue without noticeable changing its flavor, and tocopherol suplementation was found to be unnecessary since no oxidized odor developed. LAMBS (Wachira et al. 2002) compared MEGALAC (high 16:0; control diet), whole linseed, fish oil and whole linseed + fish oil in diets for growing lambs. Control % in diet LWG in Suffolk lambs g/kg MBS Cold carcass, kg Intake, g/kg W0.75 25.3 18.7 153 Linseed 10.5 25.2 19.7 141 Fish oil 3.6 18.1 19.2 96 linseed+fish oil 5.2+1.8 24.0 19.7 127

Total muscle FA conc ranged from 36.59 to 28.62 mg/g with no sig effect of diet. Animals on linseed contained 2x the intramuscular proportion of 18:3n3 than control. CLA was higher on linseed and linseed-fish: 1.0, 1.9, 1.1 and 1.9 for control, linseed, fish oil and linseed+fish.

DAIRY EWES AND GOATS (Gagliostro 2004) reviewed the literature regarding the effects of supplementation with oil seeds cakes on the fatty acid profile of goat's milk and concluded that linseed oil, among others, decreased the omega 6-omega 3 ratio, and that this and other modifications (see Table below) can be sustained over time citing (Chilliard et al. 2003): Control milk, kg/d fat, g/kg CLA, % 18:3n3 rtAthero index 2.86 25.5 a .6 a .4 b 2.92 a linseed oil 3.12 28.6 b 1.4 c 1.7 c 1.21 a linseeds 2.91 31.5 b .6 c 1.2 d 1.61 b sunflower oil 3.15 30.7 b 2.3 b .5 b 1.36 c sunflower seeds 3.11 31.3 b .8 d .5 a 1.48 bc soy beans 3.37 29.6 b .4 a .4 b 1.52

(Chilliard & Ferlay 2004) reviewed the interaction between lipid supplementation and forages on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition. Lipid supplementation of cow's diets frequently results in:  a tendency to increase milk production,particularly with soybean and saturated lipids  a systematic decrease in protein contents (frequently -0.5 to -1.0 g/kg)  limited variations of fat content, except with rape seed (-3 to - 5 g/kg, unless heated rape seeds are used) and fish oil (up to -9 g/kg) which induce sharp decreases  Linseed oil -0.9 g/kg of protein and -1.8 g/kg fat, while equivalent figures for linseeds (whole, rolled or ground) were -0.5 and +0.3 respectively. Note that vegetable oils cakes are not included in this review  strong increases in fat with encapsulated vegetable oils (+6.4 g/kg, and +120 g/d fat yield) In contrast, nearly all types of lipid supplements increase goat's milk fat without modifying milk yield or protein content. Also in goats, they report a correlation of 0.99 between vaccenic and rumenic acids in milk. The potential to decrease C10 to C16 in goats milk is large: with a hay-based diet they represented 59% of milk fat, and decreased to 38% after linseed oil supplementation or 33% with linseed oil + vitamin E. Stearic acid can be increased as well as oleic. It is recommended that the ration cis 18:1 to 18:0 be increased to reduce butter firmness and improve its nutritional quality. For example, the oleic acid of cow's milk "was increased by 1.18 to 1.34 when adding either sunflower or linseed oil to the diet, and these responses were dose-dependent and more marked with grass silage than maize silage". In goats the highest oleic content (more than 24% of total FA) can be obtained with high-oleic sunflower oil or with oil seeds in the order lupin > soybean > linseed > sunflower.

Effects of linseed oil, vitamin E or extruded linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid
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composition of goats receiving a low forage:concentrate ration (40% alfalfa hay, 29% starch) Control Linseed oil, Oil + vit E (1250 Extruded 70% linseed 4.4% of diet IU/d.animal) 30% wheat (=4.3% linseed oil in diet DM) Milk, kg/d 4.39 a 4.28 a 4.74 b 4.26 a Fat, g/kg 27a 33.3 b 34.8 b 35.4 b Fat yield, g/d 120 a 141 b 166 c 150 bc 18:1 c9 14.4 a 13.3 a 13.3 a 14.6 b Desaturation 0.71 c 0.61 b 0.58 ab 0.56 a index Desaturation index= oleic / (stearic+oleic) Linseed decreased linoleic and increased linolenic acid in cows and goats. Consumption of 200-400 g/d linolenic acid from extruded rape seeds and/or linseeds increased cow milk linolenic percentage by 3-6 mg/g, but in goats linolenic increased more (+19 mg/g). . (Bouattour et al. 2006) examined the effect of using linseed oil or linseeds on the content of CLA of the milk of Lacaune ewes. Linseeds and linseed oil constituted 15.3% and 5% of the concentrate respectively; the diet was 55% dehydrated fescue+alfalfa, and 45% concentrate. Results follow: Control 2.65 a 1.91 5.70 a 5.24 0.65 a 4.03 a 2.66 a Linseeds 2.72 b 1.86 5.85 b 5.21 0.60 a 4.68 b 2.31 b Oil 2.70 b 1.87 6.09 c 5.18 1.23 b 4.54 b 2.38 b

DM intake, kg/d Milk, l/d Fat, % Protein, % Rumenic acid, % PUFA, % Atherog. index

(Vasta et al. 2008) in their review of the literature indicate that "Extruded linseed cake (ELC) was a suitable supplement to enhance the nutritional profile of milk fat in goats in advanced lactation, fed a dry diet (Nudda et al., 2006). The addition of ELC to supply 32 g/d of lipids per goat decreased milk concentration of C14:0 and C16:0 FA nd increased the contents of trans-vaccenic acid (0.70mg/100mg versus 1.39mg/100mg of FA) and cis 9, trans 11 CLA (0.63mg/100mg versus 1.05mg/100mg of FA) compared o the milk of the non-supplemented group. Nudda et al. (2005a) showed an even greater increase in trans-vaccenic acid and CLA in milk, when linseed was supplemented to early lactating goats. In this experiment, the linseed supplementation during a 2-week period 31 g/d of lipids per goat) significantly increased the content of C18:3 n-3, overall n-3 FA, nd total CLA isomers in milk. Moreover, cis 9, trans 11 CLA increased about three times compared to the pre-supplement period (1.93mg/100mg versus 0.60mg/100mg of FA,
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respectively). The cis 9, trans 11 CLA content observed using extruded linseed cake are in line with previous observations in goats supplemented with extruded linseed (Chilliard and Ferlay, 2004). A marked effect on milk cis 9, trans 11 CLA content was observed also by supplementing free linseed oil (Chilliard et al., 2003; Chilliard and Ferlay, 2004), probably due to a decrease in ruminal biohydrogenation and subsequent increase in rumen escape of the unsaturated fatty acids. On the contrary, the supplementation of whole cottonseed to early lactation goats for 2 weeks, in order to supply 32 g/day of lipids per goat, did not cause substantial variations in milk FA pro?le. Only the content of C14:0 was signfiicantly lower than that of the pre-supplement period (6.17mg/100mg versus 7.24mg/100mg of FA) (Nudda et al., 2005a)." (Luna et al. 2008) examined the effect of a diet enriched in whole linseed and sunflower oil on the fatty acid profile of goat milk. Goat milk is an alternative for consumers who are allergic to cow's milk. They used 6 Murciano-Granadina goats (DIM= 32). At the beginning of the experiment they received a typical lactation diet, forage:concentrate 40:60, and after one month were switched to a similar ration including sunflower oil (0.81%) an whole linseed (1.84%).

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Days of supplemented diet 0 Control 15 30 60 90 milk g/d 2917 a 2931 a 2852 ab 2770 b 2740 b fat, g/d 121.8 a 12.5 ab 114.3 bc 102 bcd 117 cd t 11 18:1 1.38 b 3.59 a 3.65 a 3.68 a 4.05 a c9, t11 18:2 0.46 b 0.93 a 0.96 a 1.2 a 1.18 a t18:3 0.35 c 0.54 ab 0.45 a 0.62 a 0.56 a The coefficient of determination between rumenic and vaccenic acid in milk was 0.93. See paper for numerous CLA isomers.

(Bernard et al. 2009) researched the effect of sunflower and linseed oils on the milk fatty acids and lipogenic gene expression of goats fed hay-based diets. 13 Alpine goats 77 DIM were assigned to a replicated 3 x 3 latin square with 28-d experimental periods, with 4-5 animals per group.Natural grassland hay was offered ad lib plus a concentrate with either 130 g linseed oil or 130 g sunflower oil.

DMI, kg/d Milk , g/d Fat, g/kg Protein,g/kg 4.0+ 6:0 + 8:0 10 + 12 + 14:0 16:0 t11 18:1 Sum CLA 18:3 n3 18:2 n6 n6:n3(mis clculos)

control 2.28 3340 32.3 a 29.3 a 7.73 ab 29.04 a 28.95a 1.61 a 1.01 a 1.9 b 2.27 b 1.19

sunflower 2.25 3320 37.9 ab 30.1 ab 8.65 b 21.02 b 21.43 b 11.23 b 4.83 b 0.73 a 2.80 c 3.84

linseed 2.23 3300 37.4 b 30.4 b 8.88 b 21.82 b 20.33 b 9.77 b 4.79 b 1.40 c 1.70 a 1.21

(Gmez-Corts et al. 2011) studied the composition of residual and available milk from ewes fed diets supplemented with different vegetable oils. Available means that it can be milked with conventional procedures, whereas residual is that obtained after oxytocin injection or lamb suckling. Residual milk represented 12% of total milk and its fat percentage was higher than that of available milk (11.7 versus 8.8%). the fatty acid profile of both milk was similar.

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Available milk: Hydrogenated palm oil 30 4.7 1202 8.50 0.45 0.74 0.35 Olive oil 30 4.8 1153 9.63 0.39 2.09 1.00 Soybean oil 30 4.7 1174 8.27 0.50 6.55 2.62 Linseed oil 30 4.7 833 8.61 0.93 4.12 1.68

g/d Diet EE, % Milk, g/d Fat, % 18:3 n3 t11 18:1 c9,t11 18:2

(Chilliard et al. 2007) reviewed the feeding factors that affect rumen biohydrogenation

and milk fatty acids in cows and goats. Feeding conditions considered include grazed pasture, hay and grass silage, maize silage, legume silage, the effect of concentrate/forage ratio, lipid supplements. They note that goats do not show milk fat depression associated with plant oil PUFA added to high concentrate diets. As in cows, the potential to decrease milk medium-chain saturated fatty acids is large (10:0 to 16:0); for example, with hay based diets they represent 59% of milk fat, and fell to 38% after linseed oil supplementation or to 33% if vitamin E was added to linseed. Linseed decresaes 18:2 in n6 goat and increases 18:3 n3. Nevertheless, there is interaction with the diet, and 18:3 n3 increases more in goats fed hay-based diets than in high concentrate diets or maize silage; this trend is opposite to what is observed in cows. Linseed has effects similar to pasture, although they have an additive effect, increasing trans 18:1 and conjugated or non conjugated 18:2. The goat seems to respond better in terms of 18:3 n3 and c9t11 CLA than cows. The authors conclude that further evaluation of the effects of lipid supplements on sensorial quality is required. (Nudda et al. 2008) studied the relationship between the contents of vaccenic acid, CLA and n3 fatty acids of goat milk and the muscle of their suckling kids, and found that they are strongly correlated. (Peng et al. 2010) examined the effect of supplementing ewes with either sunflower seed, safflower seed, rapeseed or linseed ont he fatty acid composition of different tissues, inclusind longissismus lumborum muscle, tail fat, subcutaneous back fat and kidney fat. Average over all tissues, safflower and sunflower were most effective in increasing CLA. Linseed ewes had significantly lower n6/n3 ratio. The magnitdue of all changes varied between tissues. (Tsiplakou et al. 2008): a number of studies have sown that rumenic acid is generally higher in sheep milk than in goat milk, but this may be due to dietary differences. In this experiment 12 dairy ewes and 12 goats were subjected to slightly different diets in phase I and to similar diets in phase II. Phase I diets were 60/40 forage/concentrate for ewes and 43/57 for goats. Diet ingredients were the same in both cases. In Phase II both species were fed 56/44 forage/concentrate diets. The results show that diets in phase I changed
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significantly the milk FA profile but with no difference in RA or VA acids. In phase II, sheep milk had higher RA and VA compared to goats. In conclusion, these findins support the hypothesis that there are species differences in RA and VA production. (Tsiplakou et al. 2010) compared goat and ewe milk produced in conventional vs certified organic farms in Greece. Organic milk had higher nutritional value, due to is FA profile, and it was associated with feeding practices differing between both systems. Organic milk was higher in rumenic acid and omega 3 fatty acids. (Addis et al. 2009) studied the effect of supplementing linseed to grazing ewes (annual ryegrass) on the composition of cheese, as follows: no suppl., 900 g/d cereal-based concentrate; 900 g/d containing 10% sunflower seeds and 12% linseed (high in 18:2), and 900 g/d containing 3% sunflower plus 24% linseed (diet high in C18:3):

linoleic acid mg/g fat linolenic omega 3 omega 6 omega3:/6 CLA, c9,t11

grazing only 8.72 c 9.17 a 19.34 a 12.37 c 1.62 a 20.00 a

cereal conc 15.19 a 6.81 cc 13.88 a 18.91 a 0.74 b 15.53 c

18:2 21.60 a 7.97 ac 15.06 a 26.43 a 0.57 b 24.90 a

18:3 18.3 ab 11.01 a 20.56 a 22.69 a 0.92 a 24.53 a

(Mele et al. 2007) and (Mele et al. 2011) supplemented dairy ewes with extruded linseed in a commercial dairy sheep flock in Tuscany, Italy, for 10 weeks, beginning in early lactation after lamb weaning.The linseed diet included 30% extruded linseed; EE was 2.9 and 9.7% for the control and linseed diets respectively. Two groups of 24 Sarda ewes in early lactation were randomly assigned to control concentrate (800 g/d concentrate, C) or whole extruded linseed concentrate (L, 700 g/d, with 30% of extruded linseed, Omega-Lin). Results showed that, after 2 weeks on the L diet, the milk content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), including rumenic acid (RA), vaccenic acid (VA) and alfa-linolenic acid (ALA) increased sharply compared to C group, reaching the highest levels after 7-8 weeks (3.06, 7.31 and 2.31 g/100 g milk fat for RA, VA and ALA, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of the experimental period, when pasture was included in the diet of both groups, the content of the above fatty acids slightly decreased in milk from L group, whereas in milk from C group increased. Nevertheless, the average content of these fatty acids in milk from L group remained significantly higher than that of milk from C group. Compared with the control, the L diet resulted in a significant reduction (-17%) in the concentration of saturated fatty acid in milk. The fatty acid content of the cheese obtained from milk of the two groups reflected the milk fatty acid composition. The inclusionof extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes improved the nutraceutical properties of milk and cheese, but further researches are needed in order to better understand the relationship between basal diet and lipid supplementation in dairy ewes.
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The milk was processed into Peccorino cheese which was analyzed with 30 d of maturity. Practically all FAs significantly differed between the cheeses of both diets. Some important significant differences were as follows: control 20.53 3.44 0.84 0.60 linseed 16.04 10.57 2.50 2.10

16:0 total trans 18:1 c9, t11 18:0 9,12,15 cis 18:3

The linseed cheese contained 3 times more 18:3 n3 than the control cheeses, and was equivalent to 2.1g/100 g lipid or 0.54 g/100 g cheese, that would qualify it for a claim of "source of omega-3" according to 1924/2006 CE and 116/2010 CE regulations.

HUMAN SUBJECTS (Pan et al. 2009) conducted a meta analysis of human clinical trials that investigated the effects of linseed and linseed-derived products (oil, lignans). Linseeds reduced total and LDL cholesterol, but linseed oil did not. No significant changes were found in HDL and TG concentrations. Changes depended on the type of intervention, sex and initial lipid profiles of the subjects. (van Wijlen & Colombani 2010) reviewed the reports on the human intake of CLA, including vaccenic acid and its induction of endogenous CLA synthesis. Exogenous CLA supply from milk, cheese, lamb and beef from grass-based ruminant production methods was calculated to be about double that of estimated based on intensive production methods, resulting in an estimated achievable CLA intake (including VA bioconversion) of between 711 and 1107 mg/d. References:

Addis, M., Cabiddu, A. & Decandia, M., et al. 2009, 'Effects of different fat-enriched concentrates on fatty acid profile of cheese from grazing dairy sheep', Italian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 8, no. suppl. 2, pp. 378-380. Bell, J. A., Griinari, J. M. & Kennelly, J. J. 2006, 'Effect of Safflower Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Monensin, and Vitamin E on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Bovine Milk Fat', Journal of dairy science, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 733-748. Bernard, L., Leroux, C., Faulconnier, Y., Durand, D., Shingfield, K. J. & Chilliard, Y.
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