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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEWS

In this chapter, the writer will explain some theories which are considered to be related to this study. This chapter contains of three parts. First is review of related studies contain of some previous studies which are related to this study. Second is review of related theories consist of some theories which will be applied to analyze this study. And the third is theoretical framework which contains of explanation about the functions of those studies and theories, and also the application of those theories and studies to this study. A. Review of Related Studies In the beginning scene of the movie, Aileen says, I always wanted to be in movies. She speaks over images of young blonde girl dancing in front of a mirror. As another young girl, she has a beautiful dream and she often dreams about her future. Instead of being in the movies, Aileen becomes the victim of child abuse and suffer in her childhood. From Aileens words above, what she wanted most is to be loved (http : //www.lotsofessays.com/ viewpaper/ 1685978.html). From the related study above, it shows that there is a close relation between a person and an environment. Aileen has a beautiful dreams about her future but unfortunately, she cannot make it come true. Aileens words about her dream to be in the movie breaks into pieces when she becomes a victim of child

abuse and of course her dream becomes too remote to reach. From the explanation of the related study above, all Aileen needs is love because she never had proper and tender love from her family which later makes her becomes so careless about her life. Another related study is taken from the previous thesis done by Didik Kurnianto Raharjo who analyzes the effect of environment towards the main characters personality development. Raharjo states, As we know that the environment or society condition will influence someones life either directly or indirectly. Personality is greatly influenced by the society of the individual. For example, when a child lives in a bad society with high crime rate, he would become criminal (Raharjo, 1994: 64). From the quotation above, it explains that personality of a person is greatly influenced by the society he lives in. Family environment takes a big part in someones personality and society takes the second part in someones life. When a person lives in bad environment, he can become bad, rude, and even become a criminal. The quotation above totally supports the topic of this thesis that Aileen grows up in bad society environment especially her family environment and the impact of those environments deeply influence her life. She becomes a prostitute, alcoholic, even becomes a murderer. Another study is written by Erica Graham states that, "Monster" in some ways portrays the life of a victim. Through flashbacks to her childhood and the mention of it later in the film, the audience is made of aware of the sexual abuse that the young Aileen endured. Research has shown that there are several aspects of an abusive childhood that remain with the child for the rest her life. The impact of child abuse alone, whether physical, sexual or emotional, can over time result in disruptions of mood, including depression and anxiety, and in antisocial

traits such as aggression, criminal behavior and impulse control (http : //serendip.brynmawr.edu/ bb/ neuro/ neuro04/ web1/ egraham.html). The statement above clearly states that bad childhood experience for example sexual abuse completely give huge effect to someones life. Aileen is also experiencing this kind of experience when she was a kid. So, it really give bad effect to the rest of her life such as sexual, emotional impact, social traits like aggression and criminal behavior. Another article in washingtonpost.com by Sue Russell mentions that, "Monster" conveniently transforms her into something we can stomach far more easily than we can a woman who's a ruthless robber and murderer. It perpetuates the comforting yet erroneous belief that women only kill when provoked by abuse. But women kill for other reasons, too, as Aileen's real life amply demonstrated (http : //www.washingtonpost.com/ ac2 /wpdyn/A20626-2004Feb6?language=printer). The quotation above shows that there are some causes that make a woman can kill. It is not only about abusing but also other reasons that can force Aileen to be a ruthless murderer. Sue Russell is a journalist in Los Angeles and the author of Lethal Intent published by Pinnacle Books. The book contains Aileen Wuornos biography from her childhood to adult life and all the stories about the murder she has done. As how the script describes it, Aileen says she hates 'hooking' and desperately trying to get away from that lifestyle and do something better for her. She needs money for her and Selby, so she decides that she can force herself to find another better job and she believes that she can do it because she has Selby as her motivation. But in fact, she cannot do anything because she does not have any skills for finding better job then she becomes the hitchhiker prostitute again but

then she always commits a murder although there is no sexual abuse done by the men. By looking the excerpt from the script, it relates to Russells explanation that Aileen can be a murderer for other reasons instead of sexual abuse.

B. Review of Related Theories This subchapter consists of some theories that will be applied to do the analysis. 1. Theory of Character According to M. H. Abrams in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms, character is a person presented in a work and the person is interpreted by the reader through his speech and action. Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say and what they do (1993: 23). The quotation above also explain that a character in a work usually interpreted by the reader through his dialogue, action, and motivation. Motivation means characters temperament, desires, and moral nature for their speech and actions. Moreover, based on the role, character can be categorized into two parts, a. Major Character A major character is the most important or central person on the story. Usually, the story is always focused on this character from the beginning to the end of the story.

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b. Minor Character A minor character appears in certain setting to support and become the background of major character because they are not fully developed and just help the major character to reveal his characterization to the readers (Abrams, 1981: 20).

2. Theory of Characterization In Understanding Unseens: an Introduction to English Poetry and English Novels for Overseas Students, M. J. Murphy states that there are nine ways which the author usually uses to understand the characters easily. a. Speech The author gives an insight into the character of one of the persons in the book through what the persons says. Whenever a person speaks, whenever he is conversation with another, whenever he puts forward an opinion, he is giving the reader some clues to his character (1972: 164). b. Past Life Letting the reader learn something about a persons past life can give the reader a clue to events that have helped to shape a persons character. This can be done by a direct comment by the author, through the persons thoughts, through his conversation or through the medium of another person (1972: 166).

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c. Reactions The author can give the reader a clue to a persons character by letting the reader know how that person reacts to various situations and events (1972: 168). d. Direct Comment The author can describe or comment on a persons character directly (1972: 171). e. Thoughts The author can give the reader direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about. It can be seen by the readers but cannot be seen by other characters in the story (1972: 171). f. Mannerism The author can describe a persons mannerisms and habits, which may also tell us something about his character (1972: 173).

3. The System of Personality

a.

The Id Id lays in the unconscious level of mind, the wildest part of personality anatomy and contains of any human desires. According to Larry A. Hjelle and Daniel J. Ziegler in Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research, and Applications, the Id defines as follow,

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The Id is raw, animalistic, unorganized, knows no rules, obeys no rules, and remains basic to the individual throughout life. Operating on primitive basis, it is free from all inhibitions (1981: 33). The Id is not governed by law of reason or logic, and it does not possess values, ethics, or morality. It is driven by one consideration only, to obtain satisfaction. This anatomy of personality does not change, time will not modify its existence and it cannot be changed by the experience because Id has no contact with external world. However, Id can be controlled by the Ego. b. The Superego As human being, people live in society and there are some social rules that need to be obeyed when people interact with the society. In term of psychoanalysis, this matter belongs to the Superego. The Superego is the part of personality anatomy which becomes the moral or judicial part of personality. The Superego exists because of the social experience or parents role in childs life, so people are not born with Superego. As Calvin S. Hall in Freudian Psychology quotes, The Superego is the representative in the personality of the traditional values and ideals of society as they are handed down from parents to children (1954: 34). The Superego conveys rewards and punishments from parents to their child. There are physical and psychological effects to the child; physical rewards can be a thing desired by the child such as toys. Physical punishments are painful assaults upon the body such as spanking or deprivation of the things child wants.

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c. The Ego The Ego is the part of personality anatomy which expresses and gratifies the desires of the Id in reality. The Ego is the executive of personality that controlling between the Id and the Superego to produce harmony of wishfulfillment. Calvin S. Hall in Freudian Psychology states, In the well-adjusted person, the Ego is the executive of personality, controlling and governing the Id and the Superego, and maintaining commerce with the external world in the interest of the total personality (1954: 28). In contrast to the Id, the Ego follows reality principle, means that the individual is able to inhibit, switch, or release the desires of the Id depends on social restriction and individuals conscience. The Ego takes an important part of the individual because it attempts to build harmony between the Id and the Superego.

4. The Nature of Anxiety Anxiety plays an important role in the development of personality. Anxiety is a painful emotional which is produced by the stimulus in the internal body. Richard A. Kalish states in The Psychological of Human Behavior, Anxiety, an emotional state closely related to fear, occurs when a person worries about what might happen in the future or when he is fearful about some vague or unknown thing that he cannot explain (1973: 133). In other words, a person can be unaware of the reason for his anxiety, but he cannot be unaware of the feeling of anxiety. The single function of anxiety is to act as a danger signal to the Ego, so when the signal appears in consciousness the

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Ego may institute measures to deal with the danger. Based on psychoanalytical theory there are three types of anxiety; a. Realistic Anxiety The emotional response to a threat of real danger in the external environment such as poisonous snakes, earthquakes, final exam, etc. It is synonymous with fear because it only responses to the real thing from external world (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981: 46). b. Moral Anxiety The emotional response to the threatened Ego by the punishment from the Superego. Moral anxiety occurs when the Id strives toward active expression of immoral thoughts or acts and then the Superego respond with feeling of shame, guilt, and self-condemnation (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981: 46). c. Neurotic Anxiety The emotional response to the threat of the Id that becomes conscious. Ego defenses are organized to hold down a persons Id impulses and neurotic anxiety. But when the Id impulses and anxiety meet the ego, ego should create ego defense mechanism. If it fails, the anxiety will take over the ego control (Hjelle and Ziegler: 1981: 46).

C. Theoretical Framework This study focuses on the domination of id as the result of Aileen Wuornos ego and superego malfunction. The theories explained above will support the analysis of Aileen Wuornos character and the personality system.

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Theory of intrinsic element of a literary work is character and characterization. This theory is used to analyze the character of Aileen Wuornos in the movie. Then, theory of system of personality is used to find out the personality system condition of Aileen Wuornos based on her id, ego, and superego. Theory of anxiety is used to support the condition of the id, because anxiety creates impulse in the Id which will be moved out by the Ego.