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# School of Physics and Astronomy

## Metamaterials and Invisibility

Ryan Botha Seumas Finlayson Arnold Layne Sean Marc Emlyn Pounder Alasdair Wilson Consulted on by Jamie Cole

February 2012

Abstract

Contents
1 Introduction 2 Background and Theory - Sean and Ryan 3 Hurdles - Seumas and Alasdair 4 Products - Emlyn and Ian 5 Conclusions 6 References 1 2 9 13 31 31

Introduction

## Background and Theory - Sean and Ryan

Transformation Optics Transformation optics (TO) is a design tool that can be used to create advanced electromagnetic media that allow for total control over electromagnetic elds. While the theory of TO is applicable to all forms of electromagnetic radiation the main area of interest, as the name suggests, is the visible region. TO provides a new option when it comes to the design of optical devices with it having both advantages and disadvantages over other techniques such as the ray approximation (ray tracing). By using TO to engineer space it is possible to control light in ways previously thought of as impossible. Incredible new optical devices have been theorised; some have even been created in prototype forms. It was one of these devices (the invisibility cloak) that created huge excitement in the general public and really drove the development of transformation optics [1]. Maxwells equations describe the inter-relationships between elds, sources and materials [2]. They therefore allow for the study of electromagnetic waves behaviour in dierent media. TO works by making use of the fact that Maxwells equations are form-invariant under a coordinate transformation. As an example to highlight the form-invariance of the equations an arbitrary transformation can be applied to Maxwells equations. For a xed frequency Maxwells equations can be written as [3]: E + iH = 0 H iE = 0 (1) (2)

Where E is the electric eld, is the angular frequency, H is the magnetic eld, is the permittivity tensor, and is the permeability tensor. Applying a coordinate transformation x = x (x) the equations become: E + i H = 0 H i E = 0 (3) (4)

It is clear that the basic structure of the equations (the form) is unchanged by the transformation. The only eect of the transformation is to scale the permittivity and permeability tensors by a factor depending on the Jacobian transformation matrix (a mathematical object) [3]. This knowledge has been around for a long time with the original work on studying the invariance of the equations being performed in main by Dolin [4], Post [5], and Lax-Nelson [6] during the 1960s. Dolin in his work even went as far as to theorise an inhomogeneous sphere that had no eect on incoming plane waves [4] giving the rst hint to the potential of transformation optics. The area was only re-established recently with papers [7,8,9] that built upon the work done previously that had for the most part been forgotten. Though being form invariant appears to be purely mathematical in nature it has profound physical eects. As discussed previously it is the materials physical characteristics; the permittivity and permeability ( and ) that determine its refractive index. Therefore 2

what TO allows is for an objective-orientated approach to be adopted. By transforming Maxwells equations, real space can be altered in such a way as to force light to behave in a predesigned fashion that depends on what function the device is supposed to achieve (for example forcing light to ow around a volume of space). The by-product of the transformation is that the physical characteristics of a medium that would result in the modelled behaviour are formulated. The formulated medium is often very complex with it usually being inherently anisotropic and inhomogeneous. The last step is to nd a material that satises the required constraints formulated by the transformation and design a working device from it. For this reason creating such a device with natural materials is extremely hard, however as discussed previously the conditions can be achieved with metamaterials. This is part of the reason why TO has only recently become an active area of interest in physics again [2]. TO enabled by metamaterials theoretically allows for the complete control of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. From Fermats principle it is known that light will always propagate so that the optical path is minimised:
B

S =
A

nds = 0

(5)

Where S is the change in optical path length which should be zero as the path from position A to B is an extremum. The refractive index, n, is in fact position dependent due to: n= (r)(r) (6)

Which means that the optical path length is dependent on position. In nature these paths are always straight lines due to the fact that for ordinary materials the refractive index is independent of position within the medium. Metamaterials however allow for the creation of a medium whose refractive index is spatially dependent. This means that it is possible to eectively curve optical space resulting in the ability to curve the ow of light. In this way TO appears similar to general relativity that states that time-space is curved. In fact the similarities between light propagation and eective space time geometries were studied in the (nd date) by Tamm [10, 11]. The eld of transformation optics therefore benets from the work done for general relativity and can make use of some of the tools developed for the study the subject [12]. With the development of TO a new way of designing optical devices has been created. Traditionally ray tracing (which uses approximate solutions to Maxwells equations) was used to study how light rays propagated through an optical system. However this method neglects the wave nature of light and therefore fails when the length scales involved result in diraction eects being signicant. As well as this the ray technique does not allow for the individual consideration of the electric and magnetic elds which becomes important for sub-wavelength devices. TO also has disadvantages one of which is the requirement, mentioned before, that the material used to create a TO device is intrinsically complex. However this problem can be overcome with metamaterials while the ray approximation technique suers from fundamental aws at certain length scales. The key advantage that 3

TO has is that it allows for the manipulation of the electric and magnetic lines of force. It was realised that eld lines of all the conserved quantities (the electric displacement D, the magnetic induction B, and the Poynting vector S) were merely rearranged under a coordinate transformation. The actual result of a coordinate transformation is to just drag the conserved quantities along with the distorted coordinates as if they were xed to the coordinate system. The result of such a transformation is shown in gure 1 to aid visualisation. Preforming a transformation not only gives the new values for and but also allows the designer to predict how the elds will be rearranged. Unlike the ray approach this new method provided by TO is exact to the level of Maxwells equations rather than an approximation of the solutions. [13]

Figure 1: To help visualisation of process this example is given. Starting with a Cartesian grid a eld line is represented by a darker line on the grid. This line could be the Poynting vector S, electric displacement eld D, or magnetic induction B. After an arbitrary transformation the gure shows how the eld line is dragged along with the coordinate system as if it was xed to it [13]. The important fact that the conserved quantities behave as if they are xed to the original coordinate system is completely independent of the transformation applied. To show this and study the basics of TO in a bit more detail one of the simplest transformations is examined. Transformation: Spatial Compression One of the simplest transformations that allows for a geometrical view of TO is a one dimensional compression of space. To study the eects of the compression the Poynting vector (which is the energy density ux of the light; giving the direction of propagation) will be examined before and after the transformation.

Figure 2: Poynting vector plotted for light propagating through vacuum before and after spatial compression of shaded area along the x-axis. Figure 2 highlights that altering the space through which light propagates has a direct impact on its path. Just by looking at the geometric representation of the system it is clear that the properties of the medium in the compressed region have been altered (for example a block of glass would have a similar eect on the lights optical path). By then formulating the material parameters of the compressed region a material could be designed that resulted in the predicted manner. An important feature of the gure is that the Poynting vector crosses all the same gridlines in the shaded region at the exact same points as before it is just that the spacing between those gridlines has been altered. To calculate the material parameters of the compressed region two test waves need to be sent into the system to probe the dierent components of and . One of the requirements that allows for the formulation of the components is that any wave passing through the compressed region must accumulate the same phase that it would have gained by travelling through the uncompressed region. By satisfying the situation for both the axes parallel and perpendicular to the compression the new values for and can be calculated as shown in [13]. The result is that the new values are dependent on the distortion applied to the system and it is the link between material parameters and applied distortions that TO is built. Figures 1 and 2 also highlight a few other important features of TO. The rst is that any transformation applied has to be local in nature. The reason for this is that the eventual goal of the transformation is to replace the transformed region with a medium designed to have the exact same eects. Therefore having a transformation that extends over all space would result in the material being required to extend over all space which is not only impractical but also impossible. Secondly the deformation of the grid lines also provides a way to visualise the eect of a transformation. It is important to note however that the transformation is just a re-expression of the coordinates and as such cannot aect the solutions to Maxwells equations.

Figure 3: Left-hand image shows untransformed solution plotted with respect to original Cartesian coordinate system while right hand image shows untransformed solution plotted with respect to transformed coordinates. [13]. By plotting any eld solution this eect can be studied. Plotting the untransformed solution in the original Cartesian coordinate system and the transformed solution in the transformed coordinate system results in exactly the same thing; shown in the left hand image of gure 3. The right hand image appears to show a new solution to Maxwells equations but is in fact due to the plotted solution and coordinate system being out of sync (one is transformed while the other is not). The wave fronts are now clearly distorted within the transformed region with them conforming to the grid lines. The result shown here is due to the fact that the elds associated with the wave solution behave as if they are xed to the original coordinate system as mentioned previously. Having examined the fundamentals upon which TO is built the next step is to try and gain an insight into the potential power that such a design technique allows. Doing so requires an investigation into the concept that was responsible for the initial growth in the area: the invisibility cloak. Invisibility cloak A perfect cloak is one that results in the production of no reections or shadows. In other words the cloak should not scatter the incoming waves in any direction, reections being caused by backward scattering while shadows are caused by forward scattering. In the same way that water ows around an obstacle, a cloak should take incoming electromagnetic waves and bend them around an object while making it appear as if nothing ever happened to the waves [2]. While fullling these requirements is still hugely dicult TO in conjunction with metamaterials has led to the creation of devices that render objects invisible for certain circumstances. The design process for these incredible devices is no dierent to the methods mentioned before. The desired behaviour of light is known and TO is employed so that a material can be designed to achieve that behaviour. The only dierence between what has been explored before and the design of an invisibility cloak is that the transformation required is more complex. It is important to mention at this stage that there are an innite number 6

of transformations that could be employed to achieve the required behaviour; it is just a matter of nding the one that results in the most appealing material parameters. As well as that the transformation applied has to insure that the criterion that the cloak be reection-less is fullled. To do this designers make use of a technique used throughout many areas of physics called impedance matching. By insuring that the cloaks surface matches the parameters of the medium that it is surrounded by it can be insured that there is no reection. Achieving this however is harder than it sounds as it eectively sets a boundary condition upon the cloak which has to be fullled eecting the transformation used. As an example a cloak surrounded by air would be required to have a refractive index of one, if that cloak was then submerged in water it would no longer result in no reection being produced. To aid understanding a simplistic example of a transformation that results in the required functionality will be explored.

Figure 4: Schematic showing a coordinate transformation that compresses a cylindrical region or radius b into a concentric shell with inner radius a and outer radius b. [2] The simple transformation utilised to achieve the required behaviour of light is shown above in gure 4. The mathematical form of the transformation is given by: a r = (1 )r + a b (7)

Where r is the transformed radius, r was the original radius, a and b are the extremities of the created cloak, and the other components of the cylinder (,z) are left unchanged. The transformation eectively expands the axis through the centre of the cylindrical region into a cylinder of radius a compressing the original volume of the cylinder into the region between a and b. The reason why this works to create an invisibility cloak can be thought of in terms of the fundamental behaviour of light. In the original system it is physically impossible for light to penetrate into the axis running through the centre of the cylinder. This is due to the very denition of an axis (or line) having no volume. After the transformation the line is converted into a cylinder with a nite volume however it is physically impossible for light to penetrate the surface of this new cylinder. The reason 7

for this is because of the fundamentals upon which TO is built. As discussed Maxwells equations are form invariant and this means that the laws governing light are the same before and after a transformation. Therefore due to the fact that light cannot penetrate a volume-less line in the original coordinate system the result is that it cannot penetrate the cylinder into which that line was transformed. Hence the transformation creates a volume of space that light cannot enter resulting in anything placed there being termed invisible. The exact same theory applies to transforming a volume-less point in space into a sphere with nite radius. Another way of visualising what occurs after the transformation is to think back to the points made that the conserved elds behave as if they are xed to the original coordinate system. By compressing the volume within the cylinder to the concentric shell between a and b the original grid lines are dragged in such a way as to leave the central region empty. This results in the eld lines being dragged with them and the light being guided around the central region and then exiting the cloak as if unaected.

Figure 5: Schematics showing how light entering cloak cannot penetrate central volume (inside of which anything placed would be invisible) and instead is guided around to exit cloak as if nothing happened. [8] The formulation of the new material parameters after the transformation is lengthy and involved but once again they are calculated using a Jacobian transformation matrix. Due to the original system being (free space) being isotropic and homogeneous the Jacobian matrix is purely diagonal resulting in the calculations being easier than for the general case. The results for the transformation from a cylinder of radius b to concentric shell with inner radius a and outer radius b are: r a r r = = r a b 2r a z = z = ( ) ba r r = r = 8 (8) (9) (10)

Where i and i (i can be either r, , or z) represent the dierent components of the permittivity and permeability tensors in the transformed space (meaning the required parameters of the material required to achieve the desired control of light), r is the radius in the transformed space, and a and b are the extremities of the cloak. Again it can be noted as before that the material parameters depend on the value of the compression applied by the transformation. As well as that fact it should also be noted that for certain values (such as the inner limit of the cloak where r = a) some of the material parameters become unphysical (go to innity). It is because of this that the realisation of a perfect has still not been achieved and why other more complex transformations may be used instead of this simple one. There are other diculties that need to be overcome before a perfect invisibility cloak and these are covered in more detail later in the paper. Could still discuss conformal mapping and its link to general relativity [1] Sun newspaper article on microwave invisibility cloak [2] metamaterials textbook transformation optics chapter [3] Milton et al On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form New J Phys 8, 247 (2006) [4] Dolin paper [5] Post paper [6] Lax-Nelson paper [7] Smith Pendry 1996 [8] Pendry smith paper controlling electromagnetic elds science [9] Ulf same issue as science as above [10] and [11] Tamm papers nd in textbook [12] Ulf 2006 New J Phys 8:247 [13] IEEE paper

## Hurdles - Seumas and Alasdair

The beginnings of the diculties section; gone through a couple of invisibility applications and pointed out potential aws, still got to go over the optical carpet cloak. In this section of the report, the specic hurdles involved in the making of an actual invisibility cloak will be explored. The section will be divided into three segments: the rst will explore the specic requirements for the making of a practical cloak; the second will look at prototype invisibility cloaks and their limitations, and the third will look at the steps that can be taken to overcome the problems highlighted in the rst segment. What is an invisibility cloak? In this article what constitutes a true cloaking device must be dened. Though some species of animals and humans with specic fabrics can camouage themselves by breaking up their outline or by blending in with their surroundings[1], this is not what this report means by invisibility. Other invisibility technologies, such as aircraft stealth technology, work by preventing information reaching the detector of returning signals, and other kinds, such as the a cloak developed at the University of Tokyo by Susumu Tachi and his team work on the principle of transmitting the image behind the invisibility device to and superimposing it on the concealed object, in order to blend it in with its surroundings. The type of cloak this report is interested in however is one that reduces both refection on incident waves (forward scattering) and prevents the concealed object

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Figure 1 Conguration of Optical Camouage This technology can be used to render surgical equipment invisible so as not to block a surgeons view during an operation, or to render aircraft oors invisible in order to assist in landings but it does also have its drawbacks. It could not be used in a military application, as the projector, concealed object and observer must be in a specic arrangement in order for RPT to work. The technology would not be useful in a scenario where it is a requirement that the observer is kept unaware of an object being concealed. Additionally, the outline of an object being concealed is clearly visible.[8] Even though the use of stealth technology and retro-reective technology can be used to provide invisibility of sorts, they do so without making use of meta-materials, which is the primary focus of this report. Invisibility cloaks making use of meta-materials A cloak developed by a team led by David Schurig and at Duke University has developed a cloak utilising meta-materials at Duke University. In this case, the object being cloaked is a conducting cylinder placed at the inner radius of the cloaked area. A cylinder is the largest and the most scattering object that can be hidden in a cloaking eld utilising cylindrical geometry.[9] The material used in the creation of this cloak was both anisotropic and inhomogeneous, with the required spatial diameters being determined by coordinate transformations, which will be explained in the next section.[10] The resulting cloak did not scatter the incident waves and cast no shadow behind it. This is in contrast to the techniques used for stealth technology in aircraft, which rely on preventing returning waves from reaching the detector, or from RPT technology, which makes a camouaged object appear to blend in with its surroundings. The design of this cloak compresses the space from a specic area or volume into a pre-determined shell around the object being cloaked, which is loacated within the cloaking devices concealment volume. This is due to the cloak having spacially varying (inhomogeneous) and directionally dependent (anisotropic) permittivity and permeability, resulting in the concealment volume appearing indistiuinguishable from free space by an observer. In other words, any object being placed in the concealment volume appears to be invisible in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.[11] The actual cloak consisted of ten concentric circles of the metamaterial, three unti cells tall with the spacing between each circle determined by the need to t an integral number of unit cells in each circle.[12] This results in the cloak only working in a two-dimensional situation; the conducting cylinder is still visible in the microwave spectrum if viewed from above. Figure X[13] displays both the computer simulations and the empirical results of the microwave cloak. Figure 3 A: Simulation of the cloak with the exact material requirements, B: Simulation of the cloak with reduced requirements due to approximations in the desing process, C: Emprical results of the uncloaked copper cylinder, D: Emprical results of the cloaked copper cylinder. The coloured bar on the right shows the instantaneous value of the microwave eld. If one compares C and D in Figure X, it can be seen that the cloak signicantly reduces both the reection of microwaves and the shadow produced by the copper cylinder. The wave-front can be seen to compress at the front of the cloak, move around the cloaked cylinder then reform at the back of the cloak, eectively rendering the object invisible in the microwave spectrum. Any imperfections 11

in the cloak can be attributed to approximations made in calculating the structure of the cloak, as well as abosorbtion of micrwaves by the meta-material itself.[14] This cloak demonstrates an eective way of concealing an object in the microwave spectrum, though it does have a number of drawbacks. Firstly, as mentioned previously, it is a microwave cloak and in no way conceals the object in the visible spectrum. This is another example of how a cloak may only be tailored to conceal an object in one spectrum, while doing nothing to conceal it in another. Another drawback is that it only works in two dimensions, not three, which would be needed to make an eective cloak in order to completely deceive an observer, which would be desirable in, for example, a military application of the cloak. The criteria for a practical invisibility cloak: The three requirements a material must meet in order to be used in the construction of an invisibility cloak are: 1. The material must be anisotropic with respect to light. This requirement means that the way the material acts depends upon the direction that the light waves are hitting it from. An easy to imagine large-scale example of an anisotropic material would be wood. This is hard to split across its grain but much easier to split along it. 2. It must be inhomogeneous, meaning that the arrangement of the material must vary in space and not be regular. 3. Figure 2 The second panel shows respectively, a at surface; a bumped surface, and a the bumped surface with bump covered the carpet cloak and the eects that A demonstration of an actual cloak that succeeds in cloaking light in the visible spectrum was constructed at Berkeley University by Xiang Zhang and his team. Figure X is a practical demonstration if this cloak in action. [1] Perkowitz, S., (2011), Into the Visible, Physics World, 24 (7): p. 22 [2] Perkowitz, S., (2011), Into the Visible, Physics World, 24 (7): p. 23 [3] Yue, T. (2001). Detection of the B-2 Stealth Bomber and a Brief History on Stealth. The Tech - Online Edition. Massachusetts Institute of Technology [4] Inami, M., Kawakami, N., Tachi, S., (2003), Optical camouage using retro-reective projection technology, Second IEEE and ACM International Sympsosium on Mixed and Augemented Reality, Proceedings: p. 348 [5] Perkowitz, S., (2011), Into the Visible, Physics World, 24 (7): p. 23 [6] Inami, M., Kawakami, N., Tachi, S., (2003), Optical camouage using retro-reective projection technology, Second IEEE and ACM International Sympsosium on Mixed and Augemented Reality, Proceedings: pp. 348-349 [7] Inami, M., Kawakami, N., Tachi, S., (2003), Optical camouage using retro-reective projection technology, Second IEEE and ACM International Sympsosium on Mixed and Augemented Reality, Proceedings: p. 349 [8] Inami, M., Kawakami, N., Tachi, S., (2003), Optical camouage using retro-reective projection technology, Second IEEE and ACM International Sympsosium on Mixed and Augemented Reality, Proceedings: p. 349 12

[9] Schurig, D., Mock, J. J., Justice, B. J., Cummer, S. A., Pendry, J. B., Starr, A. F., Smith, D. R., (2006), Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies, Science, 34 (5801): pp. 977-980 [10] Ward, A. J., Pendry, J. B., (1996), Refraction and Geometry in Maxwells Equations, Journal of Modern Optics, 43, 773 [11] Schurig, D., Mock, J. J., Justice, B. J., Cummer, S. A., Pendry, J. B., Starr, A. F., Smith, D. R., (2006), Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies, Science, 34 (5801): pp. 977-980 [12] Schurig, D., Mock, J. J., Justice, B. J., Cummer, S. A., Pendry, J. B., Starr, A. F., Smith, D. R., (2006), Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies, Science, 34 (5801): pp. 977-980 [13] Schurig, D., Mock, J. J., Justice, B. J., Cummer, S. A., Pendry, J. B., Starr, A. F., Smith, D. R., (2006), Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies, Science, 34 (5801): pp. 977-980 [14] Schurig, D., Mock, J. J., Justice, B. J., Cummer, S. A., Pendry, J. B., Starr, A. F., Smith, D. R., (2006), Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies, Science, 34 (5801): pp. 977-980 [15] Cai, W. and Shalae, V., (2011), Into the Visible, Physics World, 24 (7): pp. 3132

## Products - Emlyn and Ian

Future Possibilites: Cosmology Black Holes and Solar Energy The curved spacetime of caused by the immense gravity of a black hole can be simulated using the unique properties of metamaterials, which has been used to experimentally conrm this theory at the microwave level [1]. Similar to the perfect black body in thermodynamics [2], a black hole absorbs all light into its one-way surface with zero reection. The classical interpretation of the curvilinear spacetime exhibited around black holes in the general theory of relativity is the optical-mechanical analogy. This analogy is arrived at through the principles of least action that govern particle motion in an arbitrary potential and Fermats principle that describes ray propagation through inhomogeneous media [3]. Thus the behaviour of light around a black hole can be studied using metamaterials and mathematical modelling [4]. The suggested design in [4] is for a metamaterial-based broadband photonic black hole. Such a device could prove invaluable in the eld of green energy by potentially acting as both a thermal emitting source and as a means of harvesting sunlight.

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Fig. 1 A full wave solution result when light is incident to the black hole (Image: Qiang Cheng and Tie Jun Cui) As well as synthetic black holes, metamaterials are being utilized in other inventive fashions in a bid to improve solar energy technology. Stanford physicists have demonstrated a conguration of metamaterials that could boost the eciency of silicon solar cells [5] by an estimate 4

Fig. 2 Green laser light is upconverted to blue by physicists at Stanford using a solution of dye and metal nanoparticles. (Image: Jennifer Dionne) Metamaterials on the nano-scale are designed to focus light onto special dyes that absorb the low frequency photons and re-emit them in a ve step process called triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) [7] [8]. The up-converting material is placed underneath a silicon solar cell and the unused low frequency photos would be upconverted and reintroduced

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to the cell, however a working model has still not been successfully constructed and cost would be a denite issue in the early stages of the technology assuming it can be made. Metamaterials potentially provide the missing piece to this puzzle, the boost in eciency potentially warranted by their unique parameters makes highly ecient solar cells a real possibility for the future and an important area of metamaterial research. Metamaterials, Cosmology and Outer Space Wormholes: The ideas of metamaterial induced invisibility have been geometrically extended to theorize the construction of electromagnetic wormhole devices [1]. These wormholes permit the invisible propagation of electromagnetic waves between locations using metamaterials with specic values of (sigma) and (mu). At non-cloaking frequencies the proposed device is a solid cylinder with bell-shaped ends, but at frequencies for which (sigma) and (mu) are tailored the device eectively changes the topology of space. This can be envisioned as a handle attachment to R3; waves propagating through the handle can only exit through one of the ends, and therefore are only visible by waves entering the handle from one of the two ends. For example a magnetic dipole located near one end of the handle would appear to be a monopole to an external observer. For short wormhole lengths (delta 1) the image from the end of the wormhole would resemble a sheye lens, for longer wavelengths (delta) ( / =) 1 multiple images and signicant distortion occur. Ray tracing models yielded the results below. [1]

Fig. 1 Images from the end of the wormhole if the other end is an innite chessboard with a blue sky above. Left is (delta 1) Right is delta /= 1 N.B: Blue sky is for clarity purpose, actual wormhole construction is monochromatic The cylinder is a special conguration of metamaterials in concentric rings that redirects electromagnetic radiation around itself in the method detailed earlier, thereby rendering itself invisible. The wormhole eectively joins two regions of Euclidian space, shortening the distance between two points. This is the topological change in space referred to above, eective from the perspective of electromagnetic waves travelling down the cylinder. A wormhole consisting of a vacuum or air is also theoretically possible to realise, and

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gives the design a wider range of potential applications. POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS Optical Cables: The wormhole device naturally functions as in invisible optical cable, which would be very useful for making measurements inside magnetic elds without disturbing them. This use is certainly extendable to medicine, where a wormhole device could be used as an endoscope during surgeries that utilize an MRI machine. The invisible wormhole wouldnt disturb the homogenous magnetic eld that is required by the machine and could also be used to transport magnetic metals and other materials. Virtual Magnets: A wormhole device could also be utilized to create a magnetic monopole. If one end of the device is deployed inside a magnetic eld the waves will be transported along the tunnel turning the other end into an eective monopole. Example in [2] 3-D Video Display: Split up a cube into voxels (3-dimensional pixels), then put the end of the wormhole tunnel into each voxel, assuming that the voxel is larger than the end of the tunnel. This means that all ends of the wormhole tunnels are visible except when the line of sight is crossed by the end of a dierent wormhole tunnel. With this set-up light can be inserted to each of the voxels separately, creating a 3-D video display. Warp Drive As research into metamaterials becomes more widespread the ideas for their potential applications become more abstract and encapsulating. In a paper submitted to arXiv in 2010, and subsequently reviewed and altered a year later, University of Maryland physicist Igor Smolyaninov extends the theoretical potential of metamaterials to utilizing them as a means to construct a warp drive [1]. In 1994 Miguel Alcubierre proposed a means of realizing warp drive in the form of a solution to the Einstein Field Equations [2] [3]. The Alcubierre drive is a metric tensor representing a model of spacetime with features akin to the warp drive of Star Trek, namely that it permits superluminal speeds, although not local to the actual vessel. The theory postulates a process whereby space is stretched into a wave which results in the contraction of space in front of a vessel and the expansion of it behind. The vessel essentially surfs this wave in a region of at space called the warp bubble, remaining stationary while the region of space moves so there are no relativistic eects within the bubble. There are no restrictions on the speed at which space can be stretched, for example ination theories such as the Big Bang require space to expand at speeds far beyond c. ds2 = c2 dt2 (dxv(r)dt)2 dy 2 dz 2 where r = ((xv(0)t)2 + y 2 + z 2 ) is distance from centre of warp bubble. The Alcubierre drive is one of the most studied geometries in general relativity [1] and as such many problems with its underlying theory and potential realisation have been highlighted, quantum considerations especially providing the most immediate counterarguments [4]. Beyond quantum considerations, analysis has also highlighted that even a (11)

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sub-luminal warp drive would require matter that permits the violation of energy conditions, as the energy density distribution of even the sub-luminal drive is calculated to be negative [5]. Although physics is not wholly condemning of negative energy; for example the emission of Hawking radiation by a black hole is coupled with a ow of negative energy, it is still an undesirable upshot of warp drive theory. This is where metamaterials come to the fore; in his paper Smolyaninov proposes a metamaterial-based model for the Alcubierre drive (1) and explores its limitations due to current metamaterial parameters. The physics of a gradually accelerating warp drive can be modelled using newly discovered perfect metamaterials [7]. Considering a 1+1 dimensional warp drive metric of the form: (ds)2 = ( c ninf inity )2 (dt)2 (dx v(0)f (x)dt)2 (dy)2 (dz)2 (12)

Where x = x v(0)t and ninf inity is a scaling constant. It is shown [1] using the above metric and Maxwells equations that a sub-luminal warp drive model based on the magnetoelectric eect from the perfect metamaterials must satisfy the following inequality: v(0) (ninf inity 1) c(f (x ) n2 inity inf (13)

The crux of this inequality is very interesting, whilst it belies previous theories of superluminal travel due to the ninnity value taken by a vacuum to be equal to 1, it makes subluminal warp drives thermodynamically stable due to the ninf > 1 value taken on by the material medium. This interest and importance of this result lies in the fact that all the theory and evidence garnered on warp drives had resulted in the conclusion that they were forbidden by the laws of Nature. (3) Also provides an upper bound on the speed attainable using this particular metamaterial model. The upper bound is at ninf = 2 which implies that the maximum speed of this drive is 1 c. Using the designs of split-ring resonators and shnet structures and the 4 newly developed perfect magnetoelectric metamaterials [7], experimentalists can reach the limiting values of magnetoelectric susceptibility described by the following inequality:
2 gx (()1)(()1)

(14)

where gx n2 inity (v0 /c)f (tilda)(x(tilda)) and f (x) = (1 + a2 /x2 )1 inf This inequality describes the limiting magneto-electric coupling coecients in thermodynamically stable materials [8]. Classical magnetoelectric materials such as multiferroics and Cr2O3 observed magnetoelectric susceptibilities are two orders of magnitude less than permitted by the limiting values of (4). This is why only metamaterials make the 17

implementation of a lab model of the warp drive possible, and allow for essential further study of the very interesting physics of the Alcubierre metric. To physically realise a metamaterial Alcubierre spacetime a non-reciprocal bi-anisotropic metamaterial, in which both spatial and time-reversal symmetries are broken is required as well a solution to the problem of metamaterial loss [9]. Smolyaninov goes on to discuss methods of break the symmetries in his paper [1], ending with a reference to another paper conrming that metamaterials with the necessary parameters to construct a warp drive imitation are indeed possible [10]. The ever expanding eld of metamaterial research has many interesting subsections but its uses in cosmological modelling are certainly amongst the most engaging to both layperson and scientist. Using metamaterials physicists are theorizing situations and events that 10 years ago would have been dismissed laughably, meaning the prospect of interstellar travel is now fractionally less farfetched. Engaging topics of research like this also serve another purpose; in that they drum up signicant interest which is always a positive outcome in any science. Non-optical Metamaterials Seismic Cloaking and Tsunami Shield Tsunami Shield The physics of invisibility cloaks is being used to construct devices that could shield structures from earthquakes and powerful water waves. Researchers from England and France produced a paper theorizing and detailing a practical realisation of a cylindrical metamaterial-based cloak for surface waves in a liquid [1] followed three months later by a paper on cloaking seismic surface waves [2]. The transformation optics based theory of metamaterial cloaking has been shown to be extendable to specic types of elastodynamic waves in structural mechanics [3]. It has also been demonstrated that the same geometric transforms are experienced by acoustic waves in a uid for 2D and 3D geometries [4] [5]. In [1] a mathematical model for the metamaterial based cloak is presented. The function of the structural metamaterial is described theoretically using homogenization theory: for wavelengths that are large in comparison to its diering size, the cloak acts as an eective uid characterized by a transversely anisotropic viscosity.

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Fig. 1 The structure of the physical cloak is comprised of concentric rings of identical sectors, increasing in size radially outwards. Homogenization theory is used to mathematically model the motion of uid within this structure, and hence further the development of its potential applications. The theorized homogenized cloak successfully models the movement of the uid in the physical structure used for experimentation. The liquid entering the cloak increases in velocity the closer to the centre of the cloak it gets and the viscosity of the uid is eectively decreased. A good analogy is likening the motion of the uid in the cloak to that of a whirlpool.

Fig. 2 Concentric surface waves at 15.84 Hz and streamlines (blue), in liquid of depth 9mm. Rigid 38mm radius cylinder surrounded by homogenized cloak associated with a structural cloak consisting of a large number of identical curved sectors in ring formation with R1 = 41mm and R2 = 100mm [1] Figure 2 shows the model correctly simulating the motion of the uid inside the cloak, with the waves behind the cloak and in line with the source (along the 45o angle of the diagram from the horizontal) undisturbed by the cloak. 19

Fig. 3 (left): as (b) but with physical structured cloak with 256 curved sectors (right): physical cloak with 100 sectors and 9.81Hz waves [2] Using the commercial nite elements package COMSOL, the ideal homogenized cloak is compared to its structural equivalent (gure 3). Whilst not producing perfect results, the results of the simulation are encouraging, with the waves on the left passing through the 256 segment cloak being largely unaected. On the right, the 100 curved sector cloak for 9.81Hz waves is less eective with reected waves clearly visible and distorted wave patterns evident beyond the cloak. However, this is largely due to the viscosity of the liquid, the eect of which is lessened by increasing the size of the cloak [1]. As such, this design could realistically be utilized to protect oshore or coastline structures from destructive waves, the implementation of such coastal defences however would be problematic due to cost and aesthetic debate. Seismic Cloaking and Earthquake Protection As well as surface liquid waves, the physics of invisibility cloaks is also being explored in the motion of in-plane elastic waves [6] and most recently an exciting breakthrough has been made in the eld of acoustical cloaking. Building on previous theoretical works [7], physicists from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a free space cloak for elastic waves in thin polymer plates at broadband acoustic frequencies ranging over an octave from 200-400Hz [8]. The cloak consists of 20 concentric rings of 16 dierent metamaterials; each ring is a composite of polyvinyl chloride and polydimenthylsiloxane with a cloaking region roughly equal to the area of large coin is left in the centre (Fig.4). In a comparison with optical metamaterials, here it is the Youngs modulus that is altered across the cloak to manipulate the waves as opposed the permittivity or permeability. The waves slow down as they approach the centre of the cloak but speed up around the edges, meaning that they are completely unaected by the presence of the cloak and the object in the centre is 20

hidden.

Fig. 4 The cloaking device is 1mm thick and is comprised of 16 dierent types of metamaterials. To test the cloaks eectiveness was tested using a loudspeaker at the end of a sheet of PVC with the cloak constructed in the centre. The sound waves traversing the sheet were captured using stroboscopic lighting and a camera and the result were excellent. (Fig. 5)

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Fig. 5 Measured photographs of monochromatic plane waves incident from the right at frequencies of 200, 300, 400 and 450Hz. The left column is without and the cloak and the right with, indicated by the dotted circle. (Image: Stenger et al) The achievement of Stenger et al is a large step forward indeed it is being hailed by their peers as the clearest demonstration of eective cloaking in the literature to this point [10]. Whilst boasting the title of most eective cloak to date in terms of wave disturbance, or rather lack of it, it also spans the greatest bandwidth a whole octave. This is equivalent to an optical device covering the whole visible spectrum, however achieving such a range for electromagnetic radiation is currently almost impossible [10]. A nal advantage of this cloak is that it can be made using precise laboratory machinery rather than lithography which is required to make metamaterials concerned with the manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Ultimately the goal of this kind of cloak would be control over seismic waves, aording protection to buildings and structures aected by earthquakes, though a long way o this kind of technology is denitely realisable in the future.

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Fig. 6 Earthquake damage could literally be circumvented by the proposed elastodynamic cloaking. Conclusion/Final thoughts/Summary The eld of metamaterials is one of the fastest growing research areas in physics, which is no wonder given the seemingly endless scope of potential uses these unnatural substances have. Through correlation with ction some of the research encapsulates the interest of the public and investors alike, but in reality it is not warp drives and invisibility cloaks that will dramatically alter the possibilities and mechanics of life as we know it. Rather, more immediately achievable technology like acoustical cloaking of buildings and ships, metamaterial antennas, super-resolution lenses and highly ecient solar cells will be the foundations for the inspiring technology of the 21st century. Whilst ction has inspired and shaped to a palpable extent the advances science has made, especially in the latter part of the 20th century, it has also warned forebodingly of the potential evils of its inventions and none more so than invisibility. It is perhaps most famously documented in classic literature; H. G. Wells Invisible Man, and Jack Londons The Shadow and the Flash both depict the spiralling morality and eventual death of the scientists who unlock the secrets invisibility. Even Plato in 380BC predicted invisibility to be a ruinous and amoral entity in The Republic; the good shepherd Gyges becomes corrupt, hedonistic and murderous when wielding the power of invisibility. With this in mind it is doubtful that personal invisibility devices will ever be available to the general public, the potential for abuse of such technology is simply too great. However highly funded research into the subject continues and one would also think that an invisible army would be nothing but a catalyst for destruction. Perhaps in emulation of the nuclear continuing nuclear debate, the benets or invisibility will be weighed up 23

against its potential evils vociferously in years to come. Emlyn Superlenses In typical optical systems the smallest object that can be resolved is limited by the diraction limit. In the visible spectrum this corresponds to an object around 200 nm across; around the size of the smallest bacteria, Mycoplasma. Metamaterials with negative refractive index can overcome this diraction limit and open the possibility of imaging incredibly small structures. D. Gney[1] developed a design for a negative index metau material using the interaction between plasmons and a thin metal lm with an array of periodic nanostructures. The proposed metamaterial can be tuned to any frequency in the visible spectrum, has a high degree of merit and could resolve objects down to 100 nm across. With current research into superlenses being in its infancy and given the pace of progress we may indeed see a superlens within the coming decades. If such a lens could be manufactured it would have a myriad of applications. Firstly the lens could be applied in lithography, the process of manufacturing small electronic components, to create extremely small electronics. These electronics would enable the highest speed computers before the inevitable step to Quantum computing. Computers are currently made using UV lasers which are dicult to manufacture and expensive. Using a simple and cheap superlens manufacturers could use a standard red laser in the manufacturing process. Probably the most exciting prospect for a superlens is using it to image extremely small structures. Currently the only way to bypass the diraction limit is by using a scanning electron microscope. Such microscopes can reach resolutions of 1 nm but are expensive to build and maintain and require samples to be in a vacuum. A cheap superlens would allow almost anyone the ability to examine structures on sub nanometer scales. Such a lens could help inspire a new generation of scientists with the ability to explore a usually unseen microscopic world. Without the need of a vacuum the lens would open up the idea of imaging live cells, bacteria and viruss leading to breakthroughs in microbiology, nanotechnology and pharmacology.

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Another application that has seen recent developments is in ultrasound imaging. A paper written by J. Zhu et al [9] in 2010 showed that 3D holey-structured metamaterial could achieve a resolution of /50. The metamaterial was constructed by creating 1,600 (40x40) hollow tubes, each of width 0.79 mm and separation 0.79 mm, into a 15.8 cm long copper bar with a 6.3 cm square cross section. When in close proximity to an object the evanescent eld components are transported down the tubes due to the Fabry-Perot resonance. Thus the researchers were able to achieve a resolution of 50 times greater than traditional methods. A comparison between a traditional ultrasound and the new metamaterial is shown in gure [ref gure here]. We can see that for a line width of 3.18 mm the traditional ultrasound is unable to identify the object. With the metamaterial and operating at 2.18 kHz (158 mm) a 3.18 mm object, corresponding to /50, can be resolved and identied as the letter E. The metamaterial could be tted to the front of an ultrasound probe to drastically increase the resolution. It may also be used in high resolution sonar or be used to detect small fractures in engineering structures.

Xu et al [8] published a paper in 2010 showing that perfect lens could be used to create an anti-mirror eect. We intuitively understand that when an object is placed in front of a mirror a virtual image is formed on the other side. Xu explains that if two perfect electrical conductors (PECs) are placed on opposite sides of a perfect lens an observer looking from either side would only see one PEC in the far eld. LEDs, typically not luminous enough to be used in many applications, could exploit this anti-mirror eect by using a perfect lens to make many LEDs appear as one much brighter LED while maintaining spatial uniformity. The authors also suggest the eect could be used as a beam combining technique to generate a high power coherent laser beam from multiple laser diodes. Anntennae Looking towards the immediate future the use of metamaterials in antennae shows great promise. Patent licencing rm Intellectual Ventures (IV) has reported the development of an electronically steered antenna using metamaterials. The Metamaterial Surface Antenna Technology (MSA-T) antenna is to operate at radio frequencies for use in the communications industry. The antenna works by feeding the signal through a guided mode which propagates along the surface of the metamaterial. The metamaterial consists of an array of tuneable metamaterial elements which can be activated by a 25

current. When activated the elements scatters the beam out of the guided mode and allow the signal to pass when deactivated. The pattern of activated elements is chosen to direct the beam in a desired direction. This ability makes the technology ideal for use aeronautics, maritime and land transport sectors where antennas must lock onto satellites while moving. Current technology for antennas in these elds fall into two categories: gimbals and phased arrays. Mechanical gimbals are large and heavy making it unsuitable for use in aeronautics where aerodynamics is vital. Phased arrays are extremely expensive, costing around \$1,000,000. Thus there is a demand for more economical and ecient alternatives. The antenna is lightweight, compact, cheap and can be mass produced using current lithography equipment. Metamaterials could thus bring us high-speed cheap internet access when traveling by plane, train or bus.

Metamaterials could also nd their way into horn antennas in space. Researchers at Penn State have worked in collaboration with Lockheed Martin Corp[7] to develop cheap, light and energy ecient horn antennas. Ecient antennas require less batteries or solar cells to power them, saving on mass. With the typical cost of sending an object into orbit being around 5,000 the desire for light and energy ecient antennas is clear. Invisibility Invisibility has been a long sought after power and could be transformed from science ction to reality with the advances of metamaterials. A Harry Potter style invisibility cloak, however, is beyond the reach of technology for at least several decades. Advances in invisibility using metamaterials are likely to lead to improvements in areas like acoustical cloaking, radar cloaking and solar panels. The irony of trying to predict advances in this particular eld is that the better the technology gets the less likely we are to see them as governments move to classify the technology. Nicolas Stenger et al [12] recently developed an acoustic cloak using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Twenty rings of holes were etched into a 15 cm diameter, 1 mm thick PVC disc. The holes were varied in size and arrangement across the disc so that the Youngs modulus was also varied. A hole was left at the centre where the acoustic waves

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## would be bent around due to the varying Youngs modulus.

The cloak was tested by placing a loudspeaker at the end of a PVC sheet which had the cloak etched onto it with an obstacle at the centre of the cloak. The results were compared to an identical PVC sheet with only the obstacle etched onto it. Results were recorded using stroboscopic lighting and a camera and are shown in [place ref to gure here]. The results showed that in the range of 200-400 Hz, one octave, the wave propagated as if the obstacle was not present. Acoustic cloaks like this could be see applications on naval technology. They could be applied to the hulls on boats or submarines to render them invisible to enemy sonar detection. You could apply them to the walls of a at to keep noisy neighbours from disturbing you. In busy cities they could be applied to oce buildings, concert halls or librarys to keep unwanted noise out. In the lab they could be placed on anechoic chambers to remove background interference from outside the lab. Y. Urzhumov and D. Smith[4] from Duke University developed a simulation of a metamaterial that can move through a uid without disturbing the ow of the uid. The design proposed would be to coat an object with an inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable metamaterial. The metamaterial would be designed to remove turbulent ow behind the object and compensate for viscous drag as it passed through the uid. Without any drag or wake the metamaterial could be applied to ships and submarines, making them almost impossible to detect in water. Such a material could also be optimised to work in the atmosphere to eliminate drag from the air. This would allow faster and more energy ecient travel for aeronautics, automotive industry and rail industry. Work recently published by E. Narimanov et al [3] shows some promising applications of

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hyperbolic metamaterials (materials where only one component of the dielectric tensor is negative) in solar power and stealth technology. A hyperbolic metamaterial was made using 35 nm silver nanotubes grown in a 1 cm x 1 cm x 51 m anodic alumina membranes. The sample was then corrugated by using Al2 O3 to grind the surface. The samples roughness was found to increase from rms = 40 nm to rms = 600 nm leading to a much reduced intensity of reected light [ref gure here and explanation of it]. The materials low intensity of reection results from an innite density of photonic states which is typical of hyperbolic metamaterials. This innite density acts to greatly increase the scattering of light from defects into the surface of the metamaterial. Hence the metamaterial can be extremely useful in areas where radiation absorbing materials are needed, primarily solar cells and stealth technology.

to evoke additional resonances to allow a broader range to be covered. Applications for this metamaterial includes use in military aircraft, boats and submarines They could also prove useful in shielding radar from rooms used to design antennae or in aircraft control rooms.

A paper published by W. Jiang et al [5] has shown that metamaterials can also be used to create illusions, in this case shrinking the size of an object virtually. Using transformation optics the team fabricated a shrinking device which can take any object with arbitrary size, shape and material properties and transform it to another virtual object with the desired size and material properties. The shrinking device [ref gure here] has eight concentric rings of height 12 mm with the inner most ring at 24 mm from the centre and the outer most at 48 mm. The shape and dimensions of the unit cells allowed the team to obtain the desired permittivity and the desired permeability was obtained by length of the split, h1 . The device was found to operate optimally at 9.8 GHz and gave a shrinking radius to c = 8 mm. Simulations were carried out based on a nite element model and experimental measurements were done in a parallel-plate waveguide eld-mapping system. The results published by the team are shown in [ref gure here and explain

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## some of the results].

[1] D. Guney, M. Aslam. (2011). Surface Plasmon Diven Scalable Low-Loss NegativeIndex Metamaterial in the visible spectrum. Phys. Rev. B 84. Physorg.com article : A breakthrough in superlens development: Cheap, simple lens to let us see a single virus [2] Physorg.com article : Researchers transfer the concept of an optical invisibility cloak to sound waves. [3] E. Narimanov et al. (2011). Darker than black: radiation-absorbing metamaterial. arXiv:1109.5469v1 Physorg.com article: Darker than black metamaterial could lead to more ecient solar cells [4] Y. Urzhumov. (2011). Fluid control with transformation media. http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.2282 Physorg.com article: Wake cloaking simulated in lab - objects move through water without leaving a trace [5] : Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3590203 Phyorg.com article: Shrinking device makes objects appear smaller than they are [6] U. Leonhardt. (2007). Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials. New. J. Phys. 9. p254. [7] Physorg.com article: Metamaterials approach makes better satellite antennas.

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[8] Y. Xu. et al. (2010). Anti-mirror eect: A perfect lens brings a brighter feature. http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.0542 C. Li. et al. (2010). Experimental realization of a broadband illusion optics device. http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.3425 Physorg.com article: Anti-mirror optical illusion could increase LED luminosity and laser power. [9] J. Zhu et al. (2010). A holey-structured metamaterial for acoustic deep-subwavelength imaging. Nature Physics. 7. 52-55 Physorg.com article: Novel metamaterial vastly improves quality of ultrasound imaging. [10] A. Falco. (2010). Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths. http://iopscience.iop.org/13672630/12/11/113006/fulltext/ Physorg.com article: Meta-ex: Your new brand for invisibility clothing.

[11] Fallahi. (2010). Optimal design of planar metamaterials. http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/view/et Physorg.com article: Beam trap full of holes: Researchers develop new surfaces for radar absorption. [12] http://prl.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v108/i1/e014301 Physics World article: Invisibility cloak gives sound performance [13]

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Conclusions References

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