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Dexters Plastic Can

2.008 Design & Manufacturing II


Spring 2004 Assembly & Joining
-cool ? -gas leakage ? -recycling?
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A 2002 Yo-Yo vs. a free gift

Guidelines to Assembly Design


Minimize parts Design assembly process in a layered fashion Consider ease of part handling Utilize optimum attachment methods Consider ease of alignment and insertion Avoid design features that require adjustments

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Manufacturing
Market Research Conceptual Design Design for Manufacture

Cost of Design Changes


$$$$
RELEASE 10,000X Assembly 1000X TOOLING

time

Contributions on the final cost?


Unit Manufacturing Processes Assembly and Joining
100X DESIGN 10X CONCEPT X

Factory, Systems & Enterprise


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Welding Bolting Bonding Soldering

Machining Injection molding Casting Stamping Chemical vapor deposition


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J.Chun and http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/mm/research/productrealisation/res_int/ipps/dfa1.htm

Typical Cost Breakdown


Selling Price
Engineering 14% R&D 5%

Assembly business

Manufacturing Costs
Admin, sales 24% Manufacturing 38%

Plant Machinery 12% Parts, Material 50%

Profit 19%

Indirect labor 26%


Direct labor 12%

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M. Culpepper

Optical Connectors

Initial Quality Study

MT connector

IQS: Problems experienced after 90 days of ownership per 100 vehicles Alignment errors
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0 to 100, 100 to 200, 200 and over


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The automobile industry, 1980s

Good Design DFMA (Design for Mfg. & Assembly)

SOP

Simplicity for both human operators and robots Even Kids can do.
http://order.tupperware.com:8080/coeimages/items/10044822000_detail.jpg

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Sullivan, 1986

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DFA guide
Simplicity is the best DFA. Minimize part numbers, operations, simplify assembly sequence (steps) and set-ups Standardize components, use suppliable common parts Minimize assembly directions (layered structure)

DFA guide (cont.)


Modular design, product families, assembly friendiness Use symmetrical parts Physical integration Minimize sharp, delicate, flexible, slippery part Relax tolerances on non-critical locations. Approachable, line of sight

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N. Suh

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DFA Guide (cont.)


Material for DFA, avoid flexible components Concurrent engineering Design for disassembly (recycling, repair, retrofit)

DFMA
Hitachi assemblability evaluation method Lucas DFA Boothroyd-Dewhurst DFA (BD)

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Design for Assembly


1) 2)

Pneumatic Piston Sub-Assembly


screw spring cover piston stop

piston
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2.008-spring-2004 S.Kim 24 8 4
Number of parts Assembly cost ($) Annual production volumes : robotic - 200,000 automatic - 2,400,000

main block

Redesigned
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DFA: Examples

DFA for Automation: Examples

Part can jam when inserted into hole.

Tapering the hole facilitates part insertion.

Parts are difficult to asse mble.

Chamfers assist assem bly.

Parts are difficult Changing part geometry to align properly; allows it to be aligned properly jamming can occur. before it is released.
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Assembly automation
Challenges Parts Feeding
Sorting Orienting

Non-vibratory Feeding
Rotary mechanism with multiple blades Groove

PCB assembly?

Hopper

Pick-and-place Assembly

Rotation axis

Inclined discharge rail

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B. Benhabib

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Vibratory Parts Feeding


Track Outlet Translational vibration Torsional vibration

Vibratory Feeding -orientation


Second attachment (rejects c and d) First attachment (rejects a and b)

Bowl

Electromagnet

Third attachment (orients e and f)


Leaf springs

Discharge hole
Base

Side view a Top view b c d e f

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B. Benhabib

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B. Benhabib

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Magnetic Parts Feeding


Parts picked up by magnets Delivery chute

DFA for Transporting

Non-functional peg prevents jamming.

Stationary hopper Magnets Parts

Flat ends prevent jamming.

Wider edge surface prevents overlap.

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B. Benhabib

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Automated Assembly
Transfer
Transfer lines Conveyor Automated Guided Vehicle

Transfer Lines
Work carriers Stop Piston Fixed rail Step Transfer rail Slide

Positioner Assembly Operations

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J. Chun

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Rotary Assembly Transfer


Positioning unit Riveter

AGV
Workpiece Pallet load / unload mechanism Pallet

Feedtrack Vibratory bowl Completed pieces Adhesive-bond applicator Inspection station


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Safeguards against collision


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Pick & Place Positioner


Fixed-length arm

Robot
Arm Elbow extension Hydraulic/electric power unit
Shoulder swivel

Linear actuator Rotary actuator Gripper Rotary actuator Fixed base


Robot controller

Yaw

Wrist Arm sweep Pitch

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Robots: Components
Manipulator positioning power stiffness control End effector tooling

Robots: Applications
3 Ds (Dull, Dirty, Dangerous) 3 Hs (Hot, Heavy, Hazardous) Materials handling Spray painting Spot welding Arc welding Assembly

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J. Chun

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Good Design Principles: DFM Assembly


Design parts to be self-locating and self-aligning Error-proof parts to make incorrect assembly impossible Minimize the number of parts. Minimize the number and variety tools for assembly Minimize the number of axes of insertion Ensure clear vision and access for all assembly operations Minimize the number and complexity of adjustments Eliminate the need to hold down, clamp or fixture parts Eliminate special assembly tools

What assembly process to choose?

Reasons to avoid assembly Reasons that justify assembly

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Workholding
Immobilization of a workpiece for machining or assembly
Jigs: locating and holding workpiece, guiding tools Fixtures: locating and holding

3-2-1 rule of locating


6 dof, (Dx, Dy, Dz) and (Rx, Ry, Rz) 3 support Points (1, 2 and 3) eliminate (Rx and Ry) and (-Dz); 2 points (4 and 5) eliminate (Rz) and (Dx); and, 1 point (6) eliminates (-Dy). Push or clamp 3 directions, x,y,z.

Provide maximum accuracy and ease of mounting Datum


Dx X Rx

Dz Rz Ry Dy Y
6 1 4 2 5

Direction of resultant clamping force

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B. Benhabib

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