The fine structure constant error is 1of 1001 German academia Nobel errors

Arnold Sommerfield VS Joe Nahhas founder of real time physics and astronomy Abstract: 1 - 500 Years of modern and Nobel physics and astronomy theoretical definitions are static or real numbers or line numbers system definitions like distance, time, velocity, acceleration, area, volume density, mass, momentum, force, energy, etc… Physics and astronomy measurements are real time measurements or complex numbers or plane numbers system measurements results and reality. Modern Nobel physics and astronomy science is a theory that is incompatible with physics and astronomy measurements results and reality. Modern Nobel physics and astronomy theories do not match physical reality and it is past due for deletion since its existence 2 - Real time physics and astronomy definitions are real time definitions or complex numbers system or plane numbers system definitions of Physics and astronomy that matches physics and astronomy real time measurements all the time without exceptions or deviation or any errors. Real time physics and astronomy is the discovery that the set of real time physics and astronomy definitions produces flawless mathematical equations that matches physics and astronomy measurements all the time and it is the one and only set of equations that matches physical reality and uncovers the actual physical universe for the first time since the beginning of time and it is not what "professors" teach or know about and what "Professor" lecture is positively not science 3- Real time physics and astronomy is the alphabetic of physical reality that nuke all past physics and astronomy wrong and out of existence for good. Real time physics and astronomy is the capture of actual physical universe naked in flawless mathematical equation that beats deletes and replaces all past knowledge about the Universe for humans eyes to see actual physical universe for the first time since the beginning of time and it is not what modern Nobel physicists Professors study and teach or know about and this is an invitation to see and know actual Universe for the first time since the beginning of time. What is the fine structure constant? It is like all physical sciences "fundamental constants" and it is a measurement error Page 1

I - The physical point of view

A- light vertical Visualization angle 23.44° A disc on a rotating spherical Earth has a circumference of 2π re and 2π re / re = 2 π. Modern Nobel physicists and astronomers measurements were/are made in an inverse square distance Newton's law and that would make the error 1/√ (2π). Modern Nobel physicists and astronomers measure space distance vertically and that would make the vertical error Sine-1[1/√ (2π)]. Modern Nobel physicists and astronomers use standard time period Ts = 24 hours = 86400 seconds and not Earth's spin period Te = 86164 seconds and that bring the measurement error to (Te/ Ts) Sine-1[1/√ (2π)]. Modern Nobel physicists and astronomers measure in air and not vacuum with air index of refraction n a = 1.000293 brings the total measurement error to a value equals to:
Error 1is the celestial sphere: (1/ n a) (Te/ Ts) Sine-1[1/√ (2π)] = 23.44°

This celestial sphere is a visual illusion or measurement error of spherical Earth Page 2

B - Light visualization constant c = 299792458 m/sec and not constant light velocity

Along the line of sight the measurement error is 2π/ cosine 23.44° = 2π cosecant 23.44° In an Inverse square Newton's law the error is (2π/ cosine 23.44°) (2π/ cosine 23.44°) = 4 π2 / (cosine 23.44°) 2 Light coming from stationary planets to stationary Earth and a rotating with Earth observer with rotating Earth's radius will measure a time independent velocity error of [4 π2 re / (cosine 23.44°) 2](1/t; t=1)

Using stand time Ts =86400 seconds and not Earth time Te = 86164 seconds and measuring in air and not in vacuum makes the error amounts to: [4 π2 re / (cosine 23.44°) 2] (1/t; t=1) (Ts/Te) 2 na2] Astronomer's adjustment of time or multiplication by (Te/Ts) reduces the error to Light visualization constant c = [4π2 (re/t) n2 a /cosine2 23.44°] (Ts/Te) = 299792458 km/sec; re = 6,371,000 meters The angle 23.44° = cosine-1 [2π n a√ (Te/Ts) (re/ct)]; t = 1 second Celestial sphere error 2: 23.44° = cosine-1 [2π n a√ (Te/Ts) (re/ct)]; t = 1sec c = [4π2 (re/t) n2 a /cosine2 23.44°] (Ts/Te) = 299792458 km/sec
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C - Earth's Spin Visual velocities 1 - Visual speed around the Sun Distance r in a rotating sphere traces a circular distance 2 π re Angular velocity θ' in a rotating sphere traces a circular 2 π θ' e And Spin visual velocity is V y = (2 π r) (2 π θ' e) = 4 π2 (θ' e re) V y = (2 π r) (2 π θ' e) = 4 π2 (θ' e re) = 4 π2 (2π re / Te) = 18.34 km/sec

Measurements are based on standard Earth time Ts = 24 hours = 86400 seconds and not Earth's actual time Te = 86164 seconds; (2π re / Te) = 0.464581 km/sec
In an Inverse square Newton's law the time error is: (Te/Ts) 2

Measurements are made in air: Dry air index of refraction 1.000274 - 1.000279
In an Inverse square Newton's law the Index of refraction error is: (1/n a 2) {[4 π2 (2π re / Te)]/ [1 - Sine 23.44] (Te/Ts) 2 - (2π re / Te)} (1/n a 2) = 29.8 km/sec

18.34 km/sec + 29.8 km/sec = 48.14 km/sec 18.34 km/sec - 29.8 km/sec = - 11.46 km/sec 18.34 km/sec - 11.46 km/sec = 6.88 km/sec 11.46 km/sec + 29.8 km/sec = 41.26 km/sec 41.26 km/sec - (6.88 - 464581) [(n a Te/Ts)] 5 = 35.1 km/sec 41.26 km/sec - (6.88 - 464581) = 34.844581 29.8 km/sec Earth w.r.to Sun motion Illusion 48.14 km/sec Mercury w.r.to Sun motion Illusion 35.1 km/sec Venus w.r.to Sun motion Illusion 48.14 km/sec Mercury w.r.to Earth Spin motion Illusion 41.26 km/sec Venus w.r.to Earth Spin motion Illusion Page 4

D - Newton's equation is solved wrong for 350 years and the correct solution deletes 112 of Nobel science and scientists: F = -G m M/r2; r > 0
Physics Faculty wrong solution of ellipse, r (θ, 0) = a (1 - ε2)/ (1 + ε cosine θ) Correct solution is a rotating ellipse, r (θ, t) = [a (1-ε²)/ (1+ ε cosine θ)] ℮ (λ + ì ω) t Newton's equation in polar coordinates F = m γ;

γ= [r" - r θ'²] r1 + [2 r' θ' + r θ"] θ1
Eq-1 Eq-2

With m (r" - r θ'²) = - Gm M/r2 And 2 r' θ' + r θ"= 0

I - Real numbers or time independent solution Eq-2: 2 r' θ' + r θ"= 0 Multiply by r> 0 Then 2 r r' θ' + r2 θ"= 0 Or, d (r²θ')/d t = 0 And integrating: r²θ' = h = constant With m (r" - r θ'²) = - Gm M/r2 Then, (r" - r θ'²) = - GM/r2 Let u = 1/r; r = 1/u; r²θ' = h = θ’ /u² And r' = d r/d t = (d r/ d u) (d u /d θ) (d θ/ d t) = (- /u ²) (d u /d θ) θ' = (-θ'/u ²) (d u /d θ) = - h (d u/ d θ) And r' = d r/d t = - h (d u/ d θ) And r" = d² r/ d t² = d (d r'/ d t)/ d t = d [- h (d u/ d θ)]/ d t Page 5

Multiply (d θ/ d θ) Then r" = d² r/ d t² = {d [- h (d u/ d θ)]/ d t} (d θ/ d θ) = θ' {d [- h (d u/ d θ)]/ d θ} = - h θ’ (d² u/ d θ ²) = (- h²/r²) (d² u/ d θ ²) = - h² u² (d² u/ d θ ²) And r" = d² r/ d t² = - h² u² (d² u/ d θ ²) With d² r/dt² - r θ'² = - G M/r2 Eq–1

And - h² u² (d² u/ d θ ²) – (1/u) (h u²) ² = - G M u2 Then (d² u/ d θ ²) + u = G M/h2 And u = G M/h2 + A cosine θ The r = 1/u = 1/ (G M/h2 + A cosine θ); divide by G M/h2 And r = (h2/G M)/ [1 + (A h2/G M) cosine θ] With; h2/G M = a (1 - ε2); (A h2/G M) = ε This is Newton's equation classical solution Or, r = a (1 - ε2)/ (1 + ε cosine θ); definition of an ellipse ------------- I Newton's time independent solution II - Real time or complex numbers solution : Newton's equation in polar coordinates F = m γ;

γ= [r" - r θ'²] r1 + [2 r' θ' + r θ"] θ1
Eq-1 Eq-2

With m (r" - r θ'²) = - Gm M/r2 And 2 r' θ' + r θ"= 0 Eq-2: 2 r' θ' + r θ"= 0 Separate the variables: 2 r' θ' = - r θ" Or 2(r'/r) = - (θ"/θ') = - 2 (λ + í ω)

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Then: (r'/r) = λ + í ω Or d r/r = (λ + í ω) d t Then r = r 0 ℮ (λ + ì ω) t And r = r (θ, 0) r (0, t); r 0 = r (θ, 0) And r = r (θ, 0) ℮ (λ + ì ω) t And r (0, t) = ℮ (λ + ì ω) t With r (θ, 0) = a (1 - ε2)/ (1 + ε cosine θ) Then, r (θ, t) = [a (1-ε²)/ (1+ε cosine θ)] ℮ (λ + ì ω) t ------------- I Newton's time dependent solution = quantum mechanics If time is frozen that is t = 0 Then r (θ, 0) = a (1-ε²)/ (1+ε cosine θ) or classical Relativistic is the difference between I and Real II With - (θ"/θ') = - 2 (λ + í ω) Then θ' = θ'0 ℮ -2 (λ + ì ω) t With θ'0 = h/ [r (θ, 0)] 2 And θ'(θ, t) = [θ' (θ, 0)] ℮ -2 (λ + ì ω) t And, θ'(θ, t) = θ' (θ, 0) θ' (0, t) And θ' (0, t) = ℮ -2 (λ + ì ω) t At Perihelion: We Have θ' (0, 0) = h (0, 0)/r² (0, 0) = 2πab/ τ0 a² (1- ε) ²; = 2πa² [√ (1- ε²)]/ = 2π [√ (1- ε²)]/ Then θ'(0, t) = 2

τ0 = orbital period

τ0a² (1- ε) ²]

τ0 (1- ε) ²]

π √ [(1- ε²)/ τ0 (1- ε) ²] ℮ -2 (λ + ì ω) t
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With λ= 0 Then θ'(0, t) = 2

π √ [(1-ε²)/ τ0 (1-ε) ²] ℮ -2 (λ + ì ω) t

= 2 π √ [(1-ε²)/ τ0 (1- ε) ²] (cosine 2 ω t - ỉ sine 2 ω t) Real θ'(0, t) = 2 Real θ'(0, t) = 2

π √ [(1- ε²)/ τ0 (1-ε) ²] cosine 2 ω t π √ [(1-ε²)/ τ0 (1-ε) ²] (1 - 2sine² ω t) π √ [(1-ε²)/ τ0 (1-ε) ²]

Naming θ' = θ'(0, t); θ'0 = 2 Then θ' = 2

π √ [(1- ε²)/ τ0 (1- ε) ²] (1 - 2 sine² ω t)

And θ' = θ'0 (1 - 2 sine² ω t) And θ' - θ'0 = - 2 θ'0 sine² ω t = -2{2 And θ' - θ'0 = -4

π √ [(1-ε²)/ τ0 (1-ε) ²]} sine² ω t

π √ [(1-ε²)/ τ0 (1-ε) ²] sine² ω t

With, v ° = spin velocity; v0 = orbital velocity; τ0 = orbital period And ω τ0= tan-1 [(v° + v0)/c]; light aberrations Δ θ' = θ' - θ'0 = - 4 π √ [(1-ε²)]/

τ0 (1-ε) ²] sine² tan-1 [(v° + v0)/c] radians per τ0 π

In degrees per period is multiplication by 180/ Δ θ' = (-720) √ [(1-ε²)/

τ0 (1-ε) ²] sine² tan-1 [(v° + v0)/c]

The angle difference in degrees per period is: Δ θ = (Δ θ') τ0 Δ θ = (-720) √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] sine² tan-1 [(v° + v0)/c] calculated in degrees per century is multiplication = 100 τ;

τ = Earth orbital period = 100 x 365.26 = 36526 days and dividing by using τ0 in days: Δ θ (100 τ / τ0) = Δ θ in degrees per century
= (-72000 τ /

τ0) √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] sine² tan-1 [(v° + v0)/c]

In arc second per century is multiplying by 3600 Δ θ = - 3600 x 720 (100

τ / τ0) √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] x Sine² tan-1 [(v° + v0)/c]
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Approximations I With v° << c and v* << c Then Sine² tan-1 [(v°+ v0)/c] ≈ (v° + v0)/c Δ θ (Calculated in arc second per century) = (-720x36526x3600/ Approximations II The circumference of an ellipse Is: 2

τ0 days) √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] [(v° + v0)/c] ²

π a (1 - ε²/4 + 3/16(ε²)²- --.) ≈ 2 π a (1- ε²/4); r0 = a (1- ε²/4)

From Newton's laws for a circular orbit: F = [M/m F = - Gm M/r02 = m v0²/ r0 Then v0² = GM/ r0; for planet Mercury And v0 = √ [GM/ r] = √ [GM/a (1-ε²/4)] G = 6.673 x 10 -11; M = 2 x1030 kg; a = 58.2 x 109 meters; ε = 0.206 Then v0 = √ [6.673 x 10 -11 x 2 x1030 /58.2 x 109 (1- 0.206 ²/4)] And v0 = 48.14 km/sec [Mercury]; c = 300,000 Δ θ (Calculated in arc second per century) = (-720x36526x3600/

τ0 days) √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] [(v° + v0)/c] ²

With ε = 0.206; √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] = 1.552; v° = 3 meters per second Δ θ = (-720x36526x3600/88) 1.552 (48.143/300,000) ² Δ θ = 43 arc second per century Summary = (-720x36526x3600/

τ0 days) √ [(1-ε²)/ (1-ε) ²] [(v° + v0)/c] ²

= (-720x36526x3600/88) 1.552 (48.143/300,000) ² = 43 arc second per century; 8 arc second per century for Venus; v =41.26 Page 9

Or, r = a (1 - ε2)/ (1 + ε cosine θ); definition of an ellipse Rotating ellipse, r (θ, t) = [a (1-ε²)/ (1+ε cosine θ)] ℮ (λ + ì ω) t ------------- I Equation I quantum Mechanics and Equation II is classical mechanics

G has a unit dimension [1/density, 1/time 2] = [1/air density, 1/ Earth period 2] = [ρ a, Te2] Earth's spherical dry air density is 1.2041The measurement of G using spring method which involves moment of inertia or summations introduces (2/5) error and around a sphere introduces (4π/3). Measuring in air introduces air index of refraction error n a2 G = 1/ (4π/3) (2/5) ρ a Te2 n a2=6.673 x 10-11; ρ a =1. 2041 kg/ m3; n a2 =1.0002482 Earth's orbital period is Te = 86164 second; Earth's time period = 24 hours = 86400 seconds Dry air density is 1.2041 kg/ m3; dry air index of refraction at 20° C is 1.000248 Index of refraction of dry air at 15° C is 1.000274- 1.000278 Index of refraction of air at room temperature is 1.000293 The published variations in the value of G is due to air density Page 10

ρ a and air index of refraction n a2

Classical says: Index of refraction is an embedded error n a And using an inverse square law of Isaac Newton introduces (Ts/Te) 2 error

Quantum founded by Plank introduces a 5th power factor from Plank's law of black body radiation and the embedded error is 1/n a 5

The total error (1/n a) 5 (Ts/Te) 2 The fine structure constant α = 1/137.03599 is a measurement error

This quantum error comes from Boltzmann (1/n a) 5 (Ts/Te) 2 Cosine -1 [1/Ln-1

√ α] =23.44°

Almost everything humans know about Physical sciences including physics astronomy physical chemistry and physical biology is all wrong because humans measure/measured wrong since the beginning of time and Earth's spin and Earth's spherical shape and Earth's air density and air index of refraction and Earth's spin periods introduces errors called modern Nobel science Plank h = 6.62606957 x 10- 34 joule -second is an error. Plank assumed light velocity c =299792458 km/sec and ended up giving planet Earth a light Velocity c = 299792458 km/sec Earth's radius re = 637100 meters/second; Earth's density = 5515 kilogram Earth's mass me = (4 π/3) re3 =5.973886146 x 10 24 kilogram Light - Earth's momentum me c = 1.790926012 x 1033 kilogram meter/second The division (1/ me c)/h = 0.842687136 and in an Inverse square law the √ (0.842687136) = 0.917979921 and 0.91799921/ n a2 = 0.91799921/1.0002782 (dry air index of refraction) = cosine 23.44° All rights reserved

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