NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation Job Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes.

Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples

of interpersonal skills include understanding of others’ feelings. Education






The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds, window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. Attitudinal Changes

Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL

The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training and development programmes, as was pointed out earlier, help remove performance deficiencies in employee. This is particularly true when - (1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform, (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better, and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors.

Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered. absenteeism. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. scraps and damage.Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies. Flexibility is therefore ensured. They are absorbed after course completion. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. making employees stay long. All rounders can be transferred to any job. and meeting future employee needs. Further. openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. flexibility. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. There is greater stability. They seldom leave the company. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: • • • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. At the same time. Ultimately. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. complaints. Growth indicates prosperity. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. minimized accidents. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. and capacity for growth in an organization. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Even dissatisfaction. . Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. Growth renders stability to the workforce.

loyalty. communication skills and attitudes Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills. better attitudes. administration. growth. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: • • • • • • • • • • • Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth. production. e. also writing skills when exercises are required. personnel. communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict.g. knowledge. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress. frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership. motivation. thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills. tension. achievement. etc. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas. Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: • Improves communication between groups and individuals: . motivational variables of recognition. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations.

Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning. growth. rules and regulations viable. Needs assessment Organizational support Organizational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis Instructional Objective Selection and design of instructional programs Developm ent of criteria Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorgani zational validity Interorgani zational validity Training Use of evaluation models The Training Process . and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process. Makes organizational policies.• • • • • • • • • Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills.

that is. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills.g. Transfer. Deputation to a parttime MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. when there is performance deficiency. or discharge will solve the problem. a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e. improving quality of supervision. job redesign. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or Knowledge Other Causes Training Non-training Measures Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. selection. Faulty selection. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. poor job design. For example. compensation package. . organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path.NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training.

As shown in the below table. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. For example. when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products. or other problems are diagnosed. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment Table #2 Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Group or organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objective Personnel/skill invention Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Customer survey/satisfaction data Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Issue in Needs assessment . Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce. Although training is not all. Jobs have disappeared as technology. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. Recently however. Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose.Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. foreign competition. and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. they do not necessarily require training efforts. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. sell and service the new products. low morale and motivation.

Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. Also. the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. which training seeks to fill. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization. Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis. knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive. Should this happen. should consider several issues as shown in Fig. domestically and internationally? • Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme. and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis. which seeks to examine the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term). Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support. employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. Obviously. There are other . A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs.Needs assessment. the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills. individual or group. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life.

shift working. Pressure on job-evaluation schemes. 3. part time working. overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment costs. the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate. Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Loss of business Constraints on business development Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay. including advertising. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. • After training. which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? . Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment. the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people. payment system and career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time.benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1. etc. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. • After training. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover. 2. job sharing. grading structures. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives.

com hrmba. 6. the programme? solving and decision making. For example. Co-workers. and 7. depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. Project Reports visit a2zmba. rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. often.blogspot. elements training? Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people. 4. Faculty members at universities. Immediate supervisors. Members of the personnel staff. Who among these are selected to teach.For more Notes. including the following: 1. 5. Bringing several What should be What principles of Where to such as target audience together can also facilitate group processes conduct problem the level of learning? useful in quality circle projects. For mbafin. Specialists in other parts of the company. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. 2. as in buddy systems. recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. 3. Presentations. programmes . Whatever is the basis. Outside consultants. Industry What methods Who are the Who are training Programme Fig #3 Steps inthe and trainees? trainers? techniques? Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination.

In addition. training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) offthe-job methods. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the workplace. training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank). Employees.teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. On the other hand. Safety Technical & Introducing. films. Skills Supervisory & Education Professional Innovations Training Managerial Education In Products Education & Services 1 2 3 4 5 A. the more effective the technique is. As can be seen from Table #2. Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used Orienting New Sales. while the employee is actually working. Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. audio cassettes. many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. case studies. Creative. Obviously. video-tapes and simulations. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. Special Administrative. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. role playing. On the Job Training Orientation Y N N N N Training Job Y Y N N N instruction training Apprentice Y Y N N N training Internships & N y N Y Y Assistantship Job Rotation Y N N N Y Coaching N Y Y Y Y . Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put.

it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. and hence the cost per trainee is low. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. We explain the following-lectures. simulation and sensitivity training. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. computer aided instruction. N-No Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y 3 N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y 3 N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N 3 N At this point. programmed instruction. though its application is restricted in training factory employees. on-the-job training. audio-visuals. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups. (See Table #3) .B. Off the Job Methods Vestibule Lecture Special Study Films Televisions Conference or Discussion Case Study Role Playing Simulation Programmed Instructions Laboratory training Y=Yes. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities.

OJT has advantages. the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes. it is informal. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-jobtraining type. . It constitutes a one-way communication. the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. Often. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. making him or her highly competent. the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience. Further. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. But. jokes and other attention-getters. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. overheads. The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. Further. However. Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides. To break the boredom. There is no feedback from the audience. Finally..Table #4 Training Method Case study Conference Lecture Business games Films Programmed Instruction Role Playing Sensitivity Training Television Lecture The Relative Effectiveness of training Methods Knowledge Acquisition Rank 2 3 9 6 4 1 7 8 5 Changing Problem Interpersonal Participant Knowledge Attitudes Solving Skills Acceptance retention Rank Skills Rank Rank Rank 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 4 9 2 7 6 3 5 8 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 6 9 2 5 8 6 7 1 4 3 9 Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. videotypes and films. there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom. audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience. Further.

Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. The training programme itself is not systematically organized. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. 3. Material is also structured and self-contained. . The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. It is. First. If not. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. to create safety hazards. and thus get training when they prefer. he or she repeats the same. result in damaged products or materials. but repeated use may justify the cost. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. The scope for learning is less. compared to other methods of training. complete with audio instruction displays. this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want. in at least three respects. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. Simulation then. manuals and machinery is considerably high. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed. Second. 4.OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. After reading each block of material. In addition. offering much scope for practice. Presenting questions. much time. 2. the learner's response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. facts. For example. the learner must answer a question about it. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method. the learner proceeds to the next block. and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. either in a book of thought a teaching machine. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit greater utilization of basic PI concept. or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct. Cost of preparing books. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. Third. Thus. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job. informal.

select the best one. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. as in case study. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. For example. role playing and vestibu1 training. an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. training takes place away from the work environment. Then. and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. the need to decide what is going on. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee. Attitude change is another result of role playing. and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals . without disrupting ongoing operations. analyses causes. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations. activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Of course. For example. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. develop alternative solutions. in the reader. and what can and should be done. Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study. what the situation really is or what the problems are. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs. these cases represent to describe. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation. and implement it. as accurately as possible. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. real problems that managers have faced. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones.

The learners do not have to depend on the trainer's availability. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do. He or she can then receive a. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options available. greater openness. encounter groups. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over. mostly in information technology. usually fewer than 12 in a Group. There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time. are held away from workplaces. improved listening skills. Table 9. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training. Using a PC. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. Meeting have no agenda. and increased understanding of group’s processes. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the seven seas. Web servers.9 shows some more techniques of training. ISDN lines. . They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process. a modem and a web browser. increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. Employees of Motorola have access of self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm's Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses. or T. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other. One can attend the course at home. and enroll for the courses electronically. laptops. Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees. Virtual learning presents its own challenges. Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy In today’s electronic world. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others. in the evening when one is at leisure. it has become possible to learn online. and personnel computers are the basic requisites.groups (training groups). Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning. But these facilities will payoff in the long-run. course work online and even take tests and advance to the next level-all from his or her own house. how they perceive one another. or while traveling to work.often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. The internet and intranet are changing the face of training and learning. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent Learning through the web can be very convenient for' employees. the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive.

One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices in US. France. role-playing exercises were added for the human touch. One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting for trainees. has a virtual university. till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference rooms as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums. Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training system. England. For example. Japan. to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate intranet across the globe. and Western Europe. This can be avoided in a virtual-learning setting. The firm's satellite broadcast links employees in countries all over the world. Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time. Face to face. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart soft-skills like performance management. There are others too. It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. The online training was supplemented with small-group work with a site facilitator. including Germany. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone. where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications. for example. Italy. IBM. Motorola and Ford are only the two.It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically. Employees have the facility to get training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. Australia. IBM Global Campus. coaching. and audio interaction with instructors.000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite broadcast technology. roleplaying exercises. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared learning via teleconferencing. presentations via satellite from Boeing experts. and interviewing skills. and India. Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22. Table #5 Techniques of Training Technique Description Ice Breakers Games to get team members know each other Leading Games Exercise to each different styles of leadership Skill Games Test to develop analytical skills Communication Games Exercise to build bias free listening and talking Strategic planners Games to test ability to plan ahead Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative effort Role reversal Exercise to teach plurality of view . workbook exercises. may call for sharing personal information with strangers. Japan.

there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught. Employee motivation. 6. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. . As was pointed out earlier. and Transfer of learning. skills. Recognition of individual differences. 8. the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge.34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. 9. 4. 2.Doubling Tag Teams Mirroring Monodrama Shifting physical position Structured role playing Multiple role playing Built-in-tension Shadowing Outward bound training 9 + 1 + 23 Lateral Thinking Morphological Analysis Gordon Technique Attribute Listening Cross-Cultural Training Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed One role played alternately by two participant Training with external perspective Insight into a given interaction highlighting of communication problems Role play with predetermined objective Providing a common focus of discussion Teaching the importance of resolving matter Working under a senior to watch and learn Adventure sports for teams Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas Listing of alternative solution to problems Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions Isolation. 5. In addition. Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. selection and evaluation of a problem Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning. 7. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language. concepts and relationships involved in it. How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning. 3. and the like. Knowledge of results (feedback). Meaning of material. Reinforcement. Goals Schedules of learning. At the lowest level. Practice opportunities. the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education. The goal of the next level is skills development. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency.

the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. assuming this as an unpleasant experience. In more general terms. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult.37 further. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. The individual must have the ability to learn. There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss. contingent upon behavior. when presented. for example.Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. Goal setting can also accelerate learning. if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss. For example. Thus. Motivation alone is not enough. The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. A crane operator. In negative reinforcement. we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. . would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay.

What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. The more meaningful the material. it needs to be implemented. the trainers must know the company's philosophy. In addition to possessing communication skills. Off the site. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. All the three must be carefully planned and executed. Actually. hotel. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. the better is the learning process. its formal and informal organizations. In the first place. a resort. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. in a training room in the company 3. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. Often. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee's supervisor. perhaps. any other personnel specialty. such as in a university or college classroom. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. basic skills are taught at the job. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. Though. seldom is such a combination effected in practice.Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. (ii) duration of rest sessions. the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. Secondly. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. its objectives. but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. On site but not the job-for example. and (ill) positioning of rest pauses. or a conference centres Typically. At the job itself 2. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training . availability of trainers is a problem. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. and the goals of the training programme. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. Implementation of the Training Programme: Once the training programme has been designed. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. Implementation is beset with certain problems.

In practice. Monitoring the progress of trainees. Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2. Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees. 2. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 9. Scheduling the training programme 3. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. 3. A sense of urgency must be developed. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. and their products. that are. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. Evaluation must be specific. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. 4. their practices. 6.period. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme.1 contains a number of potential goals 1. Evaluation must be continuous. Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. correcting performance deficiencies. consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. . however. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. 5. how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. 2. Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training. for which the training programme was developed. #1). Conducting the programme 4. should finally. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure.

Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. Their opinions could through interviews. The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training. trainers' costs. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. Each group is randomly selected. To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable. salaries of training department staff. words typed per minute. rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period. it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme. a control group may be included. and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth. Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. purchase of equipment (computers. This is a difficult task. the training programme is labeled as successful. wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups.g. it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process . quality pieces produced per hour. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. their behavioral change. evaluation costs. but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training. handouts). Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost. then the training may be taken as successful. programme development costs. videos. The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees' performance. Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis.Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group.

who need training. E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. In addition. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning.provides for continual modification of the programme. though it might also stay in the classroom. Take Wipro. including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. In fact. the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process. Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9. safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms. Learning that requires discussion. Hyderabad. an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned.500 employees.000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. tutoring and team-work can go on-line. In other instances. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. .000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. for example. Routine training such as orientation. Obviously. different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees. a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives. firms are introducing soft skill modules as well. Similarly.500 are on site and 15. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training. Chennai. there are always developments that can affect the programme. 2. Today. For example. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. out of its 17. Pune and Delhi. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus.

Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantages more comprehensively. leadership. as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and Internet. Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Advantages Disadvantages • It is self paced. There are problems nevertheless. . Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning.g. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced.• • • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. • E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business. • E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such as classroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities. • E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketed effectively throughout the organization. tapping multiple • Not all trainees may be ready for trainee senses e-Learning • Allows for consistency in the • Not all trainees may have easy delivery of training and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of • Not appropriate for all training services/assessments and content (e. E-Learning tends to cause trainee anxiety. • Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other way around. cultural appropriate feedback change) • Incorporates built-in guidance • Requires significant upfront 'cost and helps for trainees to use when and investment needed • It is relatively easy for trainers to • No significantly greater learning update content evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance • Requires significant top instructor-led training management support to be successful Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learning exhibit a number of common success factors: • Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happens and is delivered. allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help. Trainees can • May cause trainee anxiety proceed on their own time • It is interactive.

Those that do. there is no such system in our country. Businessmen must sit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. particularly at the middle level. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. insist on employees to sign 'bonds of tenure' before sending them for training. as a result of rapid technological change. tend to concentrate on managers. leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. entrepreneurship skills. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in great demand. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. facilitators. In an increasingly competitive environment. Companies in our country. need to be retrained in team-playing skills. Worse still. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seen as: responding to Labour-market demands. champions of e-Learning and specialist web and graphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective. technicians and professionals. This must change. . for. Unlike Germany. Managers. (ii) the ability to maintain it. however. This must change. combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management. No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces.• A range of people with different skills are involved. workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology. the ability to implement rapid changes in products and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another company's employees. Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B Schools. particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. including expert trainers. Following are the major hindrances: Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do not spend money on training. budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch.

Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. wage revision. Similarly. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. or about 2. 2. 4. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. For example. settlement of disputes. operational and individual training needs. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such bonus. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.) . in the US invests about $ 300 million annually. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company.Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role in imparting training workers. and the like. 5. 6. They have little time in imparting training to their members. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. 3. Xerox Corporation.OC: workers. This is what high-performing organizations do.5 per cent of its revenue on training.

training has to find creative ways to keep pace.” says Mohapatra. New York to Hangzhou. to find how they are powering their growth Training fires the corporate engine At the SEEPZ. Dilip Kumar Mohapatra.500 new people being recruited every month.Newspaper Article on Training & Development On August 4th 2006 Finance and marketing are passé -the function that really rocks India Inc is training. 56. global head for learning and development . Corporate Dossier takes you deep inside the massive in-house training departments created by knowledge corporates. China — with the culture of the company. BPO player IBM Daksh is taking training equally seriously — its training group is christened the Talent Transformation Business Unit . Andheri . Mohapatra’s team is actually developing an online game that will be part of the induction kit for new hires. Up north in Gurgaon. To get a sense of this challenge. office of TCS in Mumbai. and will familiarise TCS inductees around the world — Buffalo. we’re exaggerating.200 people from 53 nationalities. is occupied these days with something very unusual for people his age — computer games. And with 2. consider that the software major’s workforce across 34 countries adds up to 71. Okay. “The challenge is to get everyone on to the common global TCS culture.

and training is becoming a 24/7/365 affair. and is run like a separate business with its own finance controller . quality head. Genpact and ICICI Bank. And it shows in the investments being made by these companies into training infrastructure and resources. That explains our disproportionate focus on this function. While TCS and IBM Daksh are not the only ones — others like Infosys. such as voice quality. director HR. rejection rates. cutting across geographies and time restrictions.(TTBU.” says Pavan Vaish. Wipro. an administration and transport wing.” says TV Mohandas Pai. Infosys. COO. “We believe that training is the most important lever to deliver high quality talent. cost of delivery and customer satisfaction metrics. with a direct impact on client satisfaction. chat and online self-tutorials have ensured that most of the learning for employees takes place at the place. technology is key — media-rich content. and time. video-on-demand. Infosys has a staggering $125 million annual outlay for training and development. Accenture’s global spends on training and development has been $546 million (for September-August 2005). it’s no longer enough to put your employees through the occasional training module a few times a year. . where 30% of training is now IT enabled. “Technology has made training asynchronous. face similar challenges of hiring and training people on a large scale — they are perfect examples of how the in-house training department has become crucial. Companies looking to operate and compete in a global market need to constantly skill and reskill their people. core to the growth and success of India’s new age behemoths. while TCS too invests a comparable figure on training. It is even held accountable for output measures of its trainees. of their convenience. IBM Daksh. and a dedicated HR representative. To deliver this training on this scale and frequency. Need of the Hour In the knowledge economy. in fact.

anywhere learning. to the individual’s overall performance score. This is further re-inforced by linking training hours completed. have put greater pressure on training departments to bring employees up to speed on the latest rules and regulations in their clients’ industries. frequent changes in the global business environment. “Now. whose training team conducts 190 e-learning programmes annually. companies have managed to put the some of the onus of learning onto employees. There is also a need to get people ready for potential jobs that we may want them to take up. Accenture. there’s an ongoing need to equip them with the necessary soft and specialized skills.For ICICI Bank’s 27.” Changing From the Inside-Out . Also. HR at ICICI One-Source.800 employees — a bulk of them at the operational level — e-learning is a way of life when it comes to skill up gradation. “Traditional training was just about behavioral and technical training. Says Aashu Calapa. “40% of our recruits are fresh graduates.” Periodic and. it includes cultural and value training.” says MP Ravindra. since competencies are now closely aligned with appraisals. “For us the classroom is the most inefficient way (to train). as well as the industry in which one is working. and Infosys. But nowhere does training assume greater importance than in the BPO industry. “The responsibility of gaining competency has been shifted to the learner. and with most jobs being customer-facing ones. and to pass they had to score 18 out of 20 points. Calapa recalls that OneSource associates were once required to write two tests for a UK-based client — one on the data protection act and other on the money laundering act. VP. clients are paranoid about the quality of people we employ. with BPO companies looking to move up the value chain.” says Rahul Varma. often.Education & Research.” says HR head K Ramkumar. head HR (India). understanding your own as well as your clients’ organization. people need to be coached in new skills. With thousands of fresh graduates handling customer queries. What’s interesting is that by bringing in the convenience of anytime. executive VP.

The really big shift. To give it the importance of an independent function. IBM Daksh has been working with IBM’s research labs to develop a tool called Sensei. Lyndon J D’Silva . Monitoring of training quality is just as important. since the best trainers are line managers and executives who have spent time and understand the business first hand. Having a global presence helps in leveraging training resources and sharing expertise across continents. Rapid scaling up in IT and ITES companies is also putting pressure on the training machinery. It’s being tested and will be rolled out later this year. With scalability becoming an problem. VP. while cross-cultural and communication training is outsourced to vendors. TCS rotates its training faculty between the Indian and overseas locations. “Trainers are definitely scarce — in numbers. is that from being a HR support function.” It also has eight people dedicated to R&D in training. IBM Daksh. investment in training infrastructure is a priority for most HR heads and CEOs. of course. training is faced with a talent shortage. we treat it as one.” says Mohapatra.” says Varma. “This way. a performance evaluation grid that assesses voice quality and generates a statistical score. says. senior VPHR . and even brings down people from other countries here. D’Silva believes technology will increasingly be training’s best bet. New Challenges It’s clear that the quality of the internal training capability will be among a key driver of business success in the future. and like most other business functions. training has moved on to becoming an independent entity within the organization. “Expanding the talent pool. Runaway Train Accenture follows what it calls a ‘leaders teaching leaders’ approach for technical training. others believe in growing them internally.” says Piyush Mehta. and in capabilities. “When you keep training as part of HR. and this helps decide whether they get on the ‘Leadership Talent List’ of potential fast trackers. it gets buried. Trainers are also required to keep updating their skills and knowledge. At ICICI Bank. “Our supply chain is mission critical to us. managing incidental changes in the . who conduct research and refine training methods. Genpact. Genpact spent close to $8 million on training. While many companies are outsourcing part of their requirement of trainers. and has 313 trainers along with 70 part-time specialists who also conduct domain-specific training for its 25.000-strong workforce across the world. senior executives are required to spend time training others. Infosys links training to individuals’ performance. after feedback from trainers and business units. and most companies have structured ‘train-the-trainers’ programmes in place. Not surprisingly.” And it shows — last year. cross-culturalisation happens better. “We believe the only way to produce quality output is to quantify it. and coping with scale is a big issue. Talent Transformation Business Unit.

as well. wherein its own faculty teaches at academic institutes. and Accenture have been developing joint programmes for training people at these institutions before they join the company. Ramkumar says work is on for a certification process whereby outside partners will be remunerated according to their assessment scores after training. Infosys. TCS runs an Academic Interface initiative. BPO firms like ICICI One-Source have mooted the National Assessment of Competence (NAC) programme. Mohapatra lists globalization and M&As as the two biggest tests of his training department’s effectiveness in the future — in terms of integrating a globally diverse workforce into a single platform. . and ensuring a seamless merger of cultures during acquisitions . this initiative could enable training departments to focus on building higher end competencies in fresh inductees from day one. a joint certification and assesment programme with Nasscom to expand the employable talent base for the industry. the challenge is in extending the in-house training capabilities to a larger pool of Direct Sales Associates (DSAs) outside the company and make them compatible with the company culture. Building external partnerships with educational institutions is another — so companies like TCS.” says Calapa.” says Ravindra. For others like ICICI Bank. who’re in the retail banking and finance business. The existing model of training also needs to adapt with changing business needs from time to time. If it works. For modules and scalability are the challenges the training department faces today. and this helps in better branding for the company. TCS’s Learning & Development group is currently working on a project (codenamed Pygmalion) to develop training programmes and tools for a new cadre of people that the company has never hired before — plain graduates. “We’re clear that training is one of the pillars that we’re going to build our future on. Expanding internal resources is one way.

500 individuals in a single sitting. "When fully completed it will house five food courts.750 hostel rooms were under construction. The company's Mysore campus is spread over 335 acres and it currently has 6. set up with an investment of Rs. and work is in progress to build another 3. the NASDAQ-listed firm planned to set up a new 9.809 crores ($176 million) on expanding its global education centre in the next one year.2 million square feet." an official said.500 people.000 rooms. making it a total of 10. .378 employees. company executives said. one employee care centre. Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia on Monday inaugurated the company's fourth software development block here. they said. one multimedia centre making it undoubtedly the largest training facility in the world. It has three million square feet of built up area. Over the next one year.85 crores.000seat training facility here. An additional 7. It can seat 2.On July 31st 2006 Infosys plans largest training centre… Infosys to set up world's largest training hub… MYSORE: Software major Infosys plans to invest Rs. which would enable training of 13.

” Liqwid Krystal CEO Anand Adkoli said. The learning should be constant. “The proficiency of the candidate on various programmes could be assessed better. with its focus on constant training of employees and using learning as a retention tool. software companies are looking at innovative ways to maximize the productivity of their employees and ensure faster deployment. which provides competitive and business advantage. including in business and soft skills. Bangalore-based Liqwid Krystal. Brainleague and Edutech have joined hands to provide e-learning on intellectual property rights with a focus on research units across the country. modify and deploy the elearning content is the key parameters for improving quality of the employee talent.Daily News & Analysis Online learning gets a thumbs-up from corporates On August 16th 2006 BANGALORE: Indian software service firms spend six to eight weeks in training fresh recruits before deploying them on projects. several players are building specialized tailor-made e-learning courses for tech firms in the country. the Indian corporate e-learning market is estimated at $10-20 million with a potential to grow at 150%. In order to capture this huge segment.” Brain League chief knowledge officer Kalyan C Kankanala said. business development.” Sanjeev Fadnavis. at Harbinger Knowledge Products told DNA Money. . has designed a solution that allows aspirants for software jobs to write a programme in an online test and assess their capability of building codes. Now. Liqwid Krystal has tied up with Viswesvaraya Technical University in Karnataka and Andhra University in the neighboring state to train over 90. associate vice-president. “The speed at which technology firms can develop. According to analysts. online learning companies are focusing on building content that aims to help IT firms save training time and costs on employees.000 engineering students through the module. “It is important for knowledge-driven companies to develop and protect intellectual property. With more projects on hand and hiring in thousands. unlike the traditional theory-based tests. The technology sector has been among the early adopters of online education. for example.

These 25 people will. Agencies generally rope in internal and external faculties (from India and abroad) for training. “Most faculties are specialized and bring to the table expertise in a particular area. and at the same time exporting knowledge. “These workshops see lectures. Says Deshpande: “All media companies under WPP exchange training programmes on modules. “We are getting the best practices when required. etc that we are ready to export. for planning and strategizing. brainstorming and a time-bound deliverable action plan. It should not be chosen because it is fashionable. in turn.” For its part. train others to bring about a cascading effect. online learning has to have the right fit with the organization.” says Sapna Srivastava.But there is a word of caution for firms that adopt e-learning without a clear focus on their business. Ashish Bhasin informs that a team of four from the US and the UK recently trained 25 people in Lintas India on the Worldwide Planning Tool Kit. which involves understanding the media business. Some of these programmes are often modeled on those developed by parent companies. A lot of fresh knowledge is created in India in areas like rural marketing.” informs Rashmi Deshpande of Group M. and help develop work and soft skills. in addition to competency-based training. GroupM has an internal training department called Aspire MGuruKool. “E-learning can also be a disaster if it is not managed correctly. To be successful. while for soft skills we may bring someone from IIM – Bangalore. role etc. On August 9th 2006 Most agencies have developed their own training methods tailored to suit the nature of their work. we may call someone from HLL. Lintas. So. design. level-wise workshops to upgrade skills and middle-management workshops. It is not a panacea. planning and buying. We sometimes adapt and sometimes share best practices with others.” says Deshpande. has set up its own North-point Centre of learning to empower managers with updated knowledge and decision-making skills. it is a means to an end. meanwhile. JWT conducts functional workshops for senior-level staff. “Our training programmes encompass strategizing. content. .” Nasscom has said. O&M has an HR and Training leadership group in Asia Pacific that plans regional programmes and oversees training plans.” says Bhasin. which prepares modules to hone functional and managerial skills.

JWT nominates its top-level staff (those identified to head offices) for its international programme ‘Sam Meek’. a five-module programme spread over 15 months. allowed to work with bigger clients and groomed to take on additional responsibilities. O&M nominates those who have worked for 3-4 years for the regional programme ‘Adopt a Country’. sent to different regions. which is held once a year. O&M sends its senior staff for the regional senior management development programme (SMDP). and introduced a top achiever’s programme in December 2005. ‘IMAG Training for non-IMAG’ and ‘advertising workshop for non-advertising’. typically one planner and one creative or servicing person. A buddy is chosen and the two buddies get an opportunity to visit each other’s country. Case Study: Article Training Employees of IBM through E-Learning . The programme is intended to help youngsters build networks across different regions. Lowe sends two people. GroupM has a programme called Fast Trackers for young achievers. where youngsters are put through a lot more grind in terms of opportunities. High fliers and the crème de la crème of the talent pool can also look forward to attending special workshops. for its ‘global young achiever’ forum.Young talent is given more opportunity to grow as well. which is held thrice a year across different Asia-Pacific centres. work on projects together and develop a sense of belonging. And Lowe has introduced programmes like ‘media training for non-media’.

IBM had emerged as the company with the largest number of employee's who have enrolled into e-Learning courses. Andrew Sadler. IBM reportedly spent about $1 billion for training its employees. Initially. During this year." Rebecca Wettemann. and started looking for ways to train its employees effectively at lower Costs. The magazine ranked companies based on their commitment towards workforce development and training imparted to employees even during periods of financial uncertainty. and second-tier benefits.6 billion in 2005 representing a 100 percent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR). IBM saved millions of dollars by training employees through e-learning. in 1999. The company reportedly saved about $166 million within one year of implementing the elearning program for training its employees all over the world. such as increased employee performance that directly impacts profitability. IBM undertook a cost cutting drive. Analysts estimated that the market for e-Learning programs would grow from $2.“E-learning is a technology area that often has both first-tier benefits. compared to the traditional training important for the group to be together to take advantage of the equipment.1 billion in 2001 to $33. e-Learning was used to train IBM's newly recruited managers. However. said. IBM saw it as a major business opportunity and started offering e-learning products to other organizations as well. ELearning also created a better learning environment for the company's employees. such as reduced travel costs. It's saving money and delivering more effective training. a section of analysts and some managers at IBM felt that e-Learning would never be able to' replace the traditional modes of training completely. Since its inception. "The classroom is still the best in a high-technology environment. IBM decided to use e-Learning to train its employees. director of IBM Mindspan Solutions. in the late 1990s. Rick Horton. . IBM reported a return on investment (ROI)’s of 2284 percent from its Basic Blue e-Learning program." Though there were varied opinions about the effectiveness of e-Learning as a training tool for employees. "All measures of effectiveness went up. The figure rose to $350 million in 2001. During the mid 1990s. However. general manager of learning services at IBM." By 2002. explained the benefits of e-learning to IBM. IBM had been focusing on human resources development: The company concentrated on the education and training of its employees as an integral part of their development. the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was ranked fourth by the Training magazine on it’s “The 2002 Training Top 100”. or a situation where it . After considerable research.' while at the same time providing five times more content than before. research director for Nucleus Research In 2002. This was mainly due to the significant reduction in the company's training costs and positive results reaped from e-learning. which requires hands-on laboratories and teaming.

after some time. in terms of wages. field administration and programming. labs and headquarters. It felt that every employee's contribution was important for the organization. conducted a research to identify the unique characteristics of best executives and managers. the construction of the 'IBM Schoolhouse' to offer education and training for employees. Even during financially troubled periods. Those who excelled in these programs were sent to the Advanced Managers School. international and domestic. Virginia. during the initial weeks at the job. "By the simple belief that if we respected our people and helped them respect themselves. However. which was taught to the managers through training workshops. The research revealed that the ability to train employees was an essential skill. Observe and Think. and were retrained for careers in sales. Discuss. (Watson Sr. Therefore. Watson Sr.' Managers were trained at the school at regular intervals. Gerstner aimed at improving the managers' training skills. a program offered in about forty colleges including some in Harvard. To widen their knowledge base and broaden their perspectives. Columbia. Gerstner adopted a coaching methodology of Sir John Whitmore. In 1933 (after 15 years of its inception). MIT and Stanford. organized at the Brookings Institutions this program typically covered a broad range of subjects including. employees were relocated from the plants. these workshops were not 'just-in-time." The HR policies at IBM were employee-friendly.'s 'Five Steps of Knowledge' carved on the front entrance. the then CEO of IBM. customer engineering. Georgia and Indiana. the company would certainly profit. Listen. IBM's highest-ranking executives were sent to executive seminars. The five steps included 'Read. Employees were compensated well as they were paid above the industry average. Therefore. IBM had emphasized on training its employees from the very beginning.BACKGROUND NOTE Since the inception of IBM. The company followed a 'no layoffs' policy. IBM executives were exposed to topical events with a special emphasis on their implications for the company. its top management laid great emphasis on respecting every employee. the London School of Economics. Gerstner realized that the training workshops were not enough.).' Managers had to wait for months before their turn of attending the work shops came. the father of modern IBM had once said. was completed. political and econQll1ic affairs. Louis Gerstner (Gerstner). managers were also sent for educational programs to Harvard. . The building had Watson Sr. the employees did not possess the knowledge of critical aspects like team building. Moreover. which differentiated best executives and managers. In 1997. in most of the cases. Thomas J.

The company specifically wanted its management training initiatives to address the following issues: • Management of people across geographic borders • Management of remote and mobile employees • Digital collaboration issues • Reductions in management development resources • Limited management time for training and development • Management's low comfort level in accessing and searching online HR resources The company required a continuous training program. which was fully deployed in 2000.Tier' blended learning model'. This information addressed the issues like evaluation. The founding principle of Basic Blue was that 'learning is an extended process. IBM felt that online training would be an ideal solution to this problem. After conducting a research. The first three tiers were delivered online and the fourth tier included oneweek long traditional classroom training. job aids and short courses. IBM believed that its managers should be aware .IBM trained about 5000 new managers in a year. and conflict resolution and so on. strategy and management of IBM. answers and sample scenarios called Manager QuickViews. which managers came across. This was IBM's first e-learning project on international training. It imparted 75 percent of the training online and the remaining 25 percent through the traditional classroom mode. Basic Blue was an in-house management training program for new managers. There was a five-day training program for all the new managers. A manager who faced a problem could either access the relevant topic directly. not a one-time event. the five-day program turned out to be insufficient for the managers to train them effectively." Basic Blue was based on a '4. ONLINE TRAINING @ IBM In 1999. He/she had direct access to materials on the computer’s desktop for online reading. However. The program offered basic skills and knowledge to managers so that they can become effective leaders and peopleoriented managers. The company planned to utilize the services of IBM Mindspan Solutions to design and support the company's manager training program. Gerstner thus started looking for new ways of training managers. simulations. The material also highlighted other important web sites to be browsed for further information. The e-Learning part included articles. retention. The managers were provided access to a lot of information including a database of questions. or find the relevant information using a search engine. as the jobs became more complex. The company felt that the training process had to be continuous and not a one-time event. IBM launched the pilot Basic Blue management training program. where they were familiarized with the basic culture. without the costs and time associated with bringing together 5000 managers from all over the world.

Apart from this. Managers had to pass an online test on the content provided in the above three tiers.issues and business conduct in an interactive manner. IBM could not afford to keep its sales team away from work for weeks together. the groups were foremen virtually by videoconferencing with team members from all over the world. as 'Managing@ IBM. The online Coaching Simulator offered eight scenarios with 5000 scenes of action.' Prior to the implementation of the Sales Compass e-Learning program. in most of the cases these methods proved too expensive. employees could interact online with the instructors as well as with peers in their groups. There were no lectures in these sessions.of practices and policies followed in different countries. as the sales team was spread across the world. work/life balance." In the second tier. they all reached a similar level of knowledge by mastering the content in the first three tiers.' By the time the managers reached this tire. ineffective and time-consuming. Senior managers trained the managers online. and the managers had to learn by doing and by coordinating directly with others in the classroom. Hence. The tremendous success of the Basic Blue initiative encouraged IBM to extend training through e-Learning to its-sales personnel and experienced managers as well. This tier used IBM's collaboration tools such as chats. in a highly competitive market. and team rooms including IBM e-Learning products like the Team-Room. compensation and benefits. Hence. the fourth tier comprised a classroom training program. However. multicultural issues. the managers had to master the information acquired in the above three tiers and develop a deeper understanding and a broader skills set. IBM believed that classroom training was also essential to develop people skills. Using these tools. live virtual classrooms and interactive presentation: on the web. This tier also used virtual team exercises and included advanced technologies like application sharing. this tier focused more on developing the collaborative skills of the learners. the members of the group had to solve problems as a team by forming virtual groups. decision points and branching results. The e-Learning program for the sales personnel was known as 'Sales Compass. The simulations enabled the managers to learn about employee skill-building. Customer-Room and Lotus Learning Space. Going Global offered as many as 300 interactive scenarios on culture clashes. In the third tier. IBM Management Development's web site. Though training through e-Learning was very successful. national sales conferences and other traditional methods of training. using these products. the sales personnel underwent live training at the company's headquarters and training campuses. before entering the fourth tier. the managers were provided with simulated situations. Therefore. Some of the content for [his tier was offered by Harvard Business School and the simulations were created by Cognitive Arts of Chicago. the members of the group started interacting with each other online. own as 'Learning Lab. They also attended field training program.' and the one for the experienced managers. In the fourth tier. Moreover. In this tier. coordination problems also cropped up. .

The information offered included industry snapshot. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). and tools and job aid (4 aids). Like the Basic Blue program. advice on how to sell specific solutions. which is convenient for these users. Business Intelligence (BI). in late 2001. and service professionals at IBM. key processes. market segmentation. But with the success of Basic Blue. unable to get into a branch office and obtain information on a specific industry or solution. about how to close a deal. In 2000. IBM Sales Compass provides industry-specific knowledge. this program enabled managers to choose information based on their requirements. Sales Compass was developed further. The content of the new Sales Compass was divided into five categories including Solutions (13 courses). positioning and selling industry solutions and identifying resources. Sales Compass also had simulations for selling products to a specific industry like banking. Unlike the Basic Blue program. just-enough sales support information site. IBM was able to reduce its training budget as well as improve employee productivity significantly. personal skills (2 courses). territory representatives. So they are. "Sales Compass is a just-in-time. Brenda Toan (Toan). IBM saved $200 . a sophisticated Intelligent Web Agent.Though Sales Compass was originally started in 1997 on a trial basis to help the sales team in selling business intelligence solutions to the retail and manufacturing industries. Edvisor offered three tracks offering various types of information. It also enabled the sales people to sell certain IBM products designed for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). It also allowed its users to ask questions and had links to information on other IBM sites and related websites. banking. and so on. industries (23 courses). sales specialists. The sales personnel of IBM across the globe could use the information from their desktops using a web browser. most of the times. By implementing the above programs. said. and Edvisor. government. The program provided content related to leadership and people management skills. Sales Compass also trained the sales personnel on skills like negotiating and selling services. selling skills (11 courses).000 sales representatives. e-learning. and so on. client relationship representatives. The program included the face-to-face Learning Lab. insurance etc) in a much better manner. Sales Compass provided critical information to the sales personnel helping them to understand various industries (including automotive. In 2001. global skills and learning leader for IBM offices across the world. Basic Blue saved $16 million while Sales Compass saved $21 million. and enabled the managers to meet their specific needs. Sales Compass was offered to 20." IBM also launched an e-Learning program called 'Managing @ IBM' for its experienced managers. and selling tools that support our signature selling methodology. Most of our users are mobile. it-was not implemented on a large scale. industry trends.

deductions in their salaries. The Basic Blue program bagged three awards of 'Excellence in Practice' from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in March 2000. IBM continued its efforts to improve the visual information in all its e-Learning programs to make them more effective. The new tool on the company's intranet was . coverage. career changes and more. increased employee satisfaction.million and its cost of training per-employee reduced significantly .6 Customer-Room 0. The simulation modules and collaboration techniques created a richer learning environment. as compared to the traditional training methods used earlier.0 E-LEARNING AT IBM . Besides.FUTURE PLANS The e-Learning projects of IBM had been successful right from the initial stages of their implementation. It was also included among the ten best 'world-class implementations of corporate learning' initiatives by the "E-Learning across the Enterprise: The Benchmarking Study of Best Practices" (Brandon Hall) in September 2000. It also enabled the managers to complete their classroom training modules in lesser time.5 Sales Compass 21. but also in other HR activities. In November 2001. IBM employees received the benefits enrollment material online. These programs were appreciated by HR experts of IDM. The e-learning projects also enabled the company to leverage corporate internal knowledge as most of the content they carried came from the internal content experts. This application enabled employees to see and manage their benefits. IBM planned to update these programs on a continuous basis. Pathfinder took information from the employees and returned a preferred plan with ranks and graphs. such as cost.0 Going global 0. IBM used e-Learning not only to train its employees. and other companies.6 Coaching simulators 0. Apart from this. The company also automated its hiring process.from $400 to $135. The company also encouraged its other employees to attend these e-learning programs. using feedback from its new and experienced managers. This obviously. its sales force and other employees.' This tool also enabled the employees to know about the various health plans offered by IBM.8 Manager Quick-Views 6. The employees could learn about the merits of various benefits and the criteria for availing these benefits. customer service or performance using an Intranet tool called 'Path Finder. E-learning also resulted in a deeper understanding of the learning content by the managers. IBM’s cost savings through E-Learning Program Saving in 2000 (in US $million) Basic Blue 16.

flash animation.capable of carrying out most of the employee hiring processes.000 flight attendants by November hrmba. IBM used to take ten days to find a temporary engineer or consultant. AA's manager for line training and special projects. m-Learning was the next ideal step (after eLearning). The content included instruction clips." The company had trained 24. American Airlines (AA) used IBM's eLearning package. graphics. Project Reports visit a2zmba.blogspot. IBM also started offering the courses to its customers and to the general public. American has also brought efficiency and cost savings to our training processes using IBM's e-Learning . Shanta Hudson-Fields. This made the airlines annual safety training certification program guides more effective. at any time. which enabled its flight attendants to log on to AA's website and complete the 'safety and security training' from any place. the company was able to find such an employee in three days. Now. In early 2002. Initially. IBM also started exploring the evolving area of 'mobile learning' Analysts felt that for mobile sales force of IBM. Presentations. IBM leveraged many new communication channels for offering its courses to employees.blogspot. commented. "The full service package that IBM offers has allowed us to develop an effective online course for our large group of busy attendants. For more Notes. In addition to providing a flexible training certification experience for our attendants.blogspot. and so on.

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