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Sanskrit Introductory
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A Practical

Preface
This course of fteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply MonierWilliams' dictionary1 and the Dhatu-Patha2 to the study of the scriptures. .

The rst ve lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both Devanagar and transliterated Roman: ash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and e ort, with similar English (Received Pronunciation) sounds o ered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the Devanagar alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for nding di cult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dhatu-Patha, and the . application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the rst eleven lessons include a `B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully in ected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the `B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced.

The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a `feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix.
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1 Monier-Williams

Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding| and this is re ected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dhatupatha referred to in these notes is that edited . by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive.

variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson.za June. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Readers are invited to point out errors in the course. these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad G ta and Upanisads. although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites. . Where there is a variation in the form of a character (e. The common . 1996.ac. and many schools have ceased to teach it. In view of this situation.g. wikner@nacdh4. Charles Wikner.nac. and o er suggestions for its improvement. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular. of right and wrong. A or A ). that have been handed down over generations.iv A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The pronunciation o ered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi (sound changes). None of these traditions are wrong. but neither is wrong. an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly di erent. There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds.

A. Introduction to nouns . A. B. More on Verbs The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa B.3. . A. B.3.2. A. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 .5. A. More on Noun Cases B. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowel Measures Sanskrit Pronunciation The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The Other Simple Vowels: r l . A. A.1. A.8. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au Summary of All Vowels The Sixteen Sakti: am ah . A.6. Exercises B. Exercises Pronunciation of the Stops Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 13 Lesson 3 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va B.2. A. A. Summary of Verbs B. Practicing the Alphabet B..1.1.7.1. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 31 Lesson 5 A.2.1.4.5. Exercises Summary of the Consonants The Alphabetical Order Devanagar Alphabet B. B. A.2. The Concept of Dhatu Introduction to Verbs Exercises Flash Cards Lesson 2 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: The Five Mouth Positions B.3. More on Verbs The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B. Exercises 21 Lesson 4 A.1.Contents Preface :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iii v ix 1 Contents ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Invocation A.1.4. A.2. The Final Consonant: ha B.4.1. A.4.6.1.2. A.3.2. A.2.1.3. More on Noun Cases B.3. A.

1.3. B. A. A.6.1. B.5.5.5. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B. A.3.2.4. B. Joining Words in Writing B.1. Pronunciation of ksa .2. B.1. Revision :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 71 Lesson 10 Introduction to Sandhi Guna and Vrddhi . Types of Words Variations in Devanagar Alphabet B.3.4. Use of iti Variations in Samyoga B. A. Exercises 53 Lesson 8 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Savarna . A.4. Avyay bhava Samasa Bahuvr hi Samasa Exercises 85 .2.1.3.vi A. Internal Sandhi Lesson 11 Samprasarana . Vowel Sandhi Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi B.2. Vowels after Consonants A. Lesson 9 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowels Accents B. A. Pronunciation of j~a n List of Conjunct Consonants Special Symbols Halanta Consonants ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B. A.4.3.4. Exercises . A.1. A. Verbal Pre xes B.1.2. A. A.2. B. Consonant Sandhi Grid A. Dvandva Samasa Tatpurusa Samasa . A. History of Vowel Embellishment A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 6 B.2. Visarga Sandhi A. A. B.3.3.2.2. Lesson 7 Conjunct Consonants Special Conjuncts ksa and j~a n . B.3. A.2.3. A.1. B.2.4. B. Nasal Substitution for Anusvara Devanagar Numerals B. B. B. More Noun Declensions Adjectives Adverbs Vocabulary Summary Exercises 63 A.2. A. Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit Noun Gender Summary of Case Information Exercises 45 A. .1. Exercises 77 A.1.1.1.3.5. A. Introduction to Compound Words B.4.

2. 4. 7. 4. 3. 5. 6. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . 6. 6. 8. 5. 2. 5. 3. 3. 2. 4. Study of the Scriptures Study Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109 Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises Sanskrit Glossary and Index Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 121 123 135 141 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: . The Contents Page The Text Body The Index Dhatu Spelling Changes Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . 4. 8. 7.Contents vii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 12 1. 2. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103 Lesson 15 1. Monier-Williams Dictionary Alphabet and Transliteration Fundamental Structure Page Heading Words Dictionary Practice Words beginning with SaStructure of Devanagar level Structure within non-Dhatu entries References and Abbreviations Special Symbols Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Supplement to the Dictionary Dictionary Practice Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Dhatu Entry Information Numbered Entries Misleading Words Di cult Words Dictionary Practice :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91 Lesson 13 1. 3. 97 Lesson 14 1. 5.

viii A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

M. studying.E+ A. the act of causing to remember. brilliance. .P.Da.d a.d A ana. reminding. to turn the mind towards. . studied. adhyayana | mw 22c n. happen. May our study be full of light. or simply `our'.| ga. reach. na. deportment. (Invocation to Taittir ya 2.1. energetic.d A ana.i. calling to mind. in the sense of matup (`belonging to this'. Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of re.`a.d sea. get about to go to or towards. Swam Sarvananda) . :pa. | A:s+ A d a.1. or simply `be!' 117a be.tam. live.d:ga. . Panini: ba.Dyayane+| . | I k A d a. . . Let what we are studying be invigorating. `existing in this'). re ptij | mw 446a to be or become sharp. the act of arising or becoming.a. .v+| bhu | mw 760c f.f. read well-read. perceiving. | a.a. Dh.tam.a. | I z A d a.ane+| nisana | mw 561a n.tmanea. besides.| Bua. understand.hu lM C*nd as+{ 5| 2| 122{ In the Veda the a x -vin is variously introduced . .a.N+ A a.pa.| ana." y y The light of understanding/knowledge/truth. i. attained.Sastry) . te!a.a. Judith Tyberg) neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin.!a. A.ja. to undertake anything to be employed in.tama~tu+! .Da. smarana | mw 1272b n. rather than the literal word-by-word translation.E+| . Swam Sarvananda) (Invocation to Taittir ya 2. glow. reading. p adhi. (Invocation to Katha UUpanisad . we have: \May the Light Shine upon our Studies. especially the Veda s.vaDa. giving the meaning `of us both (student and teacher)'.P.ix INVOCATION Translations: E ective may our study prove! May our study be thorough and fruitful.a.P.d:ga. obtain . having qualities of heat and light. May our study be vigorous and e ective. going.f.N+ :pa= smEa. | I z A d a. Treating adh tam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement.a. go on with.E+| genitive dual of personal pronoun `I'. Swam Gambh rananda) . . `may it be'.N+ :pa= smEa.ta. Swam Gambh rananda) (First Lessons in Sanskrit.ja.P.tmanea.ta.P. . tea. light. (to be).f.a. With reference to our study of Sanskrit.d:ga. glare.a~v+ na. Dh.j!a. pas | mwpersontosingular imperativepresent. gait. exist.an+{ tea. whetting observing.e. . this may be understood as the heat that burns o the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through. bright.a~v+ na. tejasvin | mw 454c mfn.Za. this gives a rather plodding translation of `Let our study be bright'. pi | to go. Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole.pa. continue in any condition or relation .| sma=*Ne+| . . spread. Dh. Let our study be brilliant. splendid. gati | mw 347c f.] tejas | sharp (edge of a knife) point or top of ame or ray. motion in general. p A:~tu+| rst of as `let it be'. be take place.pa. learned.a.f. splendour. to arrive at.d sea. adhi | mw 20b pre x expressing above.+ A:~tu+{ . :::::::: :: :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (Invocation to Daksinamurti Upanisad.N+ A a.N+ :pa= smEa.pa. over and above. walk to ow to blow to advance. (The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun.| A. (Invocation to Katha Upanisad . come . A. brilliant. moving.d A ana.j+ Bva. sharpening.f.d:ga.pa. Dh. observe.+| neuter nominative singular of adh tam. to succeed.) adh ta |mw 22c mfn.a~v+| .d:ga. Dh.

x A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

In Sanskrit. each letter represents one. the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech. The word svara literally means sound. for we barely open the mouth (which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred). In English. fat. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit the prolonged measure (as a full breath) is useful in practising the vowels. By contrast. will not be understood. may indicate many sounds (e. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel (svara) and the consonant (vya~jana). accent and n vya~jana an adornment or decoration (to the sound).A. fate. There are no capital letters. Without this.A Sanskrit is written in devanagar script. This system of enumeration (one. and the prolonged for three or more measures. sound. where many means more than two) manifests throughout the grammar. It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound. (You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3. Having .Lesson 1.1 Vowel Measures Vowels can be short (hrasva) or long (d rgha) or prolonged (pluta). The word devanagar means the `city (nagar ) of immortals (deva)'. and only one.g. the pronunciation of English requires much e ort. The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagar is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3. for it re ects the natural evolution of creation. fare. but not so in Sanskrit.) 1.2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. the long vowels for two measures. tone. the letter `a' for example. and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw | and what a great weight that is to move about. 1. The short vowels are held for one measure (matra).A. manifesting (as a stop in the n sound). far). and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit. many. two.

In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat that tension should not be there for the long a or the prolonged a3. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3. open the throat and mouth wide. like two ngers. . it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. so pout rather than purse the lips. breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. To sound i3. the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound. As a very rough guide. and the long u like `boot' or `suit'. they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) of the grammar. sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds indeed. the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm (a pencil thickness) for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold | literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit. allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth (so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out.3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert. The biggest single factor in practising the re ned sounds of Sanskrit. 1. lling the opening) there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles. and with tongue relaxed. In spite of this di erence between a and a. to the richness and fulness that emerges. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think | so don't think! | use a measure. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in `pink' and not `pin'. In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3. To sound u3.2 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw. the short a sounds similar to the vowel in `but' and de nitely not `bat' likewise the long a is similar to the vowel in `harm' and not `ham'.A. is to open the mouth! For English. and the long like `peep' or `seat' the short u is similar to the vowel in `put' or `soot'. open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue (the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth).

These . the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them. when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position. to manage. approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth. each having its own unique mouth position. . Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of r3. . Similarly for l3. nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue. just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen. to be well ordered or regulated). ve basic vowels. and then the i gave rise to r and l . de ne the ve mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. ik. ri. Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position. The pandit of today tends to pronounce r as if it were . To get to the correct pronunciation of r3. . slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head. In practice. but a word like Krsna r . 0 0 The long l is not used in the standard grammar. . and l occurs only in one verb (klp.5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a u r . or indeed in the American `prdy' for . . In fact the vocalic r is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across . surnames like Przybylski it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word `interesting' as `int r sting' or `intrsting'.Lesson 1. should produce no i sound at all. begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and .. r These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech.A 3 1.. . . and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded. Continue the exercise as for . . `pretty'.A. Let's examine what we have so far. We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels. . then practise directly sounding r3 for a full breath. and .. a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards. i l . .r even more improbably as r similarly l and l tend to be pronounced as lri . This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary. start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of . 1.. 3.4 The Other Simple Vowels: r l . for example rk tends to produce .A. and lr . .

o a u In a manner similar to the arising of e. The vowel e sounds similar to that in `fair' or `eight'. The vowel o should sound between `awe' and `owe' (or between the vowel sounds in `corn' and `cone') the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds. ai a e The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. while i has the back of the tongue raised and the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e. The au sounds similar to the vowel in `down' or `hound' but without the glide from a to u. . the sound o naturally arises. au a o And nally. e a i The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i mouth position. the au sound arises when a is combined with o. and the throat is relaxed.4 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels (sandhyaksara). The ai sounds similar to the vowel in `aisle' or `pie' there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i. i. with the lips in the position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a. so to move from e towards the a sound. when a is sounded through the u mouth position.e. so that the position of the lips is roughly half way between that used for u and a. . Now the only di erence between e and a is the raised back of the tongue. we need to drop the back of the tongue to a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a. Remember that a has a relaxed throat and tongue.

Rather follow the instructions given earlier. l . or oral guidance given in person.6 Summary of All Vowels au o u r .A 5 1. tip vertical half-raised back. not bat harm. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au. especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. Approx. . y a a i/ e ai u/u o au r . but have no short measure. a i l . y but. ai e Combining the previous ve sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. being an addition of two sounds as it were. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another. not ham pink / peep fair or eight aisle or `pie' put / boot between owe awe down or hound (acre) (table) The English approximations are only a very rough guide.A. Vowel Throat tense relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense tense Tongue relaxed relaxed raised back raised back half-raised back relaxed relaxed relaxed half-raised back.Lesson 1. tip upper teeth Lips wide open wide open wide open wide open wide open small circle small circle large circle wide open wide open Eng. are naturally long (d rgha) and may also be prolonged (pluta).

8 Practising the Alphabet One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter. you forget how to continue the letter. It is sounded through the nose only. . then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. . Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds. 1. so do not practise half letters. for example the macron (horizontal bar above the letter) is used to indicate the long (d rgha) version of the vowel.: In the transliteration scheme shown above. half way through. sound it. . When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent re ning the proportions of the letter. The anusvara (m) is . In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. Since these both arise after a vowel we shall precede them with a when sounding the sixteen sakti. . or visarjan ya. etc. . there needs to be a three way association. see if you can visualize the devanagar form. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form. breathed through the mouth position of that vowel. the lines and dots. . namely between both the written forms and the sound. so that ah may be sounded as aha. an `after sound'. called `diacritical marks'. . a a i u u . write the whole letter without referring back to the original. Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. and is . so that any one of these associates with the other two. i. These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter. and should be independent of mouth position.e.7 The Sixteen sakti: am ah .r r l l e ai o au am ah .6 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1.A. In fact. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath. Strictly speaking.A. The visarga (h). are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. but to associate a sound with a whole form. the anusvara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination). . Another method of practising the alphabet is to use ash cards with the devanagar letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other (in case you forget you can turn over). To these fourteen vowels are added the anusvara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen matrka or sakti (powers or energies). is an unvoiced breath following a vowel. and then write it. . When you write the letter. If. which form the start of the alphabetical order. a nasal sound following a vowel.

As a very rough guide the nib width should be 1 8 of the overall height of the A character.) and le the end of the nib to 22 as shown. and the thickness of the nib about 1 of the width.5mm) is best for practising the forms of the letters. A A+ I o IR . the second i . You will nd that a broad nib ( 2. so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen (Schae er. 22 2. The transliteration of the rst row is a a. and a much narrower nib ( 0. etc. and the third u u. into the paper) and nally remove the sharp edges by `writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a rm at surface. and one minute at a time 15{20 times throughout the day with the ash cards. Platignum. File across the nib (in the sketch. They are the short (hrasva) and long (d rgha) measures of the three primary vowels. 6 Here are the rst six devanagar characters to practise.A 7 The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15{20 minutes each day on the written exercise.5mm Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available.Lesson 1.6mm) for normal writing.

be left alone. From this pie root sta are derived other simple English verbs. such as `standard' indeed. constitution.B. or su xes may be added to form nouns and adjectives. Consider the English verb `to stand'.1 The Concept of Dhatu A dhatu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. a list of roots (about 2000 of them) giving grammatical information about their in ection. such as constant. it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin. endure. Monier-Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand. which is . extant. adhere to.Lesson 1. . The pie root sta is allied to the Sanskrit dhatu stha. which has the sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dhatu to its fully in ected form as found in sentences. persevere. together with a concise sense of their universal meaning. `recitation of roots'). each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. which is the sense of the meaning of the dhatu stha given in the Dhatu-Patha (lit. 1. such as `misunderstand'. meaning `to stand. stop. | all these express some sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity. linger. stagnant. etc. stammer. ecstatic. for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself. desist. remain. The dhatu itself is not found in general speech or writing. wait. tarry. con de in. and thus the simple verb derived from the dhatu stha may be translated as `to stand'. such as stay.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants (given in the next lesson). The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit. instant. be intent upon. which diverges into many speci c meanings. Pre xes may be added to this to form further verbs. stand fast'. stack. remain stationary. To appreciate how `stand' changes to `state' for example. But a dhatu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation. stay. and ultimately from its Proto-IndoEuropean (pie) root sta. static. a host of words may be derived from `stand'. halt. make a practice of. stow. stand still. estate. stay quiet. rely on. keep on. hesitate. continue. etc. stem. last.

In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purusa. it means `last'. The word uttama derives from ud. tisthati vadami ca He stands and I speak. tisthati . uttama-purusa . simple sentences may be constructed: prathama-purusa .... For example: p dhatu (root) p stha sense of `cessation or absence of movement' anga (stem) tistha to stand _ . middle person (madhyama-purusa).2 Introduction to Verbs A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol ` ' before it) develops to form a stem (anga).. the dhatu does not necessarily undergo as great a _ p stha. An example of this is ca (`and') which is placed after the last word of the series it links (or after each word in the series). singular (eka-vacana) forms: Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English. as we have here. for example p vad remains clearly recognizable in the form change as with vadati `he/she/it speaks'. . . . and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a _ _ complete verb (kriya). . As in English. however. or highest.. tisthami . do not have endings these are called indeclinables (avyaya). there are three persons (purusa): the rst person (prathama. in a series of place or time or order. kriya (verb) tisthati he/she/it stands . such as adverbs and conjunctions.B 9 1. or You stand and speak.Lesson 1. . purusa). to give the . so that uttama-purusa can also mean Supreme Spirit . madhyama-purusa .B.. . last person (uttama-purusa). uppermost..(up) and -tama (superlative su x) to mean best. he/she/it stands you stand I stand vadami I speak or I am speaking. With this limited vocabulary. Some words. tisthasi . tisthasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak. In forming the stem (anga).

tisthami vadati ca ..4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the ash cards for the rst six vowels. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen mat. 2. Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course. and lead to understanding. tisthasi vadami ca 4. He stands and I speak 4... . it is preferable not to learn them. You stand and he speaks 3. It would be useful to keep the ash cards in a box (for example a cigarette box): there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet. vadami tisthasi ca 6. (b) Practise writing and recognizing the rst six vowels in devanagar . tisthati vadasi ca . and writing them r in Roman script. and a further ten for the numerals. I stand and he speaks 6. . (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. I speak and you stand 5.. vadasi tisthami ca . 1. 3. You speak and I stand 5. With this aim in mind. tisthami vadami ca ... Cut these out and start using them. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent. but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed.10 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1. You speak and he stands 2. (c) Look up the verb `stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings. ka in their correct order.B. .B.

11 * A A+ I + IR o .Lesson 1. please glue this sheet to the next before cutting.B + in case you do not have access to a double-sided printer. making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page.

12 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory u u + i a a .

A The mouth positions (sthana) used by the vowels (svara) are also used by the consonants (vya~jana).A. Within these ve mouth positions the consonants are n further classi ed according to inner (abhyantara-) and outer (bahya-) methods of articulation or e ort (prayatna). 2. there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English. The same principle is used in English. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i .. for example the consonants `b-c-d' are pronounced `bee-cee-dee'. next is the palatal position (talavya) used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position (murdhanya) used by .. Like the vowels..e. and the labials (pa-varga) are stops at the lips. .. and the teeth (dantya) used by r l. and nally the two lips (osthya) used by u. sta) in the mouth fully stops the breath (and hence the sound) through r. the word `consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum (together with) and sonare (to sound). the mouth. .A. . In fact. . u 2. and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds. These are arranged in ve sets (varga) according to mouth position and named after the rst letter in the group. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya .Lesson 2. for example the ve in the guttural column (ka-varga) are stops at the back of the mouth. is called the guttural position (kanthya): this is associated with the vowel a. mouth. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops. o and au use guttural and labial (kanthosthya). .r l . they need a sound (i. . The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat. Moving towards the front of the . . . a vowel) to stop (or start).. and .2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The rst twenty..1 The Five Mouth Positions The ve mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself.ve consonants are calls stops (sparsa) because the complete contact (sp. two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal (kanthatalavya). The compound vowels make use of .

The consonants in the fth row are nasalized (anunasika). ta. the following notes may assist with rst-time pronunciation. for example.. comprises ka. the others not.e. the second and fourth rows with much breath (mahaprana). The last three rows are voiced (ghosa). . i. . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta . . The aspiration (prana) gives the native English speaker the most problems.14 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . The nasal (anunasika) consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips. whereas the rst two rows are unvoiced (aghosa). 2. these follow after the sixteen matrka in order from . English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before . and pa. . ca. The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the rst. . (ghosa) stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more . ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma The rst.e. In terms of alphabetical order.2) describes the sounds authoritatively. dha .A. whereas the voiced . na . . the vocal cords vibrate in producing the . .. _ . . am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha . third and fth rows are pronounced with little breath (alpaprana).3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section (2. ka-varga through pa-varga. slowly: this can be observed by listening to the di erence between ka and ga when `sounded' without the following a. . ta. and . The unvoiced (aghosa) stops have an explosive quality to them.A. da . . In . i. consonant. pa pha ba bha ma . tha .: . .

One e ect is that `d' and `t' are pronounced somewhere between the dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya) positions another e ect is that many speakers do not use the palatal (talavya) position for the stops. k | kiss. tongue _ c | cello. n/n | gentle. i. mumble When in doubt. jolly. . cab.. back kh | bunkhouse (`bung-khouse') g | good. bha . as mentioned earlier. and ja as `dza'. can be incorrectly pronounced as `b Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described. cart . It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modi cation or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka. ja a softer ga. This di erence needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpaprana . chair. d/d | day. pronounced purely with the lips (osthya). hand. bug gh | loghouse (`log-ghouse') n | sing. and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation. joy jh | hedgehog (`hej-jhog') n | enjoy. vestigial vowel is inserted. and this may be used to illustrate the di erence between for example. Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit. tap. pa and pha: attend to the `p' breath when pronouncing the two English words `pick' and `peek' | hold the nger tips close to the mouth to feel the di erence. p | pick. god . problems occur with the centre three mouth positions. and so on. . gain .A 15 a long vowel. church ch | coach-horse (`coa-chhorse') j | just. pinch ~ t/t | tub. dog. so that ca is pronounced as `tsha'. tap ph | uphill (`up-phill') b | be.. English does not distinguish between dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya).e. aha'. however. give. and mahaprana consonants. dh/dh | redhead (`red-dhead') . makes use of both the teeth and lips (dantosthya): the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if . imbibe bh | clubhouse (`club-bhouse') m | amble. but the common error is to use so much breath that a . kiln. canyon. There is a tradition that pronounces pha as `fa'. pat. particularly for the ghosa consonants for example. th/th | anthill (`an-thill') . long.Lesson 2. the previous section has the authoritative description.

A. o au am ah .4 Devanagar Alphabet The previous lesson gave the rst six devanagar characters. The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: . . A A + I IR o O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH . here are all sixteen letters of the matrka to practise.l l e ai .16 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. . . a a i u u r r .

the dual form of the verb must be used.. dual (dvi-vacana). they (pl. etc. future tense) and mood (indicative. dvi-vacana tisthatah . .) stand Note that when the subject is dual. .) stand tisthamah . while in Sanskrit there is singular (eka-vacana). and plural (bahu-vacana). tisthavah . purusa he/she/it stands .) stand you (two) stand .B. we (two) stand tisthatha . .B 2. benedictive..) to express these. had. . A dhatu belongs to one of ten classes (gana) this classi cation is according to . we (pl. . whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself. purusa you (sing.): English makes extensive use of auxiliaries (might. a verb may express time (past. The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative (simple present tense) called lat. The verbs used to _ form simple sentences in this section are all from the rst class (bhvadi-gana). conditional..tisthami .. imperative. There are ten tense/mood classi cations in Sanskrit: these are called lakara or l-a xes because their technical names all begin with the letter l. (vacana): in English there is singular and plural. ought.. uttama.tisthati . they (two) stand bahu-vacana tisthanti . should.) stand madhyama.. etc. . for example: eka-vacana prathama. variations in the formation of the stem (anga) from the dhatu.Lesson 2..1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purusa (person). purusa I stand . you (pl.. the verbs are divided into number .. . As in English. present. The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number.tisthasi tisthathah . .

.) stand and I speak 5. tisthasi vadathah ca .) speak 2. vadatah tisthamah ca . . ka in Roman script and r devanagar . You (two) stand and speak 4. vadamah tisthatah ca . ..18 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2.) stand 6. tisthati vadanti ca ..B.) stand 3.2 Exercises (b) Practise reading and writing the sixteen mat. tisthathah vadavah ca . 8..) speak 6. 4. You (pl. 7. .) stand and you (two) speak 8. . . He stands and you (pl. We (two) stand and you (pl. . .) speak and you (sing. 2... They (two) speak and he stands 7... tisthatha vadathah ca . . 3. . We (pl. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. . They (pl. . tisthanti vadatah ca .. You (two) speak and they (pl. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order. 5. tisthasi vadavah ca .

Lesson 2.B O + + Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH 19 .

r . r . + e l .20 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ah am au o ai . . l . .

A The sound or letter ka is called kakara (`ka-action') the sound or letter ga is called gakara. and u to a produces va. there are only four semivowels. are always referred to by their own name and have no -kara name. sta).1 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: . i. The anusvara and visarga (or visarjan ya). r moving to a produces ra. r. akin to the English `wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) easier to grasp.g. They are formed by slight contact ( satsp. and are .. akara). including the vowels (e. are similar to the English sounds in `yum'. similarly.e. kanthya talava murdhanya dantya osthya . and `luck'. In the alphabetical order. naturally voiced (ghosa). produces a sound .. and thus . which only arise through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet. . . As a moving to a will not produce . except for ra which is traditionally called repha (`snarl' or `burr') or simply ra. but do pay attention to the mouth position. . a new sound. these follow after the twenty. i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya.. : . . This applies to all the sounds/letters. . in which case its mouth position. pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va . We shall now consider the nal eight consonants (vya~jana). The derivation of the last semivowel (antahstha).Lesson 3. making use of both teeth and lips is called dantostya. These are considered to be between vowels and consonants. l to a produces la. and so are called antahstha (`stand between'). .. but not rakara. Other traditions pronounce this as the English `va'. and so on. . allow a restricted ow of air through the mouth. ya ra and la.ve stops..A. n 3. guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial ya ra la va The rst three of these. `rum'. . although transliterated as va.

`sh' in `ship' or `wish'. It is generally pronounced as unvoiced (aghosa). ya ra la va sa sa sa . . . sa The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words `seek' and `kiss'. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . sa like the . called the jihvamul ya and upadhman ya. . . . A sibilant (hissing sound) is called usman (`heated'). sa sa sa ha... In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels. i. which are described as a `half-visarga' before ka/kha and pa/pha respectively.A. . however. . They are considered to . guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial | sa sa . and sa like the sibilant in the German `ich'. with similar qualities. . . : . .e.A. . . . are to be taken as authoritative. and the mouth position in particular. be sadvivrta (slightly open) or ardhasprsta (half-contact). which allows a . . .22 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above. . In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . . The sibilants are aspirated (mahaprana) and unvoiced (aghosa). there are two more sibilants. according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced (ghosa). 3. .2 The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa . In theory.3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate (sometimes considered a sibilant) is also called usman (`heated'). restricted (hissing) ow of breath through the mouth.. These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored.

. . The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: a a i u u r r l l e ai o au am ah .5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration. ta pa unvoicedunaspirated full contact tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact da ba voiced unaspirated full contact dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal la va voiced unaspiratedslight contact sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open voiced aspirated slightly open 3. na . ra sa . tha .. ha .A.. . ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa .Lesson 3. da . . . . . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa ha ta . it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order. ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta tha da dha na . . dha .A. .4 Summary of the Consonants The de nitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kanthyatalavyamurdhanyadantyaosthya .A 23 3. .

Each symbol includes the sound a for example. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ k K+ g+ .24 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. h this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! . the rst symbol is ka and not just k.A. f then change direction to start the loop. and for kha.G+ z c+ C j+ J V+ The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: e write the down-stroke with the curl at the end. continue the stroke.6 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the rst ten consonants in devanagar script. g complete the loop. Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha.

English translation of that form. some in both. Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada. please use the pada given: in the case of dhatu n for example. The division is not at all de nite. .1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada (`an expression for another') because the fruit.B 3. .Lesson 3. Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only. These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb. When verbs are presented for use in the exercises. or result of the action. is transmitted to another. purusa . madhyama. and has come to be a matter of conventional usage nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada (active voice) and atmane-pada (middle voice). and the . purusa . By way of illustration.dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. use the atmane-pada endings.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . and some partly in one and partly in another. purusa .B. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe .nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . where the dhatu is followed by the eka-vacana prathama-purusa form. These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course. The atmanepada (`an expression for oneself') personal endings used in the active form of the verb (called the middle voice) imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean re exive. they will be presented in the form: p n nayate he leads. the sentence \I married her" would be expressed in atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively.

26 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. .e. for example `the men (pl. feminine (str -linga). and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . the verb is found at the end of the sentence. the pronoun `they' is implied . dual (dvi-vacana). Since the noun endings de ne the relationship to the verb.) stand'. . as listed in Monier-Williams' dictionary) means `man'. _ . has its ultimate origin in a dhatu (root) a xes to the dhatu form the noun-stem (pratipadika) which will have a particular grammatical gender (linga): masculine (pum-linga).. as in the above example.B. the destination is expressed in dvit ya. walk. in which case both are expressed in dvit ya. then the implied pronoun falls away. There are some verbs (such as n ) which have both a direct object and a destination. and neuter (napumsaka_ _ .rksam nayate . There are seven such grammatical relationships and. For verbs having a sense of motion (such as go. and plural (bahu-vacana) form. and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent (initiator or instigator of the action) of the verb the second (dvit ya) case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb. dvit ya naram narau naran Other nouns that take this form of declension are asva `horse'. each of these has a singular (eka-vacana). i. like the verb. When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated. and the subject precedes the object and destination. the man leads the horse to the tree. the word order is not important (as contrasted with English where it is). . Where `tisthanti' is translated as `they (pl. and allows the poet for example. to juggle the word order to t the rules of scansion. . Normally however. the direct object of the sentence. narah asvam v.. linga).2 Introduction to Nouns A noun.) stand'. and this is translated as `narah tisthanti'. and vrksa `tree'. . To the pratipadika form are added case-endings (sup-vibhakti) which _ indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. . . run). The rst (prathama) of these is the nominative or naming case. like the verb. in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. The word nara (the pratipadika form.

3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. asvah tisthati ca narah vadati ca . 4. asvah naram nayate . 5. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. 5.). 2. narau vrksan nayamahe .B. .5. . . (b) Practise pronouncing the rst ten consonants (vya~jana). .) lead the horses (pl. The men (pl. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. narah asvah ca nayete . The (two) horses lead the man.Lesson 3. 3.. . The man leads the horse. . 6. as well as reading n and writing them in Roman script and devanagar . 6. asvau naram vrksan nayete . 3. The men (pl.. 2.A. 4.) are speaking and leading. narah asvau ca tisthanti . . The tree and the horse are standing. The horse leads the man to the tree.B 27 3.

28 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This page is intentionally blank: there aren't many of them. so enjoy the rest while you can! .

Lesson 3.B k K+ g+ .G+ z + + c+ C j+ J V+ 29 .

30 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na jha ja cha ca ~ + na gha ga kha ka _ .

There may be 3 a tendency to limit letters such as :N+ and t+ to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate. for example with `P' and `h'. in devanagar the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ta tha da dha na .Lesson 4. _ . 3 . . and this gives a bias of `blackness' at the top of the letters: this is 1 visually compensated for by using the 3 and 2 lines to `open' the form of the letter. .D+ n+ 1 Note the form of the letters in relation to the 3 and 2 ruled lines. the rst symbol is ta and not just t . . . . . Note the di erences between da na and i gha and dha and dha and da. As we shall see later. Each symbol includes the sound a for example. .A.1 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the next ten consonants in devanagar script. ta tha da dha na f F q Q :N+ t+ T+ d .A 4.

B 4. . As with practising the alphabet.Lesson 4. ten times a day. than ten times once a day. nayethe-nayadhve (pause) naye-nayavahe-nayamahe. madhyama. he stands.. he leads.1 Summary of Verbs The tin-vibhakti (personal endings of verbs) are grouped into three's. For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dhatu n is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises. it is far more e ective to sound this once. he takes. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe . purusa . It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n . . he carries.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante .B. Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah-nayanti (pause) nayasi-nayathah-nayatha (pause) nayami. . Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada. he speaks. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. nayavah-nayamah (longer pause) nayate-nayete-nayante (pause) nayase. he goes. which means _ that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms. p gam pn p labh p vad p vah p stha gacchati nayate labhate vadati vahati tisthati . purusa . purusa .dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . .

For example. The fourth (caturth ) case ending indicates the indirect object. `he makes a kennel for the dog'. `he goes home by car'. thus asvena but v. . pa~cam n narat narabhyam narebhyah . `he falls from the tree'. `he works for money'. `he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here `with' has the sense of `by means of'.B 33 4.A. will be given more fully in a later lesson (11. The fth (pa~cam ) case ending indicates the place from which the action begins. it is that `by means of which' the action is accomplished. `he walks from the river'. . for example. n For example. but this changes to -ena due to internal sandhi. `he gives the food to the dog'. but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment. caturth naraya narabhyam narebhyah . . eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . This . . It may also express cause or motive: `out of anger he strikes the boy'. dvit ya naram narau naran trt ya narena? narabhyam naraih . ksena.B.Lesson 4. the recipient or bene ciary or purpose of the action. `he goes home with an axe'. ? the generic ending is -ena.3). but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality.2 More on Nouns Cases The third (trt ya) case ending indicates the `instrument' in relation to the verb: . . r . For example. but for the time being accept that this change occurs after `r' or `s' in the same word. .

3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. .).A. 5. narah vrksam asvena gacchati .34 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. . .) with horses. . 4. .) carry the man from the trees (pl. . . 4. They (pl. in Roman n script and devanagar . We (two) take the tree from the man by horse. 6.5. . asvah naram vrksam vahati . 2. (b) Practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n as given in 4. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. .1. asvam vrksat naraya nayate . 5. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1.B. . The horses (pl. narah asvah ca vrksat gacchatah .) carry the trees (pl.B. vrksan asvat labhadhve . We (pl. . .) go from the tree to the horses. 3. 3. asvah vrksam naraya vahati . He goes by horse. 6. 2. You (two) are leading the horse for the man. . (c) Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants (vya~jana).

D+ n+ 35 .B f F q Q :N+ + + t+ T+ d .Lesson 4.

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory n . . . . a dha da tha ta . + na dha da tha ta 36 + .

Lesson 5. and sa and kha with ra and va.1 Devanagar Alphabet Here is the rest of the alphabet in devanagar script.Z+ .A. the rst symbol is pa and not just p.A 5. The transliteration of the three rows of devanagar characters is: pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha . Note the di erences between ba and va ya and tha pa and sa la and l bha ma . :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ y+ = l v+ .S+ s+ .h . . Each symbol includes the sound a for example.

naranam . . In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent. `at'. naresu . sambodhana prathama he nara dvit ya naram trt ya narena . . `it is hot in summer'. . `he drives John's car'.. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition `of' or with an apostrophe. however many publications give an eighth. `John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased. The word in sasth is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. . other than the verb. caturth naraya pa~cam n narat sasth narasya .e. which is used for addressing or calling. sambodhana. etc. `he talks to the son of John'. . The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is: eka-vacana prathama narah . In fact this is simply a special use of the prathama ( rst) case ending..B 5. `on'. saptam nare dvi-vacana narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . where are you?'. hear my prayers'. the sixth (sasth ) indicates a relationship to a word . naran naraih . Sanskrit has just seven case endings. `Oh Lord. `he stands on the table'.1 More on Nouns Cases Unlike the other case endings. narebhyah . and may be rendered in English by the prepositions `in'. . for example. narebhyah . This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession. `among'. even deceased. for example.. narayoh . he narah . i. to another noun in the sentence. `John. or to the book that he wrote. Strictly speaking. for example.B. A word with saptam case ending is often the rst in the sentence. The seventh (saptam ) case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place..Lesson 5. for example. bahu-vacana narah . setting the scene as it were.

naran (pause) etc. .2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. v. Continued overleaf . . . ksat asvaih labhate r . naranam asvah tisthanti . . also occurs in . . asvau vrksan naraya vahatah . 2. . . 6. .Lesson 5.he narah (pause) naram .5. . (b) Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5. nara asve tisthasi ... (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . .1. thus asvanam but vrksanam. The sandhi change of n to n that occurs in eka-vacana trt ya. The vibhakti of the nouns are. (c) Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants (vya~jana). . like the verbs.: narah . . i. 5. . bahu-vacana sasth .narau .B..A. 7. ksesu narasya asvah tisthanti r . naram v. 3.narah (pause) he nara .he narau . labelling it simply `sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he. place that row at the bottom of the table. . .B 39 The vocative particle `he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as `Oh'. In practising sounding the full declension of the noun. . 5. 4... . . so that the prathama vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana. in n Roman script and devanagar . asve tisthati ca vadati ca . asvah naram vrksat gacchati . . narah vrksam asvat labhate . .e. use the `correct' table given above. .B. narau . grouped into three's. 8. . Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending.

2.) from the tree. The (two) horses carry the man to the tree.40 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. 3. 8. You (two) are carrying the man from the tree to the horse. The trees (pl. The man's horse carries the man from the trees(pl. 4. He takes the man's horses (pl. 7. .).). you are carrying the tree for the man. 6. The man and horse stand among the trees (pl.) of the (two) men are standing. 5. Oh horse. He is standing on (two) horses.

B :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ + + y+ = l v+ .Z+ 41 .Lesson 5.

42 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ma bha ba pha pa + sa va la ra ya .

B + 43 + :S+ s+ .Lesson 5.h .

44 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ha sa sa . + .

Note that the characters are written left to right. like the Roman. for example b+ (ba) is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short (hrasva) a. this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself. 6. rather like the English `un-'. Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a. bl . be bo ba.l.+ bU+ bX+ bW+ bE+ ba.) All the vowel forms given earlier. bai bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants (ka through ha). Thus the word bala (strength) is written ba.+ ba.A The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel.l.A.Lesson 6. (The `a-' pre x to a noun usually means negation. and that the horizontal line links the letters together. The written form thus resembles the oral form. but note these exceptions: ru ru .b+ bu+ bx+ bw+ be+ ba.e+ ba bi bu br . maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel. hr . occur only at the beginning of a word. The forms indicating the various following vowels are: b+ a.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a ( A ) is never written unless it begins a word for example abala (weakness) is written A ba.E+ ba b bu br . bl . .

46

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Where the embellishment is above the letter itself (with or without the addition of a following vertical bar), namely for i e o ai au, these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar, and where the character meets the bar more than once, to the rightmost junction. For example:
ak

ki

:Ne+

These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. For example:

ne .

devanagar matrka . vadami veda g ta guru

.de vana.aga=*+ ma.a.txak*:+ va.d a.am+ vea.d ga.a.ta.+ gua

6.A.2 History of Vowel Embellishment
It bothers some students that, in a script read from left to right, there should be the seeming anomaly that ki ( ak ) for example, is written back to front as it were, with the i-sign before the consonant. Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all, so that ki ke kai were written as:

ki i

ke j

kai k

However, as personality tends to intrude into handwriting, it could prove di cult to distinguish between ki and ke, especially if the ` ag' was written somewhere between the two positions. To solve this problem, the downstroke was added for ki. Whether this is true or not, is debatable, but it does make a nice story !

Lesson 6.B
6.B.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit
In English speech or writing, the order of words shows their connection or relationship to the whole sentence. For example, in the simple sentence,
desire limits the mind,

the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited, is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. This is an important point: in a sentence, a word's physical position (in time or space), re ects its subtle position (the relationship or part that it plays). Now, a word may be placed before or after the verb | but these are the only two possibilities, before or after, and thus can indicate only two relationships, namely subject and object. The subject comes before an active verb, and the object after it. (The order is reversed for a passive verb, e.g. the mind is limited by desire.) In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence, such as,
desire limits the mind by attachment,

we make use of a phrase containing a preposition (in our example `by') to indicate the relationship of the word `attachment' to the activity of limiting. But notice the operation of the preposition | `pre-position' | it is an element which is placed before (`pre-') to give `position' to the word, that is, to indicate its relationship to the activity. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence, as for example,
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment.

Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object, and a number of related phrases:
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment .

48

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

We may now shu e these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so, we may well lose some clarity, or we may even sound poetic, for example: from the universal to the particular desire limits the mind in the waking state by attachment . The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the the activity of the whole sentence (i.e. to the verb), or are merely qualifying one of the nouns. For example, the intention was to indicate that the mind su ers limitation/restriction/reduction from its natural open state of universality to the con ned state when identi ed with the particular, however, other interpretations are possible: the phrases from the universal to the particular in the rst of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word `mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds `from gods to dogs' in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word `desire' and mean a range of desires `from the general to the personal'. The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings, so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that `attachment' is the instrument/means/method by which the mind is limited, and that the `waking state' is the circumstance where/when the limitation takes place. In an in ected language (one that uses case endings) the relationship to the verb is shown by a su x appended to the word our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IN desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind OBJECT universal FROM particular TO attachment BY . There are two points to note here: rstly, the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship and secondly, the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by de nition. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position (order or arrangement) which is one limitation in a non-in ected language like English but more importantly, the relationship to the verb is precisely de ned, and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence, and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb.

B 49 It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers. says desire. prathama. merely indicate that relationship. our sentence becomes: waking state 7 desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 universal 5 particular 4 attachment 3 . Like the vibhakti adorning a word. and full stop. karman (that most directly aimed at by the kart. when a verb changes from active to passive: desire 1 limits ACTIVE mind 2 (desire limits the mind) mind 1 limits PASSIVE desire 3 (the mind is limited by desire). and then associates the two according to circumstance for example. having the r power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr is expressed in . semicolon. and numbers the actual phonic su x endings (physical). but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. prathama (and English `subject') etc.r) is expressed in dvit ya and prathama respectively. provided that the relationship is clearly de ned. in Sanskrit the agent (kart. For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind.Lesson 6. . has no need of these embellishments Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks. mood. Using the Sanskrit numerical system. Scripture. Thus kartr and karman name the relationship. the words marked with `1' in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence this accords with the Sanskrit prathama-vibhakti ( rst case ending). The a x to the verb indicates tense. as well as voice. and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. the virama ( ) | and purnavirama ( ) to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza { . The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma. In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively. In English. and number. In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships (subtle) when de ning them. colon. which indicate pauses of increasing length. limits the mind. A fully in ected language like Sanskrit. ) is the initiator. . of verse. person. English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases. so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king. However. whereas . but with a passive verb kartr is expressed by trt ya similarly the . being inherently clearer.

. saptam phalayoh phalesu .. This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson. _ dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama phale phalani sambodhana prathama he phale he phalani dvit ya phale phalani trt ya phalabhyam phalaih . caturth balayai balabhyam balabhyah . dvit ya balam bale balah .50 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6.. .B. . as -su. due to internal sandhi. sasth phalayoh phalanam .3). linga) noun bala `girl'. . pa~cam n phalabhyam phalebhyah . caturth phalabhyam phalebhyah . _ are for the neuter (napumsaka-linga) noun phala `fruit'. . . . eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama bala bale balah . saptam balayam balayoh balasu . pa~cam n balayah balabhyam balabhyah . .rt ya balaya balabhyam balabhih . and the feminine (str _ . (11. There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word. . or a | thus -su is the most common form. that applies here: the saptam bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a . prathama and dvit ya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by `r' or `s'. eka-vacana phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale .2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine (pum-linga) the paradigms below . sasth balayah balayoh balanam . t. but in the declension of bala it remains . . Note that. the napumsaka-linga bahu-vacana forms of _ .A. sambodhana prathama he bale he bale he balah .

sasth . direct object By whom/what? Whom? What? indicates immediate destination of action. genitive Of whom? Whose? relation of source/possession/etc. . genitive 7. subject Who? What? Latinate name English grammar Answers question 1.Lesson 6. prathama nominative sambodhana vocative 2. the means by which action accomplished. saptam locative 51 . dvit ya accusative 3.B. From whom/what? place from which action begins also cause/motive. pa~cam n ablative 6. purpose of action. When? Where? place/time where/when action takes place.. 6. calling/addressing. relation is not to verb. bene ciary. caturth dative indirect object To/for whom/what? recipient.B Sanskrit case Relation to Verb names the agent/subject of the verb.3 Summary of Case Information 5. trt ya . instrumental 4.

bala asvam v. . 10. . . . 8. The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man.. The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. . 2.) to the girls for the man. The horse carries the fruit (pl. narah phale vrksat balayai vahati . (b) Practise sounding the full declension of bala and phala. bala narah ca vrksam asvam vahatah . . bale vrksesu tisthatah vadatah ca . . 8. 4. 2. balah naran phalani asvena nayante . 4. ksam phalaya nayate r .) by horse for fruit (pl. . bale phalani narasya v. . (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. The girls (two) stand on the horse and take the fruit (s. 5. The girl takes the fruit (two) from the tree for the horses (pl. . The man stands and the girl speaks.). . We (two) take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse.52 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6.B. 10. . narau vrksanam phalani asvam labhete . ksat labhete r . . . 6.). 3. ksau gacchami ca phalani labhe r . asvah naram ca balam ca vrksam vahati . 7.) from the tree. 5.4 Exercises (a) Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet. You (two) lead the horse and I take the fruit. 6. . 3. 9. 9. narasya asvah phalam balayah labhate . v. 7. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. The man goes to the trees (pl. . The man leads the horse by means of fruit.

A We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel. In the devanagar script this is written as a short stroke ( . in practice. and a di erent method is used.+ + y+ ntya . 7.A. and anta (`end'). below and to the right of the consonant.+ + m+ :N. . This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant.+ halanta ka k . for example the s in svara.nal halanta letter. familiarity with them may seem like a .+ + t. is called `halanta pa'. it forms a consonant cluster. ) called virama (`stop'). For example: halanta pa :p. Thus the letter pa for example. or conjunct consonant.1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal (a technical term referring to any consonant).+ + y+ tm+ :Ny+ tma nya .Lesson 7. 7. Where a word uses a non. however the virama should (ideally) not be used within a word. literally `yoked together') comprises two or more . The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: t. namely p. It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles. halanta ta f . it is a lot simpler than it looks. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles. but fortunately you don't have to learn them. nty+ n. consonants with nothing separating them in particular there is no vowel between them. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle. now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all. without its following a sound. At a rst glance through these samyoga. daunting task. you can discard the notes.A.2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant (samyoga. and you will nd that. so halanta means `ending in a consonant'.

+ m+ + tya . dga tta . : + .+ + n. . : + mna bva sta .d + D+ k + m+ .+ + v+ :S. When symbols are modi ed.+ + y+ :S. . hma . in which case they are read from top to bottom: m. . it is often only in combination with other particular symbols. z + k + y+ .+ + t+ . nka _ + Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: snya sthya .. .d + y+ f + y+ . but some are modi ed: dda ddha kma tta hna dya . for example: t. + n+ .h. .+ + F + y+ .h. s.+ + f .d + g+ f+f .54 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Or they may be written one above the other.. nkya _ Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds. . This arrangement can be useful where the rst letter has no vertical stroke on the right: . . z+k .d + .d .+ + n+ b.. .

+ R R =. : + kka kta The symbol .+ + c+ l+l .Z.Z+ is often written as B or C in combination. . + rr . rl .e.A 55 The symbol k (ka) may be compressed to K . For example: =. + :p+ :pR+ rpa Dva.+ + va. :p. and l.R+ i.+ + c+ V. + D.+ =. .+ + c+ k + t. for example: + or + + S or or T or Zv+ Zc+ sva sca The same group of symbols can be found in di erent forms: or Vc+ nca ~ or #tv+ ktva or pl pla or cc+ cca or l lla While there may be di erent conventions and styles for making compounds.Z.+ + v+ .+ + l c. there are no obvious absolute rules. r . It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom.Lesson 7. or even further to M . for example: k+k . =. When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line (the same as above the d rgha ): it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound. The symbol ra changes form in compounds. k + t+ .+ + v+ . Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied.: rdhva This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels .

56 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory When ra is nal in a compound. for example.d + = f+= . the symbols being so di erent from their components.. i.+ + = . . the tip of the tongue is in the murdhanya position throughout. the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. t. there are two which are quite di erent from their component parts: ksa . sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta sa | . it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: :p. . position as for the normal pronunciation of ka the di erence for ksa is that the tip .A.4 Pronunciation of ksa .+ + = + tra (note the truncation of the t+ ) This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: g. :pr+ d f pra dra tra . However. prolonged: try it. . the prolonged halanta sa begins with halanta ka the important point is that .A.j. of the tongue is raised to the murdhanya position before sounding the halanta . k + :S+ . The idea may be novel. Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut o by the back of the tongue in the kanthya . A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is o ered next.3 Special Conjunct Consonants ksa and j~a n . and are quite obvious to see. and their construction re ects their pronunciation.e. re ect their sounds which are somewhat di erent from their components. Now. + y+ }y+ mrya 7. 7.+ + =.+ + = + y+ gy+ grya m. + Normally the symbols for a samyoga are constructed from their component symbols . but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta sa .+ + V+ :]+ j~a n Although these two samyoga may be separated into their component parts when.

and may be thus separated when. the nasalization is often carried over into n the vowel: to correct this. and is strongly nasalized. or `vision' but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position. tip of the tongue from the murdhanya position. is in practice ( n ) + a.e.e. j + na j~a). for example. n There are two common errors in sounding j~a. Secondly. practise sounding aj~a. This means that halanta ksa may by sounded repeatedly without moving the . which is of course. as re ected in the changed symbol. the alphabetical ~ n order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary.e. Firstly. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. is in practice ( k ) + s + a. s . ~ .A 57 ka. as j re ected in the changed symbol.A. Now sound the English `his'. k + sa ksa). for example. the pronunciation. or as in the `z' sound in the English words `mirage'. attending to both a sounds. . As a practical method of approaching this sound. Now with the tongue in the talavya position. `measure'. begin by sounding the English `hiss' and holding the sibilant | this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja.5 Pronunciation of j~a n The pronunciation of this is similar to the French `J' as in `Jean-Jacques'. j~ + n + a) the n ~ halanta j~a is a single sound. the pronunciation. impossible to sound. (This sound is reminiscent of ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers!) Although the ksa is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following sa . the halanta j~a tends to n n be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel (i. 7. This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta j~a. order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. n which should be the same. `rouge'. .Lesson 7. the alphabetical . . Although the j~a is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following na n ~ (i. and may be thus separated when. sound a prolonged halanta sa. again holding the sibilant: note that the di erence between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for `his' and not for `hiss'. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate | with some imagination. (i.

gy+ gya . + dhna chya . + ttra tpr+ tpra tv+ tva . tk tkra r + tta y+ ttya + tna + tnya tp+ tpa ty+ tya + tra y+ trya t + tsnya Ty+ thya .58 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. dghra . . :Ny+ nya . ngha _ nya _ cy+ cya :]y+ j~ya n m+ ncma ~ tya .6 List of Conjunct Consonants The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants. ktva k kra r r krya m+ ksma y+ ksya . dgra ddhya dya + dhnya :N dgya . ddya ddha dbha dbhya dma dva dvya .j+ jra + nja ~ dma .. dgha . dya . nkha _ nghya _ nghra _ + cca cC ccha C chra . .Gm+ ghma nkta _ nktya _ nkya _ nkhya _ nga _ ngya _ nna __ nna _ nma _ + c~a n .. + ghna + ghnya . ddha . :N .. :NQ ndha :NN+ nna :Nm+ nma .$y+ jya VC ncha ~ F thra .. . :Nf nta :NF ntha :Nq nda ... #K+ kkha #c+ kca #N+ kna . :Nv+ nva tk tka . :Nq ndra .. . dhya .$v+ jva + njya ~ cm+ cma :]+ j~a n + nca ~ + jja cC cchra . dga . kka ktra kya + ksa .$m+ jma + ncya ~ thya . tt a . ndrya . ndya . . dga .A. dda . dghra dna dba d dra drya Dm+ dhma Dy+ dhya . dgha .. g+ gra gy+ grya ..jJ jjha . + ktrya kta + ktya kna + knya kma kla kva + kvya v+ ksva Ky+ khya K+ khra . v+ ttva tT+ ttha tm+ tma t}y+ tmya ts+ tsa t + tsna .Gr+ ghra nka _ nksva _ . Q dhra . arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will nd that most of the symbols are easily recognizable.Gy+ ghya nksa _ ..

hma mla k lka p+ lpa m+ lma h lha + vna v. + pna :pv+ pva bD+ bdha b. . .d bda b. + svya .. hna .. n &+ ntra np+ npa : + pta :pr+ pra bj+ bja b.. + bna . ~tv+ stva sm+ sma .ZZ+ ssa : . ~K+ skha + sna ~y+ sya . bba + bhna }pr+ mpra nty+ ntya + nna ns+ nsa :py+ pya bG+ bgha b.t R+ (kartsnya). ~t+ sta ~ty+ stya ~ &+ stra + snya ~p+ spa ~P spha ~ + sra ~v+ sva ss+ ssa .A Dr+ dhra nd nda npr+ npra : + ptya : pla b.. . but.+ bra + mna }y+ mya nD+ ndha ny+ nya :pp+ ppa :ps+ psa . it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print.. you may be con dent that you will be able to decipher any samyoga that you may meet.B+ bbha By+ bhya }b+ mba }v+ mva y+ lya v. . So. :Sv+ sva . ... :Spr+ spra :Sm+ sma :Sy+ sya . ~k ska ~T+ stha s}y+ smya hna hva The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants. :SNy+ snya . the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is ve: the usual example quoted for this is k*:a. strya : stva : stha . . bva }p+ mpa }+ mra nt+ nta nDr+ ndhra n+ nra :pm+ pma :p~v+ psva . hya hra hla lla vva y+ srya : stya .y+ vya y+ scya + sna .+ vra + sra : sta . :Sp+ spa . Just as a matter of interest.By+ bbhya Br+ bhra }B+ mbha yy+ yya 59 sla : stra .. having worked through the table. :SN+ sna . on the other hand.Lesson 7.y+ bya Bv+ bhva mm+ mma yv+ yva v+ lva + sca Dry+ dhrya Dv+ dhva nd ndra nm+ nma .Zy+ sya + sva .

B. attendance. out of. very) (in-. away) (ex-. as for example. instead of. with. when appended to a verb. A pre x. wholly) (dis-. its meaning alters. at) (con-. attendant. it may prove di cult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs.B 7.Lesson 7. but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and pre xes only. together. under) The English verb `to tend' derives from the pie root ten. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a pre xed verb (as a compound) needs to be looked up in the dictionary. before. which may then be separately looked up. which will also give its component parts of pre x(es) and dhatu. before) (sub-. The grammarians list just twenty-two of these in alphabetical order they are: . to stretch: when a pre x is appended to it. and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dhatu this is also the case in English. instead of) (pre-. then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and pre xes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. to. Again.1 Verbal Pre xes attend contend distend extend intend portend pretend subtend (at-. from the verb `attend'. it can be appreciated that that the pre xes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning. given the meanings of these verbs. towards. is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar. attentive. in) (por-. towards. For example (with pre x meanings given): p Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood (more or less). apart. Other words may be derived from that pre xed verb. the derivation of attention.

on. together. away. out. backwards. surpassing. past. (reversing) apart. hard down. excellent. hard bad. and should not be learned however. from. towards. asunder. into. for example: dhatu hr to take away . forth back. near. forth away. close. pari-hr to abandon . forth. a-hr to eat . in. to. di cult. about before. along with. down. to a distance around. away. return. back. out. pra-hr to hit . again.r to destroy vi-hr to roam . upwards. above. a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. at. onward. above towards. under bad. over. sam-h. o . but usually modi es the sense sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dhatu quite unrecognizable. less. along. across. on. atiadhianuapaapiabhiavaaudupadurdusninirnisparaparipraprativisamsu- . fore against. forward. forth over. next to. into. under. opposite down. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dhatu. proximate to. onto after. conjoined with good. away. forth. implying separation or dispersion with. to.Lesson 7. into away. from towards. towards. out. near. well The above list is included here for reference only. at near. to excess over. against. out. di cult. near. o . from. return. following away. back. upon. like. (reversing) up. towards. to.B 61 beyond. on.

a.l*.t+{ 4.+ vxa a.l*. (c) Write out a fair copy of the devanagar sentences given in (e) below.a.A.B. ba. You (pl.an.+ vxa a.1.an.+ A: a. 6.a. .l*m. The girl and the horse go among the trees (pl. ba.A. (d) Look up the words `attend' etc. The horses (pl.l*.62 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl. na=*+H 6. 3.l ba.) to the man. (b) By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions (see the note at the end of 4. 5.+ na= ~y+ A: am.l*.ta.) carry the fruit (pl.l*.aBy+H l*Ba.te+{ e A: +H :P*.a.aya.a.5.+ naya.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.+ va.h a. You (two) lead the horse to the fruit (pl. (g) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.v+H{ 2. to see how their meanings link to the given etymology.) of the tree.) for the men (pl.a.).an+ na=*ay+ va.) from the tree by horse.t.+H 5. t+H va.ayE+ l*Bante+{ ba. (h) Now write your answers to (g) in devanagar . in a good English dictionary.B.+ c+ a. A: ba.a.) carry the trees (pl.).l*. na= ~y+ vxa a~y+ :P*.l*. na=H 3.) for fruit (pl.1).h a.+ ba. 4. 2.te+{ (f) Now translate the sentences in (e) into English.am.a. given 7.d t+H c+{ +H vxa a~y+ :P*. The girl's horses (two) take the fruit (pl. (e) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1.

Lesson 8.A
8.A.1 Special Symbols
The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet, but constitute special symbols such as punctuation:
| This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half-verse or sentence. { This marks the end of a verse or paragraph. Y The elision of an A at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi, is

<

>

? @ ^

indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded. For example, te+Y.a.p+ for te+ A a.p+ is pronounced tea.a.p+ in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark, i.e. te pi. This symbol, called candrabindu (lit. `moon-dot'), placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized for example, A< is A sounded through both nose and mouth together. Contrast this with AM , where the anusvara, which is just the bindu (`dot') above the vowel, is a nasal sound following after the vowel. The antahstha y l and v may also be nasalized. . This symbol indicates a compulsory anusvara (i.e. before an usman or . repha) in the Vedas, and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna ( gn+ ). You may also nd it written as g,M+. The mystical symbol Om pronounced A ea3 m,+ and called the pranava sabda. ~ **: . An abbreviation is indicated by this sign, the rest of the word being provided from the context. This symbol is rare it is pronounced like a half visarga, and is called jihvamul ya when before k or kh, and upadhman ya when before p or ph. (See section 3.A.2.)
0

8.A.2 Savarna .

Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same e ort within the mouth itself (i.e. the measure of contact or openness | see section 3.A.4) are called savarna (`same group'). This means that the ka-varga sounds . (k, kh, g, gh, and n | see section 2.A.2) are savarna, likewise ca-varga through _ . to pa-varga each form a savarna group of ve sounds. . For grammatical purposes, and their mouth positions di er. are also declared to be savarna, even though .

64

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

8.A.3 Nasal Substitution for Anusvara
The anusvara (see section 1.A.7) arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a nal m before a consonant. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusvara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusvara (a z -like sound in Northern India, and m,+ -like further South) the other tradition , substitutes the nasal that is savarna with the following consonant, i.e. if the . following consonant is a sparsa (one of the twenty- ve from k to m+) then the anusvara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter | thus sMak*: p+ is pronounced sa *. p+, and sMa:]a.+ as saV]a.+, and so on. The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of `n' in English: sound the words `wink', `winch', and `wind' | prolonging the nasal if necessary | and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. Before ya la or va the anusvara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter, for example sMaya.eag+ may be pronounced as say< ya.eag+. Monier-Williams, in his dictionary, follows the tradition of substituting the savarna . nasal before a sparsa (the twenty- ve from ka to ma), but not before an antahstha. . It would be useful (for these lessons at least) to practise that method.

8.A.4 Devanagar Numerals
The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pa~can sas saptan astan navan dasan. The numeralss use the familiar order of n . . .. signi cance, so that 1234 is written as 1234. Here are the ten numerals in devanagar script, ordered 0 to 9:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Lesson 8.B
8.B.1 More Noun Declensions
The pratipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni ( re, pum-linga ending in -i), guru (teacher, pum-linga ending in . _ . _ -u), and nad (str -linga ending in - ). These declensions need not be practised, _ but it would be useful to spend some time observing the di erences between the declensions. The sandhi rule changing n to n following r or s follows through all declensions in . . trt ya eka-vacana and sasth bahu-vacana. . . ..

8.B.2 Adjectives
An adjective (visesana) quali es a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute. . . This dependence manifests in the grammar, requiring the visesana to agree with . . the noun in gender, case and number. Thus using alpa (small), we could have:

alpah narah alpam naram alpat narat vahanti . . alpa, mf(a)n. small sundara, mf( )n. handsome, beautiful, attractive

The small men (pl.) carry the small man from the small man. In Monier-Williams' dictionary a visesana is listed in the form: . .

where `mfn.' stands form `masculine-feminine-neuter', i.e. it may be declined in all three genders (as required by a visesana), and the `(a)' and `( )' inserted after the . . `f' of `mfn.' indicates the str -linga form in declension thus alpa declines like bala, _ and sundar like nad , in the feminine. For example:

alpa sundar bala tisthati ..

The small beautiful girl stands. As may be seen from the above examples, the visesana precedes the noun which it . . quali es.

nadyoh . nad bhyah . gurunam . nad h . naranam . nad he nadi nad m nadya nadyai nadyah . nadyah . he nadyah . phalebhyah . he narah . nad bhyah . agnibhyah . nad nam nad su . narah . naran naraih . he agne agnim agnina agnaye agneh . agneh . he guro gurum guruna . balayoh . balah . naresu . agnibhyah . balabhyah .66 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah . agnyoh . agnayah . balayah . Masculine in -i agnih . nadyah . gurusu . he nara naram narena . balayam bale he bale bale balabhyam balabhyam balabhyam balayoh . nadyam nadyau he nadyau nadyau nad bhyam nad bhyam nad bhyam nadyoh . phalayoh . Feminine in -a phalani he phalani phalani phalaih . naraya narayat narasya nare narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . gurave guroh . phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh . balabhih . he guravah . bala he bale balam balaya balayai balayah . agn n agnibhih . he balah . agn nam agnisu . balanam balasu Masculine in -u guruh . . Feminine in - balah . gurubhyah . he agnayah . guravah . balabhyah . guroh . agnau agn he agn agn agnibhyam agnibhyam agnibhyam agnyoh . narayoh . narebhyah . gurun gurubhih . gurubhyah . phalanam phalesu . nad bhih . phalebhyah . gurvoh . gurau guru he guru guru gurubhyam gurubhyam gurubhyam gurvoh . narebhyah .

2) c+ ind.d + f.+ f.h a. using the adverb s ghram (quickly): narah s ghram gacchati .3 Adverbs An adverb (kriya-visesana) quali es a verb: it is indeclinable (avyaya).t+ he speaks p va.+ l*Ba.Lesson 8. usually found immediately before the verb for example. thus (lesson 9.aGram. . It is .4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriya p gam. the man goes quickly. girl vxa + m.B 67 8.ta.t+ he stands m.a. tree A agn+ . .te+ he takes p va. beautiful.d a.B.+ a. va. p ~Ta.+ gacC a.Za. re A: + m. 8. avyaya mf(a)n.+ ind. man :P*.d. handsome ind. teacher na. horse gua m. river na= m.te+ he leads p l*B.B.t+ he goes p na. a. fruit ba. small mf( )n.B.l*.+ naya.l n.// A p+ suand:= naman visesana .h va.t+ he carries . and .t+ . quickly I*a.

+ A . (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: ba.ta. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly.+ naya.t+| 1{ na=H A pam.Za.A.+ suand:=*a. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse.5.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.+ l*Bea. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .+ na.a.l*.a.+ na=*a.t. The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher. 3.E+ a. .t. a.a.B.+ A: am. 4.68 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8.// agnam.+ ba.an+ A pa.N+ :P*.a.te+| 2{ suand:=*+ ba.+ A: am.am.a. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. The man's teacher goes to the river by horse.te+| 3{ na=*E+ suand:=*a.+ suand:= m.d am.te+| 4{ gua=*v+H A pam.+ vxa a. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river.a.t.l*. 5. 6.aGram. 2.+ A pam.t.l*.+ vxa am.+ A:gnaye+ .+ l*Ba.l*.+ gacC a.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. (b) Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devanagar .a.+ na E+ nayante+| 5{ A p+H vxa +H suand:=e A:gna.

B 0 1 2 3 4 + + 5 6 7 8 9 69 .Lesson 8.

70 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9 8 7 6 5 + 4 3 2 1 0 .

for example: s!a. and a combination of the two or moving tone (svarita). the udatta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively.tyM+ :]a. a and a). English has a stress accent system (e. ` The anudatta is indicated by a horizontal bar under the vowel. In classical Sanskrit texts. for example n'+ ).g. n . the accent is not marked. a neutral accentless tone. These are only marked in the Veda. An alternative form of J. This is another form of .!anam`anantM+ b. so one has A + A e+ A E+.a.g. and just as one has derivatives of the familiar form as A + A e+ A E+. 9. listen to the `to' syllable in `photograph' and `photographer').Lesson 9. Thus the above example in transliteration would be: satyam j~anamanantam brahma . but there is no stress system in Sanskrit (indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!) Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above. There are three tones: raised (udatta). Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration.A The next three sections may be considered as informational only they are provided for completeness. or in ekasruti.A. .1 Vowels Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone (svara). (Although in grammatical treatises it may be indicated as a small u above the vowel.2 Variations in Devanagar Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet (e. similarly I for . not raised (anudatta). 9.A. so there are variations in devanagar : some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: A E H This is an alternate form of A. and svarita by the vertical bar above the vowel. while udatta is unmarked. This is a variation of the form O .

starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet. Another form of the Vedic anusvara > (see 8. J L N G F gM. you may nd that much of the information now is clearer. n This is a variation of the form for + (ksa). An alternative form of :]+ (j~a). .A. Vedic form of Q.d (dr). 9.A.1). This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet. D O P Q x This is a quite common form of .4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet.A.+ L \h The following are variations in the numerals: 1 =1=1 6 =6=6 4 =4=4 8 =8=8 5 =2 =5=5 9 =0 =9=9 9. A variation of (hna). there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: . Another form of (hva). . . but far less common.3 Variations in Samyoga . Obviously the same as l. Vedic form of q. and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet. As was mentioned in Lesson 7. An alternative of (hla). there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a samyoga however.72 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Another variant of J. A radically di erent form of :N+.

a.ya an+ k*:N ta. - .v.N+ > > > < > > > > : ma.asak IR *Sa.y+ z k*:NF*.a. + mUaDRany+ .h 9 > = > *:Sman.ea.a= }| { a.d:nty+ k*:NF*.j+ J V+ y+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ .ea.+ i a.l*.t+ ta.Za.a. z k*:N }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { ta.a. tW+ R e ai te+ tE+ o ta.ta.r tx+ R a ta.S+ A.Ga.e+ au am ah .a.G+ z c+ C .Z+ .S+ :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ 9 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > = > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ~pa.a.+ > : } | {z A aByanta= :praya.+ u u tu+ tU+ .vasagR+ A A + I IR o a t+ O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH .A 73 . A:nt+H:~T+ 8 > < IR *Sa.r tX+ R l .E+ tM+ t+H exceptions: Alphabetical Order v.t~pxa.d D+ n+ l s+ 8 > A pa. + 8 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > < ~pxa.N+ .a *vxa.pra.l*.Ga. tw+ R l . + ba.v.y+ A ea.ZR+ > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : A:nuana.t+ . + A:nua~va. k K+ g+ . ta.y+ mUaDRany+ .l*.Lesson 9.v. + . .d:nty+ A ea.a.h a.a.ea.:praya.pra.

D+ n+ l s+ o :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ .G+ z I c+ C j+ .h .Z+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ d .J V+ y+ .74 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A k K+ g+ .

_ . vacana and lakara.A 75 9. The naman type includes the basic naman (common noun etymologically derived from a dhatu). so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a de nition from the word being de ned. from what follows: in the above example.B. . indeclinable (avyaya).B. 9. the sarva-naman (pronoun).1. vacana and vibhakti. the samj~a (proper noun. There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit. Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it. The kriya type includes the basic kriya (verbs derived from a dhatu) and the nama-dhatu (verbs derived from nouns).B. The upasarga (verbal pre x) has been discussed in 7. which conjugate according purusa . personal name or technical term whose . and so on. . For example: asvena gacchami iti vadati \I am going by horse. as well as the verbal quali er (kriya-visesana) which is . and nipata (particle). kriya vadati. n meaning cannot be etymologically determined). The naman and kriya have the fundamental notions of `being' and `becoming' respectively. and the nominal quali er or adjective (visesana): all these decline according to linga.Lesson 9.2 Use of iti The nipata iti means `thus': it lays stress on what precedes it. and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca (and) and he (vocative particle). The nipata are avyaya (indeclinable).1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriya (verb)." he says. upasarga (verbal pre x). typically referring to something that has been said it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas. naman (noun). the trt ya vibhakti of asvena is not related to the . and the nipata (particle) is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. . even if the word `gacchami' were omitted. or a grammatical rule from an example of its application.

l*m.l va.h a.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English.) are quickly taking the girl's fruit (two) to the man.+ A pa. thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74.76 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9.a. 2.t+ A p+H na=H va.) from the girl's tree. 3.l nayase+ I*a.h t+H| 4{ vxa am.+ va.h a.+ vxa a.B.a.+ A: E+H .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order (which should be familiar by now) following it through the diagram on page 73 once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram.t+| 3{ :P*.t.d a.te+ I*a.h should be on a line by itself).a. You (pl.a. 5.am.a. \I am taking the fruit (pl.+ suand:=*am. 6. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees (pl.+ vxa am. 4.t+ ba.).l*.l*. .h a.l*.E+ A:gna.t+| 2{ e A: +H vxa a~y+ :P*.+ A: ean+ na=*ay+ va.aGram. We (two) take the fruit (pl." the girl says to the teacher.am+| 5{ na. (b) Write out the alphabet once per day. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar . The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: na=H :P*.a.a.he gua=*e+ ba.d + A pam.ayE+ va.) to the horse.d t+H| 1{ e . (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.+ va.Za.an+ l*Ba.) for fruit (pl. in the form given in the chart on page 74 (ideally . The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river.aya.an+ ba.l*.+ ba. Associating the sound/letter with its position on the chart provides a visual `short-cut' to where a sound/letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary.

So. try swapping the sibilants around: `catz and dogs'. and to hear that sound. and thus it has an inherently phonetic script the English script does not do this. but the sound is the same. natural.1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi (`placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously. The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully in ected form: this is called internal sandhi. (The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha (Y). The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi. inasmuch as it is not sounded.3). In the written form. This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier.A 10. external to the individual words. which is pronounced as `cats and dogz'.Lesson 10.) sounds coming together. The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same. and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help you need to sound it. and for the ease of pronunciation. isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced. When sounded | and that's the key | you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure. when a long IR meets a short I.A. We shall examine external sandhi broadly and Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together | and this is the point: it is . and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced (ghosa).A. which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting. but each has its own eld of special cases and exceptions. and the other a long measure. Have you heard why it is so? Well. Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example. internal to an individual word. when reading the written word. and for the various pronunciations of the English letter `n' mentioned in that section (8. to sound it aloud (or in the mind at least). Di cult. they are both replaced by a long IR . the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes. consider the English phrase `cats and dogs'. It is quite . Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how \he is" becomes \he's".

the d rgha measure does not occur. as you would expect. and also gives . but what is important is to understand them. is the strengthening of the ve simple vowels .78 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it a ects the declension of formed words. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel. The grammatical terms guna (`secondary form') and vrddhi (`increase') can be .2 Guna and Vrddhi . considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels.3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi.5. . does not arise in the grammar. unless explicitly restricted. .A. A. arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. . and v. the breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. and vrddhi as A + Oe and A E+.r ar ar l2 . used together ( ) indicate a long or short measure of the vowel. Also V stands for any vowel. This process has been described in Section 1. guna as the three vowels A O and A e+. by the addition of a single measure of A (so as to leave A itself unchanged). 10. The breve ( ) and macron ( ) diacritical marks. In these notes. vrddhi form . 10. at the end of a sentence. the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels and . simple vowel guna form . There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these. namely A a. and that means to work through each principle | in sound | and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious. Panini de nes . 3 The vrddhi form of . 2 In the grammatical formation of words. for example. . in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel nal is not changed before a consonant or in pausa.A.l. .rddhi as the strengthening of the guna by the addition of a further measure of . al al 3 A useful way of considering guna. .A. 1 a a a a a a 1 e ai u o au .

2).4) and that and are savarna (Section 8. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by one of the ve simple vowels other than A (hrasva or d rgha). .A 79 1. 2. the rst vowel is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position: .A. a + e ) ai a + o ) au a + ai ) ai a + au ) au 4. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by a guna or vrddhi sound. the . . When a simple vowel (hrasva or d rgha) other than a is followed by a di erent vowel.l + V ) lV where V stands for any di erent vowel. long) meet a vowel of the same kind (hrasva or d rgha). vrddhi sound replaces both. . When one of the ve simple vowels (hrasva. + a a a a . 3. . short or d rgha. It was mentioned earlier that the d rgha measure of is not used in the grammar (Section 1. + V ) yV u + V ) vV r + V ) rV . so that when meets or . a+a)a + ) u+u)u r+r)r . the result is . they are both replaced by the d rgha measure of that vowel.A. . Note that is not shown here.Lesson 10. )e +u)o + r ) ar . guna replaces both. . + l ) al . .

-vl. 6. -a l. -ra-ra-ri-r -ru-ru-r. -avr. when O or A e+ are followed by hrasva A. -a r. When a compound vowel (e ai o au) is followed by another vowel. -yl. -r. -la-la-li-l -lu-lu-r. the A is elided and replaced by an avagraha. it splits into its component parts (a or a. -r. is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. and i or u) and the second of those parts is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position. -a l. All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form | called a sandhi grid | which. -vr.-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -au -ava-ava-avi-av -avu-avu-avr.eaioau- .-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -ai -a a-a a-a i-a -a i-a u-a r.80 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 5. As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule. -re-rai-ro-rau- Final Vowel -l. -a r.-ve-vai-vo-vau- -r . The antahstha . -a l. -le-lai-lo-lau- -e -e -a a-a i-a -a u-a u-a r. -ave-avai-avo-avau- Following Vowel aaiuur. and overriding it. -r. e + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V ai + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V o + V ) a + u + V ) avV ) a V au + V ) a + u + V ) avV where V stands for any vowel.-a e-a ai-a o-a au- -o -o -a a-a -a -a u-a u-a r. -yr. may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au. -r. . e+a)e o+a)o 0 0 -a1 -a-a-e-e-o-o-ar-2 -ar-al-ai-ai-au-au- -ya-ya---yu-yu-yr-2 . r. l. -avr. though useful in its own way. -a r.-ye-yai-yo-yau- -u -va-va-vi-v -u-u-vr-2 .

b. retained. the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent. sup-ta from dhatu svap.A. for example: maha + rsi ) maharsi or maharsi. easy and easily. c. For external sandhi these are: a. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel.Lesson 10. or verbs) ending in d rgha IR .A. 10. Prolonged (pluta) vowels. sandhi rules do not operate. pronouns. called pragrhya (`to be taken separately'). and neither r nor l as a word initial.rcch-ati from dhatu prach. . beauty and beautiful.. Samprasarana is the process whereby an antahsthah is replaced by the simple . 10. Particles consisting of a single vowel. . . The breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. are included in the table for completeness. is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example. . The terminations of duals (whether nouns. as for example. but they . holy and holiness. This is the complement to rule 4 in 10. the grid cannot determine from -a. while it is clear that -a + aproduces -a-. or ending in A e+: these are usually interjections or exclamations.5 Samprasarana . . A similar process occurs in English when a nal `y' is replaced by `i' before adding another su x. One thing that the table does illustrate.3. .A 1 81 Note: l does not occur as a word nal. where . uc-atha from dhatu vac.whether either (or both) of the original a's were long or not.4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions. . vowel of the same mouth position (and the following vowel is elided). or O .. 2 Optionally. and p. rather like the English `Ah' and `Oh'. Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dhatu yaj.A. and the r . .

g. reman). from the verb `attend' given in 8. as: bread-winner full-grown light-weight roof-garden break-down ginger-beer old-fashioned single-minded double-decker heart-shaped pony-tail store-room far-fetched hot-house red-hot whole-hearted re. this activity needs to `freeze'.. As shown by the last word in this list. are derived: attendant one who attends. When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing (e.B 10. . it is hyphenated. as it were.g. attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending.1 Introduction to Compound Words The dhatu (root) is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun (naman) or adjective (visesana) etc. attendance the action of attending. where it may cause one to stumble when reading it). or express a speci c idea related to its parts (e. as for example.g. . gravestone : stone marking a grave). attentive having the quality of attending. pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head from its resemblance to the tail of a pig]).1. `inattentiveness'. Words thus ` xed' by a su x (pratyaya) may be joined together to form a compound word. these su xes may be concatenated and further pre xes may be added.y lamp-post right-handed world-wide . to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable.B. attention the quality of attending.g.B. This ` xing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a su x (pratyaya) the process in English is similar for example.Lesson 10. or may have a meaning quite di erent from its parts (e. as in the following English examples: bedroom reside headache screwdriver blackbird gingerbread housekeeping sightseeing breakfast greenback newspaper songwriter daydream haircut paperback sunrise dressmaker handwriting rattlesnake wheelbarrow The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase (e.

.Tam+ :pua *:S+ - compound as a whole. 10. but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated. Although a samasa may comprise many words. For example: na=*an.B. the virama ( . all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words (call them `A' and `B') a more complex samasa is simply a case where A and/or B is itself a samasa. There are few exceptions to the above: words such as atmane-pada and parasmaipada where the case-a x of the rst word is not dropped. anusvara or visarga. self-knowledge. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise. peana. very extensive use indeed so much so. for example: atman (self) + j~ana (knowledge) ) atmaj~ana. while earlier members retain their pratipadika form. . that it is unusual to nd a sentence without a samasa.Lesson 10. of these four main classes. are called a-luk samasa. the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the :pra. a compound word (samasa) is always written without a break. i.a ean+ gacC a. only the last member appears to decline. words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel. then the n is dropped. A samasa is formed by simply placing the pratipadika (stem) forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction.am+ ) na=*ana. ) may only be used at the end of a sentence.B 83 In devanagar . One exception to this should be noted: if the pratipadika ends in -an. AB avyay bhava (forms indeclinable (avyaya) functioning as an adverb) AB bahuvr hi (serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal) Other types of samasa are subdivisions. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the samasa. then the four classes of samasa may be indicated as: AB dvandva (meaning `A and B') AB tatpurusa (A is in some case relationship to B) . n n In declining the compound word. If the principal (more important) word of the compound is underlined.2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words.+ A pean+ A: ean+ gacC a. and the written form re ects this: after the operation of sandhi. for example: prathama.( rst) purusa person = rst person.e. or special cases.am+ Ideally.

h:=e maDu+ ma. 29.Za. 23.pa. 7. 12. i.84 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 10.v+ + A: an+ 16.ayR+ + I nd + A anand sa. 25.tam. 2.e.+ a= + I yam.a.SNa. Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes.d + ma.h + k*:tRx+ k*:+ n+ + A T+ + A:mxa.e+ :pa= m+ n+ + + I*a. 9. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. + O *ta.t+ + A .+ + IR a= . 18. by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly.v+ gua ma.h + + O *v+ + O k*:tvam. not from right answers! 1. 8. 14.+ + IR *Z+ + IR + O *v+ a.h:~te+ :pa= m+ :pra.ty+ sa.. 20.d + I nd + *.+ + A anand + A aca.E+ + A a. a. 13.h + .aya. 6. 22.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74.B. and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid. 5. 10. ./ a~t+ .a. 27.p+ ma.+ + O k*.+ + A ea.m. 30. 4.a. 19.va.de va.S+ A anand k*:a.d:nam.+ .tx+ :pa.tman. 26.Za. (c) Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone. 11. ant+ na. 3.d a. 15. 17.a. 21.t+ + A:kH + O *v+ .aDu+ k*:tRx+ A: + BU+ + A anand + IR *Z+ *k*:a= a. 24.+ + A anand + A a~y+ + A a. 28.

-Vh .A.{ ) 1 -Vs = any vowel except a or a before the nal s.(a disallowed combination). is lengthened. where the nal is -r and the following word begins with r. -Vs -Vh . if a i or u. is that before c/ch t/th or . -as -ah . followed by another =. t/th. any vowel other than a a- r- . t/thany other aghosa vya~jana n . 1..A 11. it is replaced with a sibilant (s s or s) of the same mouth position as that of .++A@ becomes @A e+Y@. of course) the exceptions to this are: . c/cht/th. as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry.e+Y or O *Sa.e+Y before any other letter the visarga is dropped.g. unless that vowel is hrasva A in which case @A:s. the rst r is dropped. -Vh . -Vs -Vh . a vowel. the following consonant.1 Visarga Sandhi This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as -as Vs1 Vr2 Next Initial Sound The table is simple enough. A =. 3 any other ghosa vya~jana n . Note: The words s+H or O *S+H followed by hrasva A becomes sa. One very important point to note about this table. -ah . a consonant or a pause in sound) the exception to this. 0 -a -a -a -a -as -as . -o -a -o -o -as -as . 2 -Vr = any vowel before the nal r. 2. -as -ah . Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . Basically a nal s or r becomes r before a voiced (ghosa) sound (which includes the vowels..Lesson 11. is the last row: an avasana is a pause or stop in speech. -as before a ghosa consonant becomes -o the -s is dropped before . Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . and the preceding vowel. is elided. avasana (e. and a preceding A I or o lengthened. -ah . And the nal s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced (aghosa) sound (whether .

then a c is inserted secondly. or h.) -VnnVn __ -Vn V. a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r l .) -Vcch- -V_ V.86 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words (padani) by removing the external sandhi. a process called sandhi vigraha. which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avasana have already been applied.A. this should be replaces with an s.h@ ) @gG+@)..e. _~. A . consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghosa. . The kanthya nasal remains unchanged. i.. . As with the visarga sandhi. . or with any vowel except r and l. . The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words. 11. this table is split according to the following sound being ghosa or aghosa. .h. and the h.is replaced by the . mahaprana equivalent of that ghosa substitute (e. and the remaining three are nasals. . while the dantya nasal (like the -t) changes . . @k . changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya sound (both ghosa and aghosa). then the nasal is doubled. .and s. remain unchanged when followed by an aghosa sound but note that a nal -t .1 this table covers the remaining consonants.3 for pronunciation of the anusvara). The nal aghosa (k t t and p) are basically replaced with the ghosa alpaprana .as well). The sandhi of words ending with a visarga .(in the last . . and _ the following word begins with a vowel.(which is ghosa) .g. an anusvara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following talavya. case the substitute replaces the following s. . when the word is used in a sentence. nal -m changes to anusvara before any consonant (see 8.A.. There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant. this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a nal visarga. The rst four of the nal consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa (except c) . . . when a word ends in -n or -n preceded by a short vowel. Before an h. and observe its special changes before l. and .2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule. . (h) were discussed in 11. with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-. and to .and s-. these four are replaced by their ghosa equivalents. and may end (before an avasana or pause) one of eight consonants k t t p n n m _ .: -V ch. So. to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya ghosa sound.A. murdhanya or dantya aghosa also note the special changes before l. . .) -VnnV- .

. n n 1 2 Next Sound any vowel g/ghj/jhd/dh. -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . . m v y or n (which last becomes n). -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . . . 11. -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . @n.may also become -~ ch-. n when followed by a vowel. . . n . n_ This is a nasalized l.-bbh. .3 Internal Sandhi The two most common rules of internal sandhi. p ph b bh m.-ddh. . The nasal doubles to -_ n or -nn if the preceding vowel is short. following s r r or r . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . are: s following k r i u u .. . -n _ -n -n -m -n -n -m _ .. -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . d/dhb/bhn/my/r/v- lhk/khc/cht/th. . i. . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . . t/thp/phss/s. and which a ect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular. . . 3 -k -t -cch-p -n -~ -m _ n . . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . -ggh. . . . . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . .-ddh. -k -t -c -p -n -ms -m _ .. is replaced by even if there is an intervening m or h . 3 -~ s. r e ai o or au r. .A Final Consonant (before avasana) 87 -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ .Lesson 11. . .+ l@ becomes @. . -g -d -j -b -n -~ -m _ n . .e.A. y v h or m intervene _ . s unless it is the nal letter or followed by r. -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . -g -d -l -b -n -l< 2 -m _ . is replaced by even if k kh g gh n. . .-n -n -m _ . . < l@. -g -d -d -b -n1 -n1 -m _ .

The tat-purusa (lit. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form. vrksamulam ( vrksasya mulam (sasthi-tatpurusa) .B.. 11. . if not compounded. 11. . i. . also called samanadhikarana-tatpurusa. . . the second.. For example: Tatpurusa | also called vyadhikarana-tatpurusa. . . or modi es. and is characterised as having the same case ending .1 Dvandva Samasa The dvandva (lit. . would be in the same case (vibhakti) and connected by the conjunction c+ (and). There are two types of dvandva: the gender of the last member the number is the sum of the members. . ramah ca krsnah ca ) ramakrsnau (note the dual) = Rama and Krsna. .B.. the members refer to the same object for example: denoting direction or a numeral as its rst member for example: purnacandrah ( purnah (full) candrah (moon) = full-moon. The compound may be further classi ed according to the case relationship (dvit ya through saptam ) of the rst member to the second. . rst member depends on (i.2 Tatpurusa Samasa . . . . if the compound is dissolved. .e.. has a case relationship to). Dvigu | this samasa has the same sense as the karmadharaya. .. tree-root. `couple') samasa is a copulative compound in which the members. . . . Karmadharaya | this is a descriptive determinative compound..e. Samahara | the members are taken collectively as a unit it is always neuter sukham ca duhkham ca ) sukhaduhkham (note the singular) .e.Lesson 11. i. There are several types: di erent case endings if the compound is dissolved. = root of a tree. but has a word . For example: Itaretara | the members are considered separately the gender of the compound is singular.B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied.. for example: = pleasure and pain. the members are di erent objects. . is characterised as having . `his man') samasa is a determinative compound in which the .

(similarly a-kara etc. giving a negative or privative sense for example: a-j~anam ( a.(many). .(negation or absence) + j~anam (knowledge) = ignorance.4 Bahuvr hi Samasa The bahuvr hi (lit. giving `dual' and `plural'] Upapada | this compound has a dhatu derivative as its second member for example: kumbha-kara ( kumbham (pot) + p kr (to do.Lesson 11.A. an-. 11.B O k*:vacan+ 89 eka-vacana.(the sense is proportion) + sraddha (faith) = according to (one's) faith. one . padmaksa ( padma (lotus) + aksa (eye) . = whose eyes are (like) lotuses. and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular for example: sakrodham ( sa. The rst member is an indeclinable (preposition or adverbial pre x). remains a noun. bahu. lotus-eyed. `an unchanging nature') samasa is indeclinable (avyaya) and functions as an adverb. act. . In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents (see 9.3 Avyay bhava Samasa The avyay bhava (lit.+ (king) + putra (son) raja-putra = whose son is a king (bahuvr hi) .(two). `much rice') samasa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective (visesana) agreeing with a noun (expressed or understood) for example: . = the son of the king.jan. to speak) also dvi. or a-) as its n . make) = potter . . singular (lit. angrily.B.).1): raja-putra ( =*a.B. from p vac.speaking. . the king's son (tatpurusa). n n 11. = with anger. while the latter becomes an adjective. Na~-tatpurusa | a compound with a negative particle (na-. The di erence between the tatpurusa and the bahuvr hi is that the former . and the last a noun (naman).(the sense is accompaniment) + krodha (anger) yathasraddham ( yatha. rst member.

90

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

11.B.5 Exercises
(a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Write the following sentences in devanagar , applying sandhi rules as necessary | and it will be necessary quite often! | and then translate them into English. For example:

narah asvah ca alpan vrksan labhete . . . .
na=*e+Y a a.a. pa.anvxa a.a. < l*Bea.te+

1. narau alpam vrksam agnim asvat vahatah . . . 2. bala asvam naram ca vrksat labhate . . 3. phalani asvam vahati iti guruh balah vadati . . 5. narah vrksam agnim balayai asvena vahati . . . 6. bala asvam alpam nad m vrksat nayate . . 7. narah vrksan phalebhyah asvena gacchati . . . .

The man and horse take the small trees.

4. guru alpam naram vrksayat s ghram gacchatah . . .

8. guruh agnim narat gacchati iti alpa bala vadati . 10. alpebhyah phalebhyah sundaresu vrksesu gacchavah . . . . . . . 9. bala alpah asvah ca agnim narat gacchatah . . .

Lesson 12
12.1

From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts `A' and `B', there will, however, be exercises related to the dictionary or Dhatu-Patha at the end of . each lesson.

Monier-Williams Dictionary

In the dictionary, words are listed in their pratipadika (stem) form, i.e. without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings, the rst part of the word will be found in the dictionary, and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities, and as many again for exceptions. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the udatta is marked with the acute accent ( ) and the svarita with the grave accent ( ) | this is illustrated in section 9.A.1. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page of the dictionary introduction, beginning with the fourth paragraph \Then a third improvement . . . ". The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read however, do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century, and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms, which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English.
xviii

This dictionary is either very simple to use, or very di cult: the di erence lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary, and appreciating the devices that Monier-Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained, and subsequent lessons will cover the details.

12.2

Alphabet and Transliteration

Some of the devanagar characters used in the dictionary di er from the standard followed in these lessons, and some transliterations di er from the generally accepted standard. The alphabet used in the dictionary, in both devanagar and transliterated Roman characters, is presented below in the standard format, from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order (which of course, the dictionary does use).

92

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

A A+

I IR

o

H I

O

Oe

A ea. A Ea.

AM

AH

a a i
k K+ g+ .G+ z

u u ri r lri lr e o ai au am/an ah . . . . . . ka kha ga gha na _
c+ C .j+

V+ y+ .Z+

ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa _

ta . F tha . q da . Q dha . N na . = ra :S+ sha
f

t+ T+ .d D+ n+ l s+

ta tha da dha na la sa

pa :P pha b+ ba B+ bha m+ ma v+ va
:p+

.h

ha

Observe the devanagar characters used for A and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti, and the consonants J and :N+ observe also the transliteration for .r r l l, . .. the anusvara, s and s. These are also shown on page (facing page 1) of the . dictionary.
xxxvi

Monier-Williams distinguishes between a `true' anusvara (n) which is inherent in the word from its dhatu and is found in such words as AM :s+ (ansa) and a.hM:s+ (hinsa), and the `substitute' anusvara (m) which arises through the operation of the rules . of grammar, as for example sam,+ + sa.a= ) sMasa.a= (samsara). This distinction is . peculiar to Monier-Williams (the standard is to use m throughout), and may be . ignored: simply treat m and n as synonymous with the anusvara. .

12.3

Fundamental Structure

The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles, and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. The two main advantages of this arrangement are, rstly, that cognate words derived from the same dhatu are gathered together, and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word, together with its applications and uses secondly, it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dhatu, thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word. This combination, giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word, is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures.

a. Look down the rst column.ba. the words a.l .ba. For example.l*. Such an entry indicates a major dhatu.a. and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devanagar entry in transliterated Roman script the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically. and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devanagar or bold Roman script.ba. The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: con rm this. The seeming con ict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devanagar script.ba. but their order is independent of the outer structure using devanagar script. h N+ order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script.ba. the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically. and that each entry comprises just one paragraph. the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically.l*.a.ba=*a. A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information | do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item. The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order.a.Z+ a. The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels. At this stage the purpose is not to nd word meanings.Z+ in devanagar script should be between Bilasa and Bilma.l*nT+ a.l*.l*. and Buddhaka and Buddhi (middle of third column). the entries could be listed as follows: a.a.ba. and not just two. Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka Bilvak ya Bilvala a.l a. in this case). Similarly. but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary.l a. Now open your dictionary at page 732.l*nT+ a. Continuing through these .Lesson 12 93 Besides the etymological arrangement.+ in large devanagar type.l.l a. as one would expect of a dictionary.ba. and are all derived from the previous word in devanagar script ( a. The words derived from this dhatu include Buddha (middle of second column). Comments on the list: The entries in devanagar script are listed in alphabetical Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear.a.ba. Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the rst column is the entry buaD.ba.

before the next word in devanagar script (bua. Buddhagama (with d rgha a) follows after the previous samasa -sena. the next word in bold type is -kalpa. following -kapalin .to Bau. The next entry word is Buddhaka. Return to the second column. These form s . the nal a of buddha is changed: thus.| at this stage just note that they are the guna and vrddhi forms | the . Buddhagama and subsequent samasa are spelled out in full because. observe the change of the rst vowel from Buto Bo. but more of that later): observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order.g. Now return to page 733. This means that -kapalin is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the samasa Buddhakapalin . and similarly in the line below that. note that in the third column (about three inches (80 mm) down) is Buddhagama: the caret c ( c ) above the vowel indicates that it is long (d rgha) | it conveys more information in fact. +). is -vara-locana . Continuing at this level. Work through these samasa until satis ed that they are in fact in alphabetical order. signi cance of this will be explained later.(e. is that a samasa like Buddhagama is before it. and on the following page to Bau. The next line contains the word (in feint italic type) -pari_ odhaka . and nd the fourth samasa entry -kshetra (about 1 2 2 inches (60 mm) from the bottom). due to the rules of vowel sandhi. . This is the third level of alphabetical order: samasa beginning with the entry word (which may be in Roman type or devanagar ) are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order. and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned. Similarly. which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here. Bauddha). Buddhasena (with hrasva a). The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen (and the hyphen is not irrelevant. note the strengthening of the dhatu vowel of the entry words from Bu. Three inches (75 mm) below this is -kapalin in bold type: nd this. Bodha).(e.through Bo. Thus these samasa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order. where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word.94 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory derived words on the next page. as will be explained later. There are two points to appreciate here: rstly. forming the samasa Buddhakalpa. i.e. remembering the two levels of alphabetical order.g. note that there can be several pages between devanagar entry words and secondly. to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two. in strict alphabetical order. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level.

given in both devanagar and Roman transliterated forms. Buddhiksetravaralocana. Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example. i. 12.Lesson 12 95 further samasa when appended to -ksetra. Again. are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth (and last!) level . being derive from di erent words in the devanagar script: had one been looking for bua}Ba. When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words. . This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it. . Buddhiksetrapari_ odhaka and s . sub-entry -ksetra. of alphabetical ordering. and note that the rst (birala) is in devanagar script in the text. for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur. on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels and turning over the page.e. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the .+ (the rst entry in the second column). turn a few pages backwards (towards A) and follow the devanagar entries in the body of the dictionary.4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page. but for the moment leave aside words beginning with s+ (sa). Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally. but be aware that it can happen. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up. the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order. and the last (b jin) is in transliterated Roman: these words are at di erent levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders. the heading words would have been quite misleading. indicate respectively the rst and last entry words to be found on that page.

(6) Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. The exercise is to nd the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word. page 733. brahman 9. visnu . rajas 11. j~ana n 6. both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! (4) Failing to use the page heading words. ananta 20. 14.e. You have been warned: but go ahead and fall at on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. it should take no longer to nd a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary. guru 10. yoga 4.5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. . manas 17. 5. 1. 16. rsi . citta 12. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry (like buddhi) and not buried in the text the words may be in devanagar or transliterated in the dictionary. 15. say fteen seconds. (3) Not seeing what is actually there. 8. purusa . second (=b) column).. krsna . When you are more familiar with the dictionary. 13. (5) Misunderstanding the structure of the devanagar and transliterated entries. vyakarana . bhakti 19. prakrti . are two separate letters. Common errors of rst-time users are: (1) Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders. so simply nd the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b (i. atman 2.96 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 12.. ananda 7.. sar ra 18. hetu 3. (2) Forgetting that `a' and `a' for example. hrdaya ..

i. in the word sMa.(`altogether'.a= is not substituted and therefore.) are listed after the antahstha and usman. . . sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusvara before an antahstha is not .D+. the anusvara . For example. anD+ etc. sa. In looking up words containing the anusvara it is essential to sound the word.l . replacing the anusvara with its savarna nasal where applicable. . di culties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusvara are not thoroughly practised.e. and thus there are many words beginning with it since the nal -m is often replaced with the anusvara. and derived from it (and hence transliterated) is the next entry word aham (note the anusvara): the samasa formed with aham | (-yati.+ in devanagar .ve from ka to ma) and secondly. the last being in the dictionary order of sa *. union.c.va. saV]a. of course.pra. There are two points to bear in mind here: rstly.1 Words Beginning with Sa- The pre x sam. -yu. examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devanagar script are sMak*:a. p+ for sMa:]a.d an+ similarly for sMak*: p+. .+ and for sMa. Again. up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal. .+ and is . and then look .. the anusvara in sMa. is sounded with its replacement savarna nasal to give A h: *=*N+ (and.+ | and that is the alphabetical order in sound! u This principle applies wherever the anusvara occurs. sMa. substituted with a nasal: for example. and sMak*.) are listed in alphabetical order | but note that the sparsa (-karana. in column two of page 124 is the entry A h:m. etc. -vadin etc. and not only to words beginning with sam-.a= will be before saga= which in turn will be before sMak*: p+. As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words. For example.d an+ the anusvara is sounded as the savarna m. follows the anusvara in the alphabetical order). one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusvara for the words in the dictionary.va. p+. completeness) is very common. in the dictionary order where the anusvara appears before the consonants. look up sa *. -kartavya. z . the tradition followed by MonierWilliams makes this nasal substitution only before a sparsa (the twenty. expressing conjunction.+. then found in the dictionary where one would expect to nd sa}pra.+.Lesson 13 13. sa u .

d l. but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically (e. or . simply be aware that a devanagar entry. and is followed by ba.2 Structure of Devanagar Level The outermost layer of the dictionary. Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devanagar entries in the rst column.a. the dhatu bua. which means that the dhatu is not known (to Monier-Williams anyway) and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit. should ideally only contain dhatu. like the thing signi ed). The transliteration shows the etymology of the word. and buaq. it sounds . followed by \ cl. which is a dhatu.d. p has two pre xes prati-sam. is also given the alternative reading vung the similarity in both sound and form of b+ and _ v+ allows this to happen.a. Returning to the top of the rst column.a. is class-6.+.dis. The next dhatu bua . . followed by its transliterated form and a class number.buaq.car. buaq*. The next two entries are dhatu note that bua. whose dhatu is not known. is followed by the onomatopoeic bua u *d and nally the dhatu buaD. Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with :pra. together with the other information given in the dhatu entry. except for those beginning with a pre x which form the bulk of the words listed in devanagar . will be explained in the next lesson.a. no etymology is given. both class-1 and -10. ten ways of conjugating verbs).a. and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary. That was a pretty mixed bag of words. and bua. but this. The word buak is onomatopoeic (i.s+ whose root is not known.tasMaca=. but the entry shows that it is derived from the dhatu badh.a. These are followed by the onomatopoeic . This . i " which stands for `class-1'. The next word.suc the next entry :pra. indicating a major dhatu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form.aBa. by samprasarana).98 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13.+.e. The last word in this column is in large devanagar type. the personal name bua. or have a pre x added.e.f is given as .tasuac. but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devanagar .+ and in transliteration is p conveniently split into the pre x and dhatu as prati. There are ten classes of dhatu (i.g. is a dhatu.ts+ which is not a dhatu. *. namely the entries in devanagar script.aB.+ p having three pre xes prati-sam-a.tasama. and the dhatu bua. For the next three words. .d Z. and half-way down the column is :pra. bua . At this stage. This is followed by buak whose etymology is not known. . gives references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devanagar with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position. the rst entry is ba.

indicating a visesana however. tall . produces Bodha (Knowledge). . pum-linga naman . . `f. there will be no `mfn.'. and are thus indicated in the dictionary as _ `mfn. the speci c (naman). and this is shown in the dictionary _ by `m. by a description indicating their meaning. a species of grass . guided by Dharma (Law). an oblong tank . are listed in their pratipadika form. The converse does not apply: had the entry been `Buddha. _ 12th line: (a ) f. . The visesana. . you are given an insight into the mythology of India. a long vowel . . . . in bringing a quality . from a quality (visesana) to . knowledge'.Lesson 13 99 13. so if the heading . a wise or learned man'. a wise man'. . thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun. . avyaya form 7th line: m. . lofty. . visesana form . and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) is typical of the encyclop dic scope of the dictionary.' one may yet nd `m. Force) arises Buddhi (Intelligence). The rst division of naman is into linga (gender). must have the same linga as that naman.'. This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word. 5th line: (am ) ind. m. long.d aGR+ near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf(a)n.' or `n. . visesana (adjectives). which. _ . so Buddha can also be a masculine naman and further down (just before the bold type -kapalin ) is `n. Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column. word indicates `mfn.' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with `mfn. . and avyaya (indeclinables. long. followed . . Thus the same pratipadika form may be a visesana or a naman. A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry . where the gods and their consorts are the personi cation of universal forces: from Daksa (the Creative . .' etc. feminine. . six lines down is `m. . str -linga naman _ 14th line: n. neuter). to a naman.' buried in the text | this re ects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular. as a bonus. . for a long time . typically kriya-visesana adverbs). napumsaka-linga naman. .' (masculine.3 Structure within non-Dhatu Entries The entries for naman (nouns). and must therefore be able _ to take any form of the three linga. . buried in the text for that word. Here. Return to page 733.

6 Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two. as a + a ) a. Make it a discipline to look up the references (when appropriate) and abbreviations (always) when you are not sure what it stands for | this way you will very soon become familiar with them. 13. nd the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalin and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word . Bhag. and ness. e. Monier-Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. for MahaBharata. but will be elucidated in the next section. consciousness. c denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel. c b denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel.4 References and Abbreviations xxxiii On page of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that MonierWilliams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary. as a + a ) a. As an illustration of its use. a + u ) o etc. The caret symbols a b c d denote a joining of vowels. so that the words may readily be looked up separately: a denotes the joining of two short vowels. a c 13. if the word `conscious' is under discussion.5 Special Symbols @ and a b c d The little circle (@) is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devanagar script to denote either the rst or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. b d denotes the joining of two long vowels. for Bhagavad-g ta and MBh. These are used in the transliterated script for samasa (compound words). as a + a ) a. rather than repeat the word in full.100 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. short or long. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used. The last four symbols are not very clear. the abbreviation con or even c may be used similarly ly would mean consciously. d These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound. and very helpfully indicate the length of the nal and initial vowels at the point of union.g. as a + a ) a. for example. a + i ) e. The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these.

16.3): the reasoning here is that. 9.v.2).l sMa~k*:t+ x k*:a. 15.ta=e k l Guasa va. although O and Oe are both long vowels.t+ A:gxa. . Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order. -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element.pa.ta.a.8 Supplement to Dictionary Dictionary Practice 1. look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308. If a word is not found in the main dictionary.eaBa.l* *. kaya .va. Buddha-eduka and not Buddha-aiduka (which are the two possibilities listed in .Za.a. and hyphenated appropriately.tx+ a.p+ a *a.+ mana. 14.a.N+ a.h:=*NyagaBR+ :pUa.Dya.+ a. 19. and they may be printed in devanagar or transliterated Roman or both.anaya. Similarly.ta.a ayaDamR+ ba. but that kapalin and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary.A.va. *. and this is why the next samasa.va. 5.pa a.veak sMaya. 11. the `weaker' of the two vowels in terms of guna and vrddhi (see .7 13. Baga. so that agama can be separately looked up. . 6. 13.va.l*yuag+ mUa.3). 17. 18. 4. as in Buddhagama. the samasa printed as Buddha duka stands for a.eag+ Dya. A:nvaya. and varna for example. this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the samasa to be correctly determined as beginning with a d rgha a. 2. which stands for c Buddha-agama. section 10.Lesson 13 101 is appended to Buddha (see section 12.a.a.a. . is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol.paDxak .A. 13. 7.asan+ a.h a. Where the samasa is printed in full. 3. may usually be separately found in the dictionary).va.h:k*:a.ya. 20.a.eag+ A.vRa. 8.a. the vowel sandhi grid of 10.Q sMagamama.a=*ea. .d e *cC ja. 12.t+ . 10.

102 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

before vowels for 3.1 Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged. . `distinction'. This is best illustrated by example: nd the word Vy-a~jana in the third column of page 1029. . . .Lesson 14 14.v+ Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi. . `arrangement' . . ornament manifestation. In the middle of the second column is: vy. Compare all this information with the description of vya~jana given at the start n of the rst lesson. manifest. beautify to n cause to appear.ya . . follow the entry words backwards (towards A ) until an entry given in devanagar (the outermost level of alphabetical order). it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dhatu. n Vy-a~jana. In the third column of page 949 is the entry: 3. display v. . used as a pre x to verbs and nouns . speci cation a mark.1.vi. a. . . . . indicating . indication . . . to anoint thoroughly to decorate. .+ a~j. m. token . to celebrate . In the second column of page 1028 is found: n v.a~j .y. Now that may appear to be a very owery description of what . n n. . make n clear . a consonant. badge. . adorn. . manifesting. sign. mfn. to cause to appear. to express `division'.vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word.B. . `distribution'. a consonant . ind. . .+ vy. Since this entry is not in devanagar .+ p This is the kriya from which the naman vya~jana derives. . . The next step in n analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb. in comp. decoration. . .given in 7. namely vyand dhatu a~j. to decorate . . The dhatu of vya~jana is given in the rst column of page 11: n A: .

11)'. which indicates that there is another entry budh. before starting the English translations `to wake' etc. A. . where the form will be buddhyati. Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science. two words. `cl.4. simply note that some of the forms have the rst syllable `re-duplicated' (e. The `ep. `bodhati. P. but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal.) . The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages. which are printed in feint italic. indicative) prathama purusa eka-vacana forms. That the dhatu is printed in large devanagar means that it is a major dhatu this is followed by the numeral `1'. as also derivative verb forms. . many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech.i. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged u3 .. bodhati and bodhate for .g. that the dhatu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb. . conjugation as a class-4 verb. also P. abudhram). but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the guna form some other classes use the vrddhi form. no history or philosophy. (Again. ti ' means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in (class-4) parasmai-pada.2 Dhatu Entry Information Turn again to the dhatu budh at the bottom of the rst column of page 733. just as a matter of interest. Next. which may or may not be another dhatu (in fact it is a visesana listed . 14. bubodha) or pre xed with `a' (e. te '. passive forms of the verb are given. .' which means that it may also be found as a class 4 atmanepada verb `( . parasmai-pada and atmane-pada respectively. . but can it embellish that to say `Who could fool you?'. The following .A. xxi Next there is `cl. show the lat (present .) Within the English translation section. in the rst column on the next page). and that creation itself is spoken into existence.g.104 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory is simply a consonant. i. xxvi The next eight lines show conjugations of this dhatu for other lakara (tenses and moods) etc. Indeed.63)' is a Dhatu-Patha reference next `budhyate ' shows the lat . (Observe.e. no culture or civilisation | all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants.' indicates that the dhatu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and atmane-pada this is followed by the Dhatu-Patha reference `(Dhatup.

Lesson 14 105 Some dhatu entries give much less information. (for 2. but the overall format is similar.aca. improper. whilst others give more information. nd the entry for pratipana in the middle of the second . and so on. ci. Turning to page 662. mfn. Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have di erent derivations from the same dhatu. which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c. see s. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages.t+ 1. such as ba.t+ 2. and we now need to nd it at the outermost (devanagar ) alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667. page 300. p The rst is derived from 1. observe that there are two entries for A:nua:]a.v.+. Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form. In the next column. . anu-cita. Monier-Williams numbers these 1. The entry for pratipana that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order.+ near the top of the px rst column.t+ | A:nua. such as k 1. Here Monier-Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced ( ve pages in this case). he usually. 14.t+ above. which both have the same etymological derivation.3. set or placed along or .' in the list of abbreviations on page (two pages before page 1).) |now nd the meaning of . wrong. where entries have the same spelling. an-ucita. column. ci ). nd the two consecutive entries for A:nua. .aca.aca. but not always. turning to the second column on page 32. mfn.aca. A:nua. which in turn indicates that there is more than one dhatu ci (in fact there are three) the second is derived from p uc. For example.2. gives pointers to where the other entry may be found. xxxv Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example. . ( 1. . `s. but the rst is a verb and the second a noun. there are ve entries for cit on pages 394{5. where it is given as {1. unusual strange . p Note the numerals and the di erent derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. . both here and in A:nua.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite di erent etymologies having di erent derivations. as we shall see shortly.aB. -pana m. kr at the end of . their meanings will be quite di erent: in such cases. .v.

This . The next devanagar entry is a.. according to the heading words we should nd vicara in the middle of the second column..+ is indicated as a verb in the rst column of page 659... looking for a.car.Z+ on 953b. for reasons best known to himself. there are fortunately very few of them. and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. If we look down the second column there are three entries for asta.. and as a noun in the second column. _ Vicara | Turn to page 950: again. _ . We shall examine three such words here. Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example. :pra:]a. which in turn does not refer to the other two. Again. These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word. and in the next column asta. and the page ends with a.vak*:l : continue forward at the devanagar level. This is the outermost (devanagar ) level | now remain at that level and search for vicara. The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these samasa are listed. . . but these are not numbered. All the samasa listed on this page are derived from a. of samasa.+ .4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order.v+ on the previous page. but there is no astanga..106 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory and a sixth on page 398. not even at the third level _ . where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva.v+ on the previous page. 14. not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page.a= . It would be a useful exercise to nd them. you would not have found it on this page. but neither of refer to cet in 397c. Although there are these inconsistencies. This will p be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi. Sattva | This will be found listed as sa v+ in 1138b. However. It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives `see below' | this means scan forward over entry words (at level-1 or -2) for the entry. if the word had not been found on page 1138. .vMa. but that they can also mislead. However. _ astanga here.t. Astanga | Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should nd . Monier-Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for samasa where the adjoining word starts with `a': astanga is on the third line of the rst column of page 117. we come to a.vaca. some words may not be straightforward to nd. in the third column of page 401 are two entries for cea.

we nd the closest entry is ~va. but reading the text for that entry we nd `svadhyaya. So let's split the word at a: we could have yata-atman. sva-adhyaya. then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order. The rst two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yata | but there is an entry word ya. working from the left again. Nevertheless. then examine the heading words a few pages before and after.7. yata-atman. 13.4). (b) If it has three or more syllables. svaadhyaya. following this clue to page 845 we nd Yatatman in the third column | who would have c guessed that it came from dhatu yam? Svadhyaya | Having worked our way to the devanagar level of alphabetical order. until nally at the outermost devanagar level. Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong.5. see p 1277.an+. yata-atman.+ . for example. we would have arrived at ~v+ and thus nd the entries in 1277b. this is not the end of the story: we want to nd the dhatu from which . Having found nothing useful under su+ ( ve entries) or sU+ (four entries) or ~va. sva-dhyaya. because of their etymological development. and 14. and there is no entry word Yata.+. 14. or yata-atman. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Yatatman | The word is not found as a samasa under y+ or ya.5 Di cult Words Some words. col. is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms.t+ . However.' And indeed there we nd two entries: the rst a as a noun and the second as a verb. then consider the following: (a) If it is a short word (one or two syllables) then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns. su-adhyaya.Lesson 14 107 confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the rst three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page. When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary (see sections 12. or sva-adhyaya. to produce su-adhyaya. but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary.2. are just plain di cult to nd.t. sva-adhyaya. treat it as a samasa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable | this process may seem rather laborious.aDa. Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves. If the word is still not found.

So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi-aya.h a= (withdrawal) A:ca. Again we nd nothing helpful under A +.108 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory this word derives.tya. 4.ana.va.a. nor is the entry word dhyaya found.+ (not too much pride) A:Bay+ Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14. 6.6 Dictionary Practice 1. y+ (steadiness) . the English equivalent is also given): .a. (fearlessness) :pUa.D+ (two entries). So we do the same trick again.mRa. 2.a.+ ).NR+ (abundance) :pra.Da. adhya-aya.a. aca ak*. 5.ta.d (skilled in painting) na. and adhya-aya.a. starting from the left.a. 14.+ we nd the entry word Adhy-aya! Having found the word. but under A. we return p to the devanagar level (A.1 (as an aid. but cannot nd adhyaya on page 23 where we would expect it.Da. 3. and there the dhatu is given as .tama.pa. adhyaaya. adh -aya. giving a-dhyaya: but nothing suitable is found under A (six entries). adhya-aya.

A dhatu is therefore the most universal element of all words and the Dhatu-Patha .e. and its application in the study of the scriptures. `Recitation of Roots') also encodes a wealth of grammatical . the class beginning with bhu. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . which word p is formed from bhu-adi-gana. which express the activity of a sentence. with that used in the Index. the rst is Bva.d:ga. where adi means . or classes of dhatu conjugation. is a class of dhatu derived from nouns. i. information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dhatu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study. As an example of this class in the dictionary.1. where `Nom. Bva. . .e. as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dhatu | usually in just one word! The Dhatu-Patha (lit. of each dhatu from the Dhatu-Patha. `beginning with'.A.a.' is the abbreviation for `Nominal Verb'. or `meaning'. cl.Lesson 15 15. k*:Nq*.g. and here means `derived from a noun'.a.a.1 A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular.+@. This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha. i. 15. which name things.N+ . A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used. The eleventh class.2) and since the page numbers are also in devanagar . is a dhatu dictionary. after the rst dhatu in its section: for example. e. derive directly from the dhatu. see 2.N+ .2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gana. . Each gana is named .d:ga.a. Payasya in 586a. `freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dhatu whereas verbs. names that have come to be used as verbs.) The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classi cation. Nouns. Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course (see section 9. note the numeral forms used (especially for 8 and 9). and its meaning is restricted according to the context. (Note: `Nominal' is the adjectival form of `noun'.

which may be translated as `in the sense of'. These extra syllables are called anubandha (lit. In the lefthand column the rst entry is: This is the rst dhatu (bhu) together with its artha.+| Turn to the rst page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha: after the heading the rest .R+ YY. and the artha may spread over more than one line. or `meaning'.ea. and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dhatu and its artha.ta. the dhatu edh (to prosper. a little lower down is the entry: na.+ na. Thus all words derived from this dhatu have this sense of expansive good fortune | a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words o ered in translation.a.a a. the above four appear in the dictionary as BU+ O :D.Za.pa. Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored. and sometimes one appended before it: for example.T.Tx+ .110 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.aD. and subsequent pages. Where the artha is a single word.aDx+ ya.3 The Text Body BU+ sa a. ddhi (growth. would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with c+ (and). etc.a.am. r fortune.+ . become happy grow strong { mw231c) is used `in the sense of v. forming a simple list of words which. na.pEa aya. When the artha has two or more words. In the Dhatu-Patha each dhatu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end . `bound along with').B.a.+ and na. For example. success. of it. of the page. .aya. the dvi-vacana form and when three or more words. | mw1011a)'. The artha is generally expressed in saptam vibhakti. the eka-vacana form is used when two words (formed into a samasa). (sattayam). Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dhatu in the rst column. In this type of samasa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending the others remain in their pratipadika form.1). increase. the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva samasa (see 11. not compounded. and the next entry is: O :D+ vxa *E+| and so on. the bahu-vacana form.+H Su+| giving both dhatu the same artha. are divided into two columns. For example.

both in saptam vibhakti.Lesson 15 111 To get back to the pratipadika form as listed in the dictionary. is thus that which comes from within. for an ending in -au. when the artha is given as two separate words. (c) bahu-vacana samasa end in su. . use the following: (a) eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e. i. from the stillness of unmanifest sound. in other cases simply remove the -su. . . read -i. then the rst of the pair is a visesana. for those ending in -esu.e. artha illustrated above. read -u. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and nd the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables assume that is the rst word.e. which is removed. Some entries in the Dhatu-Patha di er from the common format of dhatu and . through the senses | here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. (b) dvi-vacana samasa end in -yoh. and then repeat the process with the following syllables | but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words. read -i. read -a. read -a. instead the words will need to be looked up separately. remove -i (i. e .d A v. . . entry on the rst page is of this type: a. for an ending in -i. for an ending in -ayam. .de| Here the dhatu hrad (to delight or refresh { mw1307c) is used `in the sense of unmanifest (avyakta { mw111b) sound (sabda { mw1052b)'. ends in halanta vya~jana). n for an ending in -uvi. for an ending in -yam.ya. The last . The itaretara dvandva samasa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to nd a samasa listed. and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without. read -a. The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to. For example.Za.b.

.+ which prevents the normal lengthening of A in the causative). . it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dhatu-Patha. 15. For example. (e) Where the artha is given as a samasa ending in A Ta.e.R+H (prathama bahu-vacana of A TR+ bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dhatu). i. Fortunately the Dhatu-Patha . dhatu k*:T.t.O k = thus in one) e e or I*tyanye+ (= I*a. (b) When the artha is given as a word followed by c+ .te+ = not spoken.A:nye+ = thus in another). r harm { mw1297c).+ causatives (treated as having an I*t. expressing motive. and are comments by the compiler of this edition.eacya. (f) Some entries have an unusual format. includes an index listing the dhatu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dhatu is listed in the body.R+H ( a. . some of which is helpful in nding the correct dhatu.o*cya.eacya. enclosed by purnavirama .R+H ' may be translated as `for the purpose of'.4 The Index In the body of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu are grouped together according to .+ has the artha a. then ` A Ta.112 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: (a) When the dhatu is followed by c+ ( = and. This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dhatu. ( ) and may have the order of dhatu and artha reversed: these { dhatu have a special meaning when they are ama.) (d) When the artha is followed I*tyeak (= I*a. and may be construed as `for the sake of (causing) injury'. this refers to artha given in di erent versions of the Dhatu-Patha as handed down. The index also provides more grammatical information.te+ = n+ . also).e. i.hM:sa.t+ . (c) When the artha is followed by na. common grammatical features of their development into words.te+ .a. or `with the aim of harming'.hM:sa. not mentioned elsewhere.+ m.Ta.t+ . then this has the same artha as the previous dhatu.+ = injury. then the artha for that dhatu is that word together with the artha of the previous dhatu. (na.

4 P.' means divadi-gana parasmai-bhasa. as: A:k . vowels (i. i.f l*.+ .Ba. `cl. page.I*f.aya. atmane and parasmai ). from left to right. etc. (f) The column on that page where it may be found.ta. in fact. provide the following information: (a) The dhatu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column. bhasa.N+ .f (= s+ . . A:g+ k*:a. (c) The bhasa (= speech synonymous with pada used in this .Sa. .a. . A.e. is :pa= smE+ . accepts augment I in its . this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bhasa in the Dhatu-Patha.E+| u Note that the index has two entries for dhatu A:k with di erent anubandha .d:ga.I*f.a. whereas the dictionary lists only one dhatu A:k. which may be atmane-bhasa.f (= A:n. .e. ubhayato-bhasa (= both. . as `P. . . At the end of the index. course). does not do so): this may be . Where the dictionary gives both . six columns wide. bhasa `cl. rst syllable of the gana. so that a dhatu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line. is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. (the table of contents . in the Dhatu-Patha gives the order of the gana). parasmai-bhasa.Lesson 15 113 The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns.'. . (d) Whether the dhatu is sea. which is shown in full on the contents . (c) above) for example. (e) The page number on which the dhatu together with its artha may be found. or A ana. A:k and A ak ). . These columns. Where the dhatu has more than one entry in the index. (b) The gana to which the dhatu belongs: this column has just the .' means class 1 (bhvadi-gana) and atmane. The rst entry of the index shows that the dhatu A:k (with its anubandha) belongs to Bva. . do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dhatu heading word: this information gives the class (gana) and bhasa of the dhatu (see (b) and . 1 A. on page 99.M+ ga. one row of tabulated data. expansion). ignored at this stage. . or . and may be found on page 17 column 1.a. . .+.

a. w E. information provided in the dictionary. dread .114 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15. A anand nand listed as qu ] na. and 7. The class (juhotyadi-gana) and bhasa agree with the .) .3.Sa. and nally the artha is examined in the dictionary. cl. .a.a.Nq. and the remaining word in its pratipadika form is looked up in the dictionary. These spelling changes may also be combined. sUa + asa.64. as in the Dhatu-Patha as a.pa. (b) An initial n.d mua. . be afraid of mw758a Dh. . p E.58 respectively. .3 may be used to `remove' the vibhakti from the artha (although this declension should be familiar).P.d na. p .aq . p Ba.Nq*k mua. P. p p .6) will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha: the .ana. ( bh ) fear. to fear.+ may be found in alphabetical order.+. which is listed in (Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to Panini 6.+ . (1) Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use .1.v.65. na.+. as :Na. (c) When the dhatu has a nal I as an anubandha. anand + Dhatu Spelling Changes p anand.1. so the dhatu entry aVaBa.l. .+ is sought in the Dhatu-Patha body in the rst column of page 26: it is the second entry.d sa. . Index: aV+ ] Ba.P. p .+ listed as a. then its artha found in the body.bh .1. . Notes: This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dhatu Ba. .a.vu+ o*.Na.+ may be spelt here with an initial :N.d as :Sa. In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dhatu being examined. .ju+@ :p+@ A@ 26 1 Dh. as mua. it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dhatu. dhatu is located in the index.d listed as :Na. p E.g. .6 The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice (section 14.+ Baye+| p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n.g.+ may be spelt here with an initial :S. alarm.d na. The notes in section 15.a.d .g.d. Body: aVaBa.l. and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dhatu than that provided by the dictionary entry.l na. 6.a.Sa. 15.+ 1.5 The spelling of the dhatu may di er from that given in the dictionary: (a) An initial s.

Lesson 15
(2)

115

mw648a

Dh.P. Index: :pX+ r *:+@ :p+@ se+@ 39 1 Dh.P. Body: :pX+ :pa.a.l*na.pUa=*Naya.e+H | mw623a Palana mf( )n. guarding, nourishing . . . n. the act of guarding, protecting, nourishing, defending . . . mw642a Purana mf( )n. lling, completing, satisfying . . . m. `completer' . . . . n. the act of lling or lling up. Notes: The index has three entries for dhatu :pX+ , so the class (kryadi-gana) . and bhasa information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. . The dhatu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors, so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form (see section 15.3), so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. As nouns (which is the sense here), both words end in `-na' (with or without sandhi changes) | this is a common neuter su x usually meaning `the act of . . . ', and is given as such in the dictionary translation. The artha palana adds the sense of `nourishing' to the ` lling up' of purana . (which itself derives from the dhatu pr). This gives a bene cial aspect to the . dhatu: it is not to ll to the point of bloatedness, nor is it to ll with rubbish, but the sense is of generous abundance.
mw1302a

p :pX+ pr , cl.9 P. . . . to ll . . . to sate, cherish, nourish .

(3)

Dh.P. Index: . V,+ Bva.+@ o@ A@ 20 1 Dh.P. Body: . V,+ .h:=*Ne+| mw1289a Harana mf(a or )n. carrying, holding, containing . . . n. the act of . carrying or bringing or fetching. Notes: The gana and bhasa are used to select the dhatu entry. . . Dh.P. Index: k*:a.p+ Bva.+@ A +@ se+@ 8 2 Dh.P. Body: k*:a.p+ ca.l*ne+| mw391b Calana, mf(a)n. moving, movable, tremulous . . . n. shaking motion, shaking, trembling. Notes: If the dhatu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index, nor in the Addendum, then check for applicable dhatu spelling changes (see section 15.5): the third rule applies here. Dh.P. Index:
mw252b

p . 1.hri, cl.1. P.A. . . . to take, bear, carry .

(4)

p k*.}p,+ kamp, cl.1.A. . . . to tremble, shake.

(5a) mw395b

p aca.t,+ 4.cit, cl.1 . . . to perceive, x the mid upon, attend to . . .
aca.ta.+ Bva.+@ :p+@ se+@ 2 1

116

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh.P. Body: aca.ta.+ saV]a.ane+| mw1133c Sam-j~ana mf( )n. producing harmony . . . n. unanimity, harmony . n with . . . consciousness . . . right perception Notes: Again, the gana is used to select the entry in the index. . Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dhatu cit.

(5b) mw300c

Dh.P Index: qu ] k*.V,+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2 x Dh.P. Body: qu*k*.V,+ k*.=*Ne+| x mw254a Karana mf(a)n. doing, making, e ecting, causing . . . m. a helper, . companion . . . n. the act of making, doing, producing, e ecting, . . . Notes: The dictionary entry for this dhatu is quite lengthy: reading through the rst column of page 301, it also gives `cl.1. P.' and `cl.5. P.' as well as `cl.8 (this is the usual formation in the Brahmanas, Sutras, and in classical Sanskrit)'. . The Dhatu-Patha does not list a class 2 dhatu k , hence the return to x . the dictionary for more information. In practice the cl.5 dhatu should also be examined, but its artha a.hM:sa.aya.am,+ , meaning `in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dhatu in the rst place.
mw963b

p k 1.kri . . . cl.2. P. . . . to do, make, perform, accomplish. x .

(5c)

Dh.P. Index: a.va.d A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1 Dh.P. Body: a.va.d :]a.ane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n Notes: The gana and bhasa given in the dictionary are used to choose among . . , the ve entries in the index for dhatu a.va.d . Dh.P. Index: man+ a.d@ A +@ A@ 29 2 and manu+ t+@ A +@ se+@ 38 2 Dh.P. Body: man+ :]a.ane+| and manu+ A va.ba.eaDane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n mw101b Ava-bodhana, n. informing, teaching, instruction. Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dhatu and both are listed in the index, the artha for both need to be examined. In fact, given the original word that led to the dhatu, and which was to do with pride, both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind, and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed (thus informing others).
mw783a

p a.va.d, 1.vid, cl.2. P. . . . to know, understand, perceive, learn . . .

(6)

p man,+ man, cl.8.4. A. . . . to think, believe, imagine.

Lesson 15

117

15.7

Study of the Scriptures

Since most scriptures are available in translation, it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to merely con rm the translation in fact, . all translations are signi cantly awed by two factors: the rst is the translator's level of understanding of the subject (in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding) and his ability to express that understanding in another language secondly, the student (the reader of the translation) has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language, and, through tracing the etymology of each word to its nest, most universal source, thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study, and to con rm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary. After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha, the passage is considered in relation to the . section of scripture in which it occurs, in relation to the scripture as a whole, in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world, and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. As an illustration of this method of study, let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad G ta: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts introduced in this course. It is an extract from Sr Krsna's response to Arjuna's ... asking for details of His Glory and powers the rst line of the verse is:
A: a=*a.Na.amak*:a=*e+Y.;/ / / asm+

Of letters I am the letter A I am the copulative of compound words. At rst glance, this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever, but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to see what may be discovered. . Removing the sandhi from this line, we have:
A: a=*a.Na.am,+ A:k*:a=H A ;// / asm+ A: a=*a.Na.am,+ n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

| sasth bahu-vacana of A: a= . . .. mw3b A: a= a-kshara mfn. imperishable . . . n. a syllable, letter, vowel, sound, word. mw1a A 3.a a pre x having a negative or privative or contrary sense.

. . comprehensive. a cloud n. . mw1a A -kara m. doing.118 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw327a Ksara mfn. becoming. the letter or sound a. (ifc.) an act. P. . `similarity'. abide. panion .+@ :p+@ se+@ 18 2| a= sa a. .vea.kri .+ 1. Dh. Bhag. p mw159c A as. . space. together with. p A:s. P. . even. or n.Bhu mfn. equivalent. altogether. mw327a a=. to ow.sama mf(a)n.a.sam ind.+ k*. . . m. the act of becoming or arising the place of being. agitation. equal.P.V. Dh.ama. . `equality' . producing. a couple. mw1111b s+ 7.asak mf( )n. expressing `junction'. A asm+ . com.V. .+ 2. concise. along with.2.~y+ . mw1152a sam+ 2. . being. . . Dh. A:s+ A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1| A:s+ Bua. . melting away. .P. . . with. same. glide to melt away. succinct. . to be. mw503b original stem of dvi. making. . .a. . moving about.sama ).sa and 2.as to sit quietly.Asa m.as cl. world or universe. . action the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word .ama.ama. remain.2. . shaking. doing. . perishable m. . A:k*:a=H | prathama eka-vacana of A:k*:a= . stream. causing . p mw274b k*:a= 1. perform.kara mf( )n.P. similar like..a. . m. . 1. .P. accomplish . P.+ 2. mw1206b sa.a. making. mw504c a two.. . trembling. (from sam-asa ).// / | eka-vacana uttama-purusa lat (present indicative) of as = `I am'. `having the same'. . mw503b M n.v+| mw760c 2. mw117a Dh. (see beginning of Lesson 3. p x mw300c k 1. water the body. a helper. . existing . . .asak . n. seat. mw159c 1. (connected with 7. smooth .kri . A as+ A@ A +@ se+@ 23 1| A as+ o*. cl. p.1. m.=*Ne+| x x mw254a Karana mf( )n. to do. | prathama eka-vacana of n .Zane+| sa.l*ne+| mw1132a Sam-calana n. live.sa ind. f. brief relating to or belonging to a compound word m. . n H p | sasth eka-vacana of sa.+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2| qu*k*. a compound word. be present. male and female . cl. `conjunction' . wane. ksar. the act of making.asak*. . like to or identical or homogeneous with . a copulative compound (or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction `and'). working .pa. doing. make. . exist. a= Bva. . perish . qu ] k*. mw1152a sam.A). e ecting. e ecting . .

how then does one describe their source and support. K. In all languages the rst letter of the alphabet is A. neither good nor bad they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage. c+ | avyaya c+ . . foremost of several classes. may change. and here the illustration is being the A of letters. . By way of illustration. both. they . as well as . the attention at the moment is on the words on this page.A. but are not subject to absolute destruction. The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet re ects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. is like Consciousness and all the words. and.Lesson 15 mw207a 119 engaged in. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper. By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation. . In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the gure given in 1. also. on their signi cance and meaning. The mark of the dvandva samasa is that there is an equality between the joined elements. and each retain its individuality (see 11. yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality. `in this world'). Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of p the manifest creation ( asa bhuvi. which is their source and support. the ever-present A ? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. mw380a c+ Upa-vesana n. moreover. which is taken for granted.B. sna gives many examples of being the r. In responding to Arjuna's question. holding it all together as one. they may be unmanifest. Giving this as the foremost of the samasa | where there is no di erence in importance between the elements | places the emphasis on that which links them together. The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable (aksara): they may be manifest. Re ections: The following personal re ections are o ered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong. ca ind. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable.6 summarizes the core role of A in forming all the vowels and from the ve mouth positions of these vowels. are like creation. All words are formed from sound. . the act of sitting down. a seat the being devoted to or 2. are derived all the consonants. and all sounds are derived from A they are all but a modi ed form of that A .1). which are deemed important and interesting.

Removing the sandhi from this line.va a.+ | prathama eka-vacana of dhatr = dispenser.+ O *v+ A: ay+H k*:a. (The last entry is the most appropriate.a.lH | Note: from the information given in the dictionary. .8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha in studying the scriptures. .eamua. prathama eka-vacana of aksaya = inexhaustible. indeed. prathama eka-vacana of k*:a. consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense. .K+H{ A h:m.ta.l*. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so.hM a.eamua.) Da.e+ Da.ta. and write down what is presented to the mind. the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad G ta is o ered.a. we have: A h:m.ta. and then write down your understanding in clear readable English. .+ | O *v+ | A: ay+H | k*:a.K+H{ I am verily Time inexhaustible I am the Dispenser facing everywhere. the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary. so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally o ers.va a.ta.// / prathama eka-vacana of personal pronoun `I'.ta. then nd the artha in the Dhatu-Patha.+ a. A h:mea. As with all exercise.l = time. tracing it to its dhatu where possible.a.a ay+H k*:a. Examine each word in the dictionary. Note: the verb A asm+ used in the rst line of this verse.va. . and examine those words in the dictionary.a. . avyaya = verily.lH Da.va a. is implied here.120 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.K+H | prathama eka-vacana of visvatomukha = facing everywhere.+ A h:m. together with its grammatical division down to the pratipadika level.ta. a little performed regularly has the greatest bene t in the long term.eamua. it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dhatu-Patha index is the correct one: one needs to examine . Having done this mechanical work. a. There are no right or wrong answers here.

e. translated by Winthrop Sargeant. as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by-word translation. though expensive for its size. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available. the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word (including the signi cance of each a x) to the gurative use in the most sublime writings. In clear easy-to-read language. Furthermore. Faber and Faber: 80 pages. The G ta is written with simple and straightforward grammar. paperback. from poetry to philosophy. the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. makes it an ideal work with which to begin. (b) The Bhagavad-Gita. from comparative linguistics to liberation. rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set. together with its magni cent philosophy and wealth of practical advice. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student. . A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures. paperback. SUNY: 739 pages. from simple chanting to mythology. as well as putting the Chapter number in the top outer margin of each page.Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit. the general reader will nd the rst ve books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: (a) The Geeta. rather than a literal translation: a delightful book. Whatever the reason. translated by Shri Purohit Swami. therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant. i. The verses are not numbered: it is worth the e ort to work through the book numbering the verses in pencil. ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language. The Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna. This translation provides a simple way of getting the context of a verse being studied. and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures (because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words). and is also useful in selecting a verse of interest to study. which. with a view to translation. Despite the above quali cations.

Divided into thirty lessons. it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation. by Swam Gambh rananda Brhadaranyaka . . hardcover or paperback. by Sri Ramakrishna Math or with Samkara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama (Eight . in both directions. translation by A. Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages. . (f) Laghukaumud of Varadaraja. with indices linking noun. depth. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly. This contains approximately one third of the sutra s of Panini 's A. Michael Coulson. with answers given at the back of the book. the Bhagavad G ta with Samkara's commentary in .tadhyay s . Bucknell.M. . Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit. Motilal Banarsidass: 208 pages.. paperback. but answers are not provided. Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages. (e) A Rapid Sanskrit Method.Sastry is published by Samata Books the major Upanisads . and Chhandogya. hardcover. A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail. of verbs. are published with word-by-word translations of Swam Sarvananda etc. and large vocabulary.and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. Each lesson has translation exercises. Ballantyne. As the title implies. tense etc. As a `part-time' student studying alone. George S. but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual signi cance of words. Hart. paperback. For further scriptural study. this book gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. by Swam Madhavananda). Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next book is a lot easier for general study.122 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (c) Sanskrit Manual. A useful tool to determine the pratipadika forms of nouns. from in ected words. Principal Upanisads. (d) Teach Yourself Sanskrit. this is a `hard' book because of its style. translated by James R. each introducing one or two topics. George L. . gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit the text and commentary are in devanagar with English translation.

) stand and they (two) speak.) stand and you (two) speak.... tisthanti vadami ca . I speak and you stand.B. 3. ..1. 6. . 3.3. 2. 6. Answers: Lesson 2 2.d. They (two) speak and we (pl. 4. I stand and speak.) stand. 7. He stands and they (pl. . You (two) stand and we (two) speak.. You speak and I stand. tisthati vadami ca . 5. He stands and you speak. 2. 5.d.c. 5.e.B. tisthami vadati ca . . 8.) stand and we (two) speak. 4.1.. 2. . 7. vadami tisthasi ca .. tisthamah vadathah ca . They (pl...Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 1.3.. We (pl. vadatah tisthati ca . You (s. tisthasi vadati ca . I stand and he speaks. 3. 2. 5. vadathah tisthanti ca . . 1. 8.. 4. You (pl. . vadatha tisthasi ca . .2.B.1.. 4. You stand and I speak. vadasi tisthati ca .B. tisthati vadatha ca . 6.2.) stand and you (two) speak. 6.) speak. 2. You (s..) speak and they (two) stand. vadasi tisthami ca .. 3. tisthathah vadathah ca .1. tisthavah vadatha ca .

3.1. The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (pl. asvam naraya nayethe 3.3.3. ksam nayate r . 4.) lead the men (two) to the trees (pl. The man and horses (two) are standing.) take the trees (pl. 2.B.c. vrksan asvaih vahanti . asvau naram nayete 3.e. . 4. 4. .1. asvah naram v. 3.B. 5. 2. vrksah asvah ca tisthatah . 4. ksam narat asvena labhavahe r . .d. . narah vadanti nayante ca . 5. asvan vrksat gacchamah . 6. Answers: Lesson 4 4. 6..). He leads the horse from the tree for the man. The horse stands and the man speaks. The horse carries the man to the tree. . . . 3.3.B. The horse leads the man. 3. .1.124 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 3 3. narah asvam nayate . You (pl. We (pl. v. The man and the horse go from the tree. 6. 5. . asvena gacchati 2. 4. The horse carries the tree for the man. narah asvan nayante . . 2. .) from the horse. asvah naram vrksebhyah vahanti . 5.d.1. The man and the horse are leading. 6. The man goes to the tree by horse.B. .).

ksat vahathah r . .). He takes the man from the tree by horse.) lead the men (pl. 5. .1. ksam naraya vahasi r . . vrksesu narah asvah ca tisthatah . 8.) from the man's tree. . The girls (pl.B. O man. He stands on the horse and speaks. .B.B. The man's horses (pl. 6.) by horse. I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (pl. The horses (pl. 4. The horses (two) carry the trees (pl. .. Answers: Lesson 6 6. . (he) asva v. 2. 4. . . naram asvam v.2..) to the horse. . The man takes the tree from the horse. The girls (two) take the fruit (pl. The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak.) of the men (pl. The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl. you are standing on the horse.e.. 5. 2. 10. narasya asvah naram vrksebhyah vahati . 7. 4. 5. . 3. 2. The horse goes to the man from the tree. 7. 8.3.1. . 5.) of the trees (pl. asvau naram vrksam vahatah .d.c. . narasya asvan vrksat labhate . 3. 3.). . The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit. 9. asvayoh tisthati . . . The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree. 8. The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse. The men (two) take the fruit (pl.Answers to Exercises 125 Answers: Lesson 5 5.) to the fruit (pl.) are standing.2. 7. .) for the man. 6.) are standing among the trees (pl. 6. . .1. narayoh vrksah tisthanti .

The man's girl leads the horses (pl. narah bala ca tisthatah vadatah ca . 3. 6. 6. bala phale vrksat asvebhyah labhate . asvah vrksam balam naraya vahati . .d.1. 7. bale asve tisthatah ca phalam v. ksasya phalani nayethe r . .g. . . . . 8. 6.126 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6.). 3. .. The girl's horse carries the fruit (pl. 2. . . 4. . ksat labhete r . . . narah tisthati ca bala vadati . . asvam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3. . . .) of the tree for the girl. narah vrksan asvena phalebhyah gacchati .f. 2. . . We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse. narah vrksam asvat balayai labhate . . naram balam ca asvam vrksat labhavahe .2. narah bala ca v.) to the trees (pl. 4.1. . ksesu asvabhyam gacchatah (assume two horses). 2. . narasya bala asvan vrksan nayate . 7.B. . Answers: Lesson 7 7. asvah vrksan narebhyah vahanti . r .1. ksasya phalam balayai labhante . 6. .3. balam vrksat narasya asvam vahavah . . .e. . 5.B. . balayah asvah phalani naraya vahati . 5. .. The horse takes the tree's fruit (two) from/for the girls (pl. asvam v. balayah asvau phalani naram labhete . . 3. phalani vrksat asvena vahatha . .B. narah asvam phalena nayate . 9. 4. asvah vrksasya phale balabhyah labhate . . bala asvah ca vrksesu phalebhyah gacchatah . asvah phalani balah naraya vahati . narah v. .B.) for the man. The man and the girl stand and talk. The man takes the fruit (s. 5. 10. .1. 5. r . 2.2. 7..2. 4. . . . .).

h . narau sundarani phalani alpat vrksat labhete .5. . guroh bala sundare asve tisthati . 8.a. .) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two).t.aya. ..c. . sundar bala alpam asvam nad m nayate 4.+ A: a. 5.l*. . 2.a.a. The teachers (pl.1.2.an+ vxa a.h T+| 1{ ba.l*.t. narasya guruh nad m asvena gacchati . 3.l*.Answers to Exercises 7.an.d.+ vxa a~y+ :P*. .1.l*By+H gacC t+H| 5{ e A: +H vxa a. 4.1. 5.nt+| 6{ a 127 Answers: Lesson 8 8. The girl goes to the re from the handsome man.. 6.an+ nayea.a. ksam balam agnaye s ghram labhate r . .+ A: ean+ va. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for re. .l*.5.5.+ A: +H c+ vxa ea.e.te+| 2{ A: am. . sundar bala naram alpam gurum s ghram nayate 6.l*. 2.a.+ na=e By+H va.l*.a. 4. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree.B. . 3. :P*. narah alpam v.a.. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river. guruh alpasya vrksasya sundaresu phalesu tisthati .ayE+ l*Ba. . .h.B.+ l*Bea. . The small tree stands in the beautiful re.+ ba. . bala alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3. alpah vrksah sundare agnau tisthati .E+ :P*.Su+ :P*.an+ na= m.a. 8.. guravah alpam sundaram asvam nadyau nayante . .B. bala agnim sundarat narat gacchati 2.B.Te+| 3{ na=H vxa am.+H A: a. 5.te+| 4{ ba. 6. . balayah guruh alpayam nadyam tisthati .

+H gua H A pa.+ a.1.+ :P*. . vrksam nad m vahami iti narah balam vadati .d am. .ta.t+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 9 9.f. 4. 6.l*. nad alpam vrksam sundar m balam vahati .5.+ na= m.l*.B." the small man says." the girls (two) say. \O teacher. you are leading the (two) girls. 9. phalani balayah v.a. .+ A: ean+ gacC a.t+| 4{ suand:=*+ ba. 5. 2.a. .Za. . r . 9. 4.l*.a. 4.) of the tree for the girl.l*m.Su+ a.e. .l*. .5.+ A pam.1.c. narah phalani labhate iti bale vadatah . a.B.t+| 1{ ba. .1.aya.) from the tree by horse for the man.h a. . The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl. narah bala ca sundaram gurum nadya gacchatah . asvah vrksasya phalani balayai vahati . phalani asvam labhe iti bala gurum vadati 2. balayah phale naram s ghram labhadhve .m.5. he guro bale nayase iti alpah narah vadati . ksat labhavahe .+ na am.am.128 8. . a.te+| 5{ gua H A pa~y+ vxa a~y+ suand:=e *Su+ :P*. . The horse carries the fruit (pl. 6. 2.l*.). a. They (two) carry the fruit (s.m. .+ A pam.+ gua *.a.B. 5.ta. \The man is taking the fruit (pl.B.5.aGram.+ .ta. 3. 5. . 3.). .t+| 2{ ba.d.+ naya. I quickly carry the tree to the small res (two) by horse (pl.+ va.aya. 6. phalam vrksayat asvena naraya vahatah .+ suand:=e A: e+ a. 3.t+| 3{ gua=*e+H ba. sundar bala asvam alpan vrksan phalebhyah nayate . . A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na= ~y+ gua H na.+ na= ~y+ gua *. vrksam alpau agn asvaih s ghram vahami .

h:~te+Y.a.l*By+H naya.a.d a. .v+ 6.+ na + gacC t+H| 5{ 129 suand:=*+ ba.va.Za. k*:tRXak*:a= 5.+H vxa a.+ l*Be+ I*a.d .aca.+ na.Za.aya.d:nam.t+| 1{ vxa am.a.m.va.+ 28.+ l*BaDve+| 3{ e :P*.de v.te+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 10 1.+ l*Ba.+ 12.tya. A anandE ta.a.t+ na=H ba.he| 4{ na=H ba. a.h 10.a.S+ 8.tyeak*.t+ ba.Ea.+ c+ suand:= m.a.+ A pa. Bva.l*.he:nd a.l*.+ 19.am+ I*a.an+ A: am.+ va.Ranand 25.+ va.h a. 7. k*:pa.a.ayR+ 23.tman.d 18.t+| 2{ ba.+ :P*.aDva. ma.a.a.t. a.an.a.an. A: Ea.+ gua *.l*.t+ 20.+ .SN+ A a~y+ 2.B. :pra.h a.m.pa a.+ .v+ 27. .he: a= 24.l*.and 9. a.+ 29. ma.T+ 11.l*. :P*. k*. .+H :P*. na.ayEa.a.v+ 15. :pa= ma. ma.tam.h:=e Y.Za.am.l*.antyamxa.yam.+ va.l*. nea.vakH 22.Z+ 4.+ gua *. nEa.d am.a.+ A: am. :pa= mea a= 14.Answers to Exercises 9.l na= m. gua.SR+ or ma.a. sa.. a.m.5.a./ a~t+ 30.+ e 26.a.aya.d a. . sa.an+ ba.l*.a.anand 17.Z+ 13.ya an+ 16. :pa.veRak*:tvam.f.anand 21.aGram. v.d a.va. ma. maDva. k*.anand 3.+ vxa a.ya.

hridaya 1302c . na=*e+ vxa ama. 8.Ra.t+ agnM \The teacher is going to the re from the man.+ ba.a ama.a. gua *.).riti 654a J~ana 426a n A-nanda 139c Vy-akarana 1035c . *. *cC ta. :pua *:S+ 637a 16. *Ba.a.4.a. na=*e+ vxa a. pa. na=*a.agnama a. *cC t+H .+ A: ean+ va./ + ba. .l*." the small girl says.a. k*:SN+ 306b x or Krishna 308a .h ta. .a.b) The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree. gua 359b 10. :n. Bhakti 743a 19.a.le*Bya.d a. 4.=*. gua A pM+ na=M vxa a.le*By+H suand:=e *Su+ vxa ea.aya.A. 3.a.l*. ba. ba.) for fruit (pl. 6.+ 737c 9.). Answers: Lesson 12 1.va.tman.// + na=*a.eag+ 856b Pra-k. 4.e+Y a a.) to the horse. 10.M+ na.d M+ vxa a." the teacher says to the girls (pl.v+H (no sandhi) We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (pl.d a. A peaBy+H :P*.a M+ na=M c+ vxa a.l*. Rajas 863b 11. 6.S+ 226c 13.a. 5.te+ The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree. ba.l*. 7. pM+ vxa ama. b. Citta 395c 12.Za=*a= 1057c 18.a.anya M+ va. A a.a.) by horse.Su+ gacC a.a. 5.a aya.h a.tya. :P*. A:nant+ 25a 20.t+ \I carry the fruit (pl.+ The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 8.anP*. 9.l*./ The men (two) carry the small tree to the re from the horse.l*.+ va.+ va. 2.a.t+ gua *:ba. pa. 135a Hetu 1303c ya. ./ The girl and the small horse go to the re from the man. 15.agnM+ na=*a. 7.e+Y ean+ gacC a.te+ The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree.a *h t+H .va. a.l*.SNu+ 999a 14.t+ The man goes to the trees (pl.a. Manas 783c 17.130 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 11 1.aya. 3.t+ agnM The man carries the tree to the re for the girl by horse.acC aGrM+ gacC t+H (see 10. pa. 2..

hri. Mudha 825b . Sam-gama -mani 1128c . . . . mw1302a . . -harati to withdraw . 7.bh . . ind. cl. to take. 8. Mano -bhava -_ asana 785b s 12. . ( pr . 2. in comp. Caus. .a.a . because of its meaning in translation this is con rmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b.a. . cl. p mw641a :pUa= pura.hri P. l Gu+ -sattva -ta 894b 3. to ll . . 5. . abundance . .a. 18. having a negative or privative or contrary sense p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n. mw1a A 3.prati. cl. . .) . ba. k*:a. .1.+ 1. P. mw663c Praty. Note: It is not the second dhatu . . mf(a)n. mw126a A + 4.3.a (as a pre x .9. Bhagavad -g ta 744a 1. mw677b Praty-ahara m. . :pUa. Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9. towards . abstraction p mw677b :praya. _ 16. .A. mfn. absence or removal of fear. Vi-vaha -kala 987b 4.vR+ 15. . to sate. dread .( bh ) fear. 3. fulness. . 10. . near. to fear. Adhy-aropa 23b 17. Sam-yoga 1112b . . . . back . n. . . be afraid of . . Vi-veka 987c 14. Hiranya -garbha 1299c .t+ 1. carry. harati . . alarm. A:nvay+ 11. P. before vowels for prati above mw661b :pra. Answers: Lesson 14 1. towards. Sam-skrita 1120c .l -rupa -dhrik 729b . Sraddhatri 1095c . drawing back . . n. . cherish. plenty. . Mleccha -jati 837c 20. .Answers to Exercises 131 Answers: Lesson 13 -vyatireka 46b 2. .l -yuga 262a 6. . Dhyana -yoga 521a 13. . mw60c A:Bay+ a-bhaya. A-grih ta 1309a . . . nourish . . . (as a pre x . praty-a. . 1. mw642a Purna. . . . mw758a Ba. P. . bear. -paksha -pada 643c 19. near to. . . mw648a :pX+ pr .

mana. not too proud or arrogant. .l capala. if the pratipadika ends in -an. . . p mw809c 1.Vid on page 965a.1. believe. . 1. to think. .B. to do. to tremble. P. . too . . cl. . mw396b Citra-karman . a. . . mw300c k 1.l capala. perceive. . n.) fancying that one possesses. not too. kri . mw12b Ati . 1.+ 4. in comp. cols. . self-conceit. f. . .cit. A. . having a negative or privative or contrary sense. . .va. . understanding. .va. . skilled in the art of painting . . . intense. act. . Note: It is not the second dhatu k on 304a because its meaning given x in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman.8. n. (o ni-ta. mw396a Citra. then the n is dropped . n. p mw809a ma. . (from capo ) mobility . o rma-vid. . . .manin. mw809b Mani -ta f. proud . . mw963c 2. . . . .132 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4.mana ) . mw395b aca. . . . mw783a man. . not very much.}p. mfn. cl. . mf(a)n. . . mfn. make. cl. ) shaking. . manita. learn .+ man. a mw523a n+ 2. . shake 5. unsteadiness. x the mind upon. Mani. x . .a. mw963b a. excellent. p mw258b k*. . .pa. mw1a A 3. . . . pre x . . a knower . . . mw396b Citra-karman n. am. mfn.1. painting . . mw8c A-capalya. knowing. . p mw388b ca. any extraordinary act . haughty. .2.vid on 964c. imagine. for 1. -manin . attend to . to know. . .vid. .4. trembling mw252b k*.t.d 1. (ifc.2.mRan.2. . performance . . man or fr. cl. Note: See 10. conspicuous. .manin. See p 809. to perceive. ). excessive. ( man ) opinion . perform. . . action.na ind. . 2 and 3.. .d 3. . understand. no.anak manika.an+ 1. . . a Nati (for na + ati . neither .) a Nati . mw393a Capalya.pa. pride . 6. nor. ckleness mw393a ca. freedom from unsteadiness. . imaginary . mw523b Nati . A.P.a . mw810b ma. . . .+ karman. extraordinary. Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4.Vid.1 on page 83: . Bhag. . . -manin. . accomplish . agitation. . . . unsteadiness.a. . . . . not. . ( kamp . m. distinguished . mf(a)n.Manin mfn (fr. cl. n. . or its dhatu a.+ kamp.kri .

the act of holding. mw650b :pa. . calculation .a. one whose s s face is turned everywhere. . The last is selected as being most suited to the dhatu meaning given in the original word k*:a. .+ Da.Sa. direct or x the mind or attention mw513b upon .+ 1. decay. create. omni-present. (rarely A) . the act of eating. keeping. procrastination .ju+@ o@ A@ 26 2| qu Da.+@ :p+@ A@ 5 2| a + mw278a k*:a.A. reckoning. . mfn. .+ . appoint. .va + mf(a)n. cast .P. . urge on . waste.P.Z+ tu+@ :p+@ A@ 36 1| a. dismissing . kshaya m. constitute to make. p mw260a k*:l. . time (in general).l 2. a. keeping. incite.a . p mw328a a + 4. mw1128b Sam-khyana n. to put.P. gait . nourishing n. . Note: Of the four entries for k*:l . cause. injure. to enter. every. . . going. . `I'. s p s mw992b a. .vi_ to pervade) all. . . bearing . pervade. . generate. maintaining . . . to destroy.1. mw347a Gati f. enjoying. . everywhere.l . immovable concentration of the mind upon. dimunition. everyone whole. set . mw3b A: ay+ a-kshaya mf(a)n.va.a=*Na.Naya.3. qu ] Da.vi_ cl.P. destruction. . universal.P.e+H| mw515a Dharana mf( )n. indeed. sg. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 45 1| k*:l A a~va.dha cl. arranger. all-pervading. . supporter. kill. P. abuse. holding. really. . .kal . to impel. preserving. mw1a A 3. (probably from 1. n.kala m. P. measurement. invective. . .E+ sa ane+ c+| mw329a Kshepe m. sending. exempt from decay. facing all sides. .ea. supporting.6. for vi_ va-tas. 3. mw232b ind.P. from or on all sides. establisher. the act of nourishing.kal to calculate or enumerate) . tasting. . establish. Dh. delay. k*:l cu+@ :p+@ se+@ 42 2| k*:l ea.aV. p Da. wane.pa.+ O *v+ nom.Answers to Exercises 133 Answers: Lesson 15 mw124b A h:m. . . mw162a A-svadana n. bearing. appearance. . s Dh. movement in general. undecaying. insult. ruin. corrupt.kshi cl. moving to and fro. truly. moving. mw328a 3. p mw989a a. becoming seen. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 48 1| k*:l ga. mw514a Dhatri m. enumeration. place. to be absorbed in . . mw994c Vi_ va-to-mukha in comp. P.ea. a + Bva.va. mw994c Vi_ va-tas ind. the rst may be eliminated because it is p aye+| atmane-pada. universally .Z+ :pra. founder. all round. loss.ta. Dh. all-containing.pe+| Dh. entire.+ 1.vea. bearer. creator. ( 3. . . just so.d:ne+| Dh. .Zane+| .S+ -na mfn. Dh. .aV.va. and for the others the artha must be examined. a throw. produce. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. . P.Z.

represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place.134 mw819c A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw692c Pra-ve_ a-na n. it represents a two-way opening through which food enters. for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable `constant'. Or again. . time of day). In the light of the Vedic teaching. . entrance into or egress out of. entering. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses. and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. and dhatr . relative to which movement takes place. . In the second half of the line. opening. sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness. as the underlying constant. the phases of the moon. `Providence' may be a better word to use than `Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action (i. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhatu as `nourishing. arranger' given for dhatr. Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time. and speech exits taking it in the sense of `face'. years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. s mukha n. That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. the cycle of birth and death. however. intelligence. as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future in the East.g. as a measure of the movement in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement. .. even their very existence.e. the mouth. In daily life. it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space. rather than the active role of `creator. time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night. or as a multiple of cycles (e. the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Krsna . whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. In one sense time can be viewed as an e ect of movement. entrance or penetration into . to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. the rotation of the seasons. countenance .g. time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e.. Taking mukha in the sense of `mouth'. supporting'.K+ Re ections: In the West. in visvatomukha. seeking a result). time is viewed linearly. both active and receptive. and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment. face. mua. aperture. . and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit .

She (S) gave (V) the food (Od ) to the dog (Oi ). Unlike the other elements. and the rest of the sentence (the predicate) is considered to be a statement about the subject. (e) Adverbial: (A) these express a wide range of meaning (time. The judge (S) set (V) the prisoner (Od ) free (Co ).English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar. expressing an attribute of the subject (ii) Object Complement: (Co ) used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. They (S) elected (V) him (Od ) chairman (Co ). there may be several of these in one simple sentence. It is the most essential word. He (S) became (V) a doctor (Cs ).) related to the activity of the sentence as a whole. (d) Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. 1. place. (b) Verb: (V) this expresses the activity of the sentence it agrees with the subject in person and number. Love (S) is (V) blind (Cs ). and Finite Verb Forms | and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not t under these headings. (c) Object: There are two types: (i) Direct Object: (Od ) expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb (ii) Indirect Object: (Oi ) is the recipient or bene ciary of the activity. which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. etc. For example: The children (S) are playing (V). manner. It expresses the agent of an active verb. Again (A) it (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). as in the command `Run!'. each of which may comprise one or more words: (a) Subject: (S) in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence. or transitive verbs in the passive voice. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather di erent | do not confuse the two. These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings | Sentence Elements. He (S) built (V) the dog (Oi ) a kennel (Od ). . For example: Jack and Jill (S) went up the hill (predicate). There are two types: (i) Subject Complement: (Cs ) used with intransitive verbs. The purpose of these notes is to brie y illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar. the technical terms will not be strictly de ned but brie y described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. Parts of Speech. Sentence Elements A sentence comprises one or more of ve elements. and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied.

and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday.136 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number. As such it is the most exible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. 3. with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go. intransitive. (g) Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas ! Oh ! Ah ! Ahoy ! (h) Adverb: quali es a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. Among these are: . Verbs are typically one or the other. (b) Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met she enjoyed it. I live. (d) Article: a name for the three adjectives `a'. They dig a hole. gender and case. There are two types: (i) Proper nouns name a person. as it were). but were detained. and auxiliary. (a) A verb taking an object is called transitive (the `energy' of the activity is transferred to the object. I will sleep. There are three types: transitive. but may often be used either way: He beat the drum. and one that doesn't is called intransitive. place. She was here. (c) The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence. (i) Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. Parts of Speech There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech.. expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East. `the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher. etc. (c) Adjective: quali es a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar gure. (ii) Common nouns name general things. animating the relatively static nouns etc. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb. These are: (a) Noun: used to name a person or thing. both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. I must have been sleeping. (e) Preposition: `governs' a following noun or pronoun. (f) Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence. the girl stepped from the house into the garden. `an'. The children are playing a game]. (b) The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept.

He will have stood. Help me! (c) Subjunctive: expresses an action. (b) Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing. (iv) Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: (a) Inde nite: the degree of completeness of the action is not speci ed. He will stand. These four are shown in order. plural) of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. There are three basic moods: (a) Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact it may also express a condition or question: He stands. . (b) Passive: e. If he stands . You are there. He has been standing. He stands. He is everywhere. He will have been standing. or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. He eats that he may live. Continued overleaf . present. present. third) of the subject of the sentence: I am here. He is standing. He will stand. (d) Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two. He had stood. future) at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. He was standing. or purpose: Were he here . May you live long. . not as a fact. in the past. (v) Mood: the verb form indicating an (emotional) quality or manner of the activity. (iii) Tense: the verb form indicating various times (past. but as a condition. He opened the door. (ii) Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number (singular.English Grammatical Terms 137 (i) Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person ( rst. Did he stand ? (b) Imperative: expresses a command. The door was opened by him. advice. He has stood. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. They stand there. He will be standing. second. He had been standing. . He stands. desire. .g.g. (c) Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state. (vi) Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: (a) Active: e. and future respectively: He stood.

138 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. 2. the Compound Sentence { a construction preposition `of'. to form a new word.i. committee. The form the main clause. nouns and pronouns express natural (as opposed to grammatical) who/whom.: The window is open. un happy. the book of the having more than one clause which are coordinate.: grammatical relations. The windows are open. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case. E.ii] Agreement { see Concord Conjugation { the change of form of verbs Apposition { a noun or pronoun is in to express tense. It usually ends in `-ing'. author of the book. gender. mood. formation and derivation of words the Case { one of the forms of a noun or expounding of the elements of a word with pronoun.g. John. gender. . and in performs the activity of the verb the role particular between the grammatical subject and the verb.g. the author's book. what (Od ) you (S) did (V)](Od ).: Show (S) me (Oi ) usually manifests with an `apostrophe-s'. with Compound Sentence.g.g. denotes neither sex. 3] apposition with another when it refers to the same person or thing and is Declension { the change of form of mentioned immediately after it (often o set nouns and pronouns to express di erent by commas) to identify or describe it. and Gender { in English. having more than one clause. of the semantic subject of the sentence. and the genitive case. Su x. and (loosely) the relation Exclamation { See Interjection 2. the masculine gender denotes Clause { a combination of words having a a male. 1.b. itself. and person. I opened the door. for example: heroine. they/them. than teaching orally. one being the Genitive { a grammatical form of a noun or main clause and the other(s) subordinate pronoun. one larger complex sentence. 3] split into subjective and objective: I/me. Concord { the agreement between words Agent { one who instigates or causes or in case. Complex Sentence { a construction doctor. For Finite Verb { expresses the activity of a just six pronouns the common case is clause or sentence. two or more simple sentences Gerund { a non. Compare e. E. etc. Examples of this last are: I.g]. E.g. John. either or both. expressing its relation to another clause(s) which form sentence element(s) of word as source. and common denotes See also Compound and Complex Sentence.c. etc.. neuter subject (stated or implied) and a predicate.g. E.e.nite verb form that linked together with conjunction(s) to form functions as a noun. feminine denotes a female. Compare with Complex Sentence. the book's author.e. some other word. I Etymology { the facts relating to the spoke to my neighbour. we/us. she/her. number. It may generally be rephrased with the e.: Writing a textbook is more di cult John rang the bell. my neighbour. See Pre x. More Grammatical Terms A x { a verbal element joined to a word I opened the door when John rang the bell. i. called to see me. i. author. which expresses its relation to their modi cations of form and sense. See Case. 3.g. he/him. possessor.: E.

g. shortly. Person { The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking ( rst person). See also Complex Sentence. `because of' (prepositional phrase).g. Re exive { describes transitive verbs Semantic { relating to signi cance or meaning. E. Word { a minimal element of speech having . E.g. See also Complex Sentence. the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object. It is usually preceded by `to'. faultless. In ection { the change of word form to express di erent grammatical relations. 3. Syntax { the study of sentence structure. In nitive. with a passive verb. Sentence { a combination of words forming Simple Sentence { a series of words at least one clause. primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. etc. where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person also pronouns so used (usually ending in `-self'). Morphology { the study of word structure.nite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb it names the activity in the most general sense. meaning as such. and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. friendship. A combination of words forming only one clause.g. or more than one (plural) person or thing is spoken of. The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax. careful. English makes little use of this to express grammatical meaning.English Grammatical Terms use of language. It is meaningful by itself. Verb { See Finite Verb and Non. In nitive { A non. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice. primarily a xes and in ection. e.b.nite verb form that functions as an adjective. Participle { a non. Non. hyper sensitive. relation.g. Grammar { the rules describing the best Phrase { a group of words which operate Pre x { a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning. including the declension of nouns and pronouns. im possible. For example.: he likes to read.nite Verb. Participle. Su x { a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word. 139 together as an element of a sentence. E. and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. E. `on a hill' (adverbial phrase). `turning left' (participial phrase).i] Phonetics { the science of vocal sounds (especially of a particular language) that deals with their production and representation. attribute. He saw himself in the mirror. in connected speech or writing.: Having heard this he went away. and may take take an object. Number { the property in words of expressing that one (singular).nite Verb { A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech it may express aspect and voice. e. forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought. the conjugation of verbs. By itself it expresses a universal concept in a sentence it denotes a speci c thing. and the rest of the world (third person). You need not read this. 2.c. the audience addressed (second person). He considered the matter to have been settled.g. anti septic. See Gerund.

140 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

`last person': grammat. 9] Udatta. 21. 113] Atmane-bhasa. `inner e ort': the method (within the mouth) of articulating sounds. `expression for oneself': verbal voice. stem: that part of an in ected word _ that remains unchanged (except for sandhi ) in the process of in ection. sa . and page reference(s) to where the word may be more fully described or applied. indeclinable: that class of words . `stand between': general name . unvoiced: characteristic of those Avyaya. 64. . `after sound': (1) a nasal sound following a svara. 73] Anubandha. gure eight. 80] Avasana: cessation of sound. 9. 14{15. A-ghosa. 113] Abhyantara-prayatna. of a dhatu. `meaning': the word(s) provided in the Dhatu-Patha as the sense of the meaning . a sa and ha. 75] Avyay bhava Samasa: an adverbial compound. 83. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . Uttama-Purusa. 13. verbal voice. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . 63] . .. distinction in verb endings denoting the agent of the verb ( = English rst person). 63. 14. 71] Anunasika. 83] Alpa-prana. `thus': used as inverted commas. 75] Isat-sprsta. sa sa sa and ha. 9] An-udatta. 104. 109{112] Ardha-sprsta. ^: the rare half visarga before pa or pha. `bound along with': a letter or syllable attached to a dhatu and marking some peculiarity in its in ection. eight: the cardinal number the . nasal: characteristic of those sounds uttered through both nose and mouth. 91] Upadhman ya. 110] Anusvara. 22. 25.. at the end of a line of verse. . 64] Atmane-pada. 21. Y : symbol for the elision of A at the beginning of a word due to sandhi. 22. 86] Antahstha. ical person.rta.g. 73] Anga. 22] s A-luk Samasa: a samasa wherein the rst word does not lose its vibhakti. of those consonants uttered with minimal breath.Sanskrit Glossary and Index consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords not vibrating. `little breath': characteristic .. `slightly open': the `inner . or separating a word from its de nition. `slight contact': the `inner . `not raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit. 6] (2) sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. `expression for oneself': . 85. 71. e ort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra la and va. 79] Artha. 87] Each entry word is given a simple translation (in single quotes where it is literal) followed by a brief description. `raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system in Vedic Sanskrit. e. synonymous with atmanepada. for the semi-vowels ya ra la va. 73] Isad-viv. 89] Astan. 73] . 73] Avagraha. 73] Itaretara Dvandva Samasa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the sum of its members. 14. `half-contact': the `inner . the rst word of which is the more important. that do not have vibhakti endings. 88] Iti.

49] as its nal member.rt ya with Tatpurusa Samasa. Eka. 60] beginning with ka. 13. `one-speaking': grammatical Gana.r: the agent of the verb. < `moon-dot': the symbol pronunciation of e. i. singular number the word su x denoting dhatu. a passive verb. `action': su to name it. ka. guttural and palatal: a x of nouns and adjectives. 13. one: the cardinal number the gure that quali es a. 17. fourth case: dative Kanthatalavya. if dissolved. 13. 33.. with the pronunciation of u. native compound having a dhatu derivative agent. pa-varga. and au. Talavya. bahu-vacana. `quality': the secondary form of . vowels. . guttural: the mouth position . 75] ha. 17. a. ca-group: the group of stops ciation of o. with the tonal accent (svara ) system of consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. or t. 63] . 73] placed above a vowel or ya la or va to Kanthosthya. 9] s word. 73] ending. . 23. ya and sa. verb. See also dvi-. mouth position associated with the pronun. . 67. verbal pre x: (1) a pre x to Ka-varga.Ca-varga. 22.e. 109. ca cha ja jha na. `single hearing': the neutral sound of Classical Sanskrit. four: the cardinal number the . 73] Caturth Vibhakti. dhatu conjugation in parasmaikara. labial: the mouth position used Catur. 113] . or prathama with a passive verb. 57] prathama with an active verb. associated with the pronunciation of a. 21] bhasa or atmane-bhasa. expressed in dvit ya with an active verb. `expression for both': -kara. 63] _ (2) one of the four types of words. 73] Vedic Sanskrit. 56] .Karman: the immediate object of the . i. 14. 78] Eka-sruti. ka. the mouth position associated with the Candrabindu. 23. `class': there are ten classes of . 89] Upasarga. e. palatal: the mouth position the members would have the same case associated with the pronunciation of i.g. expressed in J~a: pronunciation of.Jihvamul ya. 49] pound: in which the rst word quali es the Karmadharaya Tatpurusa Samasa: de. the four of group of four consonants sa. ka-group: the group of stops verbs to qualify or change its meaning. ^: a rare half-visarga before ka or kha.142 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Upapada Tatpurusa Samasa: determi. verb: (2) one of in ected types of . 6. 63] varga and ha. 22. determinative com. 73] n Kart. `heated': general name for the Kriya. and ai. Eka-vacana.. 13. 113] that one person or thing is referred to. terminative compound which. 13. sa and the verb. 13. . 73] beginning with ca. guttural and labial: the indicate that the sound is nasalized. 26] Guna. 88] . 75] x appended to a Ubhayato-bhasa. adverb: an indeclinable . ka kha ga gha na. 63] ~ Kanthya.. cavarga.e. and gure four. 64] va.75] one. 64] Ksa: pronunciation of. 51] .second. (1) fully form Usman. 71] Osthya. 73] Kriya-visesana. as contrasted Ghosa. Sanskrit letter/sound verbal voice. voiced: a characteristic of those . 13. 23. 83. 88] ..

33. 64] Dvandva Samasa. 32] Trt ya Vibhakti. 71] (3) used in dictionary. 73] Dasan. copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance. 13. See also eka. 8. end of a verse or end of a paragraph. verbal voice. 1] (2) variations in symbols. synonymous with parasmaipada. or vowels having this measure. 113] Pa-varga. 64] Pa~cam Vibhakti. see atmane-pada and parasmaipada.Sanskrit Glossary and Index of the kriya indicating purusa and va. 21] Dantya. 83. 113] Na~-Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative n . two: the cardinal number the gure two. 109. nine: the cardinal number the gure nine. 33. nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun. 23.. No other language. tavarga. dental and labial: the mouth . dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . `two-speaking': grammatical dual number the word su x denoting that two persons or things are referred to. 64] Nama-dhatu. 75] Nipata. 92] Dva. 15. 65] Purusa. `city of immortals': (1) the name of the Sanskrit script. masculine: one of the three . particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. to this day. 26. 25. 113] Parasmai-bhasa. 89] 143 three grammatical genders. pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa. ve: the cardinal number the n gure ve. compound with a negative particle as its rst member. expression for another: verbal voice. has been so perfectly described. third case: instrumental . 88] Dvigu Tatpurusa Samasa: a determina. word: (1) traditionally divided into four types. 9. person speaking (uttama-purusa ). three: the cardinal number the gure three. . su x to nouns and adjectives. 104. neuter: one of the _ . 17. 50] Navan. ( ) full stop: indicates the { . ten: the cardinal number the gure ten. _ grammatical genders. 51] Tri. 103. Purna-virama. the As. 92. `person': grammatical person. 13. tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its rst member. 113] Parasmai-pada. position associated with the pronunciation of the English `f' and `v'. 104. 86] (3) verbal voice. root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. . 50. 25. 104. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of (prathama-purus a ). 64] D rgha. `long': the long measure. i. 64] Dantosthya.51] Pada. 26] Dhatu. 88] Dvit ya Vibhakti. one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. 9] . . 51] Dvi-vacana. la and sa. fth case: ablative n su x to nouns and adjectives. 78. pa pha ba bha ma. grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail.bahu-vacana.tadhyay .l. 26. 63] Panini: a grammarian (circa 350 bc) whose . second case: accusative a x to nouns and adjectives. 5] Devanagar . 26. 75] (2) general name for a fully in ected word. fully describes the . work. 63] _ Tin-Vibhakti. 75] Naman. `name': a noun. cana. 75] Pa~can. verbal su x: the su x Napumsaka-linga. and the . 1. expression for another: . 114] Pum-linga.e. spoken to (madhyama-purus a ).

17] Lat: a technical term for the present . without any case ending) of a noun or adjective. 83. 'speaking': grammatical number the word su x that one. 13. `measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded these may be hrasva d rgha or pluta. grammatical gender: there are three _ genders. 53] Virama. . second grammatical person distinction in verbal su x denoting the person spoken to ( = English second person).dvi-vacana. 14] . Pratipadika. .r. Repha: traditional name for ra which. matical person. l-a xes: a common term for the ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. 89] Bahya-prayatna. cerebral: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . . see atmane-. . group: grouping of consonants according to some common quality. as found in the dictionary. 73] A Practical Sanskrit Introductory sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. Madhyama-Purusa. 17] Linga. 26. i.str . 13] Prana.144 mystical symbol ?. .g. 13. 63] Pranava Sabda: a name applied to the Mat. `breath': see alpa-prana and maha. e.bahu-vacana. 22. 9] Maha-prana. 21] La-kara. 14. 73] Visarjan ya. as well as the personal endings for verbs (ti_ -vibhakti ). 17. 6. or more persons or things are referred to. prana. 51] (2) and vocative. two. 17. Vacana.rka: name applied to the rst sixteen . `many-speaking': the grammatical plural number the word su x indicating that many (more than two) persons or things are referred to. or vowels having this measure. . kavarga. 23. 75] Visarga. 65. 6. 73] Bhasa.and bahya-prayatna. 63] Visesana. istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. 26] Bahuvr hi Samasa. does not use the -kara su x. rst case: (1) nominative su x of nouns and adjectives. 26] Varga. ra and sa. ` rst person': gram. `middle person': the . adjective: it has the same case. word stem: the stem form (i. and gender as the noun that it quali es. unlike other sounds. 6] Matra.napumsaka-li_ ga. 14] Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives (supvibhakti ). 63] Pratyaya. ) stop: indicates a consonant without a following vowel. See also eka. 32] n Virama. 9] Prathama Vibhakti. `prolonged': the prolonged measure.e. . See ekadvi. the throat) of articulating sounds. su x: general name for any type of su x. outer e ort: the method (external to the mouth. e ort: the method of articulating sounds: divided into abhyantara. 1. ( ) stop: indicates the end of a | half-verse or end of a sentence. 38] Prayatna. `emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. 82] Prathama-Purusa. 2] Murdhanya. 26] n . 26. parasmai-. 1. ubhayato-bhasa. `great breath': a character. ( . number. 91] Pluta. indicative (simple present tense) one of the la-kara. 13. 5] Bahu-vacana. pa-varga. 113] . `emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel synonymous with visarga. pum. 73] . a descriptive compound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun.tavarga.e. speech: verbal voice. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of ( = English third person).

`contact': the general name for the ease of pronunciation. . seventh case: locative pitches of Vedic Sanskrit. 1] (2) a term for the tonal . 83] vowels. 78] Vya~jana. 13. 13. 81] . `placed together': the system of Str -linga. seven: the cardinal number the Svarita. six: the cardinal number the gure prathama-vibhakti. calling. 13] Sandhi. 1. sixth case: genitive a x Savarna. 85{87] group of 25 stops ka through ma. accents (udatta an-udatta svarita ) of Vedic name for e ai o au. 53] a . 64] or tones (svara ) of the vowel Saptam Vibhakti.nal': ending in Samanadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: consonant without a following vowel. to nouns and adjectives. 88] Vrddhi. 75] Sasth Vibhakti. `position': the various mouth . . 86] Svara. proper noun: personal or place Sthana. 88] the members would have di erent case Samprasarana: the process whereby an . 71] Saptan. 26] Samj~a. feminine: one of the three _ euphonic changes that arise when sounds are grammatical genders. the members would have di erent case Hrasva.. . 65] uttered in proximity it is the tendency to Sparsa.. mixed tone: one of the three gure seven. 75] consonants. if dissolved. technical terms whose meanings positions used in uttering vowels and cannot be etymologically derived. 91] accent system su x to nouns and adjectives. 53] and adjectives. 51] having the same mouth position and `inner Samyoga. or vowels having this measure.Sanskrit Glossary and Index 145 word. 77{81. . endings. `contact': the `inner e ort' for the . `sound' or `tone': (1) a general term Sandhyaksara. 63] . 38. `short': the short measure. `placed together': a compound . six. if dissolved. 73] separately. `embellishment': general name Samahara Dvandva Samasa: copulative n for any consonant. 103] compound whose members are taken collecVyadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: de. in a sentence so that the words stand 25 sparsa ka through ma. 71. 6] ending of nouns and adjectives. `name of all': pronoun. 38. . 4] Sanskrit. `separation of sandhi': removal of the sandhi between words Sprsta. `bound together': a conjunct e ort'. compound vowel: general for the vowels. 73] Sandhi Vigraha. addressing: case sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. consonant consonants not having a sepa. determinative compound which. 88] antahstha is replaced by a simple vowel. `increase': strengthened form of Samasa. n name. terminative compound which.Sup-vibhakti: case endings used for nouns rating vowel or pause.tively as a unit the compound is treated as . a neuter singular noun. 1] endings. . Sakti: name applied to the rst sixteen Sambodhana. 64] Sarva-naman. 38. 50. 26. 51] . variation of Sas. homophonic: categories of sounds . . `consonant. 51] Halanta.

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