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# SMK BUKIT SAUJANA PORT DICKSON PHYSICS FORM 4 YEARLY PLANNER FOR THE YEAR 2012 DATE LEARNING

## AREA 1. Introduction to Physics 1

4/1/12 6/1/12

LEARNING OUTCOMES y y Explain what physics is Recognize the physics in everyday objects and natural phenomena.

SUGGESTED LEARNING ACTIVITIES Observe everyday objects and discuss how they are related to physics concepts. View a video or animation on natural phenomena and discuss how they are related to physics concepts. Discuss fields of study in Physics such as mechanics, heat, light, electricity etc.

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## 1.2 Understanding base quantities and derived quantities.

y y y y y y y

Explain what base quantities and derived quantities are. List base quantities and their units List some derived quantities and their units Express quantities using prefixes Express quantities using the scientific notation Express derived quantities as well as their units in terms of base quantities and base units. Solve problems involving conversion of units.

Discuss base quantities and derived quantities. From a text passage, identify physical quantities then classify them into base quantities and derived quantities. List the value of prefixes and their abbreviations from pico to Tera. Discuss the use of numbers in standard form notation ( a x 10n where 1 < a < 10). Determine the base quantities (and units) in a given derived quantity (and unit) from the related formula. Solve problems involving the conversion of units. For example: Giga to Mega (involving prefixes), m3 to cm3, km h-1 to ms-1. Discuss which quantities can be defined by magnitude only and which quantities need to be defined by magnitude as well as direction. Compile a list of scalar and vector quantities. Choose an appropriate instrument for a given measurement task. Use the measurement of length using a ruler, vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge as an example.

Base quantities kuantiti asas Derived quantities kuantiti terbitan Length panjang Mass jisim Temperature suhu Current arus Luas area Volume isipadu Speed laju Velocity halaju Standard form bentuk piawai Prefix - imbuhan Magnitude magnitude/saiz

## 1.3 Understanding scalar and vector quantities

y y

Define scalar and vector quantities. Give examples of scalar and vector quantities.
Chinese New Year

## 23 & 24/1/12 5-6 1.4 Understanding measurements y y

Measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments. Explain accuracy and consistency 1

Vernier calipers Angkup Vernier Micrometer screw gauge micrometer screw gauge

30/1/12

10/2/12

y y y

Explain sensitivity Explain types of experimental error Using appropriate techniques to reduce errors.

Discuss accuracy and consistency using the target model. Discuss the sensitivity of various instruments. Discuss through examples what systematic and random errors are. Use appropriate techniques to reduce error in measurements such as repeating measurements and compensating for zero error. Present a suitable situation, making inferences or suggest questions suitable for a scientific investigation. Discuss: a) Forming hypothesis b) the aim of the experiment c) identify the variables d) the method of investigation including selection of apparatus and procedures. Carry out an actual experiment and a) collect and tabulate data, b) present data in a suitable form c) interpret data and draw conclusions d) write a complete report.

## 1.5 analysing scientific investigations 7

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y y y y y y y

Identify variables in a given situation Identify a question suitable for scientific investigation Form a hypotheses Design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis Record and present data in a suitable Interpret data to draw a conclusion rite a report of the investigation

## 2. FORCE AND MOTION 8

20/2/12 24/2/12

A student is able to : y y y Define distance and displacement Define speed and velocity and state That v = s t Define acceleration and deceleration and state that a=vu t Calculate speed and velocity Calculate acceleration/deceleration Solve problems on linear motion with 2 Carry out activities to gain an idea of : a) distance and displacement b) speed and velocity c) acceleration and deceleration Cary out activities using a data longer/graphing calculator/ticker timer to ; a) identify when a body is at rest, moving with uniform velocity or non uniform velocity b) determine displacement, velocity and acceleration Note Average speed = total distance/time taken Vocabulary Distance - jarak Displacement sesaran Speed laju Velocity halaju Acceleration pecutan Deceleration, retardation nyahpecutan Ticker timer - jangka masa

y y y

## uniform acceleration using i . v = u + at 9

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ii . s = ut + 1 at2
2

## Solve problems using the following equations of motion : i . v = u + at ii . s = ut + 1 at2

2

iii . v2 = u2 + 2 as

iii . v2 = u2 + 2 as 10 5 - 9/3/12 10 18/3/12 A student is able to: MONTHLY TEST CUTI PERTENGAHAN PENGGAL 1 2.2 Analysing motion graphs

detik Tick detik Dot titik Initial velocity halaju awal (U) Final velocity halaju akhir (v) Friction force daya geseran Sloping runway landasan condong

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## Plot and interpret displacementtime and velocity-time graphs

Carry out activities using a data logger/ graphing calculator/ticker timer to plot a) displacement time graphs b) velocity - time graphs Describe and interpret : a) displacement - time and b) velocity time graphs

Notes Reminder : Velocity is determined from the gradient of displacement time graph. Acceleration is determined from the gradient of velocity time graph Distance is determined from the area under a displacement time graph

Deduce from the shape of a displacement - time graph when a body is : I. at rest II. moving with uniform velocity III. moving with non-uniform velocity

y y

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determine distance, displacement and velocity from a displacement-time graph deduce from the shape of a velocitytime graph when a body is : i. at rest ii. moving with uniform velocity iii. moving with uniform acceleration 3

Determine distance, displacement , velocity and acceleration from displacement-time and velocity time graphs

23/3/12 y determine distance, displacement, velocity and acceleration from a velocity-time graph solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration A student is able to : 12 26/3/12 30/3/12 2.3 Understanding inertia y y explain what inertia is Carry out activities / view computer simulations/situations to gain an idea on inertia Carry out activities to find out the relation ship Between inertia and mass Note Newton s First Law of Motion may be introduced here Vocabulary y give examples of situations involving inertia suggest ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia A student is able to : y Define the momentum of an object Research and report on a) the positive effects of inertia b) ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia Inertia inersia

## 2.4 Analysing momentum 13 2/4/12 6/4/12

Carry out activities/view computer simulations to gain an idea of momentum by comparing the effect of stopping two objects: a) of the same mass moving at different speeds b) of different masses moving at the same speed - need to be emphasized different direction Discuss momentum as the product of mass and velocity View computer simulation on collisions and explosions to gain an idea on the conservation of momentum Conduct an experiment to show that the total momentum of a closed system is a constant 4

## Vocabulary Momentum momentum

y y

Define momentum (p) as the product of mass (m) and velocity (v) i.e. p = mv State the principle of conservation of momentum

Collision perlanggaran Explosion letupan Conservation of linear momentum keabadian momentum linear

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## Describe applications of conservation of momentum

Carry out activities that demonstrate the conservation of momentum e. g. water rockets Research and report on the applications of conservation of momentum such as an in rockets or jet engines

## Solve problems involving momentum Solve problems involving momentum

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## 2.5 Understanding the effects of a force y y

A student is able to : Describe the effects of balanced forces acting on an object Describe the effects of unbalanced forces acting on an object With the aid of diagram, describe the acting on an object : a) at rest b) moving at constant velocity c) accelerating Conduct experiments to find the relationship between : a) acceleration and mass of an object under constant force b) acceleration and force for a constant mass Solve problems using y Solve problems using F = ma

Notes When the forces acting on an object are balanced they cancle each other out ( nett force = 0). The object then behaves as if there no force acting on it. Newtons Second Law of Motion may be introduced here Vocabulary F = ma Balance - seimbang Unbalanced tidak seimbang Nett force daya bersih Resultant daya paduan

## Determine the relationship between force , mass and acceleration i.e. F = ma

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## 2.6 Analysing impulse and Impulsive force y y

A student is able to : Explain what an impulsive force is Give examples of situation involving impulsive forces 5 View computer simulation of collisions and explosions to gain an idea on impulsive force Discuss Vocabulary Impulse - impuls Impulsive force daya

## Define impuls as a change of momentum, i.e. Ft = mv - mu

Define impulsive force as the rate of change of momentum in a collision or explosion, i.e. F = mv mu t

a) impulse as change of momentum b) an impulsive force as the rate of change of momentum in a collision or explosion c) how increasing or decreasing time of impact affects the magnitude of impulsive force

## impuls Time of impact masa hentaman

y y y

Explain the effect of increasing or decreasing time of impact on the magnitude of the impulsive force Describe situation where an impulsive force needs to be reduce and suggest ways to reduce it Describe situations where an impulsive force is beneficial Solve problems involving impulsive forces

Research and report situations where: a) an impulsive force needs to be reduced and how it can be done b) an impulsive force is beneficial

Solve problems involving impulsive forces Give an example about an impulsive force is beneficial

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## A student is able to : Describe the importance of safety feature in vehicles

Research and report on the physics of vehicles Collisions and safety features in vehicles in terms of physics concepts Discuss the importance of safety feature in vehicles Carry out an activity or view computer simulations to gain an idea of acceleration due to gravity. Discuss a) acceleration due to gravity b) a gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction and c) gravitational field strength as gravitational force per unit mass

## 2.8 Understanding gravity 16 23/4/12 27/4/12

y y y y y y

Explain acceleration due to gravity State what a gravitational field is Define a gravitational field strength Determine the value of acceleration due to gravity Define weight and acceleration due to gravity 6

Weight - berat Acceleration due to gravity pecutan disebabkan gravity Gravitational field strength kekuatan medan graviti

## Solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity

d) direction and notation of gravitational force Carry out an activity to determine the value of acceleration due to gravity Discuss weight as the Earths gravitational force on an object Solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity Describe situations with the aid of diagrams where forces are in equilibrium Discuss the resolving and addition of forces to determine the resultant force Solve problems involving forces in equilibrium (limited to 3 forces) Discuss more examples of resolving and addition of forces to determine the resultant force Discuss two methods of addition of forces using triangle and parallelogram of forces

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## 2.9 Analysing forces in equilibrium

y y y y y

Describe situations where forces are in equilibrium State what a resultant force is Add two forces to determine the resultant force Resolve a force into the the effective component forces Solve problems involving forces in equilibrium

Equilibrium -keseimbangan Resolution - leraian Parallelogram -segiempat selari Resultant daya paduan atau daya bersih

18-20 7/5/12 25/5/12 26/5/12 10/6/12 2.10 Understanding work, energy, power and efficiency y y y y y y y y

MID YEAR EXAMINATION CUTI PERTENGAHAN PENGGAL 1 Observe and discuss situations where work is done when: a) a force is applied but no displacement occurs b) an object undergoes a displacement with no applied force acting on it Give examples to illustrate how energy is transferred from one object to another when work is done Discuss the relationship between work done: -To accelerate a body and the change in kinetic energy -Against gravity and gravitational potential energy Carry out an activity to show the principle of conservation of energy State that power is the rate at which work is done 7

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Define work and displacement in the direction of the applied force State that when work is done energy is transferred from one object to another Define kinetic energy Define gravitational potential energy State the principle of conservation of energy Define power Explain what efficiency of a device is Solve problems involving work, energy, power and efficiency.

## Effiency - kecekapan Conservation keabadian

Work kerja Gravitational potential energy tenaga keupayaan graviti Power - kuasa

Carry out activities to measure power Discuss efficiency as useful energy output over energy input x 100% Evaluate and report the efficiencies of various devices such as a diesel engine, a petrol engine and an electric engine Solve problems involving work, energy, power and efficiency. 2.11 Appreciating the importance of maximizing the efficiency of devices y Recognise the importance of maximizing the efficiency of devices in conserving resources Discuss that when an energy transformation takes place, not all of the energy is used to do useful work. Some is converted into heat or other types of energy. Maximising efficiency during energy transformations makes the best use of the available energy. This helps to conserve resources. Discuss about the factors that affecting the efficiency of an energy transformation Carry out activities to gain an idea on elasticity Plan and conduct an experiment to find the relationship between force and extension of a spring Relate work done to elastic potential energy Describe and interpret force extension graphs Investigate the factors that affect elasticity Research and report on applications of elasticity Solve problems involving elasticity Presentation about research and report on applications of elasticity from each group 8 Energy transformation Pertukaran/perubahan tenaga

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## 2.12 Understanding elasticity

y y y y y y

Define elasticity Define Hookes Law Define elastic potential energy Determine the factors that affect elasticity Describe applications of elasticity Solve problems involving elasticity

Research - penyelidikan Relationship hubungan Elasticity kekenyalan Elastic potential energy tenaga keupayaan kenyal

## 3. FORCES AND PRESSURE 24 2/7/12 6/7/12 3.1 Understanding pressure

Pressure - tekanan y y y Define pressure Describe applications of pressure Solve problems involving pressure Observe and describe the effect of force acting over a large area compared to a small area. Discuss pressure as force per unit area Research and report on applications of pressure Solve problems involving pressure Demonstrate the effects of area on the pressure created.

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## Relate depth to pressure in a liquid.

Observe situations to form ideas that pressure in liquids: A) acts in all directions B) increases with depth Observe situations to form the idea that pressure in liquids increases with density Relate depth (h) density ( ) and gravitational field strength (g) to pressure in liquids to obtain P = h g Research and report on a) the applications of pressure in liquids b) ways to reduce the negative effects of pressure in liquids Solve problems involving pressure in liquids

y y

## y 25 9/7/12 13/7/12 3.3 Understanding gas pressure and atmospheric pressure

Solve problems involving pressure in liquids. Carry out activities to gain an ideas of gas pressure and atmospherics pressure. Discuss gas pressure in term of the behaviour of gas molecules based on the kinetics theory. Discuss atmospherics pressure in term of weight of the atmosphere acting on the Earths surface. 9 Students need to be introduced to instrument used to measure gas pressure (bourdon gauge) and atmospheric pressure (Fortin barometer, aneroid barometer). Working principle of the instrument is not required

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13/7/12

## Describe applications of atmospherics pressure

Discuss the effects of altitude on the magnitude of atmospherics pressure. Research and report on the applications of atmospherics pressure

Introduce other units of atmospheric pressure 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg = 10.3 m water = 101300 Pa 1 milibar = 100 Pa Vocabulary: atmospheric pressure tekanan atmosfera gas pressure tekanan gas

## Solve problems involving atmospherics pressure and gas pressure.

Solve problems involving atmospherics and gas pressure including barometer and manometer readings.

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## 3.4 Applying Pascals principle

A students is able to: y State pascals principle Explain hydraulic systems Describe applications of pascalls principle Solve problems involving pascals principle.

Observe situations to form ideas that pressure exerted on an enclosed liquids is transmitted equally to every part of the liquid. Discuss hydraulics systems as a force multiplier to obtain: Output force = Output piston area Input force input piston areas Reseacrh and report on the applications of pascals principle (hyraulic systems) Solve problems involving pascals principle. Carry out an actitvity to measure the weight of an object in air and the weight of the same object in water to gain and idea on buoyant force. Conduct an experiment to investigate the relationship between the weight water displace and the buoyant force. Discuss buoyancy in terms of : a) an object that is totally or partially submerged in fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced. b) The weight of a freely floating object being equal to weight of fluid displaced c) A floating object has a density less than or equal 10

y y y

Enclosed tertutup Force multiplier pembesar daya Hydraulic system sistem hidrolik Transmitted tersebar Piston area luas keratan rentas omboh

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## 3.5 Applying Archimedes priciple

A student is able to: y Explain buoyant force. y Relate buoyant force to the weight of the liquid displaced. y State Archimedes principle. y Describe applications of Archimedes principle. y Solve problem involving Archimedes principle.

Recall density and buoyancy Apparent weight equals actual weight minus buoyant force Vocabulary: Buoyancy keapungan Buoyant force tujah ke atas Submerged tenggelam Fluid bendalir Apparent weight berat ketara Actual weight berat sebenar

to the density of the fluid in which is floating. Research and report on the application of Archimedes principle, e.g. submarines, hydrometers, hot-air balloons. Solve problem involving Archimedes principle. Build a Cartesian diver. Discuss why the diver can be made to move up and down. 3.6 Understanding Bernoullis principle y y y y A student is able to: State Bernoullis principle Explain that a resultant force exist due to a different in fluid pressure. Describe application of Bernoullis principle Solve problem involving Bernoullis principle Carry out activities to gain the idea that when the speed of a flowing fluid increases its pressure decreases. E.g. blowing through straw between two ping pong balls suspended on strings. Discuss Bernoullis principle. Carry out activities to show that a resultant force exist due to a different in fluid pressure. View a computer simulation to observe air flow over an aerofoil to gain an idea on lifting force. Research and report on the application of Bernoullis principle. Solve problem involving Bernoullis principle. 29 6/8-10/8/12 4. HEAT 30 13/8/12 17/8/12 4.1 Understanding thermal equilibrium y y A student is able to : Explain thermal equilibrium Explain how a liquid-in- glass thermometer works. MONTHLY TEST 2 Carry out activities to show that thermal equilibrium is a condition in which there is no need heat flow between two objects in thermal contact. Use the liquid-in-glass thermometer to explain how the volume of a fixed mass of liquid may be used to define a temperature scale.

Floating terapung

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Fluid bendalir Lifting force daya angkat Increases meningkat Decreases berkurang Flowing fluid bendalir bergerak

Melting point for ice-0C Boiling point for water 100C Vocabulary: Thermal equilibrium keseimbangan terma Nett heat flow kadar bersih pemindahan haba Melting point takat lebur Boiling point takat didih Freezing point takat beku

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## 4.2 Understanding specific heat capacity

y y y y y y

A student is able to: Define specific heat capacity ( c ) State that c = Q/ m Determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid. Determine the specific heat capacity of a solid. Describe application of specific heat capacity Solve problems involving specific heat capacity

Observe the change in temperature when: a) the same amount of heat is used to heat different masses of water. b) The same amount of heat is used to heat the same mass of different liquids. Discuss specific heat capacity Plan and carry out an activity to determine the specific heat capacity of a) a liquid b) a solid Research and report on application of specific heat capacity Solve problem involving specific heat capacity Carry out an activity to show that there is no change in temperature when heat is supplied to: a. a liquid at its boiling point (Demonstrate an experiment using distilled water to show the temperature doesnt change while boiling) b. a solid at its melting point (Demonstrate an experiment using ice cubes to show that temperature doesnt change while melting). Sketch the boiling and the melting curve and discuss melting solidification , boiling and condensation as processes involving energy transfer without a change in temperature. Discuss a) latent heat in terms of molecular behaviour b) specific latent heat Show the diagrams that show different matters have their different specific latent heat

Heat capacity only relate to a particular object whereas specific heat capacity relate to a material. Guide students to analyse the unit of c as JKg-1K -1 or JKg-1C-1 Solid pepejal Immersion heater pemanas rendam

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## 4.3 Understanding specific latent heat.

y y y y y y

State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in temperature. Define specific latent heat (l). State that l = Q/m. Determine the specific latent heat of fusion. Determine the specific latent heat of vaporization. Slove problem involving specific latent heat.

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Plan and carry out an activity to determine the specific latent heat of c) fusion d) vaporization Solve problems involving specific latent heat

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## y y y 34 17/9/12 21/9/12 5.1 Understanding reflection of light

y y

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of behaviour of gas molecules. Determine the relationship between pressure and volume at constant temperature for a fixed mass of gas i.e pV = constant. Determine the relationship between volume and temperature at constant pressure for a fixed mass of gas i.e V/T = constant. Determine the relationship between pressure and temperature at constant volume for a fixed mass of gas i.e P/T = constant. Explain absolute zero. Explain the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature. Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas. Describe the characteristics of the image formed by reflection of light. State the laws of reflection of light.

Use a model or view computer simulations on the behaviour of molecules of a fixed mass of gas to gain an idea about gas pressure, temperature and volume. Discuss gas pressure, volume and temperature in terms of the behaviour of molecules based on the kinetic theory Plan and carry out an experiment on a fixed mass of gas to determine the relationship between : a)pressure and volume at constant temperature b)volume and temperature at constant pressure c)pressure and temperature at constant volume Extrapolate P-T and V-T graphs or view computer simulations to show that when pressure and volume are zero the temperature on a P-T and V-T graph is -273r C. Discuss absolute zero and the Kelvin scale of temperature. Solve problems involving the pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas. Observe the image formed in a plane mirror. Discuss that the image is: a)as far behind the mirror as the object is in front and the line joining the object and image is perpendicular to the mirror b)the same size as the object c)virtual d)laterally inverted Concave mirror cermin cekung Convex mirrior cermin cembung Refelction of light-Pantulan cahaya Image distance jarak imej

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y y y

Draw ray diagrams to show the position and characteristics of the image formed by a i. plane mirror, ii. convex mirror, iii. concave mirror. Describe applications of reflection of light. Solve problems involving reflection of light. Construct a device based on the application of reflection of light.

Discuss the laws of reflection Carry out an activities for all students to find out the definition of image distance, object distance, radius of curvature, virtual image, real object, optical axis, optical centre and focal length Draw ray diagrams to determine the position and characteristics of the image formed by a)plane mirror b)convex mirror c)concave mirror Research and report on applications of reflection of light Solve problems involving reflection of light Construct a device based on application of reflection of light

## Radius of curvature jejari kelengkungan Virtual image imej maya

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## 5.2 Understanding refraction of light

Explain refraction of light. Define refractive index as n =sin i/sin r. y Determine the refractive index of a glass or Perspex block. y State the refractive index, n as speed of light in a vacuum . speed of light in a medium y y Describe phenomena due to refraction. y Solve problems involving the refraction of light.

Observe situations to gain an idea on refraction e.g the depth of water in pool is shallower than it really and a ruler looks bent in a glass of water Draw the diagrams to show the phenomenon above Conduct an experiment to find the relationship between the angle of incident and angle of refraction to obtain Snells law Carry out an activity to determine the refractive index of a glass or Perspex block. Discuss the refractive index, , n, as Speed of light in a vacuum Speed of light in a medium Research and repot on phenomenon due to refraction e.g. apparent depth, the twinkling of stars

Refraction biasan

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Carry out activities to gain an idea of apparent depth. With the aid of diagrams, discuss real depth and apparent depth. Solve problems involving the refraction of light. Real depth dalam sebenar Apparent depth dalam ketara Demonstrate a simple activities to show the phenomenon Total internal reflection of internal reflection of light e.g by using water, beaker and pantulan dalam penuh spoon. Observe spoon from the bottom of the beaker. Critical angle sudut Carry out activities to show the effect of increasing the genting angle of incidence on the angle of refraction when light travels from a denser medium to a less dense medium to gain an idea about total internal reflection and to obtain the critical angle. Discuss with the aid of diagrams: a)total internal reflection and critical angle b)the relationship between critical angle and refractive index Research and report on a)natural phenomenon involving total internal reflection b)the applications of total internal reflection, e.g. in telecommunications using fibre optics Solve problems involving total internal reflection.

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## 5.3 Understanding total internal reflection of light

y y y y y y

Explain total internal reflection of light Define critical angle ( c ) Relate the critical angle to the refractive index i.e. n= 1 Sin c Describe natural phenomenon involving total internal reflection Describe application of total internal reflection. Solve problems involving total internal reflection.

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## 5.4 Understanding lenses

y y y y

y y y y y y

Explain focal point and focal length. Determine the focal point and focal length of a convex lens. Determine the focal point and focal length of a concave lens. Draw ray diagrams to show the positions and characteristics of the images formed by a convex lens. Draw ray diagrams to show the positions and characteristics of the images formed by a concave lens. Define magnification as m = v/u. Relate focal length (f) to the object distance (u) and image distance (v), i.e 1/f = 1/u + 1/v. Describe, with the aid of ray diagrams, the use of lenses in optical devices. Construct an optical device that uses lenses. Solve problems involving to lenses.

Use an optical kit to observe and measure light rays traveling through convex and concave lenses to gain and idea of focal point and focal length. Determine the focal point and focal length of convex and concave lenses. With the help of ray diagrams, discuss focal point and focal length. Draw ray diagrams to show the positions and characteristics of the images formed by a a)convex lens b)concave lens Carry out activities to gain an idea of magnification. With the help of ray diagrams, discuss magnification. Carry out an activity to find the relationship between u, v and f. Carry out activities to gain an idea on the of lenses in optical devices. With the help of ray diagrams discuss the use of lenses in optical devices such as a telescope and a microscope. Construct an optical device that uses lenses. Solve problems involving lenses.

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