OUR LADY OF FATIMA UNIVERSITY

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction Our children represent the continuation of our existence. Children virtually, from the moment of conception, are in the process of establishing bond with other human beings. Such bond would be reflected in the interaction between the parent and child as observed in childrearing. Child rearing is a central part of the lives and concern of the parent·s, majority of women, particularly mothers. In this key area of women lives, we have largely allowed expert ideas and theories to dominate public discussion and literature of child rearing but continually fail to listen to and respect what women themselves have to say on how they bring up their children. Indeed, this almost amount to failure to acknowledge the parents particularly mother of the indigenous group who indeed have views that can be expressed and listened to at all. Moreover, the specific socialization patterns and "training" for desirable childhood traits and behaviors (particularly during infancy/toddler hood and early childhood) are highly
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consistent with other Asian cultural groups. However, Pilipino childrearing beliefs and practices are reinforced within a traditional family

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structure and extended family system with characteristic similarities and differences relative to other Asian cultures as well as ethnic group of the Philippines. As one of the ethnic groups of the Philipines, the Badjaos are the most seen roaming around the vicinity of Batanagas City as beggars begging for alms with their children crying in their arms and sometimes they become annoying to the public being shouted and driven away as they desperately ask for mercy. Thus, a scene catches the researcher·s attention to study their child rearing practices. Specifically, the Badjao inhabit the coastal area of Barangay Wawa approximately, 40 to 50 families captivated the area most of them came from Jolo, Tawitawi and Zamboanga in search for their

livelihood. Their houses are made of bamboes built at the sea area with a bamboo bridge to reach. They have no comfort rooms and bedrooms for couple·s privacy. Most of them are pearl vendors and pearl divers. According to a legend, they came from the shores of Johore, Indonesia, where they had already been living in clusters of houseboats. Badjao were originally of the land-based Samal group but branched off into boat dwellers as a result of their occupation. This practice might have subsequently spread to the area around Malaysia. Another theory is that the Badjao were originally boat dwellers who eventually built stilt houses near fertile fishing grounds.
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Spanish and American influence on Badjao social and cultural development has been virtually nil due to two factors: the Badjao live in the territory of the Muslim Filipinos, although they are also the least influenced by Islam; and they are itinerant travelers. The Badjao or "Sea Gypsies" inhabit the shores and waters of Sulu archipelago. They can be found today in many coastal settlements dotting the archipelago, particularly in Jolo, Tawi-Tawi and Sitangkai. Others are scattered in Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga, Basilan, Bohol, Cebu, Manila and now in Batangas City in search of livelihood. Their livelihood is totally dependent on the resources of the sea - fishes, seaweeds, shells and so forth, either for food or to sell/barter for other necessities such as clothing, materials for boat construction, and fishing equipment. A sea ritual makes the Badjaos childbirth practice somewhat peculiar. The newly born infant is thrown into the sea. Other people dive after it to rescue it. This ritual is simply an initiation into the reality of the Badjao life which is based on kinship with the sea. Their physical features are distinctively attributable to their environment and their mode of life. They have sturdy built dark brown skin and bronze hair. Their manner of walking is affected to a large extent by their crouching on boat stern while sailing or fishing.
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Regardless

of

their

cultural

orientation,

parents

play

a

significant role in helping their children become honorable and contributing members of society. They accomplish this by nurturing and guiding their children, engaging in problem solving with them, and modeling by "setting examples" of culturally acceptable ways of living and solving problems. This is done by adhering to the beliefs, values, and appropriate conduct accepted in their culture. Cultural context is central is parenting styles, parent-parent and parent-child interactions. This research gives consideration to child rearing practices of the indigenous group in Wawa, Batangas City with the hope that the outcome of this study will help them improve their practices in raising their children. Statement of the Problem This study aims to assess the child rearing practices of the Badjao mothers in Wawa, Batangas City. Specifically, the study sought to answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profiles of the Badjao mothers in terms of: 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Age Educational Attainment Monthly Family Income
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1.4.

Number of Children

2. What are the child rearing practices of Badjao mothers in terms of: 2.1 physical developments 2.1 emotional developments 2.1 intellectual developments 3. What are the health practices of Badjao mothers in rearing their children in terms of 4.1 Hygiene 4.2 Healthy habits 4. What are the cultural beliefs of Badjao mothers in child rearing in terms of: 4.1 Discipline 4.2 Marriage Significance of the Study The study was conducted to determine the child rearing practices of Badjao mothers. Hopefully, findings appropriate health development program to promote and maintain good child rearing practices which could be beneficial to the following entities: To the Badjao mothers, the study may help them to furnish an idea of proper child rearing practices that will intensely benefit their children.
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The study finds usefulness to the Badjao children, as it promotes awareness of their holistic needs. Thus, promotion of optimal health for these children may be attained. To the Community this study will provide them a better insight of the role of the society to understand different cultures which form a basis for providing culture specific child rearing program; To the Local City Personnel, hopefully result and

recommendations of this study will help them improve the practices of Badjaos in their locality; To the DOH, this study will provide the fundamental data to a spent enormous amount of time to formulate program to cater the cultural minority group. To the Health Care Providers, the study could be an important source of information that could reinforce their knowledge and skills in assisting cultural minority group and as guide in planning appropriate health care plan. To the future researchers, this study will also be contributive as they would be conferred with basal data about child rearing practices of Badjao group to generate new knowledge and expand existing knowledge of their culture origin, belief and health practice which
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could be used as basis or model of their studies especially on the related field.

Scope and Limitations of the Study The study focused on the child rearing practices of Badjao mothers in Barangay Wawa, Batangas City in terms of the physical, emotional and intellectual development and health practices. The cultural beliefs among Badjao mothers regarding discipline, and marriage were also be gathered and assessed. There were 10 Badjao mothers who served as informants of this study. The researchers choose Badjao community which vitally needs health assessment as reflected in their childrearing practices. An structured questionnaire was used to illicit data which were supported with unstructured interviews to substantiate preliminary findings.
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